WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2-pt clustering measurements

  1. Ti/HfO2/Pt阻变存储单元中的氧空位聚簇分布%Cluster distribution for oxygen vacancy in Ti/HfO2/Pt resistive switching memory device

    蒋然; 杜翔浩; 韩祖银; 孙维登

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the resistance switching behavior in HfO2 is explained in terms of filament formation/rupture under an applied voltage. In order to investigate the position and process of conductive filament in resistive switching memory, the resistive switching and chemical structure of Ti/HfO2/Pt memory device are studied. Through current-voltage measurement, typical resistive switching behavior is observed in Ti/HfO2/Pt device cells; through detecting Hf 4f with different depths by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that the Hf4+ decreases monotonically with depth increasing towards HfO2/Pt interface in low resistance state, while a fluctuation distribution of Hf4+ is shown in high resistance state and in the pristine Ti/HfO2/Pt device. The concentration of Hf4+ in high resistance state is higher than that in low resistance state, which is confirmed by measuring the electron energy loss spectrum. Additionally, the O 1s spectrum shows a similar result consistent with the Hf 4f one. The above result is explained by the existence of locally accumulated oxygen vacancies in the oxide bulk layer in high resistance state and pristine states. It is proposed that the oxygen vacancy clusters dominantly determine the resistivity by the connecting/rupture between the neighbor cluster sites in the bulk. The cluster defects are the preexisting structural distortion/injure by charge trapping defects due to the fixed charge which could confine the nucleation of oxygen vacancies and bigger distortion could be enhanced or recovered via the transportation of oxygen vacancies under the external voltage. Oxygen vacancies are driven away from the clusters under SET electrical stimulus, and then recover back to original cluster sites under RESET process. The previous presumption of the ideal evenly-distributed state for oxygen vacancies in the bulk of resistance random access memories (RRAMs) device leads to an issue about where the filaments occur/form first since

  2. Measuring Volatility Clustering in Stock Markets

    Gabjin Oh; Seunghwan Kim; Cheoljun Eom; Taehyuk Kim

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel method to quantify the clustering behavior in a complex time series and apply it to a high-frequency data of the financial markets. We find that regardless of used data sets, all data exhibits the volatility clustering properties, whereas those which filtered the volatility clustering effect by using the GARCH model reduce volatility clustering significantly. The result confirms that our method can measure the volatility clustering effect in financial market.

  3. Disentangling correlated scatter in cluster mass measurements

    Noh, Yookyung

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of obtaining galaxy cluster masses is increasingly being addressed by multiwavelength measurements. As scatters in measured cluster masses are often sourced by properties of or around the clusters themselves, correlations between mass scatters are frequent and can be significant, with consequences for errors on mass estimates both directly and those obtained via stacking. Using a high resolution 250 Mpc/h side N-body simulation, combined with proxies for observational cluster mass measurements, we obtain mass scatter correlations and covariances for 243 individual clusters along ~96 lines of sight each, both separately and together. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize scatter trends and variations between clusters. The dominant mass scatter combination identified by PCA is common to many clusters, and tends to dominate the mass scatters when viewing the cluster along its long axis. We also correlate cluster mass scatter, environmental and intrinsic properties, and use PCA t...

  4. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available <Cluster tree based hybrid similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  5. Atmospheric Measurements of Neutral Nucleating Clusters (Invited)

    Zhao, J.; Eisele, F. L.; Smith, J. N.; Chen, M.; Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; McMurry, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles produced by nucleation can subsequently grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within one or two days and hence affect cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric radiation budgets. As an intermediate stage between molecules and nanoparticles, neutral molecular clusters are believed to play an important role in processes that lead to boundary layer nucleation. Therefore, knowledge of chemical composition, concentrations, thermodynamic properties, and evolution of neutral molecular clusters is essential to better elucidate the nucleation mechanism and to reduce the uncertainty in nucleation rates used in global climate models. Here we present laboratory and field measurements from a recently developed chemical ionization mass spectrometer (the Cluster-CIMS) designed to measure atmospheric neutral clusters (Zhao et al., 2010). The sensitivity of the Cluster-CIMS was significantly improved by using a unique conical octopole device in the first vacuum stage for transmitting and focusing ions, which was further confirmed by ion trajectory simulations using SIMION. The ion cluster formation in the atmospheric-pressure inlet was controlled by two processes: neutral ionization and ion-induced clustering (IIC), which can be differentiated from the time independency of the intensity ratio between the cluster and monomer ions. Two methods were employed to separate neutral clusters from the ion-induced clustering. The concentrations and distribution of the neutral nucleating clusters containing up to 4 H2SO4 are estimated from the above methods at three measurement sites in the US (NCAR foothill laboratory, Manitou Forest Observatory, and Atlanta). Typically, the molecular cluster concentrations are well correlated with the concentrations of nanoparticles measured simultaneously during the nucleation event periods. The Cluster-CIMS was employed to measure clusters containing both sulfuric acid and amines in summer 2010 at NCAR foothill laboratory

  6. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2002-01-01

    Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  7. Measuring the growth of galaxy clusters

    Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2015-01-01

    We suggest how we can use the mass profile of galaxy clusters beyond their virial radius to measure their mass accretion rate, a key prediction of structure formation models. The mass profile can be estimated by applying the caustic technique to dense redshift surveys of clusters and their outskirts, where dynamical equilibrium does not necessarily hold. An additional probe of the mass growth of clusters is their mass fraction in substructures. We show that the caustic technique, that identifies cluster substructures as a by-product, returns catalogs of substructures with mass larger than a few $10^{13}h^{-1}M_\\odot$ that are between 60% and 80% complete, depending on the density of the redshift survey.

  8. Gibbs cluster measures on configuration spaces

    Bogachev, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    The distribution $g_{cl}$ of a Gibbs cluster point process in $X=\\mathbb{R}^{d}$ (with i.i.d. random clusters attached to points of a Gibbs configuration with distribution $g$) is studied via the projection of an auxiliary Gibbs measure $\\hat{g}$ in the space of configurations $\\hat{gamma}=\\{(x,\\bar{y})\\}\\subset X\\times\\mathfrak{X}$, where $x\\in X$ indicates a cluster "center" and $\\bar{y}\\in\\mathfrak{X}:=\\bigsqcup_{n} X^n$ represents a corresponding cluster relative to $x$. We show that the measure $g_{cl}$ is quasi-invariant with respect to the group $\\mathrm{Diff}_{0}(X)$ of compactly supported diffeomorphisms of $X$, and prove an integration-by-parts formula for $g_{cl}$. The associated equilibrium stochastic dynamics is then constructed using the method of Dirichlet forms. These results are quite general; in particular, the uniqueness of the background Gibbs measure $g$ is not required. The paper is an extension of the earlier results for Poisson cluster measures %obtained by the authors [J. Funct. Analy...

  9. On the NP-Completeness of Some Graph Cluster Measures

    Sima, Jiri; Schaeffer, Satu Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Graph clustering is the problem of identifying sparsely connected dense subgraphs (clusters) in a given graph. Proposed clustering algorithms usually optimize various fitness functions that measure the quality of a cluster within the graph. Examples of such cluster measures include the conductance, the local and relative densities, and single cluster editing. We prove that the decision problems associated with the optimization tasks of finding the clusters that are optimal with respect to the...

  10. External Evaluation Measures for Subspace Clustering

    Günnemann, Stephan; Färber, Ines; Müller, Emmanuel;

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases requires not only development of novel mining techniques but also fair and comparable quality assessment based on objective evaluation measures. Especially in young research areas where no common measures are available, researchers are unable to provide a fair...... evaluation. Typically, publications glorify the high quality of one approach only justified by an arbitrary evaluation measure. However, such conclusions can only be drawn if the evaluation measures themselves are fully understood. In this paper, we provide the basis for systematic evaluation in the emerging...... research area of subspace clustering. We formalize general quality criteria for subspace clustering measures not yet addressed in the literature. We compare the existing external evaluation methods based on these criteria and pinpoint limitations. We propose a novel external evaluation measure which meets...

  11. A Test for Cluster Bias: Detecting Violations of Measurement Invariance across Clusters in Multilevel Data

    Jak, Suzanne; Oort, Frans J.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a test for cluster bias, which can be used to detect violations of measurement invariance across clusters in 2-level data. We show how measurement invariance assumptions across clusters imply measurement invariance across levels in a 2-level factor model. Cluster bias is investigated by testing whether the within-level factor loadings…

  12. Quantum measurement problem and cluster separability

    Hajicek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    A modified Beltrametti-Cassinelli-Lahti model of measurement apparatus that satisfies both the probability reproducibility condition and the objectification requirement is constructed. Only measurements on microsystems are considered. The cluster separability forms a basis for the first working hypothesis: the current version of quantum mechanics leaves open what happens to systems when they change their separation status. New rules that close this gap can therefore be added without disturbin...

  13. Similarity measures for clustering sequences and sets of data

    García García, Darío

    2011-01-01

    The main object of this PhD. Thesis is the definition of new similarity measures for data sequences, with the final purpose of clustering those sequences. Clustering consists in the partitioning of a dataset into isolated subsets or clusters. Data within a given cluster should be similar, and at the same different from data in other clusters. The relevance of data sequences clustering is ever-increasing, due to the abundance of this kind of data (multimedia sequences, movement analysis, stock...

  14. Clustering and Bias Measurements of SDSS Voids

    Clampitt, Joseph; Sánchez, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Using a void catalog from the SDSS survey, we present the first measurements of void clustering and the corresponding void bias. Over the range 30-200 Mpc/h the void auto-correlation is detected at 5-sigma significance for voids of radius 15-20 Mpc/h. We also measure the void-galaxy cross-correlation at higher signal-to-noise and compare the inferred void bias with the autocorrelation results. Void bias is constant with scale for voids of a given size, but its value falls from 5.6 +/- 1.0 to below zero as the void radius increases from 15 to 30 Mpc/h. The comparison of our measurements with carefully matched galaxy mock catalogs, with no free parameters related to the voids, shows that model predictions can be reliably made for void correlations. We study the dependence of void bias on tracer density and void size with a view to future applications. In combination with our previous lensing measurements of void mass profiles, these clustering measurements provide another step towards using voids as cosmologica...

  15. NetCluster: A clustering-based framework to analyze internet passive measurements data

    Chiaraviglio, Luca; Bianco, Andrea; Baralis, Elena Maria; Mellia, Marco; Cerquitelli, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Internet measured data collected via passive measurement are analyzed to obtain localization information on nodes by clustering (i.e., grouping together) nodes that exhibit similar network path properties. Since traditional clustering algorithms fail to correctly identify clusters of homogeneous nodes, we propose the NetCluster novel framework, suited to analyze Internet measurement datasets. We show that the proposed framework correctly analyzes synthetically generated traces. Finally, we ap...

  16. Magnetic ordering of new intermetallic compound Tb2PtSi3

    The new ternary intermetallic compound Tb2PtSi3 crystallizing in the ordered hexagonal structure has been studied by means of susceptibility, magnetization, magnetic relaxation, specific heat and electrical resistivity measurements. The results reveal that Tb2PtSi3 orders ferromagnetically below Tc = 22 K and undergoes an additional magnetic phase transition near T1 = 10 K. The distribution of two kinds of Tb atoms at crystallographically non-equivalent positions seems to be responsible for the complex magnetic structure. Below Tc, cleary irreversible magnetism and the phenomenon of long time magnetic relaxation are observed in this system and discussed in terms of domain-wall pinning effects. (author)

  17. Understanding of cluster size deviation by measuring the dimensions of cluster jet from conical nozzles

    Chen, Guanglong; Geng, Xiaotao; Xu, Hongxia; Mi, Yiming; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Lili; Kim, Dong Eon

    2013-03-01

    This work aims to understand the cluster size deviation from the prediction by an existing scaling law for conical nozzles. The dimensions of cluster jet at different heights above a nozzle along the direction of gas flow are measured. This study indicates that the dimension of cluster jet is underestimated in the existing scaling law and this under-estimation leads to the over-estimation of the equivalent diameter of conical nozzle. Thus the underestimation of the dimension of cluster jet may be one of possible factors responsible for the cluster size deviation (the degree of the deviation depends on details of cluster jet).

  18. Clustering function: a measure of social influence

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Kurauskas, Valentas

    2012-01-01

    A commonly used characteristic of statistical dependence of adjacency relations in real networks, the clustering coefficient, evaluates chances that two neighbours of a given vertex are adjacent. An extension is obtained by considering conditional probabilities that two randomly chosen vertices are adjacent given that they have r common neighbours. We denote such probabilities cl(r) and call r-> cl(r) the clustering function. We compare clustering functions of several networks having non-negl...

  19. Limitations on Precision Cosmology using Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    Hallman, E J; Burns, J O; Norman, M L; Hallman, Eric J.; Motl, Patrick M.; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We critically analyze the role of clusters of galaxies as probes for precision cosmology. Using synthetic observations of numerically simulated clusters viewed through their X-ray emission and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE), we reduce the observations to attain measurements of the cluster gas mass. We utilize both parametric models such as the isothermal cluster model and non-parametric models that involve the geometric deprojection of the cluster emission assuming spherical symmetry. We are thus able to quantify the possible sources of uncertainty and systematic bias associated with the common simplifying assumptions used in reducing real cluster observations including isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that intrinsic variations in clusters limit the precision of observational gas mass estimation to ~10% to 80% confidence excluding instrumental effects. For the full cluster sample, methods that use SZE profiles out to roughly the virial radius are the most accurate and precise way to ...

  20. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    Ntampaka, Michelle; Trac, Hy; Sutherland, Dougal; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Poczos, Barnabas; Schneider, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are a rich source of information for examining fundamental astrophysical processes and cosmological parameters, however, employing clusters as cosmological probes requires accurate mass measurements derived from cluster observables. We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers, and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create a mock catalog from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. The presence of interlopers in the catalog produces a wide, flat fractional mass error distribution, with width = 2.13. We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement (width = 0.67). Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even a scaling relation approach applied to uncontaminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  1. A Survey on Internal Validity Measure for Cluster Validation

    L.Jegatha Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Data Clustering is a technique of finding similar characteristics among the data set which are always hidden in nature and grouping them into groups, called as clusters. Different clustering algorithms exhibit different results, since they are very sensitive to the characteristics of original data set especially noise and dimension. The quality of such clustering process determines the purity of cluster and hence it is very important to evaluate the results of the clustering algorithm. Due to this, Cluster validation activity had been a major and challenging task. The major factor which influences cluster validation is the internal cluster validity measure of choosing the optimal number of clusters. The main objective of this article is to present a detailed description of the mathematical working of few cluster validity indices and not all, to classify these indices and to explore the ideas for the future promotion of the work in the domain of cluster validation. In addition to this, a maximization objective function is defined assuming to provide a cluster validation activity.

  2. Applicability of condensation particle counters to measure atmospheric clusters

    Sipilä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; M. Kulmala; T. Petäjä; Junninen, H.; Aalto, P.P.; Manninen, H. E.; E.-M. Kyrö; Asmi, E.; Riipinen, I; J. Curtius; A. Kürten; S. Borrmann; C. D. O'Dowd

    2008-01-01

    The ambient and laboratory molecular and ion clusters were investigated. Here we present data on the ambient concentrations of both charged and uncharged molecular clusters as well as the performance of a pulse height condensation particle counter (PH-CPC) and an expansion condensation particle counter (E-CPC). The ambient molecular cluster concentrations were measured using both instruments, and they were deployed in conjunction with ion spectrometers and other aerosol instruments in Hyytiäl...

  3. Measuring Gravitational Redshifts in Galaxy Clusters

    Kaiser, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Wojtak {\\it et al} have stacked 7,800 clusters from the SDSS survey in redshift space. They find a small net blue-shift for the cluster galaxies relative to the brightest cluster galaxies, which agrees quite well with the gravitational redshift from GR. Zhao {\\it et al.} have pointed out that, in addition to the gravitational redshift, one would expect to see transverse Doppler (TD) redshifts, and that these two effects are generally of the same order. Here we show that there are other corrections that are also of the same order of magnitude. The fact that we observe galaxies on our past light cone results in a bias such that more of the galaxies observed are moving away from us in the frame of the cluster than are moving towards us. This causes the observed average redshift to be $\\langle \\delta z \\rangle = -\\langle \\Phi \\rangle + \\langle \\beta^2 \\rangle / 2 + \\langle \\beta_x^2 \\rangle$, with $\\beta_x$ is the line of sight velocity. That is if we average over galaxies with equal weight. If the galaxies in ea...

  4. Investigation of chemical distribution in the oxide bulk layer in Ti/HfO{sub 2}/Pt memory devices using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Jiang, Ran; Du, Xianghao; Han, Zuyin; Sun, Weideng [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

    2015-04-27

    Resistive switching (RS) of Ti/HfO{sub 2}/Pt memory devices was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hf{sup 4+} monotonously decreases with depth increasing towards to HfO{sub 2}/Pt interface in low resistance state, while a fluctuation distribution of Hf{sup 4+} is shown in high resistance state (HRS) and in the pristine Ti/HfO{sub 2}/Pt devices (without any SET or RESET process). It is explained by the existence of locally accumulated oxygen vacancies (clusters) in the oxide bulk layer in HRS and pristine states. A dynamic model of RS processes was proposed that the oxygen vacancy clusters dominantly determines the resistivity by the connecting/rupture between the neighbor cluster sites in the bulk.

  5. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters: a measurable quantity

    De Boni, Cristiano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Giocoli, Carlo; Baldi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters by using dense galaxy redshift surveys of their outer regions. By approximating the accretion with the infall of a spherical shell, the mass accretion rate only depends on the mass profile of the cluster in a thin shell at radii larger than $R_{200}$. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios, where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter haloes contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range $z=[0,1]$, our prescription returns an average mass accretion rate within $20 \\%$ of the average rate derived with the more realistic merger trees of dark matter haloes extracted from $N$-body simulations. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real Universe. Our result suggests that measuring the mass accreti...

  6. A new method to measure the mass of galaxy clusters

    Falco, Martina; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Brinckmann, Thejs; Lindholmer, Mikkel; Pandolfi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The mass measurement of galaxy clusters is an important tool for the determination of cosmological parameters describing the matter and energy content of the Universe. However, the standard methods rely on various assumptions about the shape or the level of equilibrium of the cluster. We present a novel method of measuring cluster masses. It is complementary to most of the other methods, since it only uses kinematical information from outside the virialized cluster. Our method identifies objects, as galaxy sheets or filaments, in the cluster outer region, and infers the cluster mass by modeling how the massive cluster perturbs the motion of the structures from the Hubble flow. At the same time, this technique allows to constrain the three-dimensional orientation of the detected structures with a good accuracy. We use a cosmological numerical simulation to test the method. We then apply the method to the Coma cluster, where we find two galaxy sheets, and measure the mass of Coma to be Mvir=(9.2\\pm2.4)10^{14} M...

  7. Gaussian covariance matrices for anisotropic galaxy clustering measurements

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Vecchia, Claudio dalla

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the redshift-space galaxy clustering have been a prolific source of cosmological information in recent years. In the era of precision cosmology, accurate covariance estimates are an essential step for the validation of galaxy clustering models of the redshift-space two-point statistics. For cases where only a limited set of simulations is available, assessing the data covariance is not possible or only leads to a noisy estimate. Also, relying on simulated realisations of the survey data means that tests of the cosmology dependence of the covariance are expensive. With these two points in mind, this work aims at presenting a simple theoretical model for the linear covariance of anisotropic galaxy clustering observations with synthetic catalogues. Considering the Legendre moments (`multipoles') of the two-point statistics and projections into wide bins of the line-of-sight parameter (`clustering wedges'), we describe the modelling of the covariance for these anisotropic clustering measurements f...

  8. The Mass Accretion Rate of Galaxy Clusters: A Measurable Quantity

    De Boni, C.; Serra, A. L.; Diaferio, A.; Giocoli, C.; Baldi, M.

    2016-02-01

    We explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate (MAR) of galaxy clusters from their mass profiles beyond the virial radius R200. We derive the accretion rate from the mass of a spherical shell whose inner radius is 2R200, whose thickness changes with redshift, and whose infall velocity is assumed to be equal to the mean infall velocity of the spherical shells of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. This approximation is rather crude in hierarchical clustering scenarios where both smooth accretion and aggregation of smaller dark matter halos contribute to the mass accretion of clusters. Nevertheless, in the redshift range z = [0, 2], our prescription returns an average MAR within 20%-40% of the average rate derived from the merger trees of dark matter halos extracted from N-body simulations. The MAR of galaxy clusters has been the topic of numerous detailed numerical and theoretical investigations, but so far it has remained inaccessible to measurements in the real universe. Since the measurement of the mass profile of clusters beyond their virial radius can be performed with the caustic technique applied to dense redshift surveys of the cluster outer regions, our result suggests that measuring the mean MAR of a sample of galaxy clusters is actually feasible. We thus provide a new potential observational test of the cosmological and structure formation models.

  9. Time expansion chamber and single ionization cluster measurement

    The time expansion chamber (TEC), a new type of drift chamber, allows the measurement of microscopic details of ionization. The mean drift time interval from subsequent sngle ionization clusters of a relativistic particle in the TEC can be made large enough compared to the width of a anode signal to allow the recording of the clusters separately. Since single primary electrons can be detected, the cluster counting would allow an improved particle separation using the relativistic rise of primary ionization. In another application, very high position accuracy for track detectors or improved energy resolution may be obtained. Basic ionization phenomena and drift properties can be measured at the single electron level

  10. Measures of between-cluster variability in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes.

    Thomson, Andrew; Hayes, Richard; Cousens, Simon

    2009-05-30

    Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of health-care interventions. A key feature of CRTs is that the observations on individuals within clusters are correlated as a result of between-cluster variability. Sample size formulae exist which account for such correlations, but they make different assumptions regarding the between-cluster variability in the intervention arm of a trial, resulting in different sample size estimates. We explore the relationship for binary outcome data between two common measures of between-cluster variability: k, the coefficient of variation and rho, the intracluster correlation coefficient. We then assess how the assumptions of constant k or rho across treatment arms correspond to different assumptions about intervention effects. We assess implications for sample size estimation and present a simple solution to the problems outlined. PMID:19378266

  11. Applicability of condensation particle counters to measure atmospheric clusters

    M. Sipilä

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambient and laboratory molecular and ion clusters were investigated. Here we present data on the ambient concentrations of both charged and uncharged molecular clusters as well as the performance of a pulse height condensation particle counter (PH-CPC and an expansion condensation particle counter (E-CPC. The ambient molecular cluster concentrations were measured using both instruments, and they were deployed in conjunction with ion spectrometers and other aerosol instruments in Hyytiälä, Finland at the SMEAR II station during 1 March to 30 June 2007. The observed cluster concentrations varied and were from ca. 1000 to 100 000 cm−3. Both instruments showed similar concentrations. The average size of detected clusters was approximately 1.8 nm. As the atmospheric measurements at sub 2-nm particles and molecular clusters are a challenging task, and we were most likely unable to detect the smallest clusters, the reported concentrations are our best estimates for minimum cluster concentrations in boreal forest environment.

  12. Statistical measures and magic numbers in metal clusters

    In this work, a shell model for metal clusters up to 220 valence electrons is used to obtain the fractional occupation probabilities of the electronic orbitals. Then, the calculation of a statistical measure of complexity and the Fisher-Shannon information is carried out. An increase of both magnitudes with the number of valence electrons is observed. The shell structure is reflected by the behavior of the statistical complexity. The magic numbers are indicated by the Fisher-Shannon information. So, as in the case of atomic nuclei, the study of statistical indicators also unveil the existence of magic numbers in metal clusters. - Highlights: → This work quantifies information-theoretic indicators in metal clusters. → Statistical complexity and the Fisher-Shannon information are calculated. → The magic numbers of metal clusters are revealed by the measurements. → These statistical measures are useful as descriptors for quantum systems.

  13. Statistical measures and magic numbers in metal clusters

    Sanudo, Jaime, E-mail: jsr@unex.e [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); BIFI, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo, E-mail: rilopez@unizar.e [DIIS and BIFI, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-04-11

    In this work, a shell model for metal clusters up to 220 valence electrons is used to obtain the fractional occupation probabilities of the electronic orbitals. Then, the calculation of a statistical measure of complexity and the Fisher-Shannon information is carried out. An increase of both magnitudes with the number of valence electrons is observed. The shell structure is reflected by the behavior of the statistical complexity. The magic numbers are indicated by the Fisher-Shannon information. So, as in the case of atomic nuclei, the study of statistical indicators also unveil the existence of magic numbers in metal clusters. - Highlights: This work quantifies information-theoretic indicators in metal clusters. Statistical complexity and the Fisher-Shannon information are calculated. The magic numbers of metal clusters are revealed by the measurements. These statistical measures are useful as descriptors for quantum systems.

  14. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    Ntampaka, M; Sutherland, D J; Fromenteau, S; Poczos, B; Schneider, J

    2015-01-01

    We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create two mock catalogs from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation, one with perfect galaxy cluster membership information and the other where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. Assuming perfect membership knowledge, this unrealistic case produces a wide fractional mass error distribution, with width = 0.87. Interlopers introduce additional scatter, significantly widening the error distribution further (width = 2.13). We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to...

  15. Galaxy cluster scaling relations measured with APEX-SZ

    Bender, A. N.; Kennedy, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Basu, K.; Bertoldi, F.; Burkutean, S.; Clarke, J.; Dahlin, D.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Flanigan, D.; Halverson, N. W.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Horellou, C.; Johnson, B. R.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, M.; Kneissl, R.; Lanting, T.; Lee, A. T.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K. M.; Muders, D.; Nagarajan, A.; Pacaud, F.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Schaaf, R.; Schwan, D.; Sommer, M. W.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Westbrook, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) measurements for 42 galaxy clusters observed at 150 GHz with the APEX-SZ experiment. For each cluster, we model the pressure profile and calculate the integrated Comptonization Y to estimate the total thermal energy of the intracluster medium (ICM). We compare the measured Y values to X-ray observables of the ICM from the literature (cluster gas mass Mgas, temperature TX, and YX = MgasTX) that relate to total cluster mass. We measure power-law scaling relations, including an intrinsic scatter, between the SZE and X-ray observables for three subsamples within the set of 42 clusters that have uniform X-ray analysis in the literature. We observe that differences between these X-ray analyses introduce significant variance into the measured scaling relations, particularly affecting the normalization. For all three subsamples, we find results consistent with a self-similar model of cluster evolution dominated by gravitational effects. Comparing to predictions from numerical simulations, these scaling relations prefer models that include cooling and feedback in the ICM. Lastly, we measure an intrinsic scatter of ˜28 per cent in the Y - YX scaling relation for all three subsamples.

