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Sample records for 2-dollar triga reactor

  1. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    The general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuel are described. This is a training module with the learning objectives: to understand the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and realize the differences between TRIGA fuels and other more traditional. 10 figs., 6 tabs. (nevyjel)

  2. TRIGA reactor main systems

    This module describes the main systems of low power (<2 MW) and higher power (≥2 MW) TRIGA reactors. The most significant difference between the two is that forced reactor cooling and an emergency core cooling system are generally required for the higher power TRIGA reactors. However, those TRIGA reactors that are designed to be operated above 3 MW also use a TRIGA fuel that is specifically designed for those higher power outputs (3 to 14 MW). Typical values are given for the respective systems although each TRIGA facility will have unique characteristics that may only be determined by the experienced facility operators. Due to the inherent wide scope of these research reactor facilities construction and missions, this training module covers those systems found at most operating TRIGA reactor facilities but may also discuss non-standard equipment that was found to be operationally useful although not necessarily required. (author)

  3. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  4. TRIGA research reactors

    TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General-Atomic) has become the most used research reactor in the world with 65 units operating in 24 countries. The original patent for TRIGA reactors was registered in 1958. The success of this reactor is due to its inherent level of safety that results from a prompt negative temperature coefficient. Most of the neutron moderation occurs in the nuclear fuel (UZrH) because of the presence of hydrogen atoms, so in case of an increase of fuel temperature, the neutron spectrum becomes harder and neutrons are less likely to fission uranium nuclei and as a consequence the power released decreases. This inherent level of safety has made this reactor fit for training tool in university laboratories. Some recent versions of TRIGA reactors have been designed for medicine and industrial isotope production, for neutron therapy of cancers and for providing a neutron source. (A.C.)

  5. Power calibrations for TRIGA reactors

    The purpose of this paper is to establish a framework for the calorimetric power calibration of TRIGA reactors so that reliable results can be obtained with a precision better than ± 5%. Careful application of the same procedures has produced power calibration results that have been reproducible to ± 1.5%. The procedures are equally applicable to the Mark I, Mark II and Mark III reactors as well as to reactors having much larger reactor tanks and to TRIGA reactors capable of forced cooling up to 3 MW in some cases and 15 MW in another case. In the case of forced cooled TRIGA reactors, the calorimetric power calibration is applicable in the natural convection mode for these reactors using exactly the same procedures as are discussed below for the smaller TRIGA reactors (< 2 MW)

  6. TRIGA reactor operating experience

    The Oregon State TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) has been in operation 3 years. Last August it was upgraded from 250 kW to 1000 kW. This was accomplished with little difficulty. During the 3 years of operation no major problems have been experienced. Most of the problems have been minor in nature and easily corrected. They came from lazy susan (dry bearing), Westronics Recorder (dead spots in the range), The Reg Rod Magnet Lead-in Circuit (a new type lead-in wire that does not require the lead-in cord to coil during rod withdrawal hss been delivered, much better than the original) and other small corrections

  7. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Paper dwells upon the design and the operation of one of the German test reactors, namely, the TRIGA Mainz one (TRIGA: Training Research Isotope Production General Atomic). The TRIGA reactor is a pool test reactor the core of which contains a graphite reflector and is placed into 2 m diameter and 6.25 m height aluminum vessel. There are 75 fuel elements in the reactor core, and any of them contains about 36 g of 235U. The TRIGA reactors under the stable operation enjoy wide application to ensure tests and irradiation, namely: neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, application of a neutron beam to ensure the physical, the chemical and the medical research efforts. Paper presents the reactor basic experimental program lines

  8. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Institut fuer Kernchemie became first critical on August 3rd, 1965. It can be operated in the steady state mode with a maximum power of 100 kWth and in the pulse mode with a peak power of 250 MWth. A survey of the research programmes performed at the TRIGA Mainz is given covering applications in basic research as well as applied science in nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics. Furthermore, the reactor is used for neutron activation analysis and for education and training of scientists, teachers, students and technical personal. Important projects for the future of the TRIGA Mainz are the UCN (ultra cold neutrons) experiment, fast chemical separation, medical applications and the use of the NAA as well as the use of the reactor facility for the training of students in the fields of nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and radiation protection. Taking into account the past and future operation schedule and the typically low burn-up of TRIGA fuel elements (∝4 g U-235/a), the reactor can be operated for at least the next decade taking into account the fresh fuel elements on stock and without changing spent fuels. (orig.)