  16. Theoretical prediction of the fundamental properties for the ternary Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6

    Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 are good candidate for hydrogen storage. The structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 compounds have been investigated using pseudo-potential plane–wave method based on the density functional theory. Computed lattice constant and H atom positional parameter at equilibrium agree well with the available experimental data. A quadratic pressure dependence of the elastic stiffness is found. A set of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties, namely bulk and shear moduli, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, average sound velocity and Debye temperature are numerically estimated in the framework of the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation for Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 polycrystalline aggregate. The analyses of the band structure indicates that Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 are indirect gap semiconductors. The static dielectric constant and static refractive index are inversely proportional to the fundamental gap. Highlights: ► We predict elastic moduli, energy gaps and optical parameters. ► Electron effective mass is anisotropic. ► Li2PtH6 and Na2PtH6 are indirect gap semiconductors. ► The contribution to the optical spectra from main transitions are predicted.

  17. Measuring the Mass-to-Light Ratio of Cluster Galaxies

    Natarajan, P.

    1996-12-01

    There is ample evidence from lensing for the clumping of dark matter on different scales within clusters, although the spatial extent of dark halos of cluster galaxies are yet to be constrained. The issue is of crucial importance as it addresses the key question of whether the mass to light ratio of galaxies is a function of the environment, and if it is indeed significantly different in the high density regions like cluster cores as opposed to the field. Weak shear maps of the outer regions of clusters have been successfully used to map the distribution of mass at large radii. However the typical smoothing lengths generally employed preclude the systematic study of the effects of galactic-scale substructure on the measured weak lensing signal. We present two new methods to study the effect of bright cluster galaxies on the cluster weak shear field - aperture averaging of the local shear and a maximum likelihood method to obtain limits on parameters that characterize galaxy halos. The composite lensing effect of a cluster is modeled by the superposition of mass clumps with different scales: a large-scale clump to describe the cluster and smaller scale ones for individual cluster galaxies. Working in the local frame of each perturber, the shear induced by the larger scale component can be efficiently subtracted, yielding the averaged shear field induced by the smaller-scale mass component. Cluster galaxy halos are modeled using simple scaling relations and the background high redshift population is modeled in consonance with observations from redshift surveys and lensing constraints. We demonstrate using simulations that these observed local weak-shear effects on galaxy scales within the cluster can be used to statistically constrain reliably the mean M/L of cluster members, and fiducial parameters like the halo size, velocity dispersion and hence mass of cluster galaxies. The results of the members, and fiducial parameters like the halo size and the velocity

  18. Measuring cluster masses with CMB lensing: a statistical approach

    Melin, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the masses of galaxy clusters using the imprint of their gravitational lensing signal on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The method first reconstructs the projected gravitational potential with a quadratic estimator and then applies a matched filter to extract cluster mass. The approach is well-suited for statistical analyses that bin clusters according to other mass proxies. We find that current experiments, such as Planck, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, can practically implement such a statistical methodology, and that future experiments will reach sensitivities sufficient for individual measurements of massive systems. As illustration, we use simulations of Planck observations to demonstrate that it is possible to constrain the mass scale of a set of 62 massive clusters with prior information from X-ray observations, similar to the published Planck ESZ-XMM sample. We examine the effect of the thermal (tSZ) and ...

  19. Hydrometeor classification from polarimetric radar measurements: a clustering approach

    Grazioli, Jacopo; Tuia, Devis; Berne, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    A data-driven approach to the classification of hydrometeors from measurements collected with polarimetric weather radars is proposed. In a first step, the optimal number of hydrometeor classes (nopt) that can be reliably identified from a large set of polarimetric data is determined. This is done by means of an unsupervised clustering technique guided by criteria related both to data similarity and to spatial smoothness of the classified images. In a second step, the nopt clusters are assign...

  20. Gaussian covariance matrices for anisotropic galaxy clustering measurements

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the redshift-space galaxy clustering have been a prolific source of cosmological information in recent years. Accurate covariance estimates are an essential step for the validation of galaxy clustering models of the redshift-space two-point statistics. Usually, only a limited set of accurate N-body simulations is available. Thus, assessing the data covariance is not possible or only leads to a noisy estimate. Further, relying on simulated realizations of the survey data means that tests of the cosmology dependence of the covariance are expensive. With these points in mind, this work presents a simple theoretical model for the linear covariance of anisotropic galaxy clustering observations with synthetic catalogues. Considering the Legendre moments (`multipoles') of the two-point statistics and projections into wide bins of the line-of-sight parameter (`clustering wedges'), we describe the modelling of the covariance for these anisotropic clustering measurements for galaxy samples with a trivial geometry in the case of a Gaussian approximation of the clustering likelihood. As main result of this paper, we give the explicit formulae for Fourier and configuration space covariance matrices. To validate our model, we create synthetic halo occupation distribution galaxy catalogues by populating the haloes of an ensemble of large-volume N-body simulations. Using linear and non-linear input power spectra, we find very good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements on the synthetic catalogues in the quasi-linear regime.

  1. Measuring Consistent Masses for 25 Milky Way Globular Clusters

    Kimmig, Brian; Ivans, Inese I; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass to light ratios ($M/L$s), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters. We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 globular clusters from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of $M/L$ with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of $M/L$ and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing $M/L$ with cluster mass, and lower than expected $M/L$s for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasi...

  2. Sensitivity evaluation of dynamic speckle activity measurements using clustering methods

    We evaluate and compare the use of competitive neural networks, self-organizing maps, the expectation-maximization algorithm, K-means, and fuzzy C-means techniques as partitional clustering methods, when the sensitivity of the activity measurement of dynamic speckle images needs to be improved. The temporal history of the acquired intensity generated by each pixel is analyzed in a wavelet decomposition framework, and it is shown that the mean energy of its corresponding wavelet coefficients provides a suited feature space for clustering purposes. The sensitivity obtained by using the evaluated clustering techniques is also compared with the well-known methods of Konishi-Fujii, weighted generalized differences, and wavelet entropy. The performance of the partitional clustering approach is evaluated using simulated dynamic speckle patterns and also experimental data.

  3. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  4. Measuring \\Omega_0 from the Entropy Evolution of Clusters

    Kay, Scott T.; Bower, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we have extended the entropy-driven model of cluster evolution developed by Bower (1997) in order to be able to predict the evolution of galaxy clusters for a range of cosmological scenarios. We have applied this model to recent measurements of the evolution of the L_x-T normalisation and X-ray luminosity function in order to place constraints on cosmological parameters. We find that these measurements alone do not select a particular cosmological frame-work. An additional cons...

  5. The 2pt+: an enhanced 2 point correlation function

    Ave, M; Cronin, J; Neto, J R T de Mello; Olinto, A V; Pavlidou, V; Privitera, P; Siffert, B B; Schmidt, F; Venters, T

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for testing departure from isotropy of points on a sphere based on an enhanced form of the two-point correlation function that we named 2pt+. This method uses information from the two extra variables that define the vector between two points on a sphere. We show that this is a powerful method to test departure from isotropy of a distribution of points on a sphere especially when the number of events is small. We apply the method to a few examples in astronomy and discuss the relevance for limited datasets, such as the case of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  6. The mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters: a measurable quantity

    De Boni, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in investigating the growth of structures at the nonlinear scales of galaxy clusters from an observational perspective: we explore the possibility of measuring the mass accretion rate of galaxy clusters from their mass profile beyond the virial radius. We derive the accretion rate from the mass of a spherical shell whose infall velocity is extracted from $N$-body simulations. In the redshift range $z=[0,2]$, our prescription returns an average mass accretion rate within $20-40 \\%$ of the average rate derived from the merger trees of dark matter haloes extracted from $N$-body simulations. Our result suggests that measuring the mean mass accretion rate of a sample of galaxy clusters is actually feasible, thus providing a new potential observational test of the cosmological and structure formation models.

  7. Magnetic and transport properties of Pr2Pt3Si5

    Anand, V.K.; Anupam; Hossain, Z.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Thamizhavel, A.; Adroja, D.T.

    2012-03-31

    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of a polycrystalline Pr2Pt3Si5 sample through the dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data reveals that Pr2Pt3Si5 crystallizes in the U2Co3Si5-type orthorhombic structure (space group Ibam). Both the dc and ac magnetic susceptibility data measured at low fields exhibit sharp anomaly near 15 K. In contrast, the specific heat data exhibit only a broad anomaly implying no long range magnetic order down to 2 K. The broad Schottky-type anomaly in low temperature specific heat data is interpreted in terms of crystal electric field (CEF) effect, and a CEF-split singlet ground state is inferred. The absence of the long range order is attributed to the presence of nonmagnetic singlet ground state of the Pr3+ ion. The electrical resistivity data exhibit metallic behavior and are well described by the Bloch-Grüniesen-Mott relation.

  8. Unbiased methods for removing systematics from galaxy clustering measurements

    Elsner, Franz; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the angular clustering of galaxies as a function of redshift is a powerful method for tracting information from the three-dimensional galaxy distribution. The precision of such measurements will dramatically increase with ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys. However, these are also increasingly sensitive to observational and astrophysical contaminants. Here, we study the statistical properties of three methods proposed for controlling such systematics - template subtraction, basic mode projection, and extended mode projection - all of which make use of externally supplied template maps, designed to characterise and capture the spatial variations of potential systematic effects. Based on a detailed mathematical analysis, and in agreement with simulations, we find that the template subtraction method in its original formulation returns biased estimates of the galaxy angular clustering. We derive closed-form expressions that should be used to correct results for this shortcoming. Turning to th...

  9. MEASUREMENT OF NANOMETER SCALE CADMIUM SELENIDE NANOCRYSTALS AND CLUSTER MOLECULES

    Jeffrey Yang

    2003-01-01

    High performance Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) has been used to determine the hydrodynamic diameters of CdSe nanocrystals as well as CdSe cluster molecules in a size range of 1 to 10 nm (Eichh(o)fer et al., 2001).The method enables the determination of their particle size, including their ligand shells, in solution. The results are consistent with the blue shift of the absorption bands, as well as Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) experiments.The sizes of the cluster molecules were estimated from space filling models constructed from the results of a single crystal X-ray structure determination. DLS gave comparable results for the size of both types of compound, indicating that it is potentially an important additional measurement technique to TEM, which uses harsh measurement conditions,and to powder X-ray diffraction, which is difficult to interpret below 5 nm.

  10. Hydrometeor classification from polarimetric radar measurements: a clustering approach

    Grazioli, J.; D. Tuia; Berne, A.

    2014-01-01

    A data-driven approach to the classification of hydrometeors from measurements collected with polarimetric weather radars is proposed. In a first step, the optimal number nopt of hydrometeor classes that can be reliably identified from a large set of polarimetric data is determined. This is done by means of an unsupervised clustering technique guided by criteria related both to data similarity and to spatial smoothness of the classified images. In a second s...

  11. Hydrometeor classification from polarimetric radar measurements: a clustering approach

    Grazioli, J.; D. Tuia; Berne, A.

    2015-01-01

    A data-driven approach to the classification of hydrometeors from measurements collected with polarimetric weather radars is proposed. In a first step, the optimal number of hydrometeor classes (nopt) that can be reliably identified from a large set of polarimetric data is determined. This is done by means of an unsupervised clustering technique guided by criteria related both to data similarity and to spatial smoothness of the classified images. In a s...

  12. Text Clustering Using a Suffix Tree Similarity Measure

    Huang, Chenghui; Yin, Jian; Fang HOU

    2011-01-01

    In text mining area, popular methods use the bag-of-words models, which represent a document as a vector. These methods ignored the word sequence information, and the good clustering result limited to some special domains. This paper proposes a new similarity measure based on suffix tree model of text documents. It analyzes the word sequence information, and then computes the similarity between the text documents of corpus by applying a suffix tree similarity that combines with TF-IDF weighti...

  13. Statistical measures applied to metal clusters: evidence of magic numbers

    Sanudo, Jaime; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a shell model for metal clusters up to 220 valence electrons is used to obtain the fractional occupation probabilities of the electronic orbitals. Then, the calculation of a statistical measure of complexity and the Fisher-Shannon information is carried out. An increase of both magnitudes with the number of valence electrons is observed. The shell structure is reflected by the behavior of the statistical complexity. The magic numbers are indicated by the Fisher-Shannon informati...

  14. Unbiased methods for removing systematics from galaxy clustering measurements

    Elsner, Franz; Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2016-02-01

    Measuring the angular clustering of galaxies as a function of redshift is a powerful method for extracting information from the three-dimensional galaxy distribution. The precision of such measurements will dramatically increase with ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys. However, these are also increasingly sensitive to observational and astrophysical contaminants. Here, we study the statistical properties of three methods proposed for controlling such systematics - template subtraction, basic mode projection, and extended mode projection - all of which make use of externally supplied template maps, designed to characterize and capture the spatial variations of potential systematic effects. Based on a detailed mathematical analysis, and in agreement with simulations, we find that the template subtraction method in its original formulation returns biased estimates of the galaxy angular clustering. We derive closed-form expressions that should be used to correct results for this shortcoming. Turning to the basic mode projection algorithm, we prove it to be free of any bias, whereas we conclude that results computed with extended mode projection are biased. Within a simplified setup, we derive analytical expressions for the bias and discuss the options for correcting it in more realistic configurations. Common to all three methods is an increased estimator variance induced by the cleaning process, albeit at different levels. These results enable unbiased high-precision clustering measurements in the presence of spatially varying systematics, an essential step towards realizing the full potential of current and planned galaxy surveys.

  15. A Hybrid Distance Measure for Clustering Expressed Sequence Tags Originating from the Same Gene Family

    Ng, Keng-Hoong; Ho, Chin-Kuan; Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk

    2012-01-01

    Background Clustering is a key step in the processing of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). The primary goal of clustering is to put ESTs from the same transcript of a single gene into a unique cluster. Recent EST clustering algorithms mostly adopt the alignment-free distance measures, where they tend to yield acceptable clustering accuracies with reasonable computational time. Despite the fact that these clustering methods work satisfactorily on a majority of the EST datasets, they have a commo...

  16. Measuring the neutrino mass from future wide galaxy cluster catalogues

    We present forecast errors on a wide range of cosmological parameters obtained from a photometric cluster catalogue of a future wide-field Euclid-like survey. We focus in particular on the total neutrino mass as constrained by a combination of the galaxy cluster number counts and correlation function. For the latter we consider only the shape information and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), while marginalising over the spectral amplitude and the redshift space distortions. In addition to the cosmological parameters of the standard ΛCDM+ν model we also consider a non-vanishing curvature, and two parameters describing a redshift evolution for the dark energy equation of state. For completeness, we also marginalise over a set of ''nuisance'' parameters, representing the uncertainties on the cluster mass determination. We find that combining cluster counts with power spectrum information greatly improves the constraining power of each probe taken individually, with errors on cosmological parameters being reduced by up to an order of magnitude. In particular, the best improvements are for the parameters defining the dynamical evolution of dark energy, where cluster counts break degeneracies. Moreover, the resulting error on neutrino mass is at the level of σ(Mν) ∼ 0.9 eV, comparable with that derived from present Lyα forest measurements and Cosmic Microwave background (CMB) data in the framework of a non-flat Universe. Further adopting Planck priors and reducing the number of free parameters to a ΛCDM+ν cosmology allows to place constraints on the total neutrino mass of σ(Mν) ∼ 0.08 eV, close to the lower bound enforced by neutrino oscillation experiments. Finally, in the optimistic case where uncertainties in the calibration of the mass-observable relation were so small to be neglected, the combination of Planck priors with cluster counts and power spectrum would constrain the total neutrino mass down to σ(Mν) ∼ 0.034 eV, i.e. the minimum

  17. Optimizing an Organized Modularity Measure for Topographic Graph Clustering: a Deterministic Annealing Approach

    Rossi, Fabrice; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an organized generalization of Newman and Girvan's modularity measure for graph clustering. Optimized via a deterministic annealing scheme, this measure produces topologically ordered graph clusterings that lead to faithful and readable graph representations based on clustering induced graphs. Topographic graph clustering provides an alternative to more classical solutions in which a standard graph clustering method is applied to build a simpler graph that is then represen...

  18. Measuring the 3D shape of X-ray clusters

    Samsing, Johan; Hansen, Steen H

    2012-01-01

    Observations and numerical simulations of galaxy clusters strongly indicate that the hot intracluster x-ray emitting gas is not spherically symmetric. In many earlier studies spherical symmetry has been assumed partly because of limited data quality, however new deep observations and instrumental designs will make it possible to go beyond that assumption. Measuring the temperature and density profiles are of interest when observing the x-ray gas, however the spatial shape of the gas itself also carries very useful information. For example, it is believed that the x-ray gas shape in the inner parts of galaxy clusters is greatly affected by feedback mechanisms, cooling and rotation, and measuring this shape can therefore indirectly provide information on these mechanisms. In this paper we present a novel method to measure the three-dimensional shape of the intracluster x-ray emitting gas. We can measure the shape from the x-ray observations only, i.e. the method does not require combination with independent mea...

  19. Text Clustering Using a Suffix Tree Similarity Measure

    Chenghui HUANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In text mining area, popular methods use the bag-of-words models, which represent a document as a vector. These methods ignored the word sequence information, and the good clustering result limited to some special domains. This paper proposes a new similarity measure based on suffix tree model of text documents. It analyzes the word sequence information, and then computes the similarity between the text documents of corpus by applying a suffix tree similarity that combines with TF-IDF weighting method. Experimental results on standard document benchmark corpus RUTERS and BBC indicate that the new text similarity measure is effective. Comparing with the results of the other two frequent word sequence based methods, our proposed method achieves an improvement of about 15% on the average of F-Measure score.

  20. Pivotal, cluster and interface measures for critical planar percolation

    Garban, Christophe; Schramm, Oded

    2010-01-01

    This work is the first in a series of papers devoted to the construction and study of scaling limits of dynamical and near-critical planar percolation and related objects like invasion percolation and the Minimal Spanning Tree. We show here that the counting measure on the set of pivotal points of critical site percolation on the triangular grid, normalized appropriately, has a scaling limit, which is a function of the scaling limit of the percolation configuration. We also show that this limit measure is conformally covariant, with exponent 3/4. Similar results hold for the counting measure on macroscopic open clusters (the area measure), and for the counting measure on interfaces (length measure). Since the aforementioned processes are very much governed by pivotal sites, the construction and properties of the "local time"-like pivotal measure are key results in this project. Another application is that the existence of the limit length measure on the interface is a key step towards constructing the so-call...

  1. Assessment for the role of rare earth oxide in the R2O3 - RuO2 - Pt composite electrode

    Our work has showed several results related to assessment for the role of rare earth oxide in the R2O3 - RuO2 - Pt composite electrode. The precursor method was used for preparing composite electrode in the following forms: a- RuO2 - Pt electrode b- La2O3 (55%) - RuO2 (45%) - Pt electrode c- CeO2 (60%) - RuO2 (40%) - Pt electrode By measurements of anodic polarization and cyclic potential for the types of a, b, c electrodes we can see that the La2O3 (55%) - 45% RuO2 - Pt electrode will be the best anodic electrode. It means that the partial replacement of ruthenium oxide by lanthanum oxide in composite oxide electrode will be an effective one. (author)

  2. Comparison of Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical Capacitors: Multi-Layer MnO2/Pt and Composite MnO2/Pt on Carbon Nanofibres.

    Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Geon-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Four different types of electrodes for high-performance electrochemical capacitors were prepared using electrospinning method and/or impregnation methods: (1) conventional carbon nanofibres (CNF) supports, and CNFs decorated with (2) MnO2 nanophases, (3) multi-layer MnO2/Pt nanophases, and (4) composite MnO2 and Pt nanophases. Their morphological, structural, chemical, and electrochemical properties were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. Composite MnO2 and Pt nanophases decorated on the CNFs exhibited superior capacitance (-252.3 F/g at 10 mV/s), excellent capacitance retention (-93.5% after 300 cycles), and high energy densities (13.53-18.06 Wh/kg). The enhanced electrochemical performances can be explained by the composite structure, presenting well-dispersed MnO2 nanophases leading to high capacitance, and well-dispersed Pt nanophases leading to improved electrical conductivity. PMID:26726621

  3. Clustering tomography: measuring cosmological distances through angular clustering in thin redshift shells

    Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Padilla, Nelson D; Baugh, Carlton M

    2014-01-01

    We test the cosmological implications of studying galaxy clustering using a tomographic approach, by computing the galaxy two-point angular correlation function $\\omega(\\theta)$ in thin redshift shells using a spectroscopic-redshift galaxy survey. The advantages of this procedure are that it is not necessary to assume a fiducial cosmology in order to convert measured angular positions and redshifts into distances, and that it gives several (less accurate) measurements of the angular diameter distance $D_\\rm{A}(z)$ instead of only one (more precise) measurement of the effective average distance $D_\\rm{V}(z)$, which results in better constraints on the expansion history of the Universe. We test our model for $\\omega(\\theta)$ and its covariance matrix against a set of mock galaxy catalogues and show that this technique is able to extract unbiased cosmological constraints. Also, assuming the best-fit $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology from the cosmic microwave background measurements from the Planck satellite, we forecast th...

  4. Dwarf Galaxies in the Coma Cluster: I. Velocity Dispersion Measurements

    Kourkchi, E; Carter, D; Karick, A M; Mármol-Queraltó, E; Chiboucas, K; Tully, R B; Mobasher, B; Guzmán, R; Matković, A; Gruel, N

    2011-01-01

    We present the study of a large sample of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster observed with DEIMOS on the Keck II to determine their internal velocity dispersion. We focus on a subsample of 41 member dwarf elliptical galaxies for which the velocity dispersion can be reliably measured, 26 of which were studied for the first time. The magnitude range of our sample is $-21measurement of the velocity dispersion and their error estimates. The measurements were performed using {\\it pPXF (penalised PiXel Fitting)} and using the Calcium triplet absorption lines. We use Monte Carlo bootstrapping to study various sources of uncertainty in our measurements, namely statistical uncertainty, template mismatch and other systematics. We find that the main source of uncertainty is the template mismatch effect which is reduced by using templates with a range of spectral types. Combining our measurements with those from the literature, we study the Faber-Jackson...

  5. Gas bulk motion in the Perseus cluster measured with SUZAKU

    Tamura, Takayuki; Iizuka, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ueda, S; Matsushita, K; Sato, K; Nakazawa, K; Ota, N; Takizawa, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the results from Suzaku observations of the Perseus galaxy cluster, which is relatively close, the brightest in the X-ray sky and a relaxed object with a cool core. A number of exposures of central regions and offset pointing with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer cover a region within radii of 20'-30'. The central data are used to evaluate the instrumental energy-scale calibration with accuracy confirmed to within around 300 km/s, by the spatial and temporal variation of the instruments. These deep and well-calibrated data are used to measure X-ray redshifts of the intracluster medium. A hint of gas bulk motion, with radial velocity of about -(150-300) km/s, relative to the main system was found at 2-4 arcmin (45-90kpc) west of the cluster center, where an X-ray excess and a cold front were found previously. No other velocity structure was discovered. Over spatial scales of 50-100kpc and within 200kpc radii of the center, the gas-radial-velocity variation is below 300 km/s, while over scales of 400 k...

  6. A new approach to quantum measurement problem: cluster separability

    HajIcek, Petr, E-mail: hajicek@itp.unibe.ch [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-07-08

    The paper describes a solution to the problem of quantum measurement that has been proposed recently. The literal understanding of the basic rule of quantum mechanics on identical particles violates the cluster separation principle and so leads to difficulties. A proposal due to Peres of how such difficulties could be removed is reformulated and extended. Cluster separability leads to a locality requirement on observables and to the key notion of separation status. Separation status of a microsystem is shown to change in preparation and registration processes. The indispensability of detectors plays an important role. Changes of separation status are alterations of kinematic description rather than some parts of dynamical trajectories and so more radical than 'collapse of the wave function'. Textbook quantum mechanics does not provide any information of how separation status changes run, hence new rules must be formulated. This enables to satisfy the objectification requirement for registrations. To show how the ideas work, a simplified model of registration apparatus is constructed.

  7. Hydrometeor classification from polarimetric radar measurements: a clustering approach

    Grazioli, J.; Tuia, D.; Berne, A.

    2015-01-01

    A data-driven approach to the classification of hydrometeors from measurements collected with polarimetric weather radars is proposed. In a first step, the optimal number of hydrometeor classes (nopt) that can be reliably identified from a large set of polarimetric data is determined. This is done by means of an unsupervised clustering technique guided by criteria related both to data similarity and to spatial smoothness of the classified images. In a second step, the nopt clusters are assigned to the appropriate hydrometeor class by means of human interpretation and comparisons with the output of other classification techniques. The main innovation in the proposed method is the unsupervised part: the hydrometeor classes are not defined a priori, but they are learned from data. The approach is applied to data collected by an X-band polarimetric weather radar during two field campaigns (from which about 50 precipitation events are used in the present study). Seven hydrometeor classes (nopt = 7) have been found in the data set, and they have been identified as light rain (LR), rain (RN), heavy rain (HR), melting snow (MS), ice crystals/small aggregates (CR), aggregates (AG), and rimed-ice particles (RI).

  8. Hydrometeor classification from polarimetric radar measurements: a clustering approach

    J. Grazioli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A data-driven approach to the classification of hydrometeors from measurements collected with polarimetric weather radars is proposed. In a first step, the optimal number nopt of hydrometeor classes that can be reliably identified from a large set of polarimetric data is determined. This is done by means of an unsupervised clustering technique guided by criteria related both to data similarity and to spatial smoothness of the classified images. In a second step, the nopt clusters are assigned to the appropriate hydrometeor class by means of human interpretation and comparisons with the output of other classification techniques. The main innovation in the proposed method is the unsupervised part: the hydrometeor classes are not defined a-priori, but they are learned from data. The proposed approach is applied to data collected by an X-band polarimetric weather radar during two field campaigns (totalling about 3000 h of precipitation. Seven hydrometeor classes have been found in the data set and they have been associated to drizzle (DZ, light rain (LR, heavy rain (HR, melting snow (MS, ice crystals/small aggregates (CR, aggregates (AG, rimed particles (RI.

  9. Hydrometeor classification from polarimetric radar measurements: a clustering approach

    J. Grazioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A data-driven approach to the classification of hydrometeors from measurements collected with polarimetric weather radars is proposed. In a first step, the optimal number of hydrometeor classes (nopt that can be reliably identified from a large set of polarimetric data is determined. This is done by means of an unsupervised clustering technique guided by criteria related both to data similarity and to spatial smoothness of the classified images. In a second step, the nopt clusters are assigned to the appropriate hydrometeor class by means of human interpretation and comparisons with the output of other classification techniques. The main innovation in the proposed method is the unsupervised part: the hydrometeor classes are not defined a priori, but they are learned from data. The approach is applied to data collected by an X-band polarimetric weather radar during two field campaigns (from which about 50 precipitation events are used in the present study. Seven hydrometeor classes (nopt = 7 have been found in the data set, and they have been identified as light rain (LR, rain (RN, heavy rain (HR, melting snow (MS, ice crystals/small aggregates (CR, aggregates (AG, and rimed-ice particles (RI.

  10. Resistive switching characteristics of Ni/HfO2/Pt ReRAM

    Zhang Xiao

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the resistive switching characteristics of the Ni/HfO2/Pt structure for nonvolatile memory application.The Ni/HfO2/Pt device showed bipolar resistive switching (RS) without a forming process,and the formation and rupture of conducting filaments are responsible for the resistive switching phenomenon,In addition,the device showed some excellent memory performances,including a large on/offratio (> 3 × 105),very good data retention (> 103 s @ 200 ℃) and uniformity of switching parameters.Considering these results,the Ni/HfO2/Pt device has the potential for nonvolatile memory applications.

  11. Clustering tomography: measuring cosmological distances through angular clustering in thin redshift shells

    Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2014-10-01

    We test the cosmological implications of studying galaxy clustering using a tomographic approach, by computing the galaxy two-point angular correlation function ω(θ) in thin redshift shells using a spectroscopic redshift galaxy survey. The advantages of this procedure are that it is not necessary to assume a fiducial cosmology in order to convert measured angular positions and redshifts into distances, and that it gives several (less accurate) measurements of the angular diameter distance DA(z) instead of only one (more precise) measurement of the effective average distance DV(z), which results in better constraints on the expansion history of the Universe. We test our model for ω(θ) and its covariance matrix against a set of mock galaxy catalogues and show that this technique is able to extract unbiased cosmological constraints. Also, assuming the best-fitting Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology from the cosmic microwave background measurements from the Planck satellite, we forecast the result of applying this tomographic approach to the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey catalogue in combination with Planck for three flat cosmological models, and compare them with the expected results of the isotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements post-reconstruction on the same galaxy catalogue combined with Planck. While BAOs are more accurate for constraining cosmological parameters for the standard ΛCDM model, the tomographic technique gives better results when we allow the dark energy equation of state wDE to deviate from -1, resulting in a performance similar to BAOs in the case of a constant value of wDE, and a moderate improvement in the case of a time-dependent value of wDE, increasing the value of the figure of merit in the w0-wa plane up to 15 per cent.

  12. Physical Properties of (NH4)2Pt(CN)4[Clo.42].3H2O: A new Quasi-One-Dimensional Conductor

    Carneiro, Kim; Petersen, A. S.; Underhill, A. E.; Wood, D. J.; Watkins, D. M.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    1979-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional conductor (NH4)2[Pt(CN)4]Cl0.42·3H2O, ACP(Cl), has been studied experimentally by means of electrical conduction measurements, x-ray diffuse scattering, and neutron inelastic scattering. This allows the determination of all the physical parameters of interest for the...

  13. Clustering

    Jinfei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DBSCAN is a well-known density-based clustering algorithm which offers advantages for finding clusters of arbitrary shapes compared to partitioning and hierarchical clustering methods. However, there are few papers studying the DBSCAN algorithm under the privacy preserving distributed data mining model, in which the data is distributed between two or more parties, and the parties cooperate to obtain the clustering results without revealing the data at the individual parties. In this paper, we address the problem of two-party privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering. We first propose two protocols for privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering over horizontally and vertically partitioned data respectively and then extend them to arbitrarily partitioned data. We also provide performance analysis and privacy proof of our solution..

  14. Resistance-switching mechanism of SiO2:Pt-based Mott memory

    Zhang, Keke; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a basic resistance-switching mechanism for Mott memory based on the SiO2:Pt system to explain why device performance depends on the electrode. The competition between collection current and drift current in SiO2:Pt system was attributed to the polarity of the set voltage depending on the work function of the electrode. The proposed theory, based on the energy band of SiO2:Pt calculated using first-principles calculations, explains the perplexing phenomenon wherein a SiO2:Pt device cannot show reproducible resistance-switching behavior with a symmetric electrode. The theoretical set voltage agrees with prior experimental results, which verifies our theory.

  15. A highly efficient measure of mass segregation in star clusters

    Olczak, C; Henning, Th

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of mass segregation are of vital interest for the understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of stellar systems on a wide range of spatial scales. Our method is based on the minimum spanning tree (MST) that serves as a geometry-independent measure of concentration. Compared to previous such approaches we obtain a significant refinement by using the geometrical mean as an intermediate-pass. It allows the detection of mass segregation with much higher confidence and for much lower degrees of mass segregation than other approaches. The method shows in particular very clear signatures even when applied to small subsets of the entire population. We confirm with high significance strong mass segregation of the five most massive stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our method is the most sensitive general measure of mass segregation so far and provides robust results for both data from simulations and observations. As such it is ideally suited for tracking mass segregation in young sta...

  16. Comparison of chemical clustering methods using graph- and fingerprint-based similarity measures

    Raymond, J.W.; Blankley, C.J.; Willett, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares several published methods for clustering chemical structures, using both graph- and fingerprint-based similarity measures. The clusterings from each method were compared to determine the degree of cluster overlap. Each method was also evaluated on how well it grouped structures into clusters possessing a non-trivial substructural commonality. The methods which employ adjustable parameters were tested to determine the stability of each parameter for datasets of varying size...

  17. Magnetic and transport properties of Pr{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5}

    Anand, V.K., E-mail: vivekkranand@gmail.com [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Anupam; Hossain, Z. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Ramakrishnan, S.; Thamizhavel, A. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Adroja, D.T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    We have investigated the magnetic and transport properties of a polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5} sample through the dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction data reveals that Pr{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5} crystallizes in the U{sub 2}Co{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-type orthorhombic structure (space group Ibam). Both the dc and ac magnetic susceptibility data measured at low fields exhibit sharp anomaly near 15 K. In contrast, the specific heat data exhibit only a broad anomaly implying no long range magnetic order down to 2 K. The broad Schottky-type anomaly in low temperature specific heat data is interpreted in terms of crystal electric field (CEF) effect, and a CEF-split singlet ground state is inferred. The absence of the long range order is attributed to the presence of nonmagnetic singlet ground state of the Pr{sup 3+} ion. The electrical resistivity data exhibit metallic behavior and are well described by the Bloch-Grueniesen-Mott relation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report synthesis, structural, magnetic and transport properties of a new compound Pr{sub 2}Pt{sub 3}Si{sub 5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No long range magnetic order is observed down to 2 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A broad Schottky-type anomaly is observed in low-T specific heat due to crystal field effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A singlet ground state in this compound is held responsible for the absence of long range order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrical resistivity is well described by the metallic Bloch-Grueniesen-Mott relation.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Metallodielectric SiO2@Pt@SiO2 Core-Shell-Shell Particles.

    Petrov, Alexey; Lehmann, Hauke; Finsel, Maik; Klinke, Christian; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-26

    Metallodielectric nanostructured core-shell-shell particles are particularly desirable for enabling novel types of optical components, including narrow-band absorbers, narrow-band photodetectors, and thermal emitters, as well as new types of sensors and catalysts. Here, we present a facile approach for the preparation of submicron SiO2@Pt@SiO2 core-shell-shell particles. As shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the first steps of this approach allow for the deposition of closed and almost perfectly smooth platinum shells onto silica cores via a seeded growth mechanism. By choosing appropriate conditions, the shell thickness could be adjusted precisely, ranging from ∼3 to ∼32 nm. As determined by X-ray diffraction, the crystalline domain sizes of the polycrystalline metal shells were ∼4 nm, regardless of the shell thickness. The platinum content of the particles was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for thin shells consistent with a dense metal layer of the TEM-measured thickness. In addition, we show that the roughness of the platinum shell strongly depends on the storage time of the gold seeds used to initiate reductive platinum deposition. Further, using polyvinylpyrrolidone as adhesion layer, it was possible to coat the metallic shells with very homogeneous and smooth insulating silica shells of well-controlled thicknesses between ∼2 and ∼43 nm. After depositing the particles onto silicon substrates equipped with interdigitated electrode structures, the metallic character of the SiO2@Pt particles and the insulating character of the SiO2 shells of the SiO2@Pt@SiO2 particles were successfully demonstrated by charge transport measurements at variable temperatures. PMID:26731341

  19. Mammographic calcification cluster detection and threshold gold thickness measurements

    Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Cooke, J.; Given-Wilson, R.; Wallis, M. G.; Chakraborty, D. P.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2012-03-01

    European Guidelines for quality control in digital mammography specify acceptable and achievable standards of image quality (IQ) in terms of threshold gold thickness using the CDMAM test object. However, there is little evidence relating such measurements to cancer detection. This work investigated the relationship between calcification detection and threshold gold thickness. An observer study was performed using a set of 162 amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) detector images (81 no cancer and 81 with 1-3 inserted calcification clusters). From these images four additional IQs were simulated: different digital detectors (computed radiography (CR) and DR) and dose levels. Seven observers marked and rated the locations of suspicious regions. DBM analysis of variances was performed on the JAFROC figure of merit (FoM) yielding 95% confidence intervals for IQ pairs. Automated threshold gold thickness (Tg) analysis was performed for the 0.25mm gold disc diameter on CDMAM images at the same IQs (16 images per IQ). Tg was plotted against FoM and a power law fitted to the data. There was a significant reduction in FoM for calcification detection for CR images compared with DR; FoM decreased from 0.83 to 0.63 (pIQ. Since the majority of threshold gold thicknesses for the various IQs were above the acceptable standard despite large variations in calcification detection by radiologists, current EU guidelines may need revising.

  20. Measurement of initial clustering on the radon decay product 218Po

    The formation of water clusters on 218Po ions is studied. The formation of the water clusters is discussed in the light of the classical theory of clustering, the clustering theory of Hawrynski and a kinetic model of clustering. The design of a specialized electric mobility spectrometer to measure the electric mobilities of the water clusters at various humidity levels is discussed. From the mobilities the radii of, and a number of water molecules in, the clusters are calculated using kinetic gas theory. The determinations were done for humidity levels between 0,16 and 96% relative humidity, and the results compared with the theoretical predictions. It was found that the classical theory underestimates the sizes of the clusters and the theory of Hawrynski overestimates the cluster sizes. It is concluded that the spectrometer is capable of high resolution measurement of the electric mobility of the small clusters. The underlying result of the clustering theories is that stable clusters with particular radii are formed at each humidity level. 91 refs., 70 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Searching for Excess Rotation Measures in Galaxy Clusters with the NVSS

    M. Johnston-Hollitt; G. Grimwood

    2011-12-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the rotation measure (RM) catalogue from the NVSS in search for a statistical excess of rotation measure through Abell clusters. After excluding the data known to be affected by the large-scale magnetic field of the Galaxy ( ≤ |30|), we consider RMs as a function of normalized Abell radius for 496 galaxy clusters. Despite that it is now well established that galaxy clusters contain magnetic fields, we find no evidence of an increase of the rotation measure for lines of sight toward Abell clusters. Additionally, we find no evidence for statistically different rotation measure values between cluster lines of sight and RMs up to 7 Abell radii from the cluster over that expected from the intrinsic variation of the NVSS dataset. We suggest this is the result of sparse spatial coverage of suitably polarized sources in the NVSS.

  2. Clusters as benchmarks for measuring fundamental stellar parameters

    Bell, Cameron P M

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I will discuss fundamental stellar parameters as determined from young star clusters; specifically those with ages less than or approximately equal to that of the Pleiades. I will focus primarily on the use of stellar evolutionary models to determine the ages and masses of stars, as well as discuss the limitations of such models using a combination of both young clusters and eclipsing binary systems. In addition, I will also highlight a few interesting recent results from large on-going spectroscopic surveys (specifically Gaia-ESO and APOGEE/IN-SYNC) which are continuing to challenge our understanding of the formation and early evolutionary stages of young clusters.

  3. Cluster-state quantum computing enhanced by high-fidelity generalized measurements

    Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Rudolph, Terry; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Hamel, Deny; Weihs, Gregor; Resch, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and implement a technique to extend the quantum computational power of cluster states by replacing some projective measurements with generalized quantum measurements (POVMs). As an experimental demonstration we fully realize an arbitrary three-qubit cluster computation by implementing a tunable linear-optical POVM, as well as fast active feedforward, on a two-qubit photonic cluster state. Over 206 diferent computations, the average output fidelity is 0.9832 +/- 0.0002; furthermor...

  4. Measuring the neutrino mass from future wide galaxy cluster catalogues

    Carbone, Carmelita; Moscardini, Lauro; Cimatti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    [abridged]We present forecast errors on a wide range of cosmological parameters obtained from a photometric cluster catalogue of a future wide-field Euclid-like survey. We focus in particular on the total neutrino mass as constrained by a combination of the galaxy cluster number counts and correlation function. For the latter we consider only the shape information and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), while marginalising over the spectral amplitude and the redshift space distortions. In addition to the cosmological parameters of the standard LCDM+nu model we also consider a non-vanishing curvature, and two parameters describing a redshift evolution for the dark energy equation of state. For completeness, we also marginalise over a set of "nuisance" parameters, representing the uncertainties on the cluster mass determination. We find that combining cluster counts with power spectrum information greatly improves the constraining power of each probe taken individually, with errors on cosmological parameter...

  5. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of single-crystalline U2Pt2In

    Single crystals of the heavy-electron compound U2Pt2In have been grown by a modified mineralization technique. The x-ray structure refinement shows that U2Pt2In single crystals form in the Zr3Al2 structure, instead of the U3Si2 structure reported for polycrystalline material. The polymorphism of U2Pt2In is attributed to the experimental parameters, such as pressure and temperature, during the sample preparation process. The single-crystal susceptibility data reveal a weak maximum for Xc at Tmax=7.9 K, indicating the presence of short-range antiferromagnetic correlations, while Xa has the tendency to diverge at low T (T>2 K). The electrical resistivity of the single crystals (T>0.3 K) is best described by ρ∼Tα with α∼1.1(1) for I parallel to a and α∼0.3(2) for I parallel to c. The magnetic and transport data show pronounced deviations from the standard Fermi-liquid picture, and lead to a classification of U2Pt2In as a non-Fermi-liquid compound. As the origin of NFL behaviour in U2Pt2In we propose the proximity to a quantum critical point or Kondo disorder. (author)

  6. Enhancing Time Series Clustering by Incorporating Multiple Distance Measures with Semi-Supervised Learning

    周竞; 朱山风; 黄晓地; 张彦春

    2015-01-01

    Time series clustering is widely applied in various areas. Existing researches focus mainly on distance measures between two time series, such as dynamic time warping (DTW) based methods, edit-distance based methods, and shapelets-based methods. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that no single distance measure performs significantly better than others on clustering datasets of time series where spectral clustering is used. As such, a question arises as to how to choose an appropriate measure for a given dataset of time series. To answer this question, we propose an integration scheme that incorporates multiple distance measures using semi-supervised clustering. Our approach is able to integrate all the measures by extracting valuable underlying information for the clustering. To the best of our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time that the semi-supervised clustering method based on constraints is able to enhance time series clustering by combining multiple distance measures. Having tested on clustering various time series datasets, we show that our method outperforms individual measures, as well as typical integration approaches.

  7. 18 GHz SZ Measurements of the Bullet Cluster

    Siddharth S. Malu; Ravi Subrahmanyan

    2011-12-01

    We present 18 GHz observations of the Bullet cluster using the Austalia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which show structure in the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect; in particular, a deep, compact feature which does not correspond to any bright feature in X-ray, optical or lensing maps. In general, the relatively deeper SZE features appear to avoid the regions with the most intense X-ray emission. SZE displaced from X-ray centres implies that modeling cluster dynamics is non-trivial. The SZE distribution in the western parts of the cluster are co-spatial with the radio halo indicative of a common origin for the hot and relativistic electrons in the turbulent wake of the Bullet.

  8. On the NP-Completeness of Some Graph Cluster Measures

    Šíma, Jiří; Schaeffer, S.E.

    Berlin : Springer, 2006 - (Wiedermann, J.; Tel, G.; Pokorný, J.; Bieliková, M.; Štuller, J.), s. 530-537 ISBN 3-540-31198-X. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3831). [SOFSEM 2006. Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science /32./. Měřín (CZ), 21.01.2006-27.01.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant ostatní: Academy of Finland(FI) 126235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : graph clustering * conductance * density * cluster editing * NP-completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Investigation of IrO2/Pt Electrocatalysts in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Baglio, V.; C. D'Urso; Di Blasi, A.; Ornelas, R; Arriaga, L.G.; Antonucci, V.; Aricò, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    IrO2/Pt catalysts (at different concentrations) were synthesized by incipient wetness technique and characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. Water electrolysis/fuel cell performances were evaluated in a 5 cm2 single cell under Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) configuration. The IrO2/Pt composition of 14/86 showed the highest performance for water electrolysis and the lowest one as fuel cell. It is derived that for fuel cell operation an excess of Pt favours the oxygen reduction process where...

  10. Weak hierarchies associated with similarity measures--an additive clustering technique.

    Bandelt, H J; Dress, A W

    1989-01-01

    A new and apparently rather useful and natural concept in cluster analysis is studied: given a similarity measure on a set of objects, a sub-set is regarded as a cluster if any two objects a, b inside this sub-set have greater similarity than any third object outside has to at least one of a, b. These clusters then form a closure system which can be described as a hypergraph without triangles. Conversely, given such a system, one may attach some weight to each cluster and then compose a similarity measure additively, by letting the similarity of a pair be the sum of weights of the clusters containing that particular pair. The original clusters can be reconstructed from the obtained similarity measure. This clustering model is thus located between the general additive clustering model of Shepard and Arabie (1979) and the standard hierarchical model. Potential applications include fitting dendrograms with few additional nonnested clusters and simultaneous representation of some families of multiple dendrograms (in particular, two-dendrogram solutions), as well as assisting the search for phylogenetic relationships by proposing a somewhat larger system of possibly relevant "family groups", from which an appropriate choice (based on additional insight or individual preferences) remains to be made. PMID:2706398

  11. Measurement of the halo bias from stacked shear profiles of galaxy clusters

    Covone, Giovanni; Kilbinger, Martin; Cardone, Vincenzo F

    2014-01-01

    We present the observational evidence of the 2-halo term in the stacked shear profile of a sample of about 1200 optically selected galaxy clusters based on imaging data and the public shear catalog from the CFHTLenS. We find that the halo bias, a measure of the correlated distribution of matter around galaxy clusters, has amplitude and correlation with galaxy cluster mass in very good agreement with the predictions based on the LCDM standard cosmological model. The mass-concentration relation is flat but higher than theoretical predictions. We also confirm the close scaling relation between the optical richness of galaxy clusters and their mass.

  12. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    T. Jokinen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3 × 104 molecules cm−3 for two hour averaging. Signals from sulphuric acid clusters up to tetramer accompanied by ammonia were also obtained but these were found to result from naturally charged clusters formed by ion induced clustering in the atmosphere during nucleation. Opposite to earlier studies with cluster mass spectrometers, we had no indication of neutral clusters. The reason is either less efficient charging of clusters in comparison to molecular sulphuric acid, or in low concentration of neutral clusters at our measurement site during these particular nucleation events. We show that utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry is crucial in separating the weak sulfuric acid cluster signal from the other compounds.

  13. Measuring customer loyalty using an extended RFM and clustering technique

    Zohre Zalaghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the ability to identify the profitable customers, creating a long-term loyalty in them and expanding the existing relationships are considered as the key and competitive factors for a customer-oriented organization. The prerequisite for having such competitive factors is the presence of a very powerful customer relationship management (CRM. The accurate evaluation of customers’ profitability is considered as one of the fundamental reasons that lead to a successful customer relationship management. RFM is a method that scrutinizes three properties, namely recency, frequency and monetary for each customer and scores customers based on these properties. In this paper, a method is introduced that obtains the behavioral traits of customers using the extended RFM approach and having the information related to the customers of an organization; it then classifies the customers using the K-means algorithm and finally scores the customers in terms of their loyalty in each cluster. In the suggested approach, first the customers’ records will be clustered and then the RFM model items will be specified through selecting the effective properties on the customers’ loyalty rate using the multipurpose genetic algorithm. Next, they will be scored in each cluster based on the effect that they have on the loyalty rate. The influence rate each property has on loyalty is calculated using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient.

  14. MEASURING THE DARK FLOW WITH PUBLIC X-RAY CLUSTER DATA

    We present new results on the dark flowfrom a measurement of the dipole in the distribution of peculiar velocities of galaxy clusters, applying the methodology proposed and developed by us earlier. Our latest measurement is conducted using new, low-noise 7 yr WMAP data as well as an all-sky sample of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters compiled exclusively from published catalogs. Our analysis of the cosmic microwave background signature of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect finds a statistically significant dipole at the location of galaxy clusters. The residual dipole outside the cluster regions is small, rendering our overall measurement 3σ-4σ significant. The amplitude of the dipole correlates with cluster properties, being larger for the most X-ray luminous clusters, as required if the signal is produced by the SZ effect. Since it is measured at zero monopole, the dipole cannot be due to the thermal SZ effect. Our results are consistent with those obtained earlier by us from 5 yr WMAP data and using a proprietary cluster catalog. In addition, they are robust to quadrupole removal, demonstrating that quadrupole leakage contributes negligibly to the signal. The lower noise of the 7 yr WMAP also allows us, for the first time, to obtain tentative empirical confirmation of our earlier conjecture that the adopted filtering alters the sign of the kinematic SZ (KSZ) effect for realistic clusters and thus of the deduced direction of the flow. The latter is consistent with our earlier measurement in both the amplitude and direction. Assuming the filtering indeed alters the sign of the KSZ effect from the clusters, the direction agrees well also with the results of independent work using galaxies as tracers at lower distances. We make all maps and cluster templates derived by us from public data available to the scientific community to allow independent tests of our method and findings.

  15. WIYN OPEN CLUSTER STUDY. XXIV. STELLAR RADIAL-VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS IN NGC 6819

    We present the current results from our ongoing radial-velocity (RV) survey of the intermediate-age (2.4 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819. Using both newly observed and other available photometry and astrometry, we define a primary target sample of 1454 stars that includes main-sequence, subgiant, giant, and blue straggler stars, spanning a magnitude range of 11 ≤V≤ 16.5 and an approximate mass range of 1.1-1.6 M sun. Our sample covers a 23 arcminute (13 pc) square field of view centered on the cluster. We have measured 6571 radial velocities for an unbiased sample of 1207 stars in the direction of the open cluster NGC 6819, with a single-measurement precision of 0.4 km s-1 for most narrow-lined stars. We use our RV data to calculate membership probabilities for stars with ≥3 measurements, providing the first comprehensive membership study of the cluster core that includes stars from the giant branch through the upper main sequence. We identify 480 cluster members. Additionally, we identify velocity-variable systems, all of which are likely hard binaries that dynamically power the cluster. Using our single cluster members, we find a cluster average RV of 2.34 ± 0.05 km s-1. We use our kinematic cluster members to construct a cleaned color-magnitude diagram from which we identify rich giant, subgiant, and blue straggler populations and a well defined red clump. The cluster displays a morphology near the cluster turnoff clearly indicative of core convective overshoot. Finally, we discuss a few stars of note, one of which is a short-period red-clump binary that we suggest may be the product of a dynamical encounter.

  16. Testing ASTRO-H Measurements of Bulk and Turbulent Gas Motions in Galaxy Clusters

    Ota, Naomi; Lau, Erwin T

    2015-01-01

    Gas motions in galaxy clusters play important roles in determining the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) and constraining cosmological parameters using X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect observations of galaxy clusters. The upcoming ASTRO-H mission, equipped with high-resolution X-ray spectrometer, will make the first direct measurements of gas motions in galaxy clusters through measurements of Doppler shifting and broadening of emission lines. However, the physical interpretation of the data will be challenging due to the complex thermal and velocity structures of the ICM. In this work, we investigate how well we can measure bulk and turbulent gas motions in the ICM with ASTRO-H, by analyzing mock ASTRO-H simulations of galaxy clusters extracted from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We assess how photon counts, spectral fitting methods, multiphase ICM structure, deprojections, and region selection affect the measurements of gas motions. We show that while ASTRO-H is capable of recovering the...

  17. Observation of neutral sulfuric acid-amine containing clusters in laboratory and ambient measurements

    J. Zhao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent ab initio calculations showed that amines can enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid-water nucleation more effectively than ammonia, and this prediction has been substantiated in laboratory measurements. Laboratory studies have also shown that amines can effectively displace ammonia in several types of ammonium clusters. However, the roles of amines in cluster formation and growth at a microscopic molecular scale (from molecular sizes up to 2 nm have not yet been well understood. Processes that must be understood include the incorporation of amines into sulfuric acid clusters and the formation of organic salts in freshly nucleated particles, which contributes significantly to particle growth rates. We report the first laboratory and ambient measurements of neutral sulfuric acid-amine clusters using the Cluster CIMS, a recently-developed mass spectrometer designed for measuring neutral clusters formed in the atmosphere during nucleation. An experimental technique, which we refer to as Semi-Ambient Signal Amplification (SASA, was employed. Sulfuric acid was added to ambient air, and the concentrations and composition of clusters in this mixture were analyzed by the Cluster CIMS. This experimental approach led to significantly higher cluster concentrations than are normally found in ambient air, thereby increasing signal-to-noise levels and allowing us to study reactions between gas phase species in ambient air and sulfuric acid containing clusters. Mass peaks corresponding to clusters containing four H2SO4 molecules and one amine molecule were clearly observed, with the most abundant sulfuric acid-amine clusters being those containing a C2- or C4-amine (i.e. amines with masses of 45 and 73 amu. Evidence for C3- and C5-amines (i.e. amines with masses of 59 and 87 amu was also found, but their correlation with sulfuric acid tetramer was not as strong as was observed for the C2- and C4-amines. The formation mechanisms for

  18. Effect of Volatility Clustering on Indifference Pricing of Options by Convex Risk Measures

    Kumar, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we look at the effect of volatility clustering on the risk indifference price of options described by Sircar and Sturm in their paper (Sircar, R., & Sturm, S. (2012). From smile asymptotics to market risk measures. Mathematical Finance. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/mafi.12015). The indifference price in their article is obtained by using dynamic convex risk measures given by backward stochastic differential equations. Volatility clustering is modelled by a fast mea...

  19. A comparison of cluster and systematic sampling methods for measuring crude mortality.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of two different survey sampling techniques (cluster and systematic) used to measure retrospective mortality on the same population at about the same time. METHODS: Immediately following a cluster survey to assess mortality retrospectively in a town in North Darfur, Sudan in 2005, we conducted a systematic survey on the same population and again measured mortality retrospectively. This was only possible because the geographical layout of the town, and the ava...