  9. TRIGA reactor health physics considerations

    The factors influencing the complexity of a TRIGA health physics program are discussed in details in order to serve as a basis for later consideration of various specific aspects of a typical TRIGA health physics program. The health physics program must be able to provide adequate assistance, control, and safety for individuals ranging from the inexperienced student to the experienced postgraduate researcher. Some of the major aspects discussed are: effluent release and control; reactor area air monitoring; area monitoring; adjacent facilities monitoring; portable instrumentation, personnel monitoring. TRIGA reactors have not been associated with many significant occurrences in the area of health physics, although some operational occurrences have had health physics implications. One specific occurrence at OSU is described involving the detection of non-fission-product radioactive particulates by the continuous air monitor on the reactor top. The studies of this particular situation indicate that most of the particulate activity is coming from the rotating rack and exhausting to the reactor top through the rotating rack loading tube

  10. Higher power density TRIGA research reactors

    The uranium zirconium hydride (U-ZrH) fuel is the fundamental feature of the TRIGA family of reactors that accounts for its widely recognized safety, good performance, economy of operation, and its acceptance worldwide. Of the 65 TRIGA reactors or TRIGA fueled reactors, several are located in hospitals or hospital complexes and in buildings that house university classrooms. These examples are a tribute to the high degree of safety of the operating TRIGA reactor. In the early days, the majority of the TRIGA reactors had power levels in the range from 10 to 250 kW, many with pulsing capability. An additional number had power levels up to 1 MW. By the late 1970's, seven TRIGA reactors with power levels up to 2 MW had been installed. A reduction in the rate of worldwide construction of new research reactors set in during the mid 1970's but construction of occasional research reactors has continued until the present. Performance of higher power TRIGA reactors are presented as well as the operation of higher power density reactor cores. The extremely safe TRIGA fuel, including the more recent TRIGA LEU fuel, offers a wide range of possible reactor configurations. A long core life is assured through the use of a burnable poison in the TRIGA LEU fuel. In those instances where large neutron fluxes are desired but relatively low power levels are also desired, the 19-rod hexagonal array of small diameter fuel rods offers exciting possibilities. The small diameter fuel rods have provided extremely long and trouble-free operation in the Romanian 14 MW TRIGA reactor

  11. TRIGA reactor owners' seminar. Papers and abstracts

    The TRIGA Reactor Owners' Conference was planned with the aim of bringing together a group of persons interested in the ownership and operation of TRIGA reactors in the hope that an interchange of viewpoints, information, and experience would prove of mutual benefit

  12. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.

    1979-08-31

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  13. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included

  14. TRIGA Reactor Power Upgrading Analysis

    Reactor physics safety analysis supporting the power upgrading from 1MW to 2MW of a typical TRIGA Mark II reactor is presented for steady state and pulse operation. The analysis is performed for mixed core configuration consisting of two types of fuel elements: standard 8,5% or 12% stainless-steel clad fuel elements and LEU fuel elements (20% uranium concentration). The following reactor physics codes are applied: WIMS, TRIGAC, EXTERMINATOR, PULSTRI and TRISTAN. Results of the calculations are compared to experiments for steady state operation at 1 MW. The analysis shows that besides technical modifications of the core (installation of an additional control rod) also some strict administrative limitations have to be imposed on operational parameters (excess reactivity, pulse reactivity, core composition) to assure safe operation within design limits. (author)

  15. Operation experience with the TRIGA Reactor Vienna

    Since the last European TRIGA Users Conference in Bucharest, Romania in September 1992 the TRIGA reactor Vienna operated without any major undesired shutdown. Some problems were centred around the new microprocessor controlled instrumentation installed in summer 1992. The fuel behaviour was excellent, no fuel failures were experienced. The experimental facilities were extensively used for students education and training