  20. Orbital-exchange and fractional quantum number excitations in an f-electron metal, Yb2Pt2Pb

    Wu, L. S.; Gannon, W. J.; Zaliznyak, I. A.; Tsvelik, A. M.; Brockmann, M.; Caux, J.-S.; Kim, M. S.; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J. R. D.; Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Exotic quantum states and fractionalized magnetic excitations, such as spinons in one-dimensional chains, are generally expected to occur in 3d transition metal systems with spin 1/2. Our neutron-scattering experiments on the 4f-electron metal Yb2Pt2Pb overturn this conventional wisdom. We observe broad magnetic continuum dispersing in only one direction, which indicates that the underlying elementary excitations are spinons carrying fractional spin-1/2. These spinons are the emergent quantum dynamics of the anisotropic, orbital-dominated Yb moments. Owing to their unusual origin, only longitudinal spin fluctuations are measurable, whereas the transverse excitations such as spin waves are virtually invisible to magnetic neutron scattering. The proliferation of these orbital spinons strips the electrons of their orbital identity, resulting in charge-orbital separation.

  1. Memristive tri-stable resistive switching at ruptured conducting filaments of a Pt/TiO2/Pt cell

    A tri-stable memristive switching was demonstrated on a Pt/TiO2/Pt device and its underlying mechanism was suggested through a series of electrical measurements. Tri-stable switching could be initiated from a device in unipolar reset status. The unipolar reset status was obtained by performing an electroforming step on a pristine cell which was then followed by unipolar reset switching. It was postulated that tri-stable switching occurred at the location where the conductive filament (initially formed by the electroforming step) was ruptured by a subsequent unipolar reset process. The mechanism of the tri-stable memristive switching presented in this article was attributed to the migration of oxygen ions through the ruptured filament region and the resulting modulation of the Schottky-like interfaces. The assertion was further supported by a comparison study performed on a Pt/TiO2/TiO2−x/Pt cell. (paper)

  2. APPLICATION OF ENHANCED CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE USING SIMILARITY MEASURE FOR MARKET SEGMENTATION

    M M Kodabagi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the very important strategic tools used by the marketer. Segmentation strategy is based on the concept that no firm can satisfy all needs of one customer or one need of all the customers. The customers are too numerous and diverse in their buying requirements, hence the marketers or companies cannot cater to the requirements of all customers that too in a broad market such as two-wheelers. Cluster analysis is a class of techniques used to identify the group of customers with similar behaviors given a large database of customer data containing their properties and past buying records. Clustering is one of the unsupervised learning method in which a set of data points are separated into uniform groups. The k-means is one of the most widely used clustering techniques used for various applications. The main drawback of original k-means clustering algorithm is dead centers. Dead centers are centers that have no associated data points. The original k-means clustering algorithm with Euclidian distance treats all features equally and does not accurately reflect the similarity among data points. In this paper, an attempt has been made to apply enhanced clustering algorithm which uses similarity measure for clustering (segmentation of two-wheeler market data. The enhanced clustering algorithm works in two phases; Seed Point Selection and Clustering. The method adapts new strategy to cluster data points more efficiently and accurately, and also avoids dead centers. The enhanced clustering algorithm is found to be efficient in meaningf

  3. Rayleigh Scattering Density Measurements, Cluster Theory, and Nucleation Calculations at Mach 10

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Everhart, Joel L.

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory investigation, quantitative unclustered laser Rayleigh scattering measurements of density were performed in the air in the NASA Langley Research Center's 31 in. Mach 10 wind tunnel. A review of 20 previous years of data in supersonic and Mach 6 hypersonic flows is presented where clustered signals typically overwhelmed molecular signals. A review of nucleation theory and accompanying nucleation calculations are also provided to interpret the current observed lack of clustering. Data were acquired at a fixed stagnation temperature near 990Kat five stagnation pressures spanning 2.41 to 10.0 MPa (350 to 1454 psi) using a pulsed argon fluoride excimer laser and double-intensified charge-coupled device camera. Data averaged over 371 images and 210 pixels along a 36.7mmline measured freestream densities that agree with computed isentropic-expansion densities to less than 2% and less than 6% at the highest and lowest densities, respectively. Cluster-free Mach 10 results are compared with previous clustered Mach 6 and condensation-free Mach 14 results. Evidence is presented indicating vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen molecules are absorbed as the clusters form, release their excess energy, and inhibit or possibly reverse the clustering process. Implications for delaying clustering and condensation onset in hypersonic and hypervelocity facilities are discussed.

  4. Pivot and cluster strategy: a preventive measure against diagnostic errors

    Shimizu T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Taro Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Tokuda21Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanAbstract: Diagnostic errors constitute a substantial portion of preventable medical errors. The accumulation of evidence shows that most errors result from one or more cognitive biases and a variety of debiasing strategies have been introduced. In this article, we introduce a new diagnostic strategy, the pivot and cluster strategy (PCS, encompassing both of the two mental processes in making diagnosis referred to as the intuitive process (System 1 and analytical process (System 2 in one strategy. With PCS, physicians can recall a set of most likely differential diagnoses (System 2 of an initial diagnosis made by the physicians’ intuitive process (System 1, thereby enabling physicians to double check their diagnosis with two consecutive diagnostic processes. PCS is expected to reduce cognitive errors and enhance their diagnostic accuracy and validity, thereby realizing better patient outcomes and cost- and time-effective health care management.Keywords: diagnosis, diagnostic errors, debiasing

  5. Investigation of IrO2/Pt Electrocatalysts in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

    V. Baglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IrO2/Pt catalysts (at different concentrations were synthesized by incipient wetness technique and characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. Water electrolysis/fuel cell performances were evaluated in a 5 cm2 single cell under Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC configuration. The IrO2/Pt composition of 14/86 showed the highest performance for water electrolysis and the lowest one as fuel cell. It is derived that for fuel cell operation an excess of Pt favours the oxygen reduction process whereas IrO2 promotes oxygen evolution. From the present results, it appears that the diffusion characteristics and the reaction rate in fuel cell mode are significantly lower than in the electrolyser mode. This requires the enhancement of the gas diffusion properties of the electrodes and the catalytic properties for cathode operation in fuel cells.

  6. Novel TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity

    Wu, Hao-Shuai; Sun, Ling-Dong; Zhou, Huan-Ping; Yan, Chun-Huan

    2012-05-01

    This article reports a facile and controllable two-step method to construct TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites. TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), with small size and high surface energy, were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction process. The TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites were fabricated by a reverse micro-emulsion method. SiO2 shell coated NPs were adopted for further photocatalytic reaction. Because of their small size and high surface energy, TiO2@SiO2 and TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites show higher photocatalytic activity than commercial Degussa P25. Compared with TiO2@SiO2, TiO2-Pt@SiO2nanocomposites have improved photocatalytic activity due to the Pt induced spatial separation of electrons and holes. The silica shells not only maintain the structure of the nanocomposites but also prevent their aggregation during the photocatalytic reactions, which is highly important for the good durability of the photocatalyst. This strategy is simple, albeit efficient, and can be extended to the synthesis of other composites of noble metals. It has opened a new window for the construction of hetero-nanocomposites with high activity and durability, which would serve as excellent models in catalytic systems of both theoretical and practical interest.This article reports a facile and controllable two-step method to construct TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites. TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), with small size and high surface energy, were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction process. The TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites were fabricated by a reverse micro-emulsion method. SiO2 shell coated NPs were adopted for further photocatalytic reaction. Because of their small size and high surface energy, TiO2@SiO2 and TiO2-Pt@SiO2 nanocomposites show higher photocatalytic activity than commercial Degussa P25. Compared with TiO2@SiO2, TiO2-Pt@SiO2nanocomposites have improved photocatalytic activity due to the Pt induced spatial separation of electrons and holes. The silica shells not only maintain the structure of the

  7. Regional Cluster Development Measures and New Technology Based Firms Cultivation in Japan

    Kirihata, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reveal significant factors within a cluster that influence the fostering of new technology based firms (hereafter abbreviated NTBFs) and determine which measures should be given priority in aiding regional improvement. In this paper, a questionnaire survey was conducted with project directors of regional knowledge cluster headquarters promoted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, NTBFs, as well as, external specialists such as atto...

  8. ClusTrack: feature extraction and similarity measures for clustering of genome-wide data sets.

    Halfdan Rydbeck

    Full Text Available Clustering is a popular technique for explorative analysis of data, as it can reveal subgroupings and similarities between data in an unsupervised manner. While clustering is routinely applied to gene expression data, there is a lack of appropriate general methodology for clustering of sequence-level genomic and epigenomic data, e.g. ChIP-based data. We here introduce a general methodology for clustering data sets of coordinates relative to a genome assembly, i.e. genomic tracks. By defining appropriate feature extraction approaches and similarity measures, we allow biologically meaningful clustering to be performed for genomic tracks using standard clustering algorithms. An implementation of the methodology is provided through a tool, ClusTrack, which allows fine-tuned clustering analyses to be specified through a web-based interface. We apply our methods to the clustering of occupancy of the H3K4me1 histone modification in samples from a range of different cell types. The majority of samples form meaningful subclusters, confirming that the definitions of features and similarity capture biological, rather than technical, variation between the genomic tracks. Input data and results are available, and can be reproduced, through a Galaxy Pages document at http://hyperbrowser.uio.no/hb/u/hb-superuser/p/clustrack. The clustering functionality is available as a Galaxy tool, under the menu option "Specialized analyzis of tracks", and the submenu option "Cluster tracks based on genome level similarity", at the Genomic HyperBrowser server: http://hyperbrowser.uio.no/hb/.

  9. Sound field measurement in a double layer cavitation cluster by rugged miniature needle hydrophones.

    Koch, Christian

    2016-03-01

    During multi-bubble cavitation the bubbles tend to organize themselves into clusters and thus the understanding of properties and dynamics of clustering is essential for controlling technical applications of cavitation. Sound field measurements are a potential technique to provide valuable experimental information about the status of cavitation clouds. Using purpose-made, rugged, wide band, and small-sized needle hydrophones, sound field measurements in bubble clusters were performed and time-dependent sound pressure waveforms were acquired and analyzed in the frequency domain up to 20 MHz. The cavitation clusters were synchronously observed by an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera and the relation between the sound field measurements and cluster behaviour was investigated. Depending on the driving power, three ranges could be identified and characteristic properties were assigned. At low power settings no transient and no or very low stable cavitation activity can be observed. The medium range is characterized by strong pressure peaks and various bubble cluster forms. At high power a stable double layer was observed which grew with further increasing power and became quite dynamic. The sound field was irregular and the fundamental at driving frequency decreased. Between the bubble clouds completely different sound field properties were found in comparison to those in the cloud where the cavitation activity is high. In between the sound field pressure amplitude was quite small and no collapses were detected. PMID:24953962

  10. Challenges for Precision Cosmology with X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Gas Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    Hallman, Eric J.; Motl, Patrick M; Burns, Jack O.; Michael L. Norman

    2005-01-01

    We critically analyze the measurement of galaxy cluster gas masses, which is central to cosmological studies that rely on the galaxy cluster gas mass fraction. Using synthetic observations of numerically simulated clusters viewed through their X-ray emission and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE), we reduce the observations to obtain measurements of the cluster gas mass. We are thus able to quantify the possible sources of uncertainty and systematic bias associated with the common simplif...

  11. Investigation of parameters of chorus wave packets measured by the cluster spacecraft

    Complete text of publication follows. Chorus emissions are generated by a nonlinear mechanism involving wave-particle interaction with energetic electrons. Discrete chorus wave packets are narrow-band tones usually rising in frequency. Measurements of the Cluster spacecraft lead to the discovery of strong temporal and spatial variations of the amplitude in the source region. We investigate amplitudes and frequency sweep rates of chorus wave packets measured by the WBD instrument onboard Cluster. These parameters are related to the total electron density measured by the WHISPER active sounder. We compare the Cluster measurements with estimates based on the backward wave oscillator (BWO) model. Both show an increasing frequency sweep rate with the decreasing cold plasma density. Furthermore, investigations of chorus amplitudes and frequency sweep rates allow us to experimentally obtain important parameters of the BWO theory.

  12. Imputation of Continuous Tree Suitability over the Continental United States from Sparse Measurements Using Associative Clustering

    Hargrove, W. W.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Potter, K. M.; Mills, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Up-scaling from sparse measurements to a continuous raster of estimated values is a common problem in Earth System Science. We present a new general-purpose empirical imputation method based on associative clustering, which associates sparse measurements of dependent variables with particular multivariate clustered combinations of the independent variables, and then uses several methods to estimate values for unmeasured clusters, based on directional proximity in multidimensional data space, at both the cluster and map cell levels of resolution. We demonstrate this new imputation tool on tree species range distribution maps, which describe the suitable extent and expected growth performance of a particular tree species over a wide area. Range maps having continuous estimates of tree growth performance are more useful than more classical tree range maps that simply show binary occurence suitability. The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory Assessment (FIA) plots provide information about the occurence and growth performance for various tree species across the US, but such measurements are limited to FIA plots. Using Associative Clustering, we scale up the discontinuous FIA Inventory growth measurements into continuous maps that show the expected growth and suitabilty for individual tree species covering the Continental United States. A multivariate cluster analysis was applied to global output from a General Circulation Model (GCM) consisting of 17 variables downscaled to 4km2 resolution. Present global growing conditions were divided into 30 thousand relatively homogeneous ecoregions describing climatic and topographic conditions. At every mapcell a multi-linear regression was applied in 17 dimensional hyperspace to derive the suitability of a tree species where not measured using the forest inventory data. The continuous species distribution maps obtained were compared and validated against existing tree range suitability maps. Associative Clustering is intended

  13. Clustering Protein Sequences Using Affinity Propagation Based on an Improved Similarity Measure

    Fan Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sizes of the protein databases are growing rapidly nowadays, thus it becomes increasingly important to cluster protein sequences only based on sequence information. In this paper we improve the similarity measure proposed by Kelil et al, then cluster sequences using the Affinity propagation (AP algorithm and provide a method to decide the input preference of AP algorithm. We tested our method extensively and compared its performance with other four methods on several datasets of COG, G protein, CAZy, SCOP database. We consistently observed that, the number of clusters that we obtained for a given set of proteins approximate to the correct number of clusters in that set. Moreover, in our experiments, the quality of the clusters when quantified by F-measure was better than that of other algorithms (on average, it is 15% better than that of BlastClust, 56% better than that of TribeMCL, 23% better than that of CLUSS, and 42% better than that of Spectral clustering.

  14. Sgr A$^*$: a laboratory to measure the central black hole and cluster parameters

    Nucita, A A; Ingrosso, G; Qadir, A; Zakharov, A F

    2007-01-01

    Several stars orbit around a black hole candidate of mass $3.7\\times 10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$, in the region of the Galactic Center (GC). Looking for General Relativistic (GR) periastron shifts is limited by the existence of a stellar cluster around the black hole that would modify the orbits due to classical effects that might mask the GR effect. Only if one knows the cluster parameters (its mass and core radius) it is possible to unequivocally deduce the GR effects expected and then test them. In this paper it is shown that the observation of the proper motion of Sgr A$^*$, $v_{Sgr A^*} = (0.4\\pm 0.9)$ km s$^{-1}$ (\\citealt{reid2004}), could help us to constrain the cluster parameters significantly and that future measurements of the periastron shifts for at least three stars may adequately determine the cluster parameters and the mass of the black hole.

  15. Sub-10 nm nano-gap device for single-cluster transport measurements

    We present a versatile procedure for the fabrication of single electron transistor (SET) devices with nanometer-sized clusters and embedded back gate electrode. The process uses sputtering gas-aggregation for the growth of clusters and e-beam lithography with double angle shadow-edge deposition to obtain electrodes separated by nano-gaps with width below 10 nm. The nano-gap width is easily controlled only by geometrical factors such as deposited thin film thickness and evaporation angles. The usefulness of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the SET behavior of a device with a 4 nm cobalt cluster embedded in alumina, where the Coulomb blockade and incremental cluster charging can be readily identified without resorting to the differential conductivity

  16. Precision Measurements of the Cluster Red Sequence using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model

    Hao, Jiangang; /Fermilab /Michigan U.; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U.; Mckay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Becker, Matthew; /Chicago U.; Busha, Michael; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Gerdes, David; /Michigan U.; Johnston, David E.; /Northwestern U. /Brookhaven

    2009-07-01

    The red sequence is an important feature of galaxy clusters and plays a crucial role in optical cluster detection. Measurement of the slope and scatter of the red sequence are affected both by selection of red sequence galaxies and measurement errors. In this paper, we describe a new error corrected Gaussian Mixture Model for red sequence galaxy identification. Using this technique, we can remove the effects of measurement error and extract unbiased information about the intrinsic properties of the red sequence. We use this method to select red sequence galaxies in each of the 13,823 clusters in the maxBCG catalog, and measure the red sequence ridgeline location and scatter of each. These measurements provide precise constraints on the variation of the average red galaxy populations in the observed frame with redshift. We find that the scatter of the red sequence ridgeline increases mildly with redshift, and that the slope decreases with redshift. We also observe that the slope does not strongly depend on cluster richness. Using similar methods, we show that this behavior is mirrored in a spectroscopic sample of field galaxies, further emphasizing that ridgeline properties are independent of environment. These precise measurements serve as an important observational check on simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The observed trends in the slope and scatter of the red sequence ridgeline with redshift are clues to possible intrinsic evolution of the cluster red-sequence itself. Most importantly, the methods presented in this work lay the groundwork for further improvements in optically-based cluster cosmology.

  17. Measuring the dark flow with public X-ray cluster data

    Kashlinsky, A.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Ebeling, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present new results on the "dark flow" from a measurement of the dipole in the distribution of peculiar velocities of galaxy clusters, applying the methodology proposed and developed by us earlier. Our latest measurement is conducted using new, low-noise 7-yr WMAP data as well as an all-sky sample of X-ray selected galaxy clusters compiled exclusively from published catalogs. Our analysis of the CMB signature of the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect finds a statistically significant ...

  18. Relative velocity of dark matter and barions in clusters of galaxies and measurements of their peculiar velocities

    Dolag, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The increasing sensitivity of current experiments, which nowadays routinely measure the thermal SZ effect within galaxy clusters, provide the hope that peculiar velocities of individual clusters of galaxies will be measured rather soon using the kinematic SZ effect. Also next generation of X-ray telescopes with microcalorimeters, promise first detections of the motion of the intra cluster medium (ICM) within clusters. We used a large set of cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, which cover very large cosmological volume, hosting a large number of rich clusters of galaxies, as well as moderate volumes where the internal structures of individual galaxy clusters can be resolved with very high resolution to investigate, how the presence of baryons and their associated physical processes like cooling and star-formation are affecting the systematic difference between mass averaged velocities of dark matter and the ICM inside a cluster. We, for the first time, quantify the peculiar motion of galaxy clusters as f...

  19. Two-level Robust Measurement Fusion Kalman Filter for Clustering Sensor Networks

    ZHANG Peng; QI Wen-Juan; DENG Zi-Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the distributed fusion Kalman filtering over clustering sensor networks. The sensor network is partitioned as clusters by the nearest neighbor rule and each cluster consists of sensing nodes and cluster-head. Using the minimax robust estimation principle, based on the worst-case conservative system with the conservative upper bounds of noise variances, two-level robust measurement fusion Kalman filter is presented for the clustering sensor network systems with uncertain noise variances. It can significantly reduce the communication load and save energy when the number of sensors is very large. A Lyapunov equation approach for the robustness analysis is presented, by which the robustness of the local and fused Kalman filters is proved. The concept of the robust accuracy is presented, and the robust accuracy relations among the local and fused robust Kalman filters are proved. It is proved that the robust accuracy of the two-level weighted measurement fuser is equal to that of the global centralized robust fuser and is higher than those of each local robust filter and each local weighted measurement fuser. A simulation example shows the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed results.

  20. Satellite quenching timescales in clusters from projected phase space measurements matched to simulated orbits

    Oman, Kyle A.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We measure the star formation quenching efficiency and timescale in cluster environments. Our method uses N-body simulations to estimate the probability distribution of possible orbits for a sample of observed SDSS galaxies in and around clusters based on their position and velocity offsets from their host cluster. We study the relationship between their star formation rates and their likely orbital histories via a simple model in which star formation is quenched once a delay time after infall has elapsed. Our orbit library method is designed to isolate the environmental effect on the star formation rate due to a galaxy's present-day host cluster from `pre-processing' in previous group hosts. We find that quenching of satellite galaxies of all stellar masses in our sample (109 - 1011.5 M⊙) by massive (> 1013 M⊙) clusters is essentially 100 per cent efficient. Our fits show that all galaxies quench on their first infall, approximately at or within a Gyr of their first pericentric passage. There is little variation in the onset of quenching from galaxy-to-galaxy: the spread in this time is at most ˜2 Gyr at fixed M★. Higher mass satellites quench earlier, with very little dependence on host cluster mass in the range probed by our sample.

  1. Measuring Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from the clustering of voids

    Liang, Yu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal, from voids based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependency of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the meth...

  2. Measurements of Laser Absorption and Ion Energy in Femtosecond Laser-Cluster Interaction

    LIN Jing-Quan; ZHANG Jie; LI Ying-Jun; CHEN Li-Ming; LU Tie-Zheng; TENG Hao; MAN Bao-Yuan; ZHAO Li-Zeng

    2001-01-01

    Laser absorption is measured in Xe, Ar and He clusters irradiated by 5 mJ laser pulses in 150 fs. The measurements show that the absorption efficiency strongly depends on the backing pressure of the gas jets, the laser pulse duration and the atomic number Z of the working gas. The laser absorption for Xe clusters is found to be as high as 45% at a backing pressure of 20atm and a laser intensity of 1 × 1015 W/cm2. Significant numbers of ions with energies up to 100keV are detected from Xe cluster explosion. The variation trend of the average ion energy at different backing pressures is consistent with that of the laser energy absorption.

  3. HerMES: Halo Occupation Number and Bias Properties of Dusty Galaxies from Angular Clustering Measurements

    Cooray, Asantha; Wang, L; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Auld, R; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Khostovan, A A; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Mortier, A M J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; ?rez-Fournon, I Pe; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Serra, P; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    We measure the angular correlation function, w(theta), from 0.5 to 30 arcminutes of detected sources in two wide fields of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). Our measurements are consistent with the expected clustering shape from a population of sources that trace the dark matter density field, including non-linear clustering at arcminute angular scales arising from multiple sources that occupy the same dark matter halos. By making use of the halo model to connect the spatial clustering of sources to the dark matter halo distribution, we estimate source bias and halo occupation number for dusty sub-mm galaxies at z ~ 2. We find that sub-mm galaxies with 250 micron flux densities above 30 mJy reside in dark matter halos with mass above (5\\pm4) x 10^12 M_sun, while (14\\pm8)% of such sources appear as satellites in more massive halos.

  4. SSM-DBSCANand SSM-OPTICS : Incorporating a new similarity measure for Density based Clustering of Web usage data.

    Ms K.Santhisree; Dr. A Damodaram

    2011-01-01

    Clustering web sessions is to group web sessions based on similarity and consists of minimizing the intra-group similarity and maximizing the inter-group similarity. Here in this paper we developed a new similarity measure named SSM(Sequence Similarity Measure) and enhanced an existing DBSCAN and OPTICS clustering techniques namely SSM-DBSCAN, and SSM-OPTICS for clustering web sessions for web personalization. Then we adopted various similarity measures like Euclidean distance, Jaccard, Cosin...

  5. Detection of universality of dark matter profile from Subaru weak lensing measurements of 50 massive clusters

    Niikura, Hiroko; Takada, Masahiro; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Martino, Rossella; Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2015-12-01

    We develop a novel method of measuring the lensing distortion profiles of clusters by stacking the "scaled" amplitudes of background galaxy ellipticities as a function of the "scaled" centric radius according to the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) prediction of each cluster, based on the assumption that the different clusters in a sample follow the universal NFW profile. First we demonstrate the feasibility of this method using both the analytical NFW model and simulated halos in a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations. We then apply, as a proof of concept, this method to the Subaru weak lensing data and the XMM/Chandra X-ray observables for a sample of 50 massive clusters in the redshift range 0.15 ≤ z ≤ 0.3, where their halo masses differ from each other by up to a factor of 10. To estimate the NFW parameters of each cluster, we use the halo mass proxy relation of X-ray observables, based on either the hydrostatic equilibrium or the gas mass, and then infer the halo concentration from the model scaling relation of halo concentration with halo mass. We evaluate the performance of the NFW scaling analysis by measuring the scatters of 50 cluster lensing profiles relative to the NFW predictions over a range of radii, 0.14 ≤ R/[h-1 Mpc] ≤ 2.8. We found 4-6 σ-level evidence of the universal NFW profile in 50 clusters, for both the X-ray halo mass proxy relations, although the gas mass appears to be a better proxy of the underlying true mass. By comparing the measurements with the simulations of cluster lensing profiles taking into account the statistical errors of intrinsic galaxy shapes in the Subaru data, we argue that additional halo mass errors or intrinsic scatters of σ(M500c)/M500c ˜ 0.2-0.3 could reconcile the difference between measurements and simulations. This method allows us to some extent to preserve characteristics of individual clusters in the statistical weak lensing analysis, thereby yielding a new means of exploiting the underlying genuine

  6. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations from the clustering of voids

    Liang, Yu; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Tao, Charling

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the necessary methodology to optimally measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal from voids, based on galaxy redshift catalogues. To this end, we study the dependence of the BAO signal on the population of voids classified by their sizes. We find for the first time the characteristic features of the correlation function of voids including the first robust detection of BAOs in mock galaxy catalogues. These show an anti-correlation around the scale corresponding to the smallest size of voids in the sample (the void exclusion effect), and dips at both sides of the BAO peak, which can be used to determine the significance of the BAO signal without any priori model. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that there is a scale-dependent bias for different populations of voids depending on the radius, with the peculiar property that the void population with the largest BAO significance corresponds to tracers with approximately zero bias on the largest scales. We further investigate the methodology on an additional set of 1000 realistic mock galaxy catalogues reproducing the SDSS-III/BOSS CMASS DR11 data, to control the impact of sky mask and radial selection function. Our solution is based on generating voids from randoms including the same survey geometry and completeness, and a post-processing cleaning procedure in the holes and at the boundaries of the survey. The methodology and optimal selection of void populations validated in this work have been used to perform the first BAO detection from voids in observations, presented in a companion paper.