  16. Design improvements in TRIGA reactors

    There have been many design improvements to TRIGA reactor hardware in the past twelve years. One of the more important and most obvious improvements has been in the area of reactor instrumentation. The low profile, completely transistorized Mark III console was a great step forward in a low maintenance, high reliability instrumentation system. Other design improvements include the lazy susan specimen pickup assembly; the specimen container; an empty stainless steel fuel element which can be filled with samples and can be located anywhere in the core; the flexible fuel handling tool; a new fuel measuring tool design; the shock absorber on the adjustable transient rod drive; new testing and evaluation procedures on the thermocouples and other

  17. Dynamics of TRIGA-3 Salazar Reactor

    The theoretical study of temporal behavior of a nuclear reactor is of great importance, since it allows to know, in advance, the conditions to which a reactor is going to be submitted. The reliability of two computer codes (AIREK-JEN and PLANKIN) designed to reproduce the temporal behavior of nuclear reactors, generally power reactors, when they are applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of TRIGA-3 Salazar Reactor is analyzed. In the first chapters, the fundamental equations that solve this computer codes are deduced, and also the main characteristics of TRIGA-3 Salazar Reactor and the necessary data to run the programs are presented; later the results obtained with the computer codes and the experimental results reported in the operational logbook of the reactor are compared, with the result that such computer codes are applicable to the temporal study of TRIGA-3 Salazar Reactor. (Author)

  18. Upgrading Status Of Bandung Triga 2000 Reactor

    Upgrading Status Of Bandung TRIGA 2000 Reactor. Upgrading of TRIGA Mark II Reactor from 1000 k W to 2000 k W has been done. On June 24, 2000 it has been inaugurated by the Vice President, Madame Megawati Soekarnoputri. The solution of the problems faced in the upgrading should be described here since some experiences got during the process probably are very useful, especially the methods in finishing the project

  19. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    Chesworth, R.H.; Razvi, J.; Whittemore, W.L. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia.

  20. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia

  1. BNCT activities at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    It has been reported that satisfactory thermal/epithermal neutron beams for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) could be designed at TRIGA research reactors These reactors are generally perceived as being safe to install and operate in populated areas. This contribution presents the most recent BNCT research activities on the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute, where epithermal neutron beam for 'in-vitro' irradiation has been developed and experimentally verified. Furthermore, The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials of human patients in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor has been carried out. The simulation results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beam throughout the world, could be installed in TC of the TRIGA reactor. (author)

  2. Component failure data base of TRIGA reactors

    This compilation provides failure data such as first criticality, component type description (reactor component, population, cumulative calendar time, cumulative operating time, demands, failure mode, failures, failure rate, failure probability) and specific information on each type of component of TRIGA Mark-II reactors in Austria, Bangladesh, Germany, Finland, Indonesia, Italy, Indonesia, Slovenia and Romania. (nevyjel)

  3. PUSPATI Triga reactor fuel worth measurement

    The reactivity worth of fuel elements in the B, C, D, E and F rings in the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor core with respect to water as well as that of dummy fuel element (graphite filled) in the G ring were measured. The reactivity worth of 8.5 w/o standard TRIGA fuel element with respect to the dummy element in the B to F rings were also determined. The measured results agreed with the typical values given by the reactor supplier, General Atomatic Company, to within eight percents. (author)

  4. Operation experience with the TRIGA reactor Wien

    Boeck, H. (Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria))

    1999-12-15

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor Wien has been in operation more than 36 years. The average operation time is about 230 days per year with 90 % of this time at nominal power of 250 kW. The remaining 10 % operation time is used for students' training cources at low power level. Pulse operation is rather infrequent with about 5 to 10 pulses per year. The TRIGA reactor Wien is well utilized and in an excellent technical state. There are no technical or economical reasons to consider an imminent shut-down. However, the present fuel return policy might influence the destiny of this facility in the next decade. (orig.)

  5. TRIGA Mark-II, III reactor operation

    TRIGA Mark-II reactor has been primarily utilized as usual for the fundamental reactor experiments for university students. The annual operating time is 1,100 hours and the gross thermal output is 17,159 KWH, having consumed 0.88g of U-235. The reconstuction work for the control console of this reactor is now in progress and will be completed in early part of 1982. TRIGA Mark-III reactor has been operated mainly for radioisotope production, test pin irradiation and activation analysis, etc., as well as solid state physics experiments using the beamports. The annual operatino. time is amounted to 3,530 hours being the longest since the beginning of its criticality, and the gross thermal output is 4,113,013 KWH, whereas the U-235 consumption is estimated at 212.82 g. 462 samples were irradiated to produce 9 kinds of radioisotopes. In order to carry out the test pin irradiation experiment, the core configuration of TRIGA Mark-III was changed by loadinq 6 fresh fuels at G-ring as of July 1981 and a new irradiation facility consisting of 14 tubes was manufactured in place of Rotary Specimen Rack. Then 7 kinds of physics experiments were performed over a two week period to scrutinize the chanaed core characteristics. In addition, the present TRIGA Mark-III reactor fuel storage tank was enlarged and the distilled water production facility was renewed to improve its production efficiency. (Author)

  6. Optimum burnup of BAEC TRIGA research reactor

    Highlights: ► Optimum loading scheme for BAEC TRIGA core is out-to-in loading with 10 fuels/cycle starting with 5 for the first reload. ► The discharge burnup ranges from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element for full power (3 MW) operation. ► Optimum extension of operating core life is 100 MWD per reload cycle. - Abstract: The TRIGA Mark II research reactor of BAEC (Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission) has been operating since 1986 without any reshuffling or reloading yet. Optimum fuel burnup strategy has been investigated for the present BAEC TRIGA core, where three out-to-in loading schemes have been inspected in terms of core life extension, burnup economy and safety. In considering different schemes of fuel loading, optimization has been searched by only varying the number of fuels discharged and loaded. A cost function has been defined and evaluated based on the calculated core life and fuel load and discharge. The optimum loading scheme has been identified for the TRIGA core, the outside-to-inside fuel loading with ten fuels for each cycle starting with five fuels for the first reload. The discharge burnup has been found ranging from 17% to 24% of U235 per fuel element and optimum extension of core operating life is 100 MWD for each loading cycle. This study will contribute to the in-core fuel management of TRIGA reactor

  7. Assessment criteria for TRIGA reactors performances

    Full text: The international statistic data show that a number of 325 research reactors are now in operation. Their constructional and functional diversity is very large, a great share being represented by the TRIGA family reactors. Such reactors are now operating at: Tucson, Arizona - USA (1958); Austin, Texas - USA (1963); Belo Horizonte - Brazil (1960); Mainz - Germany (1975); Omaha - Veterans (1959); Heidelberg - Germany (1966); Bandung - Indonesia (1964/1971); Dalat - Vietnam (1963); Pavia - Italy (1965);, Rikkyo, Yokosuka - Japan (1961); Rome, Casaccia - Italy (1960); Seoul - Rep. of Korea (1962); Wien - Austria (1962); Dasa Bethesda, MD - USA (1962); Pitesti, Arges - Romania (1979), etc. In the proposed paper, the author sets the evaluation criteria for the TRIGA-type reactors performances. The treated phenomena can be described through functions of the type φ(N1,N2,N3,...) = constant, where for example, N1 FAα1Bβ1Cγ1Eδ1. (author)

  8. Utilization of Slovenian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    TRIGA Mark II research reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute [JSI] is extensively used for various applications, such as: irradiation of various samples, training and education, verification and validation of nuclear data and computer codes, testing and development of experimental equipment used for core physics tests at a nuclear power plant. The paper briefly describes the aforementioned activities and shows that even such small reactors are still indispensable in nuclear science and technology. (author)

  9. Physics and kinetics of TRIGA reactor

    This training module is written as an introduction to reactor physics for reactor operators. It assumes the reader has a basic, fundamental knowledge of physics, materials and mathematics. The objective is to provide enough reactor theory knowledge to safely operate a typical research reactor. At this level, it does not necessarily provide enough information to evaluate the safety aspects of experiment or non-standard operation reviews. The material provides a survey of basic reactor physics and kinetics of TRIGA type reactors. Subjects such as the multiplication factor, reactivity, temperature coefficients, poisoning, delayed neutrons and criticality are discussed in such a manner that even someone not familiar with reactor physics and kinetics can easily follow. A minimum of equations are used and several tables and graphs illustrate the text. (author)