  7. CLUSS: Clustering of protein sequences based on a new similarity measure

    Brzezinski Ryszard

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid burgeoning of available protein data makes the use of clustering within families of proteins increasingly important. The challenge is to identify subfamilies of evolutionarily related sequences. This identification reveals phylogenetic relationships, which provide prior knowledge to help researchers understand biological phenomena. A good evolutionary model is essential to achieve a clustering that reflects the biological reality, and an accurate estimate of protein sequence similarity is crucial to the building of such a model. Most existing algorithms estimate this similarity using techniques that are not necessarily biologically plausible, especially for hard-to-align sequences such as proteins with different domain structures, which cause many difficulties for the alignment-dependent algorithms. In this paper, we propose a novel similarity measure based on matching amino acid subsequences. This measure, named SMS for Substitution Matching Similarity, is especially designed for application to non-aligned protein sequences. It allows us to develop a new alignment-free algorithm, named CLUSS, for clustering protein families. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first alignment-free algorithm for clustering protein sequences. Unlike other clustering algorithms, CLUSS is effective on both alignable and non-alignable protein families. In the rest of the paper, we use the term "phylogenetic" in the sense of "relatedness of biological functions". Results To show the effectiveness of CLUSS, we performed an extensive clustering on COG database. To demonstrate its ability to deal with hard-to-align sequences, we tested it on the GH2 family. In addition, we carried out experimental comparisons of CLUSS with a variety of mainstream algorithms. These comparisons were made on hard-to-align and easy-to-align protein sequences. The results of these experiments show the superiority of CLUSS in yielding clusters of proteins

  8. Standardized Effect Size Measures for Mediation Analysis in Cluster-Randomized Trials

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Dion, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article presents 3 standardized effect size measures to use when sharing results of an analysis of mediation of treatment effects for cluster-randomized trials. The authors discuss 3 examples of mediation analysis (upper-level mediation, cross-level mediation, and cross-level mediation with a contextual effect) with demonstration of the…

  9. Prospects for clustering and lensing measurements with forthcoming intensity mapping and optical surveys

    Pourtsidou, A.; Bacon, D.; Crittenden, R.; Metcalf, R. B.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the potential of using intensity mapping surveys (MeerKAT, SKA) and optical galaxy surveys (DES, LSST) to detect H I clustering and weak gravitational lensing of 21 cm emission in auto- and cross-correlation. Our forecasts show that high-precision measurements of the clustering and lensing signals can be made in the near future using the intensity mapping technique. Such studies can be used to test the intensity mapping method, and constrain parameters such as the H I density Ω _{H I}, the H I bias b_{H I} and the galaxy-H I correlation coefficient r_{H I-g}.

  10. Prospects for clustering and lensing measurements with forthcoming intensity mapping and optical surveys

    Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Crittenden, Robert; Metcalf, R Benton

    2015-01-01

    We explore the potential of using intensity mapping surveys (MeerKAT, SKA) and optical galaxy surveys (DES, LSST) to detect HI clustering and weak gravitational lensing of 21cm emission in auto- and cross-correlation. Our forecasts show that high precision measurements of the clustering and lensing signals can be made in the near future using the intensity mapping technique. Such studies can be used to test the intensity mapping method, and constrain parameters such as the HI density $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$, the HI bias $b_{\\rm HI}$ and the galaxy-HI correlation coefficient $r_{\\rm HI-g}$.

  11. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide ‘Na Toll!’ campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors...

  12. Large carbon cluster thin film gauges for measuring aerodynamic heat transfer rates in hypersonic shock tunnels

    Different types of Large Carbon Cluster (LCC) layers are synthesized by a single-step pyrolysis technique at various ratios of precursor mixture. The aim is to develop a fast responsive and stable thermal gauge based on a LCC layer which has relatively good electrical conduction in order to use it in the hypersonic flow field. The thermoelectric property of the LCC layer has been studied. It is found that these carbon clusters are sensitive to temperature changes. Therefore suitable thermal gauges were developed for blunt cone bodies and were tested in hypersonic shock tunnels at a flow Mach number of 6.8 to measure aerodynamic heating. The LCC layer of this thermal gauge encounters high shear forces and a hostile environment for test duration in the range of a millisecond. The results are favorable to use large carbon clusters as a better sensor than a conventional platinum thin film gauge in view of fast responsiveness and stability. (paper)

  13. Using SVD on Clusters to Improve Precision of Interdocument Similarity Measure

    Xiao, Fan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Siguang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) based on SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) is proposed to overcome the problems of polysemy and homonym in traditional lexical matching. However, it is usually criticized as with low discriminative power for representing documents although it has been validated as with good representative quality. In this paper, SVD on clusters is proposed to improve the discriminative power of LSI. The contribution of this paper is three manifolds. Firstly, we make a survey of existing linear algebra methods for LSI, including both SVD based methods and non-SVD based methods. Secondly, we propose SVD on clusters for LSI and theoretically explain that dimension expansion of document vectors and dimension projection using SVD are the two manipulations involved in SVD on clusters. Moreover, we develop updating processes to fold in new documents and terms in a decomposed matrix by SVD on clusters. Thirdly, two corpora, a Chinese corpus and an English corpus, are used to evaluate the performances of the proposed methods. Experiments demonstrate that, to some extent, SVD on clusters can improve the precision of interdocument similarity measure in comparison with other SVD based LSI methods.

  14. Detection of universality of dark matter profile from Subaru weak lensing measurements of 50 massive clusters

    Niikura, Hiroko; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Martino, Rossella; Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    We develop a novel method of measuring the lensing distortion profiles of clusters with stacking the scaled amplitudes of background galaxy ellipticities as a function of the scaled centric radius according to the NFW prediction of each cluster, based on the assumption that the different clusters in a sample follow the universal NFW profile. First we demonstrate the feasibility of this method using both the analytical NFW model and simulated halos in high-resolution $N$-body simulations. We then apply, as a proof of concept, this method to the Subaru weak lensing data and the XMM/Chandra X-ray observables for a sample of 50 massive clusters in the redshift range $0.15\\le z\\le 0.3$, where their halo masses range over an order of magnitude. To estimate the NFW parameters of each cluster, we use the halo mass proxy relation of X-ray observables, based on either the hydrostatic equilibrium or the gas mass, and then infer the halo concentration from the model $c(M)$ relation. We evaluate a performance of the NFW s...

  15. Satellite quenching timescales in clusters from projected phase space measurements matched to simulated orbits

    Oman, Kyle A

    2016-01-01

    We measure the star formation quenching efficiency and timescale in cluster environments. Our method uses N-body simulations to estimate the probability distribution of possible orbits for a sample of observed SDSS galaxies in and around clusters based on their position and velocity offsets from their host cluster. We study the relationship between their star formation rates and their likely orbital histories via a simple model in which star formation is quenched once a delay time after infall has elapsed. Our orbit library method is designed to isolate the environmental effect on the star formation rate due to a galaxy's present-day host cluster from `pre-processing' in previous group hosts. We find that quenching of satellite galaxies of all stellar masses in our sample ($10^{9}-10^{11.5}\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$) by massive ($> 10^{13}\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$) clusters is essentially $100$ per cent efficient. Our fits show that all galaxies quench on their first infall, approximately at or within a Gyr of their first peric...

  16. Using SVD on Clusters to Improve Precision of Interdocument Similarity Measure.

    Zhang, Wen; Xiao, Fan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Siguang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) based on SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) is proposed to overcome the problems of polysemy and homonym in traditional lexical matching. However, it is usually criticized as with low discriminative power for representing documents although it has been validated as with good representative quality. In this paper, SVD on clusters is proposed to improve the discriminative power of LSI. The contribution of this paper is three manifolds. Firstly, we make a survey of existing linear algebra methods for LSI, including both SVD based methods and non-SVD based methods. Secondly, we propose SVD on clusters for LSI and theoretically explain that dimension expansion of document vectors and dimension projection using SVD are the two manipulations involved in SVD on clusters. Moreover, we develop updating processes to fold in new documents and terms in a decomposed matrix by SVD on clusters. Thirdly, two corpora, a Chinese corpus and an English corpus, are used to evaluate the performances of the proposed methods. Experiments demonstrate that, to some extent, SVD on clusters can improve the precision of interdocument similarity measure in comparison with other SVD based LSI methods. PMID:27579031

  17. Coordinated target localization base on pseudo measurement for clustered space robot

    Zhai Guang; Zhang Jingrui; Zhou Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinated target localization method for clustered space robot. According to the different measuring capabilities of cluster members, the master-slave coordinated relative navigation strategy for target localization with respect to slavery space robots is proposed;then the basic mathematical models, including coordinated relative measurement model and cluster centralized dynamics, are established respectively. By employing the linear Kalman filter theorem, the centralized estimator based on truth measurements is developed and analyzed firstly, and with an intention to inhabit the initial uncertainties related to target localization, the globally stabilized estimator is designed through introduction of pseudo measurements. Furthermore, the observabil-ity and controllability of stochastic system are also analyzed to qualitatively evaluate the conver-gence performance of pseudo measurement estimator. Finally, on-orbit target approaching scenario is simulated by using semi-physical simulation system, which is used to verify the conver-gence performance of proposed estimator. During the simulation, both the known and unknown maneuvering acceleration cases are considered to demonstrate the robustness of coordinated local-ization strategy.

  18. Testing X-ray Measurements of Galaxy Cluster Outskirts with Cosmological Simulations

    Avestruz, Camille; Nagai, Daisuke; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The study of galaxy cluster outskirts has emerged as one of the new frontiers in extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology with the advent of new observations in X-ray and microwave. However, the thermodynamic properties and chemical enrichment of this diffuse and azimuthally asymmetric component of the intra-cluster medium are still not well understood. This work, for the first time, systematically explores potential observational biases in these regions. To assess X-ray measurements of galaxy cluster properties at large radii ($>{R}_{500c}$), we use mock Chandra analyses of cosmological galaxy cluster simulations. The pipeline is identical to that used for Chandra observations, but the biases discussed in this paper are relevant for all X-ray observations outside of ${R}_{500c}$. We find the following from our analysis: (1) filament regions can contribute as much as a factor of 3 to the emission measure, (2) X-ray temperatures and metal abundances from model fitted mock X-ray spectra respectively vary to the...

  19. Clustering of Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Photometric Luminous Galaxies: The Measurement, Systematics and Cosmological Implications

    Ho, Shirley; Seo, Hee-Jong; de Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J; White, Martin; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Saito, Shun; Schlegel, David J; Schlafly, Eddie; Seljak, Uros; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sanchez, Ariel G; Percival, Will J; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Reid, Beth; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Prada, Francisco; Weaver, Benjamin; Bahcall, Neta; Bizyaev, Dimitry; Brewinton, Howard; Brinkman, Jon; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Gott, John R; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Nichol, Bob; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Ross, Nicholas P; Simmons, Audrey; de Simoni, Fernando; Snedden, Stephanie; Yeche, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 square degrees, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between $z=0.45$ and $z=0.65$, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. (2011). This data-set spans 11,000 square degrees and probes a volume of $3h^{-3} \\rm{Gpc}^3$, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at 4 redshift slices with an accuracy of ~15% with bin size of delta_l = 10 on scales of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) (at l~40-400). We derive cosmological constraints using the full-shape of the power-spectra. For a flat Lambda CDM model, when combined with Cosmic Microwave Background Wilkinson Microw...

  20. Weak Lensing Measurement of the Mass--Richness Relation of SDSS redMaPPer Clusters

    Simet, Melanie; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Sheldon, Erin; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We perform a measurement of the mass--richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-$z$ biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centering, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We also compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently-produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5,570 clusters from $0.1\\le z\\le 0.33$, the normalization of our power-law mass vs.\\ $\\lambda$ relation is $\\log_{10}[M_{200m}/h^{-1}\\ M_{\\odot}]$ = $14.344 \\pm 0.021$ (statistical) $\\pm 0.023$ (systematic) at a richness $\\lambda=40$, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of $1.33^{+0.09}_{-0.10}$ ($1\\sigma$). The detailed sy...

  1. Surface-Regulated Nano-SnO2/Pt3Co/C Cathode Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Fabricated by a Selective Electrochemical Sn Deposition Method.

    Nagasawa, Kensaku; Takao, Shinobu; Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Samjeské, Gabor; Sekizawa, Oki; Kaneko, Takuma; Higashi, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Uruga, Tomoya; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-14

    We have achieved significant improvements for the oxygen reduction reaction activity and durability with new SnO2-nanoislands/Pt3Co/C catalysts in 0.1 M HClO4, which were regulated by a strategic fabrication using a new selective electrochemical Sn deposition method. The nano-SnO2/Pt3Co/C catalysts with Pt/Sn = 4/1, 9/1, 11/1, and 15/1 were characterized by STEM-EDS, XRD, XRF, XPS, in situ XAFS, and electrochemical measurements to have a Pt3Co core/Pt skeleton-skin structure decorated with SnO2 nanoislands at the compressive Pt surface with the defects and dislocations. The high performances of nano-SnO2/Pt3Co/C originate from efficient electronic modification of the Pt skin surface (site 1) by both the Co of the Pt3Co core and surface nano-SnO2 and more from the unique property of the periphery sites of the SnO2 nanoislands at the compressive Pt skeleton-skin surface (more active site 2), which were much more active than expected from the d-band center values. The white line peak intensity of the nano-SnO2/Pt3Co/C revealed no hysteresis in the potential up-down operations between 0.4 and 1.0 V versus RHE, unlike the cases of Pt/C and Pt3Co/C, resulting in the high ORR performance. Here we report development of a new class of cathode catalysts with two different active sites for next-generation polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PMID:26412503

  2. The Integrated Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect as the Superior Method for Measuring the Mass of Clusters of Galaxies

    Motl, P M; Burns, J O; Norman, M L; Motl, Patrick M.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate empirical scaling relations between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) and cluster mass in simulated clusters of galaxies. The simulated clusters have been compiled from four different samples that differ only in their assumed baryonic physics. We show that the strength of the thermal SZE integrated over a significant fraction of the virialized region of the clusters is relatively insensitive to the detailed heating and cooling processes in the cores of clusters by demonstrating that the derived scaling relations are nearly identical between the four cluster samples considered. For our synthetic images, the central Comptonization parameter shows significant boosting during transient merging events, but the integrated SZE appears to be relatively insensitive to these events. Most importantly, the integrated SZE closely tracks the underlying cluster mass. Observations through the thermal SZE allow a strikingly accurate mass estimation from relatively simple measurements that do not requir...

  3. Segmentation of Mushroom and Cap width Measurement using Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Eser Sert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom is one of the commonly consumed foods. Image processing is one of the effective way for examination of visual features and detecting the size of a mushroom. We developed software for segmentation of a mushroom in a picture and also to measure the cap width of the mushroom. K-Means clustering method is used for the process. K-Means is one of the most successful clustering methods. In our study we customized the algorithm to get the best result and tested the algorithm. In the system, at first mushroom picture is filtered, histograms are balanced and after that segmentation is performed. Results provided that customized algorithm performed better segmentation than classical K-Means algorithm. Tests performed on the designed software showed that segmentation on complex background pictures is performed with high accuracy, and 20 mushrooms caps are measured with 2.281 % relative error.

  4. Clustering of reads with alignment-free measures and quality values

    Comin, Matteo; Leoni, Andrea; Schimd, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The data volume generated by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies is growing at a pace that is now challenging the storage and data processing capacities of modern computer systems. In this context an important aspect is the reduction of data complexity by collapsing redundant reads in a single cluster to improve the run time, memory requirements, and quality of post-processing steps like assembly and error correction. Several alignment-free measures, based on k-mers count...

  5. Relativistic rise measurement by cluster counting method in time expansion chamber

    A new approach to the measurement of the ionization energy loss for the charged particle identification in the region of the relativistic rise was tested experimentally. The method consists of determining in a special drift chamber (TEC) the number of clusters of the primary ionization. The method gives almost the full relativistic rise and narrower landau distribution. The consequences for a practical detector are discussed

  6. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    Jokinen, T; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; M. Ehn; Lönn, G.; Hakala, J.; T. Petäjä; R. L. Mauldin III; M. Kulmala; Worsnop, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF) for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3 × 104 molecules cm−3 for two hour averaging. Si...

  7. Managing spacecraft measurements over a decade: The calibration and archiving of Cassini and Cluster magnetometer data

    Alconcel, L.; Fox, P.; Kellock, S. J.; Brown, P.; Lucek, E. A.; Carr, C.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    As the PI institute for the magnetometer (MAG) team on the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn, Imperial College has been responsible for routinely delivering high quality data to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) since 2004. The PDS maintains an archive of information from planetary missions to allow easy user access through a web browser and provides confidence that the data has been rigorously validated. Furthermore, the data calibration yields a sensitive gauge of changes on board the spacecraft and a way to assess the risk of certain activities. When the four Earth-observing Cluster spacecraft were launched in late 2000, a framework for producing and exchanging uniform scientific data sets was already in place. It would form the basis of ESA's Cluster Active Archive (CAA) to which Imperial College, as the PI institute for the fluxgate magnetometers (FGM), has regularly contributed calibrated and validated data. Like the PDS, the CAA aims to preserve the Cluster mission information so that it remains accessible and usable in the long term. The FGM team has archived high resolution data for the mission from January 2001 to April 2013. To demonstrate the stability of our instruments, we have studied the long-term trends in both the Cassini MAG and Cluster FGM data sets. The results help us to establish confidence in the relative accuracy of the measurements. Moreover, they plainly exhibit the necessity of the calibration and archiving activities for high-value scientific space missions.

  8. Challenges for Precision Cosmology with X-Ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Gas Mass Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    Hallman, Eric J.; Motl, Patrick M.; Burns, Jack O.; Norman, Michael L.

    2006-09-01

    We critically analyze the measurement of galaxy cluster gas masses, which is central to cosmological studies that rely on the galaxy cluster gas mass fraction. Using synthetic observations of numerically simulated clusters viewed through their X-ray emission and thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE), we reduce the observations to obtain measurements of the cluster gas mass. We quantify the possible sources of uncertainty and systematic bias associated with the common simplifying assumptions used in reducing real cluster observations, including isothermality and hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that intrinsic variations in clusters limit the precision of observational gas mass estimation to ~10% to 1 σ confidence, excluding instrumental effects. Gas mass estimates show surprisingly little trending in the scatter as a function of cluster redshift. For the full cluster sample, methods that use SZE profiles out to roughly the virial radius are the simplest, most accurate, and unbiased way to estimate cluster mass. X-ray methods are systematically more precise mass estimators than are SZE methods if merger and cool-core systems are removed, but slightly overestimate (5%-10%) the cluster gas mass on average. We find that cool-core clusters in our samples are particularly poor candidates for observational mass estimation, even when excluding emission from the core region. The effects of cooling in the cluster gas alter the radial profile of the X-ray and SZE surface brightness even outside the cool-core region. Finally, we find that methods using a universal temperature profile estimate cluster masses to higher precision than those assuming isothermality.

  9. Magnetic field gradients inferred from multi-point measurements of Cluster FGM and EDI

    Teubenbacher, Robert; Nakamura, Rumi; Giner, Lukas; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Magnes, Werner; Eichelberger, Hans; Steller, Manfred; Torbert, Roy

    2013-04-01

    We use Cluster data from fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) and electron drift instrument (EDI) to determine the magnetic field gradients in the near-Earth magnetotail. Here we use the magnetic field data from FGM measurements as well as the gyro-time data of electrons determined from the time of flight measurements of EDI. The results are compared with the values estimated from empirical magnetic field models for different magnetospheric conditions. We also estimated the spin axis offset of FGM based on comparison between EDI and FGM data and discuss the possible effect in determining the current sheet characteristics.

  10. Measuring the density of a molecular cluster injector via visible emission from an electron beam

    A method to measure the density distribution of a dense hydrogen gas jet is presented. A Mach 5.5 nozzle is cooled to 80 K to form a flow capable of molecular cluster formation. A 250 V, 10 mA electron beam collides with the jet and produces Hα emission that is viewed by a fast camera. The high density of the jet, several 1016 cm-3, results in substantial electron depletion, which attenuates the Hα emission. The attenuated emission measurement, combined with a simplified electron-molecule collision model, allows us to determine the molecular density profile via a simple iterative calculation.

  11. A study on low-power, nanosecond operation and multilevel bipolar resistance switching in Ti/ZrO2/Pt nonvolatile memory with 1T1R architecture

    Low-power, bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics in the Ti/ZrO2/Pt nonvolatile memory with one transistor and one resistor (1T1R) architecture were reported. Multilevel storage behavior was observed by modulating the amplitude of the MOSFET gate voltage, in which the transistor functions as a current limiter. Furthermore, multilevel storage was also executed by controlling the reset voltage, leading the resistive random access memory (RRAM) to the multiple metastable low resistance state (LRS). The experimental results on the measured electrical properties of the various sized devices confirm that the RS mechanism of the Ti/ZrO2/Pt structure obeys the conducting filaments model. In application, the devices exhibit high-speed switching performances (250 ns) with suitable high/low resistance state ratio (HRS/LRS > 10). The LRS of the devices with 10 year retention ability at 80 °C, based on the Arrhenius equation, is also demonstrated in the thermal accelerating test. Furthermore, the ramping gate voltage method with fixed drain voltage is used to switch the 1T1R memory cells for upgrading the memory performances. Our experimental results suggest that the ZrO2-based RRAM is a prospective alternative for nonvolatile multilevel memory device applications. (paper)

  12. A MODIFIED ANT-BASED TEXT CLUSTERING ALGORITHM WITH SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MEASURE

    Haoxiang XIA; Shuguang WANG; Taketoshi YOSHIDA

    2006-01-01

    Ant-based text clustering is a promising technique that has attracted great research attention. This paper attempts to improve the standard ant-based text-clustering algorithm in two dimensions. On one hand, the ontology-based semantic similarity measure is used in conjunction with the traditional vector-space-model-based measure to provide more accurate assessment of the similarity between documents. On the other, the ant behavior model is modified to pursue better algorithmic performance.Especially, the ant movement rule is adjusted so as to direct a laden ant toward a dense area of the same type of items as the ant's carrying item, and to direct an unladen ant toward an area that contains an item dissimilar with the surrounding items within its Moore neighborhood. Using WordNet as the base ontology for assessing the semantic similarity between documents, the proposed algorithm is tested with a sample set of documents excerpted from the Reuters-21578 corpus and the experiment results partly indicate that the proposed algorithm perform better than the standard ant-based text-clustering algorithm and the k-means algorithm.

  13. Detectability of Torsion Gravity via Galaxy Clustering and Cosmic Shear Measurements

    Camera, Stefano; Radicella, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    Alterations of the gravity Lagrangian introduced in modified torsion gravity theories - also referred to as f(T) gravity - allows for an accelerated expansion in a matter dominated Universe. In this framework, the cosmic speed up is driven by an effective 'torsion fluid'. Besides the background evolution of the Universe, structure formation is also modified because of a time dependent effective gravitational constant. Here, we investigate the imprints of f(T) gravity on galaxy clustering and weak gravitational lensing to the aim of understanding whether future galaxy surveys could constrain torsion gravity and discriminate amongst it and standard general relativity. Specifically, we compute Fisher matrix forecasts for two viable f(T) models to both infer the accuracy on the measurement of the model parameters and evaluate the power that a combined clustering and shear analysis will have as a tool for model selection. We find that with such a combination of probes it will indeed be possible to tightly constrai...

  14. A bent electrostatic ion beam trap for simultaneous measurements of fragmentation and ionization of cluster ions

    We describe a bent electrostatic ion beam trap in which cluster ions of several keV kinetic energy can be stored on a V-shaped trajectory by means of an electrostatic deflector placed between two electrostatic mirrors. While maintaining all the advantages of its linear counterpart [Zajfman et al., Phys. Rev. A 55, R1577 (1997); Dahan et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 76 (1998)], such as long storage times, straight segments, and a field-free region for merged or crossed beam experiments, the bent trap allows for simultaneous measurement of charged and neutral fragments and determination of the average kinetic energy released in the fragmentation. These unique properties of the bent trap are illustrated by first results concerning the competition between delayed fragmentation and ionization of Aln- clusters after irradiation by a short laser pulse

  15. A bent electrostatic ion beam trap for simultaneous measurements of fragmentation and ionization of cluster ions.

    Aviv, O; Toker, Y; Errit, M; Bhushan, K G; Pedersen, H B; Rappaport, M L; Heber, O; Schwalm, D; Zajfman, D

    2008-08-01

    We describe a bent electrostatic ion beam trap in which cluster ions of several keV kinetic energy can be stored on a V-shaped trajectory by means of an electrostatic deflector placed between two electrostatic mirrors. While maintaining all the advantages of its linear counterpart [Zajfman et al., Phys. Rev. A 55, R1577 (1997); Dahan et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 76 (1998)], such as long storage times, straight segments, and a field-free region for merged or crossed beam experiments, the bent trap allows for simultaneous measurement of charged and neutral fragments and determination of the average kinetic energy released in the fragmentation. These unique properties of the bent trap are illustrated by first results concerning the competition between delayed fragmentation and ionization of Al(n) (-) clusters after irradiation by a short laser pulse. PMID:19044339

  16. Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) data quality indexes as a support for analysing magnetospheric measurements

    Dandouras, Iannis; Barthe, Alain; Brunato, Sylvain; Rème, Henri; Laakso, Harri

    2016-04-01

    The Cluster Science Archive (CSA) aims at preserving the complete set of the measurements collected by the four Cluster spacecraft, so that they are usable in the long-term by the world-wide scientific community as well as by the instrument teams. This implies that the instrument data, properly calibrated, are filed together with the descriptive and documentary elements making it possible to select and interpret them. The CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) experiment is a comprehensive ionic plasma spectrometry package onboard the Cluster spacecraft, capable of obtaining full three-dimensional ion distributions (about 0 to 40 keV/e) with a time resolution of one spacecraft spin (4 sec) and with mass-per-charge composition determination. For the archival of the CIS data a multi-level approach has been adopted. The CSA archival includes processed raw data, moments of the ion distribution functions, and calibrated high-resolution data in a variety of physical units. The latter are 3-D ion distribution functions, 2-D pitch-angle distributions and 1-D omni-directional fluxes. The CIS data archive includes also experiment documentation, graphical products for browsing through the data, data caveats and data quality indexes. The later constitute a novel product, which has been prepared in order to help the user asses the quality of the data acquired in different magnetospheric regions and during various operational modes. It provides information on which are in each case the issues that can affect the data quality, which are the data products affected, and gives a simple quantitative measurement of the severity of these issues. The principle of the CIS data quality indexes will be described and the various issues, that can under some conditions affect the data quality and are thus taken into account in generating the data quality indexes, will be discussed.

  17. Plasma Wave Measurements in Earth's Magnetosphere by Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Cluster

    Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Santolik, O.; Kletzing, C.; Thorne, R. M.; Pickett, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    On October 9, 2013, Juno will fly within about 550 km of Earth in the process of executing a gravity assist on its way to its eventual arrival at Jupiter in July 2016. Since this will be the only magnetospheric plasma regime Juno will sample prior to arrival at Jupiter, it presents both engineering and scientific opportunities. One of the scientific opportunities is to make observations in the inner magnetosphere at the same time as the twin Van Allen Probes and Cluster. During the Juno flyby, which is on the dusk side at closest approach, the Van Allen Probes' apoapsis is also in the dusk sector. The Cluster orbits favor comparisons on the nightside after Juno's closest approach. Models of the radiation belts suggest that Juno will traverse both the inner and outer belts, albeit at higher latitudes than the low-inclination Van Allen Probes while the Cluster spacecraft are in a rather high inclination orbit. The Waves instrument on Juno utilizes a single electric dipole antenna and a single search coil sensor for measurements of the electric and magnetic components of plasma waves, consequently it will provide wave spectra and brief bursts of waveforms. The Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes, on the other hand makes triaxial electric and magnetic measurements of plasma waves, hence, can determine the propagation characteristics of waves such as the wave-normal angle, Poynting flux, and polarization characteristics of the waves. The Wideband Instrument on Cluster can be configured to capture single axis (electric or magnetic) waveforms at selected times to coincide with Juno and Van Allen Probes burst observations. We will compare observations of whistler-mode emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions in and near the radiation belts from the vantage points of these spacecraft.