  10. Pneumatic transport systems for TRIGA reactors

    Main parameters and advantages of pneumatically operated systems, primarily those operated by gas pressure are discussed. The special irradiation ends for the TRIGA reactor are described. To give some idea of the complexity of some modern systems, the author presents the large system currently operating at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington. In this system, 13 stations are located throughout the radiochemistry laboratories and three irradiation ends are located in the reactor, which is a 14-megawatt unit. The system incorporates practically every fail-safe device possible, including ball valves located on all capsule lines entering the reactor area, designed to close automatically in the event of a reactor scram, and at that time capsules within the reactor would be diverted by means of switches located on the inside of the reactor wall. The whole system is under final control of a permission control panel located in the reactor control room. Many other safety accessories of the system are described

  11. TRIGA research reactors with higher power density

    The recent trend in new or upgraded research reactors is to higher power densities (hence higher neutron flux levels) but not necessarily to higher power levels. The TRIGA LEU fuel with burnable poison is available in small diameter fuel rods capable of high power per rod (∼48 kW/rod) with acceptable peak fuel temperatures. The performance of a 10-MW research reactor with a compact core of hexagonal TRIGA fuel clusters has been calculated in detail. With its light water coolant, beryllium and D2O reflector regions, this reactor can provide in-core experiments with thermal fluxes in excess of 3 x 1014 n/cm2·s and fast fluxes (> 0.1 MeV) of 2 x 1014 n/cm2·s. The core centerline thermal neutron flux in the D2O reflector is about 2 x 1014 n/cm2·s and the average core power density is about 230 kW/liter. Using other TRIGA fuel developed for 25-MW test reactors but arranged in hexagonal arrays, power densities in excess of 300 kW/liter are readily available. A core with TRIGA fuel operating at 15-MW and generating such a power density is capable of producing thermal neutron fluxes in a D2O reflector of 3 x 1014 n/cm2·s. A beryllium-filled central region of the core can further enhance the core leakage and hence the neutron flux in the reflector. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor

    The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S(α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file 'up259'. The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.

  13. Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor

    El Bakkari, B., E-mail: bakkari@gmail.co [Reactor Operating Unit (UCR), National Centre of Sciences, Energy and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN/CENM), POB 1382, Rabat (Morocco); ERSN-LMR, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POB 2121, Tetuan (Morocco); Nacir, B. [Reactor Operating Unit (UCR), National Centre of Sciences, Energy and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN/CENM), POB 1382, Rabat (Morocco); El Bardouni, T. [ERSN-LMR, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POB 2121, Tetuan (Morocco); El Younoussi, C. [Reactor Operating Unit (UCR), National Centre of Sciences, Energy and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN/CENM), POB 1382, Rabat (Morocco); ERSN-LMR, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POB 2121, Tetuan (Morocco); Merroun, O. [ERSN-LMR, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POB 2121, Tetuan (Morocco); Htet, A. [Reactor Technology Unit (UTR), National Centre of Sciences, Energy and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN/CENM), POB 1382, Rabat (Morocco); Boulaich, Y. [Reactor Operating Unit (UCR), National Centre of Sciences, Energy and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN/CENM), POB 1382, Rabat (Morocco); ERSN-LMR, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POB 2121, Tetuan (Morocco); Zoubair, M.; Boukhal, H. [ERSN-LMR, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, POB 2121, Tetuan (Morocco); Chakir, M. [EPTN-LPMR, Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S({alpha}, {beta}) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file 'up259'. The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.

  14. Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor

    El Bakkari, B.; Nacir, B.; El Bardouni, T.; El Younoussi, C.; Merroun, O.; Htet, A.; Boulaich, Y.; Zoubair, M.; Boukhal, H.; Chakir, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucléaires de la Maâmora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S( α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file "up259". The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.