  18. LoCuSS: A Comparison of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect and Gravitational Lensing Measurements of Galaxy Clusters

    Marrone, Daniel P; Richard, Johan; Joy, Marshall; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Hasler, Nicole; Hamilton-Morris, Victoria; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Culverhouse, Thomas; Carlstrom, John E; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessy, Ryan; Lamb, James W; Leitch, Erik M; Loh, Michael; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony; Muchovej, Stephen; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew K; Woody, David

    2009-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the relationship between the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signal and the mass of galaxy clusters that uses gravitational lensing to measure cluster mass, based on 14 X-ray luminous clusters at z~0.2 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. We measure the integrated Compton y-parameter, Y, and total projected mass of the clusters (M_GL) within a projected clustercentric radius of 350 kpc, corresponding to mean overdensities of 4000-8000 relative to the critical density. We find self-similar scaling between M_GL and Y, with a scatter in mass at fixed Y of 32%. This scatter exceeds that predicted from numerical cluster simulations, however, it is smaller than comparable measurements of the scatter in mass at fixed T_X. We also find no evidence of segregation in Y between disturbed and undisturbed clusters, as had been seen with T_X on the same physical scales. We compare our scaling relation to the Bonamente et al. relation based on mass measurements that assume hydrostatic eq...

  19. A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters

    A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO2(110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

  20. New Neutron-capture Measurements in 23 Open Clusters. I. The r-Process

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Jacobson, Heather R.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron-capture elements, those with Z > 35, are the least well understood in terms of nucleosynthesis and formation environments. The rapid neutron-capture, or r-process, elements are formed in the environments and/or remnants of massive stars, while the slow neutron-capture, or s-process, elements are primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. These elements can provide much information about Galactic star formation and enrichment, but observational data are limited. We have assembled a sample of 68 stars in 23 open clusters that we use to probe abundance trends for six neutron-capture elements (Eu, Gd, Dy, Mo, Pr, and Nd) with cluster age and location in the disk of the Galaxy. In order to keep our analysis as homogeneous as possible, we use an automated synthesis fitting program, which also enables us to measure multiple (3–10) lines for each element. We find that the pure r-process elements (Eu, Gd, and Dy) have positive trends with increasing cluster age, while the mixed r- and s-process elements (Mo, Pr, and Nd) have insignificant trends consistent with zero. Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, and Dy have similar, slight (although mostly statistically significant) gradients of ∼0.04 dex kpc‑1. The mixed elements also appear to have nonlinear relationships with R GC.

  1. First Measurement of the Clustering Evolution of Photometrically-Classified Quasars

    Myers, A D; Richards, G T; Nichol, R C; Schneider, D P; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Scranton, R; Gray, A G; Brinkmann, J; Myers, Adam D.; Brunner, Robert J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Nichol, Robert C.; Schneider, Donald P.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Scranton, Ryan; Gray, Alexander G.; Brinkmann, Jon

    2006-01-01

    We present new measurements of the quasar autocorrelation from a sample of \\~80,000 photometrically-classified quasars taken from SDSS DR1. We find a best-fit model of $\\omega(\\theta) = (0.066\\pm^{0.026}_{0.024})\\theta^{-(0.98\\pm0.15)}$ for the angular autocorrelation, consistent with estimates from spectroscopic quasar surveys. We show that only models with little or no evolution in the clustering of quasars in comoving coordinates since z~1.4 can recover a scale-length consistent with local galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). A model with little evolution of quasar clustering in comoving coordinates is best explained in the current cosmological paradigm by rapid evolution in quasar bias. We show that quasar biasing must have changed from b_Q~3 at a (photometric) redshift of z=2.2 to b_Q~1.2-1.3 by z=0.75. Such a rapid increase with redshift in biasing implies that quasars at z~2 cannot be the progenitors of modern L* objects, rather they must now reside in dense environments, such as clusters. Simil...

  2. New Neutron-Capture Measurements in 23 Open Clusters. I. The R-Process

    Overbeek, Jamie C; Jacobson, Heather R

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-capture elements, those with Z > 35, are the least well-understood in terms of nucleosynthesis and formation environments. The rapid neutron-capture, or r-process, elements are formed in the environments and/or remnants of massive stars, while the slow neutron-capture, or s-process, elements are primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. These elements can provide much information about Galactic star formation and enrichment, but observational data is limited. We have assembled a sample of 68 stars in 23 open clusters that we use to probe abundance trends for six neutron-capture elements (Eu, Gd, Dy, Mo, Pr, and Nd) with cluster age and location in the disk of the Galaxy. In order to keep our analysis as homogenous as possible, we use an automated synthesis fitting program, which also enables us to measure multiple (3-10) lines for each element. We find that the pure r-process elements (Eu, Gd, and Dy) have positive trends with increasing cluster age, while the mixed r- and s- process elements (Mo, Pr, a...

  3. New Neutron-capture Measurements in 23 Open Clusters. I. The r-Process

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Jacobson, Heather R.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron-capture elements, those with Z > 35, are the least well understood in terms of nucleosynthesis and formation environments. The rapid neutron-capture, or r-process, elements are formed in the environments and/or remnants of massive stars, while the slow neutron-capture, or s-process, elements are primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. These elements can provide much information about Galactic star formation and enrichment, but observational data are limited. We have assembled a sample of 68 stars in 23 open clusters that we use to probe abundance trends for six neutron-capture elements (Eu, Gd, Dy, Mo, Pr, and Nd) with cluster age and location in the disk of the Galaxy. In order to keep our analysis as homogeneous as possible, we use an automated synthesis fitting program, which also enables us to measure multiple (3–10) lines for each element. We find that the pure r-process elements (Eu, Gd, and Dy) have positive trends with increasing cluster age, while the mixed r- and s-process elements (Mo, Pr, and Nd) have insignificant trends consistent with zero. Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, and Dy have similar, slight (although mostly statistically significant) gradients of ˜0.04 dex kpc‑1. The mixed elements also appear to have nonlinear relationships with R GC.

  4. Cluster-based statistics for brain connectivity in correlation with behavioral measures.

    Cheol E Han

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical approaches have successfully revealed abnormality in brain connectivity, in particular, for contrasting patients from healthy controls. Besides the group comparison analysis, a correlational study is also challenging. In studies with patients, for example, finding brain connections that indeed deepen specific symptoms is interesting. The correlational study is also beneficial since it does not require controls, which are often difficult to find, especially for old-age patients with cognitive impairment where controls could also have cognitive deficits due to normal ageing. However, one of the major difficulties in such correlational studies is too conservative multiple comparison correction. In this paper, we propose a novel method for identifying brain connections that are correlated with a specific cognitive behavior by employing cluster-based statistics, which is less conservative than other methods, such as Bonferroni correction, false discovery rate procedure, and extreme statistics. Our method is based on the insight that multiple brain connections, rather than a single connection, are responsible for abnormal behaviors. Given brain connectivity data, we first compute a partial correlation coefficient between every edge and the behavioral measure. Then we group together neighboring connections with strong correlation into clusters and calculate their maximum sizes. This procedure is repeated for randomly permuted assignments of behavioral measures. Significance levels of the identified sub-networks are estimated from the null distribution of the cluster sizes. This method is independent of network construction methods: either structural or functional network can be used in association with any behavioral measures. We further demonstrated the efficacy of our method using patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment. We identified sub-networks that are correlated with the disease severity by exploiting diffusion

  5. A Monte Carlo investigation of two distance measures between statistical populations and their application to cluster analysis

    Rossa, Agnieszka

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with a simulation study of one of the well-known hierarchical cluster analysis methods applied to classifying the statistical populations. In particular, the problem of clustering the univariate normal populations is studied. Two measures of the distance between statistical populations are considered: the Mahalanobis distance measure which is defined for normally distributed populations under assumption that the covariance matrices are equal and the Kullback-Lei...

  6. Atmospheric sulphuric acid and neutral cluster measurements using CI-APi-TOF

    Jokinen, T; Sipilä, M.; Junninen, H.; M. Ehn; Lönn, G.; Hakala, J.; T. Petäjä; Mauldin, R. L.; M. Kulmala; Worsnop, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    The first ambient measurements using nitrate ion based Chemical Ionization with the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF) for sulphuric acid and neutral cluster detection are presented. We have found CI-APi-TOF a highly stable and sensitive tool for molecular sulphuric acid detection. The lowest limit of detection for sulphuric acid was determined to be 3.6 × 104 molecules cm−3 for 15 min averaging. Signals f...

  7. One Thousand and One Clusters: Measuring the Bulk Flow with the Planck ESZ and X-Ray Selected Galaxy Cluster Catalogs

    Mody, Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    We present our measurement of the "bulk flow" using the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect in the WMAP 7-year data. As the tracer of peculiar velocities, we use Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Detected Cluster Catalog and a compilation of X-ray detected galaxy cluster catalogs based on ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We build a full-sky kSZ template and fit it to the WMAP data in W-band. Using a Wiener filter we maximize the signal to noise ratio of the kSZ cluster signal in the data. We find no significant detection of the bulk flow, and our results are consistent with the LCDM prediction.

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of ammonia-containing wastewater using Ti/RuO2-Pt electrode

    Wei-wu HU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation degradation processes for artificial and actual wastewater containing ammonia were carried out with a Ti/RuO2-Pt anode and a Ti plate cathode. We studied the effects of different current densities, space sizes between the two electrodes, and amounts of added NaCl on ammonia-containing wastewater treatment. It was shown that, after a 30-min treatment under the optimal conditions, which were a current density of 20 mA/cm2, a space size between the two electrodes of 1 cm, and an added amount of 0.5 g/L of NaCl, the COD concentration in municipal wastewater was 40 mg/L, a removal rate of 90%; and the NH3-N concentration was 7 mg/L, a removal rate of 88.3%. The effluent of municipal wastewater qualified for Class A of the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB18918-2002.

  9. SSM-DBSCANand SSM-OPTICS : Incorporating a new similarity measure for Density based Clustering of Web usage data.

    Ms K.Santhisree

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Clustering web sessions is to group web sessions based on similarity and consists of minimizing the intra-group similarity and maximizing the inter-group similarity. Here in this paper we developed a new similarity measure named SSM(Sequence Similarity Measure and enhanced an existing DBSCAN and OPTICS clustering techniques namely SSM-DBSCAN, and SSM-OPTICS for clustering web sessions for web personalization. Then we adopted various similarity measures like Euclidean distance, Jaccard, Cosine and Fuzzy similarity measures to measure the similarity of web sessions using sequence alignment to determine learning behaviors of web usage data. This new measure hassignificant results when comparing similarities between web sessions with other previous measures. We performed a variety of experiments in the context of density based clustering, using existing DBSCANand OPTICS and developed SSM-DBSCAN and SSM-OPTICS based on sequence alignment to measure similarities between web sessions where sessions are chronologically ordered sequences of page visits. Finally the time and the memory required to perform clustering using SSM is less when compared to other similarity measures.

  10. SSM-DBSCANand SSM-OPTICS : Incorporating a new similarity measure for Density based Clustering of Web usage data.

    Ms K.Santhisree

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clustering web sessions is to group web sessions based on similarity and consists of minimizing the intra-group similarity and maximizing the inter-group similarity. Here in this paper we developed a new similarity measure named SSM(Sequence Similarity Measure and enhanced an existing DBSCAN and OPTICS clustering techniques namely SSM-DBSCAN, and SSM-OPTICS for clustering web sessions for web personalization. Then we adopted various similarity measures like Euclidean distance, Jaccard, Cosine and Fuzzy similarity measures to measure the similarity of web sessions using sequence alignment to determine learning behaviors of web usage data. This new measure hassignificant results when comparing similarities between web sessions with other previous measures. We performed a variety of experiments in the context of density based clustering, using existing DBSCANand OPTICS and developed SSM-DBSCAN and SSM-OPTICS based on sequence alignment to measure similarities between web sessions where sessions are chronologically ordered sequences of page visits. Finally the time and the memory required to perform clustering using SSM is less when compared to other similarity measures.

  11. Measuring the distance-redshift relation with the baryon acoustic oscillations of galaxy clusters

    Veropalumbo, A.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Moresco, M.; Cimatti, A.

    2016-05-01

    We analyse the largest spectroscopic samples of galaxy clusters to date, and provide observational constraints on the distance-redshift relation from baryon acoustic oscillations. The cluster samples considered in this work have been extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at three median redshifts, z = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5. The number of objects is 12 910, 42 215 and 11 816, respectively. We detect the peak of baryon acoustic oscillations for all the three samples. The derived distance constraints are rs/DV(z = 0.2) = 0.18 ± 0.01, rs/DV(z = 0.3) = 0.124 ± 0.004 and rs/DV(z = 0.5) = 0.080 ± 0.002. Combining these measurements with the sound horizon scale measured from the cosmic microwave background, we obtain robust constraints on cosmological parameters. Our results are in agreement with the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Specifically, we constrain the Hubble constant in a ΛCDM model, H_0 = 64_{-8}^{+17} km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1} , the density of curvature energy, in the oΛCDM context, Ω _K = -0.01_{-0.33}^{+0.34}, and finally the parameter of the dark energy equation of state in the wCDM case, w = -1.06_{-0.52}^{+0.49}. This is the first time the distance-redshift relation has been constrained using only the peak of baryon acoustic oscillations of galaxy clusters.

  12. Measuring Group Synchrony: A Cluster-Phase Method for Analyzing Multivariate Movement Time-Series

    Michael eRichardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for assessing group synchrony is introduced as being potentially useful for objectively determining degree of group cohesiveness or entitativity. The cluster-phase method of Frank and Richardson (2010 was used to analyze movement data from the rocking chair movements of six-member groups who rocked their chairs while seated in a circle facing the center. In some trials group members had no information about others’ movements (their eyes were shut or they had their eyes open and gazed at a marker in the center of the group. As predicted, the group level synchrony measure was able to distinguish between situations where synchrony would have been possible and situations where it would be impossible. Moreover, other aspects of the analysis illustrated how the cluster phase measures can be used to determine the type of patterning of group synchrony, and, when integrated with multi-level modeling, can be used to examine individual-level differences in synchrony and dyadic level synchrony as well.

  13. The role of clustering effects in interpreting nondiffusive transport measurements in tokamaks

    Graves, J. P.; Dendy, R. O.; Hopcraft, K. I.; Jakeman, E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent measurements in tokamak plasmas provide clear evidence for rapid nondiffusive transport and non-Gaussian fluctuations, and have been widely interpreted in terms of the sandpile and self-organized criticality (SOC) paradigms. Many of the statistical physics inferences that can be drawn from observations of, for example, avalanching transport remain to be explored. This paper will show that the statistical characterization of both experimentally observed and simulated avalanching transport phenomena reveals several points of contact with existing stochastic process models that have seldom been deployed in a plasma physics context. It will be shown that statistical physics techniques developed to model clustering of events can be used to characterize microscopic fluctuations in both local density and flux, as well as the global transport properties to which they give rise. This provides a fresh interpretation for some of the key aspects of observed critical gradient-driven transport phenomenology in tokamaks. In particular it provides new evidence for scale-free correlations in the fluctuations which drive the transport, and quantifies their distribution in terms of few-parameter non-Gaussian models. The correlation properties of density fluctuations can be interpreted in terms of random walk models, whereas flux fluctuations cannot: instead they can be described by the discrete negative binomial distribution, which again indicates clustering. Some of the spatio-temporal correlations considered emulate multichannel measurements in tokamaks, and it is shown how these can be used to characterize the transport of naturally arising coherent structures.

  14. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Dilday, Benjamin; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; Ihara, Yutaka; Jha, Saurabh W; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Mollá, Mercedes; Nichol, Robert C; Nordin, Jakob; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J Craig; Östman, Linda; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    ABRIDGED We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z <0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3$. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of $({0.37}^{+0.17+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.55}^{+0.13+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ ($\\mathrm{SNu}x = 10^{-12} L_{x\\sun}^{-1} \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be $({0.31}^{+0.18+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.49}^{+0.15+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01})$ $\\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be $({2.04}^{+1.99+0.07}_{-1.11-0.04}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.36}^{+0.84+0.01}_...

  15. Measuring the Density of a Molecular Cluster Injector via Visible Emission from an Electron Beam

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. M.; Stotler, D. P.

    2010-06-28

    A method to measure the density distribution of a dense hydrogen gas jet is pre- sented. A Mach 5.5 nozzle is cooled to 80K to form a flow capable of molecular cluster formation. A 250V, 10mA electron beam collides with the jet and produces Hα emission that is viewed by a fast camera. The high density of the jet, several 1016cm-3, results in substantial electron depletion, which attenuates the Hα emission. The attenuated emission measurement, combined with a simplified electron-molecule collision model, allows us to determine the molecular density profile via a simple iterative calculation.

  16. Acoustic emission measurement in a 20MJ superconducting magnet system of the cluster test coil

    This paper describes acoustic emission (AE) results which were measured during the second major experiment on the Cluster Test Coil at JAERI. This is the largest superconducting magnet system to date on which acoustic emission measurement has been carried out. The amplitudes and the counting rates of AE are shown as functions of coil operating current on three full current excursions. The amplitude results show the on-going process of emission and reduction during successive runs. A strong tendency of the AE counting rate to increase was observed at high currents after successive runs. The phenomenon of amplitude reduction and counting rate increase is attributed to an energy release change from larger single events to numerous smaller events. (author)

  17. Measuring the luminosity and virial black hole mass dependence of quasar-galaxy clustering at z ~ 0.8

    Krolewski, Alex G

    2015-01-01

    We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by WISE about z $\\sim$ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z $\\sim$ 0.8 quasars at 0.2--6.4 h$^{-1}$ Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of $-$0.01 $\\pm$ 0.06 (1 $\\sigma$ errorbar). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering ampli...

  18. Cluster boundary layer measurements and optical observations at magnetically conjugate sites

    J. Moen

    Full Text Available The Cluster spacecraft experienced several boundary layer encounters when flying outbound from the magnetosphere to the magnetosheath in the dusk sector on 14 January 2001. The dayside boundary layer was populated by magnetosheath electrons, but not with quite as high densities as in the magnetosheath itself. The Cluster ground track was calculated using the Tsyganenko-96 model which appears to be a strong tool for combining high-altitude satellite and ground observations, given that the solar wind conditions are known. This paper focuses on identifying auroral responses corresponding to boundary layer dynamics observed by Cluster. The first boundary layer encounter studied was a brief visit into a closed LLBL, most likely due to a boundary wave that travelled tailward over the spacecraft. A corresponding equatorward and eastward movement was seen in the post-noon aurora between Greenland and Svalbard. The second boundary encounter was in a high-latitude cusp, and occurred as a consequence of a transient reconfiguration of the cusp. The cusp expanded duskward over the spacecraft into the late post-noon sector. NOAA-12 probed the 16:30 MLT sector of this auroral activity, and measured a 1.4 keV electron beam located poleward of the 30 keV electron-trapping boundary. A sequence of three moving auroral forms emanating from this active region are likely candidates for flux transfer events. The auroral signatures are discussed in relation to earlier observations, and appear to be an example of accelerated electrons/discrete post-noon aurora on open magnetic field lines.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers

  19. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  20. Spatially Constrained Geospatial Data Clustering for Multilayer Sensor-Based Measurements

    Dhawale, N. M.; Adamchuk, V. I.; Prasher, S. O.; Dutilleul, P. R. L.; Ferguson, R. B.

    2014-11-01

    One of the most popular approaches to process high-density proximal soil sensing data is to aggregate similar measurements representing unique field conditions. An innovative constraint-based spatial clustering algorithm has been developed. The algorithm seeks to minimize the mean squared error during the interactive grouping of spatially adjacent measurements similar to each other and different from the other parts of the field. After successful implementation of a one soil property scenario, this research was to accommodate multiple layers of soil properties representing the same area under investigation. Six agricultural fields across Nebraska, USA, were chosen to illustrate the algorithm performance. The three layers considered were field elevation and apparent soil electrical conductivity representing both deep and shallow layers of the soil profile. The algorithm was implemented in MATLAB, R2013b. Prior to the process of interactive grouping, geographic coordinates were projected and erroneous data were filtered out. Additional data pre-processing included bringing each data layer to a 20 × 20 m raster to facilitate multi-layer computations. An interactive grouping starts with a new "nest" search to initiate the first group of measurements that are most different from the rest of the field. This group is grown using a neighbourhood search approach and once growing the group fails to reduce the overall mean squared error, the algorithm seeks to locate a new "nest", which will grow into another group. This process continues until there is no benefit from separating out an additional part of the field. Results of the six-field trial showed that each case generated a reasonable number of groups which corresponded to agronomic knowledge of the fields. The unique feature of this approach is spatial continuity of each group and capability to process multiple data layers. Further development will involve comparison with a more traditional k-means clustering approach

  1. COSMOS: STOCHASTIC BIAS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF WEAK LENSING AND GALAXY CLUSTERING

    In the theory of structure formation, galaxies are biased tracers of the underlying matter density field. The statistical relation between galaxy and matter density field is commonly referred to as galaxy bias. In this paper, we test the linear bias model with weak-lensing and galaxy clustering measurements in the 2 deg2 COSMOS field. We estimate the bias of galaxies between redshifts z = 0.2 and z = 1 and over correlation scales between R = 0.2 h–1 Mpc and R = 15 h–1 Mpc. We focus on three galaxy samples, selected in flux (simultaneous cuts I814W s 9 * 10 h–2 M☉ and 1010 * 11 h–2 M☉). At scales R > 2 h–1 Mpc, our measurements support a model of bias increasing with redshift. The Tinker et al. fitting function provides a good fit to the data. We find the best-fit mass of the galaxy halos to be log (M200/h–1 M☉) = 11.7+0.6–1.3 and log (M200/h–1 M☉) = 12.4+0.2–2.9, respectively, for the low and high stellar-mass samples. In the halo model framework, bias is scale dependent with a change of slope at the transition scale between the one and the two halo terms. We detect a scale dependence of bias with a turndown at scale R = 2.3 ± 1.5 h–1 Mpc, in agreement with previous galaxy clustering studies. We find no significant amount of stochasticity, suggesting that a linear bias model is sufficient to describe our data. We use N-body simulations to quantify both the amount of cosmic variance and systematic errors in the measurement.

  2. Measuring incident light on grape clusters using photosensitive paper and image analysis

    Digital imaging and analysis was used to quantify and characterize the light exposure patterns of photosensitive paper tubes placed in representative cluster positions in two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) canopies: a minimally pruned and a vertically trained canopy. Blue pixel values of the captured images had a negative correlation with the log of irradiance from an integrating quantum sensor (r2 = 0.9308). The spectral response of the photosensitive paper was not measured. Histograms of incident light distribution on individual paper tubes were developed using imaging software. Histograms were able to quantify the distribution of incident light on individual tubes and were clearly related to the tube's exposure in the canopy. Average population curves of pixel light distribution of 20 tubes in each canopy were able to differentiate the typical cluster light environment in the two canopies. Tubes in the minimally pruned canopy had a larger proportion of their surface exposed to irradiances > 50 micromoles.s-1 m-2 and 65% higher average irradiance than the vertical canopy. Image analysis of photosensitive paper appears to be a workable method to record the distribution of incident light in plant canopies and may have utility in a range of ecological studies

  3. A global study of hot flow anomalies using Cluster multi-spacecraft measurements

    G. Facskó

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hot flow anomalies (HFAs are studied using observations of the magnetometer and the plasma instrument aboard the four Cluster spacecraft. We study several specific features of tangential discontinuities on the basis of Cluster measurements from the time periods of February–April 2003, December 2005–April 2006 and January–April 2007, when the separation distance of spacecraft was large. The previously discovered condition (Facskó et al., 2008 for forming HFAs is confirmed, i.e. that the solar wind speed and fast magnetosonic Mach number values are higher than average. Furthermore, this constraint is independent of the Schwartz et al. (2000’s condition for HFA formation. The existence of this new condition is confirmed by simultaneous ACE magnetic field and solar wind plasma observations at the L1 point, at 1.4 million km distance from the Earth. The temperature, particle density and pressure parameters observed at the time of HFA formation are also studied and compared to average values of the solar wind plasma. The size of the region affected by the HFA was estimated by using two different methods. We found that the size is mainly influenced by the magnetic shear and the angle between the discontinuity normal and the Sun-Earth direction. The size grows with the shear and (up to a certain point with the angle as well. After that point it starts decreasing. The results are compared with the outcome of recent hybrid simulations.

  4. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density-based clustering: Application to biological data

    Debarka Sengupta; Indranil Aich; Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay

    2015-10-01

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is proposed, using maximum information compression index as the dissimilarity measure and the well-known density-based cluster identification technique DBSCAN for identifying the largest natural group of dissimilar features. The algorithm is fast and less sensitive to the user-supplied parameters. Moreover, the method automatically determines the required number of features and identifies them. We used the proposed method for reducing dimensionality of a number of benchmark data sets of varying sizes. Its performance was also extensively compared with some other well-known feature selection methods.

  5. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density-based clustering: application to biological data.

    Sengupta, Debarka; Aich, Indranil; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2015-10-01

    Reduction of dimensionality has emerged as a routine process in modelling complex biological systems. A large number of feature selection techniques have been reported in the literature to improve model performance in terms of accuracy and speed. In the present article an unsupervised feature selection technique is proposed, using maximum information compression index as the dissimilarity measure and the well-known density-based cluster identification technique DBSCAN for identifying the largest natural group of dissimilar features. The algorithm is fast and less sensitive to the user-supplied parameters. Moreover, the method automatically determines the required number of features and identifies them. We used the proposed method for reducing dimensionality of a number of benchmark data sets of varying sizes. Its performance was also extensively compared with some other well-known feature selection methods. PMID:26564974

  6. Still Red and Dead? Measuring feedback and star-formation in clusters at z > 1

    Khullar, Gourav; McDonald, Michael; Bleem, Lindsey; Benson, Bradford; Gladders, Michael; South Pole Telescope (SPT) Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Optical and infrared (IR) surveys have discovered that galaxy clusters at z 2 and underwent passive evolution thereafter without dominant star formation, some samples indicate that an era of star formation and AGN activity is seen in cluster galaxies at z > 1. Only recently have large samples of z > 1 clusters been identified, mostly through IR and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) surveys, which indicate an increase in SFR in clusters at high redshifts and incomplete quenching. Moreover, a robust cluster sample in-hand allows us to understand how galaxy clusters become "red and dead", and the role of astrophysical feedback in this process. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) collaboration has produced mass-limited redshift-independent catalog of 516 clusters from 0.0 1.0, with three newly found systems having a zphot > 1.5. In this work, we focus on a sub-sample of SPT-SZ selected clusters at z > 1.2 with multi-wavelength observations in X-ray (Chandra), infrared (Herschel, Spitzer), optical (Magellan - imaging and spectroscopy), and mm-wavelength (SPT) bands. These observations enable constraints on cluster stellar, baryonic, and total mass, in addition to a host of other information, including the star-formation rate, level of AGN activity, cluster dynamical state, and signatures of astrophysical feedback in the intra-cluster gas. We will describe the overall observing program, early results, and future directions.

  7. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  8. Direct measurement of dark matter halo ellipticity from two-dimensional lensing shear maps of 25 massive clusters

    Oguri, Masamune; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Smith, Graham P

    2010-01-01

    We present new measurements of dark matter distributions in 25 X-ray luminous clusters by making a full use of the two-dimensional (2D) weak lensing signals obtained from high-quality Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging data. Our approach to directly compare the measured lensing shear pattern with elliptical model predictions allows us to extract new information on the mass distributions of individual clusters, such as the halo ellipticity and mass centroid. We find that these parameters on the cluster shape are little degenerate with cluster mass and concentration parameters. By combining the 2D fitting results for a subsample of 18 clusters, the elliptical shape of dark matter haloes is detected at 7\\sigma significance level. The mean ellipticity is found to be e = 0.46 \\pm 0.04 (1\\sigma), which is in excellent agreement with the standard collisionless CDM model prediction. The mass centroid can be constrained with a typical accuracy of ~20" (~50 kpc/h) in radius for each cluster with some significant outliers, enab...

  9. Light-controlled propulsion, aggregation and separation of water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors and their ``on-the-fly'' photocatalytic activities

    Mou, Fangzhi; Kong, Lei; Chen, Chuanrui; Chen, Zhihong; Xu, Leilei; Guan, Jianguo

    2016-02-01

    In this work, water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors with light-controlled motions have been developed by utilizing the asymmetrical photocatalytic water redox reaction over TiO2/Pt Janus submicrospheres under UV irradiation. The motion state, speed, aggregation and separation behaviors of the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor can be reversibly, wirelessly and remotely controlled at will by regulating the ``on/off'' switch, intensity and pulsed/continuous irradiation mode of UV light. The motion of the water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor is governed by light-induced self-electrophoresis under the local electrical field generated by the asymmetrical water oxidation and reduction reactions on its surface. The TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors can interact with each other through the light-switchable electrostatic forces, and hence continuous and pulsed UV irradiation can make the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors aggregate and separate at will, respectively. Because of the enhanced mass exchange between the environment and active submicromotors, the separated TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors powered by the pulsed UV irradiation show a much higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye than the aggregated TiO2/Pt submicromotors. The water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors developed here have some outstanding advantages as ``swimming'' photocatalysts for organic pollutant remediation in the macro or microenvironment (microchannels and microwells in microchips) because of their small size, long-term stability, wirelessly controllable motion behaviors and long life span.In this work, water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors with light-controlled motions have been developed by utilizing the asymmetrical photocatalytic water redox reaction over TiO2/Pt Janus submicrospheres under UV irradiation. The motion state, speed, aggregation and separation behaviors of the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor can be reversibly, wirelessly and remotely controlled at will by

  10. Strategies for measurement-based quantum computation with cluster states transformed by stochastic local operations and classical communication

    D'Souza, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    We examine cluster states transformed by stochastic local operations and classical communication, as a resource for deterministic universal computation driven strictly by projective measurements. We identify circumstances under which such states in one dimension constitute resources for random length single-qubit rotations, in one case quasi-deterministically (N-U-N states) and in another probabilistically (B-U-B states). In contrast to the cluster states, the N-U-N states exhibit spin correlation functions that decay exponentially with distance, while the B-U-B states can be arbitrarily locally pure. A two-dimensional square N-U-N lattice is a universal resource for quasideterministic measurement-based quantum computation. Measurements on cubic B-U-B states yield two-dimensional cluster states with bond defects, whose connectivity exceeds the percolation threshold for a critical value of the local purity.

  11. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure.

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide 'Na Toll!' campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors of alcohol use such as risk perception, group communication and resistance self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 738 adolescents aged 12-20 years who were recruited at recreational locations and completed an online questionnaire 1 week after the peer education or recruitment event. Sixty-three percent of the sample participated in the 3-month follow-up assessment. Data analysis revealed post-test effects on risk perception, perceived norm of alcohol communication in the peer group and resistance self-efficacy. Follow-up effects were not observed, with the exception of a significant effect on risk perception. In conclusion, the peer-led education measure in leisure settings might have supported the adolescents in this study to perceive alcohol-related risks, to feel accepted to talk about alcohol problems with their friends and to be more assertive in resisting alcohol use in the short term. PMID:25732606

  12. Measurement of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Increment in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Zemcov, M; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Holland, W; Pierpaoli, E; Scott, D; Borys, Colin; Chapman, Scott; Halpern, Mark; Holland, Wayne; Pierpaoli, Elena; Scott, Douglas; Zemcov, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We have detected the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) increment at 850 microns in two galaxy clusters (Cl 0016+16 and MS 1054.4-0321) using SCUBA (Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Fits to the isothermal $beta$ model imply a peak 850 micron flux of I_{0} = 2.1 pm 0.5 mJy per beam in Cl 0016, which can be combined with decrement measurements to infer v_{pec} = 300 pm 2500 km/s. In MS 1054 we find y = (2.0 pm 1.0) X 10^{-4}, implying a peak 850 micron flux of I_{0} = 2.0 pm 1.0 mJy per beam. These measurements require large chop throws and non-standard data analysis techniques. In particular, the 450 micron data are used to remove atmospheric variations in the 850 micron data. An explicit annular model is fit to the SCUBA difference data in order to extract the radial profile, and separately fit to the model differences to minimize the effect of correlations induced by our scanning strategy. We have demonstrated that with sufficient care, SCUBA can be used to measure the S...

  13. The use of nanoscale visible light-responsive photocatalyst TiO2-Pt for the elimination of soil-borne pathogens.

    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Exposure to the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cenocepacia can lead to severe infections and even mortality. These pathogens exhibit a high resistance to antibiotic treatments. In addition, no licensed vaccine is currently available. A nanoscale platinum-containing titania photocatalyst (TiO(2-Pt has been shown to have a superior visible light-responsive photocatalytic ability to degrade chemical contaminants like nitrogen oxides. The antibacterial activity of the catalyst and its potential use in soil pathogen control were evaluated. Using the plating method, we found that TiO(2-Pt exerts superior antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli compared to other commercially available and laboratory prepared ultraviolet/visible light-responsive titania photocatalysts. TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis also affectively eliminates the soil-borne bacteria B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. An air pouch infection mouse model further revealed that TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis could reduce the pathogenicity of both strains of bacteria. Unexpectedly, water containing up to 10% w/v dissolved soil particles did not reduce the antibacterial potency of TiO(2-Pt, suggesting that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst is suitable for use in soil-contaminated environments. The TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst exerted superior antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. Soil particles (<10% w/v did not significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of TiO(2-Pt in water. These findings suggest that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst may have potential applications in the development of bactericides for soil-borne pathogens.

  14. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. III. MEASURING AGES AND MASSES OF PARTIALLY RESOLVED STELLAR CLUSTERS

    Beerman, Lori C.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Ben F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larsen, Soren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Melbourne, Jason L. [Caltech Optical Observatories, Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Mail Stop 301-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: beermalc@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), when inferred from the integrated color of low-mass clusters ({approx}<10{sup 4} M {sub Sun }). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the IMF is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar IMF in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies of clusters throughout the Local Group and other nearby galaxies.

  15. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. III. MEASURING AGES AND MASSES OF PARTIALLY RESOLVED STELLAR CLUSTERS

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), when inferred from the integrated color of low-mass clusters (∼4 M ☉). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the IMF is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar IMF in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies of clusters throughout the Local Group and other nearby galaxies.

  16. Measuring Complementary Electronic Structure Properties of both Deposited and Gas Phase Clusters using STM, UPS, and PES: Size-Selected Clusters on Surfaces

    Bowen, Kit H.

    2014-03-05

    In this project, we studied size-selected cluster interactions with surfaces, with other clusters on surfaces, and with external stimuli. These studies focused on mobility as a function of cluster size, surface morphologies as a function of composition and coverage, ion-induced modification and reactivity of clusters as a function of composition, the structural evolution of cluster cuboids culminating in the characterization of theoretically-predicted “baby crystal” clusters, and unusual fractal pattern formation due to deposition.

  17. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  18. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury III. Measuring Ages and Masses of Partially Resolved Stellar Clusters

    Beerman, Lori C; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Weisz, Daniel R; Seth, Anil C; Williams, Ben F; Bell, Eric F; Bianchi, Luciana C; Caldwell, Nelson; Dolphin, Andrew E; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Kalirai, Jason S; Larsen, Søren S; Melbourne, Jason L; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skillman, Evan D

    2012-01-01

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function, when inferred from the integrated color of low mass clusters (less than ~10^4 solar masses). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the initial mass function is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies o...

  19. Younger and brighter New distances to globular clusters based on Hipparcos parallax measurements of local subdwarfs

    Reid, I N

    1997-01-01

    We have used new parallax measurements, obtained by the Hipparcos satellite, of fifteen nearby, metal-poor stars to re-define the subdwarf main-sequence. All of these stars have parallaxes determined to an accuracy of at least 12 %. Comparing these measurements against previous ground-based data for nine stars reveals a systematic offset of 5 %, in the sense that the Hipparcos parallaxes are smaller (i.e. the inferred distances are larger). The availability of the Hipparcos observations expands the local subdwarf sample to the extent that we can separate the stars by abundance into intermediate ([Fe/H] ~ -1.4) and extreme ([Fe/H] ~ -2) subsets. Main-sequence fitting techniques are then used to match stars of the appropriate abundance range to the colour-magnitude diagrams of the seven globular clusters M5, NGC 6752, M13, M15, M92, M30 and M68. We derive respective distance moduli of 14.45, 13.17, 14.48, 15.38, 14.93, 14.95 and 15.29 magnitudes, with formal uncertainties of +/- 0.1 magnitude. The metal-poor sy...

  20. Time Delay Measurements for the Cluster-lensed Sextuple Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

    Dahle, H; Sharon, K; Bayliss, M B; Rigby, J R

    2015-01-01

    We report first results from an ongoing monitoring campaign to measure time delays between the six images of the quasar SDSS J2222+2745, gravitationally lensed by a galaxy cluster. The time delay between A and B, the two most highly magnified images, is measured to be $\\tau_{AB} = 43.0 \\pm 4.5$ days (95% confidence interval), consistent with previous model predictions for this lens system. The strong intrinsic variability of the quasar also allows us to derive a tentative time delay value of $\\tau_{CA} = 694^{+23}_{-4}$ days between image C and A, in spite of modest overlap between their light curves in the current data set. Longer values of $\\tau_{CA} \\lesssim 830$ days cannot yet be firmly excluded, but further monitoring should be sufficient to confirm the tentative value during 2015. Image C, which is predicted to lead all the other lensed quasar images, has undergone a sharp, monotonic flux increase of 60-75% during 2014. The same brightening is predicted to occur in images A and B during 2016. The ampli...

  1. A new method for measuring metallicities of young super star clusters

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Davies, Ben; Bastian, Nate [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Bergemann, Maria [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Patrick, Lee [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schinnerer, Eva [MPI for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ∼6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ∼ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ∼ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.

  2. Abundance Constraints and Direct Redshift Measurement of the Diffuse X-ray Emission from a Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Hashimoto, Y; Böhringer, H; Fabian, A C; Hasinger, G; Mainieri, V; Brunner, H; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Barcons, Xavier; Boehringer, Hans; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hasinger, Guenther; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Brunner, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    We report on the XMM-Newton (XMM) observation of RXJ1053.7+5735, one of the most distant X-ray selected clusters of galaxies, which also shows an unusual double-lobed X-ray morphology, indicative of a possible equal-mass cluster merger. The cluster was discovered during the ROSAT deep pointings in the direction of the Lockman Hole. All XMM Lockman Hole observations (PV, AO-1 & AO-2 phases) with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) were combined for the analysis, totaling exposure times ~ 648 ks, 738 ks, and 758 ks for pn, MOS1, and MOS2, respectively. With this 'deep' dataset, we could detect the Fe K line and obtain a strong constraint on cluster metallicity, which is difficult to achieve for clusters at z > 1. The best-fit abundance is 0.46 +0.11/-0.07 times the solar value. The Fe line emission also allows us to directly estimate the redshift of diffuse gas, with a value z = 1.14 +0.01/-0.01. This is one of the first clusters whose X-ray redshift is directly measured prior to the secure knowledge ...

  3. Familial Clustering and DRD4 Effects on Electroencephalogram Measures in Multiplex Families with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Nelson, Stanley; Smalley, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study tests electroencephalogram (EEG) measures as a potential endophenotype for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining sibling and parent-offspring similarity, familial clustering with the disorder, and association with the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) candidate gene. Method: The sample consists of 531…

  4. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    Haaland, S.; Paschmann, G.; Förster, M.; Quinn, J.; Torbert, R.; Vaith, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Kletzing, C.

    2008-08-01

    A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s-1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  5. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Haynes, Martha P; Finn, Rose A; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5

  6. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    S. Haaland

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s−1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  7. Cluster magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath: four-point measurements of mirror structures

    E. A. Lucek

    Full Text Available The Cluster spacecraft have returned the first simultaneous four-point measurements of the magnetosheath. We present an analysis of data recorded on 10 November 2000, when the four spacecrafts observed an interval of strong mirrorlike activity. Correlation analysis between spacecraft pairs is used to examine the scale size of the mirror structures in three dimensions. Two examples are presented which suggest that the scale size of mirror structures is ~ 1500–3000 km along the flow direction, and shortest along the magnetopause normal (< 600 km, which, in this case, is approximately perpendicular to both the mean magnetic field and the magnetosheath flow vector. Variations on scales of ~ 750–1000 km are found along the maximum variance direction. The level of correlation in this direction, however, and the time lag observed, are found to be variable. These first results suggest that variations occur on scales of the order of the spacecraft separation ( ~ 1000 km in at least two directions, but analysis of further examples and a statistical survey of structures observed with different magnetic field orientations and tetrahedral configurations will enable us to describe more fully the size and orientation of mirror structures.

    Key words. Magnetosphenic physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  8. Stretching dependence of the vibration modes of a single-molecule Pt-H-2-Pt bridge

    Djukic, D.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Untiedt, C.;

    2005-01-01

    A conducting bridge of a single hydrogen molecule between Pt electrodes is formed in a break junction experiment. It has a conductance near the quantum unit, G(0)=2e(2)/h, carried by a single channel. Using point-contact spectroscopy three vibration modes are observed and their variation upon...... isotope substitution is obtained. The stretching dependence for each of the modes allows uniquely classifying them as longitudinal or transversal modes. The interpretation of the experiment in terms of a Pt-H-2-Pt bridge is verified by density-functional theory calculations for the stability, vibrational...

  9. Influence of embedding Cu nano-particles into a Cu/SiO2/Pt structure on its resistive switching

    LIU, CHIH-YI; Huang, Jyun-Jie; Lai, Chun-Hung; Lin, Chao-Han

    2013-01-01

    Cu nano-particles (Cu-NPs) were embedded into the SiO2 layer of a Cu/SiO2/Pt structure to examine their influence on resistive switching characteristics. The device showed a reversible resistive switching behavior, which was due to the formation and rupture of a Cu-conducting filament with an electrochemical reaction. The Cu-NPs enhanced the local electric field within the SiO2 layer, which caused a decrease in the forming voltage. During successive switching processes, the Cu-NP was partiall...

  10. Kondo Physics and Unconventional Superconductivity in the U Intermetallic U2PtC2 Revealed by NMR

    The set of slides begins by discussing the topic NMR of heavy fermion superconductors under the topics heavy fermion materials, superconductivity, and nuclear magnetic resonance. The history of these phenomena is sketched, with particular mention made of CeCu2Si2, UPt3, and UBe13. Unconventional superconductivity, which is non-phonon mediated superconductivity, presents a high Tc (up to ~150 K), and involves a more complicated spin/orbital wave function. The presentation then goes on to give experimental NMR results for U2PtC2 and Pu-115's.

  11. Biased total mass of cool core galaxy clusters by Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect measurements

    Conte, A; Comis, B; Lamagna, L; De Gregori, S

    2010-01-01

    The Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is one of the most powerful cosmological tools to investigate the large-scale Universe, in which clusters of galaxies are the most interesting target. The great advantage of the SZ effect of being redshift independent, in contrast with visible and X-ray observations, allows to directly estimate cluster total mass from the integrated comptonization parameter Y, even for faraway clusters. However, the lack of a complete knowledge of the Intra-Cluster gas (ICg) physics can affect the results. Taking into account self-similar temperature and density profiles of the ICg, we study how different ICg morphologies can affect the cluster total mass estimation. Due to the large percentage of cool core (CC) clusters, we analyze this class starting with a limited sample of eight objects, observed by Chandra. We simulate SZ observations of these clusters through X-ray derived information, and re-analyze the mock SZ data with the simplistic assumption for the ICg of an isothermal beta mode...

  12. Ruling the Universe: An Improved Method for Measuring H_0 with Galaxy Clusters

    Hallman, E J; Motl, P M; Norman, M L; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Motl, Patrick M.; Norman, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method of calculating the value of the Hubble constant from combined X-ray/SZE observations of clusters of galaxies. Values of H_0 reported from cluster observations are systematically low compared to other methods. We show using a large sample of numerically simulated clusters at a variety of redshifts that the typically used method of calculating H_0, which assumes the cluster gas to be isothermal, results in a 20-30% underestimate of the value of H_0. The new method, which assumes the cluster gas temperature has a radial dependence described by a universal temperature profile, results in a value much closer to the true value of H_0, the mean is a 3-8% overestimate. The new method also has greatly reduced scatter about the mean for all the clusters in the simulated catalog compared to the isothermal method. Additionally, we show that a variation on this technique shows promise in reliably determining the 3-D radial temperature profile of the cluster gas. Our new method requires no additiona...

  13. Ruling the Universe: An Improved Method for Measuring the Hubble Constant with Galaxy Clusters

    Hallman, E. J.; Burns, J. O.; Motl, P. M.; Norman, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    We present a new method of calculating the value of the Hubble constant (H0) from X-ray/SZE observations of clusters of galaxies. Values of H0 reported from cluster observations are systematically low compared to other methods. We show using a large sample of numerically simulated clusters placed at a variety of redshifts that the typically used method of calculating H0, which assumes the cluster gas to be isothermal, results in a 20-30% underestimate of the mean value. This new method, which assumes the cluster gas temperature has a radial dependence described by a universal temperature profile (UTP), results in a value much closer to the true value of H0, the mean is a 3-8% overestimate. The new method also has greatly reduced scatter about the mean for all the clusters in the simulated catalog compared to the isothermal method. Our new method requires no additional observational effort compared to the traditional technique. This simple change in the analysis of the cluster data results in values of H0 which are consistent with other observations.

  14. Time Delay Measurements for the Cluster-lensed Sextuple Quasar SDSS J2222+2745

    Dahle, H.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Rigby, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report first results from an ongoing monitoring campaign to measure time delays between the six images of the quasar SDSS J2222+2745, gravitationally lensed by a galaxy cluster. The time delay between A and B, the two most highly magnified images, is measured to be {τ }{{AB}}=47.7+/- 6.0 days (95% confidence interval), consistent with previous model predictions for this lens system. The strong intrinsic variability of the quasar also allows us to derive a time delay value of {τ }{{CA}}=722+/- 24 days between image C and A, in spite of modest overlap between their light curves in the current data set. Image C, which is predicted to lead all the other lensed quasar images, has undergone a sharp, monotonic flux increase of 60%-75% during 2014. A corresponding brightening is firmly predicted to occur in images A and B during 2016. The amplitude of this rise indicates that time delays involving all six known images in this system, including those of the demagnified central images D-F, will be obtainable from further ground-based monitoring of this system during the next few years. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and including observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologi´a e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  15. Electric field measurements on Cluster: comparing the double-probe and electron drift techniques

    A. I. Eriksson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The four Cluster satellites each carry two instruments designed for measuring the electric field: a double-probe instrument (EFW and an electron drift instrument (EDI. We compare data from the two instruments in a representative sample of plasma regions. The complementary merits and weaknesses of the two techniques are illustrated. EDI operations are confined to regions of magnetic fields above 30 nT and where wave activity and keV electron fluxes are not too high, while EFW can provide data everywhere, and can go far higher in sampling frequency than EDI. On the other hand, the EDI technique is immune to variations in the low energy plasma, while EFW sometimes detects significant nongeophysical electric fields, particularly in regions with drifting plasma, with ion energy (in eV below the spacecraft potential (in volts. We show that the polar cap is a particularly intricate region for the double-probe technique, where large nongeophysical fields regularly contaminate EFW measurments of the DC electric field. We present a model explaining this in terms of enhanced cold plasma wake effects appearing when the ion flow energy is higher than the thermal energy but below the spacecraft potential multiplied by the ion charge. We suggest that these conditions, which are typical of the polar wind and occur sporadically in other regions containing a significant low energy ion population, cause a large cold plasma wake behind the spacecraft, resulting in spurious electric fields in EFW data. This interpretation is supported by an analysis of the direction of the spurious electric field, and by showing that use of active potential control alleviates the situation.

  16. Separating spatial and temporal variations in auroral electric and magnetic fields by Cluster multipoint measurements

    T. Karlsson

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Cluster multipoint measurements of the electric and magnetic fields from a crossing of auroral field lines at an altitude of 4RE are used to show that it is possible to resolve the ambiguity of temporal versus spatial variations in the fields. We show that the largest electric fields (of the order of 300mV/m when mapped down to the ionosphere are of a quasi-static nature, unipolar, associated with upward electron beams, stable on a time scale of at least half a minute, and located in two regions of downward current. We conclude that they are the high-altitude analogues of the intense return current/black auroral electric field structures observed at lower altitudes by Freja and FAST. In between these structures there are temporal fluctuations, which are shown to likely be downward travelling Alfvén waves. The periods of these waves are 20-40s, which is not consistent with periods associated with either the Alfvénic ionospheric resonator, typical field line resonances or substorm onset related Pi2 oscillations. The multipoint measurements enable us to estimate a lower limit to the perpendicular wavelength of the Alfvén waves to be of the order of 120km, which suggests that the perpendicular wavelength is similar to the dimension of the region between the two quasi-static structures. This might indicate that the Alfvén waves are ducted within a wave guide, where the quasi-static structures are associated with the gradients making up this waveguide.

  17. Weak-Lensing Mass Measurements of Five Galaxy Clusters in the South Pole Telescope Survey Using Magellan/Megacam

    High, F W; Leethochawalit, N; de Haan, T; Abramson, L; Aird, K A; Armstrong, R; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Bazin, G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Conroy, M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Nurgaliev, D; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Schrabback, T; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Suhada, R; Tokarz, S; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2012-01-01

    We use weak gravitational lensing to measure the masses of five galaxy clusters selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey, with the primary goal of comparing these with the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray based mass estimates. The clusters span redshifts 0.28 2x10^14 h^-1 M_sun, and three of the five clusters were discovered by the SPT survey. We observed the clusters in the gri passbands with the Megacam imager on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope. We measure a mean ratio of weak lensing aperture masses to inferred aperture masses from the SZ data, both within an aperture of R_500,SZ derived from the SZ mass, of 1.12 +/- 0.15. We measure a mean ratio of spherical weak lensing masses evaluated at R_500,SZ to spherical SZ masses of 1.06 +/- 0.18, and a mean ratio of spherical weak lensing masses evaluated at R_500,WL to spherical SZ masses of 1.09 +/- 0.23. We verify in mock catalogs based on N-body simulations that all three mass ratio tests are unbiased to the 2% level under simple assumption...

  18. Tourism Cluster Competitiveness and Sustainability: Proposal for a Systemic Model to Measure the Impact of Tourism on Local Development

    Sieglinde Kindl da Cunha

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model to measure tourism cluster impact on local development with a view to assessing tourism cluster interaction, competitiveness and sustainability impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The theoretical basis for this model is founded on cluster concept and typology adapting and integrating the systemic competitiveness and sustainability concepts within economic, social, cultural, environmental and political dimensions. The proposed model shows a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sector view of local development brought back through a systemic approach to the concepts of competitiveness, social equity and sustainability. Its results make possible strategic guidance to agents responsible for public sector tourism policies, as well as the strategies for competitiveness, competition, cooperation and sustainability in private companies and institutions.

  19. Measurement of sub-2 nm clusters of pristine and composite metal oxides during nanomaterial synthesis in flame aerosol reactors.

    Fang, Jiaxi; Wang, Yang; Attoui, Michel; Chadha, Tandeep S; Ray, Jessica R; Wang, Wei-Ning; Jun, Young-Shin; Biswas, Pratim

    2014-08-01

    Measuring stable clusters to understand particle inception will aid the synthesis of well-controlled nanoparticles via gas-phase aerosol routes. Using a Half Mini differential mobility analyzer, the presence of monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was detected for the first time in a flame aerosol reactor during the synthesis of pristine TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence and the size of sub-2 nm clusters. The detection of these clusters elucidated the initial stages of particle formation during combustion synthesis and supported previous hypotheses that collisional growth from stable monomers of metal oxides is the first step of particle growth. PMID:24968004

  20. Measuring age differences among globular clusters having similar metallicities - A new method and first results

    A color-difference technique for estimating the relative ages of globular clusters with similar chemical compositions on the basis of their CM diagrams is described and demonstrated. The theoretical basis and implementation of the procedure are explained, and results for groups of globular clusters with m/H = about -2, -1.6, and -1.3, and for two special cases (Palomar 12 and NGC 5139) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that the more metal-deficient globular clusters are nearly coeval (differences less than 0.5 Gyr), whereas the most metal-rich globular clusters exhibit significant age differences (about 2 Gyr). This result is shown to contradict Galactic evolution models postulating halo collapse in less than a few times 100 Myr. 77 refs

  1. Cluster cross sections from pickup measurements: Are the established methods consistent?

    Fedor, J.; Poterya, Viktoriya; Pysanenko, Andriy; Fárník, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 10 (2011), s. 104305. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0422; GA ČR GAP208/11/0161; GA AV ČR KJB400400902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : liquid- helium clusters * water clusters * molecular-beam Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.333, year: 2011

  2. Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

    Caldwell, C E; Baldry, I K; Collins, C A; Schaye, J; Bird, S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary CMB data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g., X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, ...

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of New Ti-TiO2-Al and Ti-TiO2--Pt Tunnel Diodes

    Yaksh Rawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remotely empowered wireless sensor networks use different energy resources including photovoltaic solar cells, wireless power transmission, and batteries. As another option the electromagnetic energy available in the ambient can be harvested to power these remote sensors. This is particularly valuable if it is desirable to harvest the ambient energy available in the wide range of electromagnetic spectrum. This has motivated the research for developing energy harvesting devices which can absorb this energy and produce a DC voltage. Rectenna, an antenna coupled with a rectifier, is the main component used for absorbing electromagnetic radiation at GHz and THz frequencies. Rectifying MIM tunnel diodes are able to operate at tens and hundreds of GHz frequency. As the preliminary steps towards development of high-frequency rectifiers, this paper presents fabrication and DC characterization of two new MIM diodes, Ti-TiO2-Al and Ti-TiO2-Pt. G-V analysis of the fabricated diodes verifies tunneling. Brinkman-Dynes-Rowell model is used to extract oxide thickness of which the derived value is around 9 nm. Ti-TiO2-Pt diode exhibits rectification ratio of 15 at 0.495 V, which is more than rectification ratio reported in earlier works.

  4. Analysis on the Filament Structure Evolution in Reset Transition of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM Device.

    Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing; Li, Yang; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Miranda, Enrique; Suñé, Jordi; Liu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    The resistive switching (RS) process of resistive random access memory (RRAM) is dynamically correlated with the evolution process of conductive path or conductive filament (CF) during its breakdown (rupture) and recovery (reformation). In this study, a statistical evaluation method is developed to analyze the filament structure evolution process in the reset operation of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM device. This method is based on a specific functional relationship between the Weibull slopes of reset parameters' distributions and the CF resistance (R on). The CF of the Cu/HfO2/Pt device is demonstrated to be ruptured abruptly, and the CF structure of the device has completely degraded in the reset point. Since no intermediate states are generated in the abrupt reset process, it is quite favorable for the reliable and stable one-bit operation in RRAM device. Finally, on the basis of the cell-based analytical thermal dissolution model, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is implemented to further verify the experimental results. This work provides inspiration for RRAM reliability and performance design to put RRAM into practical application. PMID:27389343

  5. Analysis on the Filament Structure Evolution in Reset Transition of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM Device

    Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing; Li, Yang; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Miranda, Enrique; Suñé, Jordi; Liu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    The resistive switching (RS) process of resistive random access memory (RRAM) is dynamically correlated with the evolution process of conductive path or conductive filament (CF) during its breakdown (rupture) and recovery (reformation). In this study, a statistical evaluation method is developed to analyze the filament structure evolution process in the reset operation of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM device. This method is based on a specific functional relationship between the Weibull slopes of reset parameters' distributions and the CF resistance ( R on). The CF of the Cu/HfO2/Pt device is demonstrated to be ruptured abruptly, and the CF structure of the device has completely degraded in the reset point. Since no intermediate states are generated in the abrupt reset process, it is quite favorable for the reliable and stable one-bit operation in RRAM device. Finally, on the basis of the cell-based analytical thermal dissolution model, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is implemented to further verify the experimental results. This work provides inspiration for RRAM reliability and performance design to put RRAM into practical application.

  6. Magnetic and thermoelectric properties of a heterogeneous mixed-valence system, Yb sub 2 Pt sub 3 Sn sub 5

    Muro, Y; Kim, M S; Takabatake, T; Godart, C; Rogl, P

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the valence states and thermoelectric properties of Yb sub 2 T sub 3 Sn sub 5 (T=Pt and Pd) with two inequivalent Yb sites. For Yb sub 2 Pt sub 3 Sn sub 5 , the 4 f-hole occupation number n sub f is estimated to be 0.4 at 300 K from the magnetic susceptibility and L sub I sub I sub I -edge absorption spectrum. Intermediate-valence behaviors manifest themselves in a largely negative value of the paramagnetic Curie temperature, -216 K, a broad peak at 300 K in the magnetic part of the resistivity, and a large minimum in the thermopower, -38 mu V/K at 60 K. The specific heat shows no transition down to 0.6 K. These results are explained by a model in which Yb ions in one site are divalent and those in the other site are in a valence fluctuating state with a Kondo temperature of 200 K. Thus, Yb sub 2 Pt sub 3 Sn sub 5 is a rare example of the heterogeneous mixed-valence system. An isostructural compound Yb sub 2 Pd sub 3 Sn sub 5 has a larger unit-cell volume by 2.4%, which allows the Yb ions in b...

  7. Study of cluster formation and its effects on Rayleigh and Raman scattering measurements in a Mach 6 wind tunnel

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Hillard, M. E.; Blair, A. B.; Exton, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Using a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG pulsed laser and a single-intensified CCD camera, Rayleigh scattering measurements have been performed to study the cluster formation in a Mach 6 wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. These studies were conducted both in the free stream and in a model flow field for various flow conditions to gain an understanding of the dependence of the Rayleigh scattering (by clusters) on the local pressures and temperatures in the facility. Using the same laser system, simultaneous measurements of the local temperature have also been performed using the rotational Raman scattering of molecular nitrogen and determined the densities of molecular oxygen and nitrogen by using the vibrational Raman scattering from these species. Quantitative results are presented in detail with emphasis on the applicability of the Rayleigh scattering for obtaining quantitative measurements of molecular densities both in the free stream and in the model flow field.

  8. Prospects for measuring the relative velocities of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys using the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Keisler, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the prospects for measuring the pairwise kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal from galaxy clusters discovered in large photometric surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We project that the DES cluster sample will, in conjunction with existing mm-wave data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT), yield a detection of the pairwise kSZ signal at the 8-13 sigma level, with sensitivity peaking for clusters separated by ~100 Mpc distances. A next-generation version of SPT would allow for a 18-30 sigma detection and would be limited by variance from the kSZ signal itself and residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) signal. Throughout our analysis we assume photometric redshift errors, which wash out the signal for clusters separated by <~50 Mpc; a spectroscopic survey of the DES sample would recover this signal and allow for a 26-43 sigma detection, and would again be limited by kSZ/tSZ variance. Assuming a standard model of structure formation, these high-precision measurements of the pairwis...

  9. Comparison of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements from Planck and from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager for 99 galaxy clusters

    Perrott, Y C; Rumsey, C; Brown, M L; Feroz, F; Grainge, K J B; Hobson, M P; Lasenby, A N; MacTavish, C J; Pooley, G G; Saunders, R D E; Schammel, M P; Scott, P F; Shimwell, T W; Titterington, D J; Waldram, E M; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aussel, H; Barrena, R; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Burenin, R; Carvalho, P; Chon, G; Comis, B; Dahle, H; Democles, J; Douspis, M; Harrison, D; Hempel, A; Hurier, G; Khamitov, I; Kneissl, R; Macías-Pérez, J F; Melin, J -B; Pointecouteau, E; Pratt, G W; Rubiño-Mart\\in, J A; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D

    2014-01-01

    We present observations and analysis of a sample of 123 galaxy clusters from the 2013 Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich sources with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI), a ground-based radio interferometer. AMI provides an independent measurement with higher angular resolution, 3 arcmin compared to the Planck beams of 5-10 arcmin. The AMI observations thus provide validation of the cluster detections, improved positional estimates, and a consistency check on the fitted 'size' ($\\theta_{s}$) and 'flux' ($Y_{\\rm tot}$) parameters in the Generalised Navarro, Frenk and White (GNFW) model. We detect 99 of the clusters. We use the AMI positional estimates to check the positional estimates and error-bars produced by the Planck algorithms PowellSnakes and MMF3. We find that $Y_{\\rm tot}$ values as measured by AMI are biased downwards with respect to the Planck constraints, especially for high Planck-SNR clusters. We perform simulations to show that this can be explained by deviation from the 'universal' press...

  10. A measurement of large-scale peculiar velocities of clusters of galaxies: technical details

    Kashlinsky, A; Kocevski, D; Ebeling, H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents detailed analysis of large-scale peculiar motions derived from a sample of ~ 700 X-ray clusters and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data obtained with WMAP. We use the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (KSZ) effect combining it into a cumulative statistic which preserves the bulk motion component with the noise integrated down. Such statistic is the dipole of CMB temperature fluctuations evaluated over the pixels of the cluster catalog (Kashlinsky & Atrio-Barandela 2000). To remove the cosmological CMB fluctuations the maps are Wiener-filtered in each of the eight WMAP channels (Q, V, W) which have negligible foreground component. Our findings are as follows: The thermal SZ (TSZ) component of the clusters is described well by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile expected if the hot gas traces the dark matter in the cluster potential wells. Such gas has X-ray temperature decreasing rapidly towards the cluster outskirts, which we demonstrate results in the decrease of the TSZ component as the ape...

  11. Measuring the dynamical state of Planck SZ-selected clusters: X-ray peak - BCG offset

    Rossetti, M; Ferioli, G; Bersanelli, M; De Grandi, S; Eckert, D; Ghizzardi, S; Maino, D; Molendi, S

    2015-01-01

    We want to characterize the dynamical state of galaxy clusters detected with the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect by Planck and compare them with the dynamical state of clusters selected in X-rays survey. We analyzed a representative subsample of the Planck SZ catalogue, containing the 132 clusters with the highest signal to noise ratio and characterize their dynamical state using as indicator the projected offset between the peak of the X-ray emission and the position of the Brightest cluster galaxy. We study the distribution of our indicator in our sample and compare it to its distribution in X-ray selected samples (HIFLUGCS, MACS and REXCESS). The distributions are significantly different and the fraction of relaxed objects is smaller in the Planck sample ($52 \\pm 4 \\%$) than in X-ray samples ($\\simeq 74\\%$) We interpret this result as an indication of different selection effects affecting X-rays (e.g. "cool core bias") and SZ surveys of galaxy clusters.

  12. Measuring the dynamical state of Planck SZ-selected clusters: X-ray peak - BCG offset

    Rossetti, M.; Gastaldello, F.; Ferioli, G.; Bersanelli, M.; De Grandi, S.; Eckert, D.; Ghizzardi, S.; Maino, D.; Molendi, S.

    2016-04-01

    We want to characterize the dynamical state of galaxy clusters detected with the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect by Planck and compare them with the dynamical state of clusters selected in X-rays survey. We analysed a representative subsample of the Planck SZ catalogue, containing the 132 clusters with the highest signal to noise ratio and characterize their dynamical state using as an indicator the projected offset between the peak of the X-ray emission and the position of the Brightest cluster galaxy. We compare the distribution of this indicator for the Planck SZ-selected sample and three X-ray-selected samples (HIFLUGCS, MACS and REXCESS). The distributions are significantly different and the fraction of relaxed objects is smaller in the Planck sample (52 ± 4 per cent) than in X-ray samples (≃74 per cent) We interpret this result as an indication of different selection effects affecting X-rays (e.g. `cool core bias') and SZ surveys of galaxy clusters.

  13. Data Clustering

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    clustering, in which some partial information about item assignments or other components of the resulting output are already known and must be accommodated by the solution. Some algorithms seek a partition of the data set into distinct clusters, while others build a hierarchy of nested clusters that can capture taxonomic relationships. Some produce a single optimal solution, while others construct a probabilistic model of cluster membership. More formally, clustering algorithms operate on a data set X composed of items represented by one or more features (dimensions). These could include physical location, such as right ascension and declination, as well as other properties such as brightness, color, temporal change, size, texture, and so on. Let D be the number of dimensions used to represent each item, xi ∈ RD. The clustering goal is to produce an organization P of the items in X that optimizes an objective function f : P -> R, which quantifies the quality of solution P. Often f is defined so as to maximize similarity within a cluster and minimize similarity between clusters. To that end, many algorithms make use of a measure d : X x X -> R of the distance between two items. A partitioning algorithm produces a set of clusters P = {c1, . . . , ck} such that the clusters are nonoverlapping (c_i intersected with c_j = empty set, i != j) subsets of the data set (Union_i c_i=X). Hierarchical algorithms produce a series of partitions P = {p1, . . . , pn }. For a complete hierarchy, the number of partitions n’= n, the number of items in the data set; the top partition is a single cluster containing all items, and the bottom partition contains n clusters, each containing a single item. For model-based clustering, each cluster c_j is represented by a model m_j , such as the cluster center or a Gaussian distribution. The wide array of available clustering algorithms may seem bewildering, and covering all of them is beyond the scope of this chapter. Choosing among them for a

  14. Cluster Bulleticity

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas D.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, like the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) and baby bullet (MACSJ0025-12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distribution of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary 'baryonic' matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by th...

  15. Cluster Bulleticity

    Massey, R; Kitching, T.; Nagai, D.

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  16. Constraints on measurement-based quantum computation in effective cluster states

    Klagges, D

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the physical properties of a one-way quantum computer in an effective low-energy cluster state. We calculate the optimal working conditions as a function of the temperature and of the system parameters. The central result of our work is that any effective cluster state implemented in a perturbative framework is fragile against special kinds of external perturbations. Qualitative aspects of our work are important for any implementation of effective low-energy models containing strong multi-site interactions.

  17. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    The presentation of images with lesions of known pathology that are similar to an unknown lesion may be helpful to radiologists in the diagnosis of challenging cases for improving the diagnostic accuracy and also for reducing variation among different radiologists. The authors have been developing a computerized scheme for automatically selecting similar images with clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from a large database. For similar images to be useful, they must be similar from the point of view of the diagnosing radiologists. In order to select such images, subjective similarity ratings were obtained for a number of pairs of clustered microcalcifications by breast radiologists for establishment of a ''gold standard'' of image similarity, and the gold standard was employed for determination and evaluation of the selection of similar images. The images used in this study were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. The subjective similarity ratings for 300 pairs of images with clustered microcalcifications were determined by ten breast radiologists. The authors determined a number of image features which represent the characteristics of clustered microcalcifications that radiologists would use in their diagnosis. For determination of objective similarity measures, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed. The ANN was trained with the average subjective similarity ratings as teacher and selected image features as input data. The ANN was trained to learn the relationship between the image features and the radiologists' similarity ratings; therefore, once the training was completed, the ANN was able to determine the similarity, called a psychophysical similarity measure, which was expected to be close to radiologists' impressions, for an unknown pair of clustered microcalcifications. By use of a leave-one-out test method, the best combination of features was selected. The correlation

  18. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) and Department of Intelligent Image Information, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu (Japan); Department of Radiology, Duke Advanced Imaging Labs, Duke University, 2424 Erwin Road, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The presentation of images with lesions of known pathology that are similar to an unknown lesion may be helpful to radiologists in the diagnosis of challenging cases for improving the diagnostic accuracy and also for reducing variation among different radiologists. The authors have been developing a computerized scheme for automatically selecting similar images with clustered microcalcifications on mammograms from a large database. For similar images to be useful, they must be similar from the point of view of the diagnosing radiologists. In order to select such images, subjective similarity ratings were obtained for a number of pairs of clustered microcalcifications by breast radiologists for establishment of a ''gold standard'' of image similarity, and the gold standard was employed for determination and evaluation of the selection of similar images. The images used in this study were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography developed by the University of South Florida. The subjective similarity ratings for 300 pairs of images with clustered microcalcifications were determined by ten breast radiologists. The authors determined a number of image features which represent the characteristics of clustered microcalcifications that radiologists would use in their diagnosis. For determination of objective similarity measures, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed. The ANN was trained with the average subjective similarity ratings as teacher and selected image features as input data. The ANN was trained to learn the relationship between the image features and the radiologists' similarity ratings; therefore, once the training was completed, the ANN was able to determine the similarity, called a psychophysical similarity measure, which was expected to be close to radiologists' impressions, for an unknown pair of clustered microcalcifications. By use of a leave-one-out test method, the best combination of features

  19. Relationship between the CMB, SZ Cluster Counts, and Local Hubble Parameter Measurements in a Simple Void Model

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between the amplitudes of matter fluctuations inferred from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster number counts, the primary temperature, and the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measured by the Planck satellite can be reconciled if the local universe is embedded in an under-dense region as shown by Lee, 2014. Here using a simple void model assuming the open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we investigate...

  20. Response function for the measurement of (n, γ) reactions with the ANNRI-cluster Ge detectors at J-PARC

    For a new experimental setup, response functions of cluster-Ge detectors were measured with standard γ-ray sources, γ-rays of the 24Na β-decay, and prompt γ-rays of the 35Cl(n, γ)36Cl reaction in ANNRI at J-PARC/MLF. The experimental data and calculation with the EGS5 code are compared. (author)

  1. Supported heteronuclear noble metal cluster catalysts and method for preparing same

    New heteronuclear noble metal cluster complexes have been discovered and synthesized for the first time. These complexes are (pyridine)2Pt(Ir2(CO)15), (pyridine)2 Pt(Ir2(CO)7), (Pyridine)3Pt(Ru3(CO)12), ((C6H5)3P)2Pt(Ir(CO)3(P6H5)3)2, ((C6H5)3P)2Rh(CO)(IR(CO)4), and (pyridine)2Pt(Rh(CO)2(P(C6H5)3)3)2. These new heteronuclear noble metal cluster complexes are useful as supported mixed noble metal catalyst precursors. These new cluster complexes, of known stoichiometry, are deposited on anhydrous refractory inorganic oxide or carbon supports and then reduced resulting in the formation of a supported heteronuclear noble metal catalyst having the same metals stoichiometry as the starting cluster complexes. In this way, precise control can be exercised over the ratio and distribution of multiple metal components in a mixed noble metal catalyst. The usage of preformed heteronuclear noble metal cluster complexes as supported mixed metal catalyst precursors maximizes surface alloy formation and also yields unique mixed-metal cluster structures on the support surface

  2. A Validation of the Spectral Power Clustering Technique (SPCT by Using a Rogowski Coil in Partial Discharge Measurements

    Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both in industrial as in controlled environments, such as high-voltage laboratories, pulses from multiple sources, including partial discharges (PD and electrical noise can be superimposed. These circumstances can modify and alter the results of PD measurements and, what is more, they can lead to misinterpretation. The spectral power clustering technique (SPCT allows separating PD sources and electrical noise through the two-dimensional representation (power ratio map or PR map of the relative spectral power in two intervals, high and low frequency, calculated for each pulse captured with broadband sensors. This method allows to clearly distinguishing each of the effects of noise and PD, making it easy discrimination of all sources. In this paper, the separation ability of the SPCT clustering technique when using a Rogowski coil for PD measurements is evaluated. Different parameters were studied in order to establish which of them could help for improving the manual selection of the separation intervals, thus enabling a better separation of clusters. The signal processing can be performed during the measurements or in a further analysis.

  3. Relationship between the CMB, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich cluster counts, and local Hubble parameter measurements in a simple void model

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Oguri, Masamune

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancy between the amplitudes of matter fluctuations inferred from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster number counts and the measurement of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measured by the Planck satellite can be reconciled if the local universe is embedded in an underdense region as shown by Lee, 2014. Here using a simple void model assuming the open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we investigate how deep the local underdense region needs to be to resolve this discrepancy. Such local void, if it exists, predicts the local Hubble parameter value that is different from the global Hubble constant. We derive the posterior distribution of the local Hubble parameter from a joint fitting of the Planck CMB data and SZ cluster number counts assuming the simple void model. We show that the predicted local Hubble parameter value of Hloc=70.1 ±0.34 km s-1 Mpc-1 is in better agreement with direct local Hubble parameter measurements, indicating that the local void model may provide provide a consistent solution to the cluster number counts and Hubble parameter discrepancies.

  4. Measurements of Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in Vertical 3-Rod and 7-Rod Clusters

    The present report deals with measurements of burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical 3-rod and 7-rod clusters. Data were obtained,in respect of heating the rods only, as well as for simultaneous uniform and non-uniform heating of the rods and the shroud. Totally, 520 runs were performed. In the case of equal heat fluxes on all surfaces of the channels, burnout always occurred on the rods, and the data were low by a factor of about 1.3 compared with round duct data. When only the rods were heated, the data showed very low burnout values in comparison with the results for total uniform heating and round ducts. This disagreement was explained by considering the climbing film flow model and the fact that only a fraction of the channel perimeter was heated. For simultaneous and non-uniform heating of the rods and the shroud it was found that the shroud could be overloaded up to 50 per cent without reducing the margin of safety in respect of burnout for the rod cluster. Finally, a correlation for predicting burnout conditions in round ducts, annuli and rod clusters has been presented. This correlation predicts the burnout heat fluxes for the present measurements and previously obtained annuli measurements within ± 5 per cent

  5. Epitaxial crystals of Bi2Pt2O7 pyrochlore through the transformation of δ–Bi2O3 fluorite

    Bi2Pt2O7 pyrochlore is thought to be one of the most promising oxide catalysts for application in fuel cell technology. Unfortunately, direct film growth of Bi2Pt2O7 has not yet been achieved, owing to the difficulty of oxidizing platinum metal in the precursor material to Pt4+. In this work, in order to induce oxidation of the platinum, we annealed pulsed laser deposited films consisting of epitaxial δ–Bi2O3 and co-deposited, comparatively disordered platinum. We present synchrotron x-ray diffraction results that show the nonuniform annealed films contain the first epitaxial crystals of Bi2Pt2O7. We also visualized the pyrochlore structure by scanning transmission electron microscopy, and observed ordered cation vacancies in the epitaxial crystals formed in a bismuth-rich film but not in those formed in a platinum-rich film. The similarity between the δ–Bi2O3 and Bi2Pt2O7 structures appears to facilitate the pyrochlore formation. These results provide the only route to date for the formation of epitaxial Bi2Pt2O7

  6. Statistics of whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belt: Cluster STAFF-SA measurements

    ELF/VLF waves play a crucial role in the dynamics of the radiation belts and are partly responsible for the main losses and the acceleration of energetic electrons. Modeling wave-particle interactions requires detailed information of wave amplitudes and wave normal distribution over L-shells and over magnetic latitudes for different geomagnetic activity conditions. We performed a statistical study of ELF/VLF emissions using wave measurements in the whistler frequency range for 10 years (2001-2010) aboard Cluster spacecraft. We utilized data from the STAFF-SA experiment, which spans the frequency range from 8 Hz to 4 kHz. We present distributions of wave magnetic and electric field amplitudes and wave normal directions as functions of magnetic latitude, magnetic local time, L-shell, and geomagnetic activity. We show that wave normals are directed approximately along the background magnetic field (with the mean value of θ the angle between the wave normal and the background magnetic field, about 10-15 degrees) in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. The distribution changes with magnetic latitude: Plasma spheric hiss normal angles increase with latitude to quasi-perpendicular direction at 35-40 degrees where hiss can be reflected; lower band chorus are observed as two wave populations: One population of wave normals tends toward the resonance cone and at latitudes of around 35-45 degrees wave normals become nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field; the other part remains quasi-parallel at latitudes up to 30 degrees. The observed angular distribution is significantly different from Gaussian, and the width of the distribution increases with latitude. Due to the rapid increase of θ the wave mode becomes quasi-electrostatic, and the corresponding electric field increases with latitude and has a maximum near 30 degrees. The magnetic field amplitude of the chorus in the day sector has a minimum at the magnetic equator but increases rapidly with latitude with a

  7. Cortical and subcortical hyperfusion during migraine and cluster headache measured by Xe CT-CBF

    High-resolution, color-coded images of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) were made utilizing stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography among patients with common migraine (n=18), classic migraine (n=12) and cluster headache (n=5). During spontaneously occurring headache in common and classic migraine patients, LCBF values for cerebral cortex and subcortical gray and white matter were diffusely increased by 20-40% with the exception of the occipital lobes. LCBF increases involved both hemispheres whether the head pain was unilateral or bilateral. No significant differences were noted in the degree or pattern of LCBF increases during headaches of common and classic migraineurs. Similar cerebral hyperperfusion of greater magnitude was observed during cluster headaches but was more prominent on the side of the head pain. Present observations do not support the hypothesis of spreading cortical depression as a cause of classic migraine. From a hemodynamic viewpoint, LCBF increases during headaches of common or classic migraine or cluster appear similar. Evidence is adduced that sympathetic hypofunction with denervation hypersensitivity of cerebral vessels plays a role in the cerebral hyperperfusion of migraine headaches. More pronounced unilateral autonomic derangements appear to account for the symptoms and cerebral hyperperfusion associated with cluster headaches. (orig.)

  8. Measurements of the gas temperature and iron abundance distribution in the Coma Cluster

    The medium energy X-ray detectors onboard the EXOSAT Observatory have been used to determine the gas temperature at several positions in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. Evidence is found at greater than 95 percent confidence for a higher temperature in the center of the cluster than in a position approximately 45 arcmin off-center. No difference in iron abundance is observed between the center and off-center regions and the equilibrium model for the distribution of elements in the Coma Cluster of Abramopoulos, Chanan, and Ku can be rejected with greater than 99.5 percent confidence, in favor of a model with more uniform composition. A phenomenological model is presented of the Coma Cluster, which is consistent with the data presented here, as well as the imaging data from the Einstein Observatory and the Tenma X-ray spectrum. The model has a central isothermal region of temperature about 9 keV extending to about 25 arcmin (about 1 Mpc). Beyond this radius the temperature falls as a polytrope with index about 1.6. 36 references

  9. Spatial dependence of magnetopause energy transfer: Cluster measurements verifying global simulations

    I. Dandouras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial variation of magnetopause energy conversion and transfer using Cluster spacecraft observations of two magnetopause crossing events as well as using a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation GUMICS-4. These two events, (16 January 2001, and 26 January 2001 are similar in all other aspects except for the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF y-component that has earlier been found to control the spatial dependence of energy transfer. In simulations of the two events using observed solar wind parameters as input, we find that the GUMICS-4 energy transfer agrees with the Cluster observations spatially and is about 30 % lower in magnitude. According to the simulation, most of the the energy transfer takes place in the plane of the IMF (as previous modelling results have suggested, and the locations of the load and generator regions on the magnetopause are controlled by the IMF orientation. Assuming that the model results are as well in accordance with the in situ observations also on other parts of the magnetopause, we are able to pin down the total energy transfer during the two Cluster magnetopause crossings. Here, we estimate that the instantaneous total power transferring through the magnetopause during the two events is at least 1500–2000 GW, agreeing with ε scaled using the mean magnetopause area in the simulation. Hence the combination of the simulation results and the Cluster observations indicate that the ε parameter is probably underestimated by a factor of 2–3.

  10. Initial Development of a Measure of Emotional Dysregulation for Individuals with Cluster B Personality Disorders

    Newhill, Christina E.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders are at particular risk of violence toward self or others. Emotional dysregulation is likely to be a factor in such incidents and is a central issue addressed in therapies with personality-disordered individuals. This article reports findings from a study that developed an original 18-item…