  15. Decommissioning of TRIGA Mark II type reactor

    The first research reactor in Korea, KRR 1, is a TRIGA Mark II type with open pool and fixed core. Its power was 100 kWth at its construction and it was upgraded to 250 kWth. Its construction was started in 1957. The first criticality was reached in 1962 and it had been operated for 36,000 hours. The second reactor, KRR 2, is a TRIGA Mark III type with open pool and movable core. These reactors were shut down in 1995, and the decision was made to decommission both reactors. The aim of the decommissioning activities is to decommission the KRR 2 reactor and decontaminate the residual building structures and site, and to release them as unrestricted areas. The KRR 1 reactor was decided to be preserve as a historical monument. A project was launched for the decommissioning of these reactors in 1997, and approved by the regulatory body in 2000. A total budget for the project was 20.0 million US dollars. It was anticipated that this project would be completed and the site turned over to KEPCO by 2010. However, it was discovered that the pool water of the KRR 1 reactor was leaked into the environment in 2009. As a result, preservation of the KRR 1 reactor as a monument had to be reviewed, and it was decided to fully decommission the KRR 1 reactor. Dismantling of the KRR 1 reactor takes place from 2011 to 2014 with a budget of 3.25 million US dollars. The scope of the work includes licensing of the decommissioning plan change, removal of pool internals including the reactor core, removal of the thermal and thermalizing columns, removal of beam port tubes and the aluminum liner in the reactor tank, removal of the radioactive concrete (the entire concrete structure will not be demolished), sorting the radioactive waste (concrete and soil) and conditioning the radioactive waste for final disposal, and final statuses of the survey and free release of the site and building, and turning over the site to KEPCO. In this paper, the current status of the TRIGA Mark-II type reactor

  16. Decommissioning of TRIGA Mark II type reactor

    Hwang, Dooseong; Jeong, Gyeonghwan; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The first research reactor in Korea, KRR 1, is a TRIGA Mark II type with open pool and fixed core. Its power was 100 kWth at its construction and it was upgraded to 250 kWth. Its construction was started in 1957. The first criticality was reached in 1962 and it had been operated for 36,000 hours. The second reactor, KRR 2, is a TRIGA Mark III type with open pool and movable core. These reactors were shut down in 1995, and the decision was made to decommission both reactors. The aim of the decommissioning activities is to decommission the KRR 2 reactor and decontaminate the residual building structures and site, and to release them as unrestricted areas. The KRR 1 reactor was decided to be preserve as a historical monument. A project was launched for the decommissioning of these reactors in 1997, and approved by the regulatory body in 2000. A total budget for the project was 20.0 million US dollars. It was anticipated that this project would be completed and the site turned over to KEPCO by 2010. However, it was discovered that the pool water of the KRR 1 reactor was leaked into the environment in 2009. As a result, preservation of the KRR 1 reactor as a monument had to be reviewed, and it was decided to fully decommission the KRR 1 reactor. Dismantling of the KRR 1 reactor takes place from 2011 to 2014 with a budget of 3.25 million US dollars. The scope of the work includes licensing of the decommissioning plan change, removal of pool internals including the reactor core, removal of the thermal and thermalizing columns, removal of beam port tubes and the aluminum liner in the reactor tank, removal of the radioactive concrete (the entire concrete structure will not be demolished), sorting the radioactive waste (concrete and soil) and conditioning the radioactive waste for final disposal, and final statuses of the survey and free release of the site and building, and turning over the site to KEPCO. In this paper, the current status of the TRIGA Mark-II type reactor

  17. Operation experience with the TRIGA reactor Wien

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor Wien is now in operation for more than 38 years. The average operation time is about 230 days per year with 90% of this time at nominal power of 250 kW. The remaining 10% operation time is used for students' training courses at low power level. Pulse operation is rather infrequent with about 5 to 10 pulses per year. The utilization of this facility is excellent. All experimental facilities are intensively used, therefore, neither from a technical nor from an economical and utilization viewpoint a need for decommissioning is necessary and it is intended to operate the reactor as long as possible into the next decade. The on-going US fuel return program has been discussed with the Regulatory Body and the authority's viewpoint is to return the nine HEU fuel elements at present installed in the core and to continue reactor operation beyond 2006 only with LEU standard TRIGA fuel. All components and systems are reinspected following an elaborate reinspection program. This consumes about 4 man-days per month. Once a year all the reactor systems are inspected in presence of an expert nominated by the regulatory body and his expertise is the basis for the annual renewal of the operation license valid again for the coming year. This annual inspection requires approximately 1 man-month (four persons for two weeks). Some of the inspection methods have been successfully applied in other TRIGA reactors. The paper has the following structure: - 1. Introduction; - 2. Status of Main Reactor Systems; - 2.1 Instrumentation; - 2.2 Fuel Elements; - 2.3 Cooling Circuits; - 2.4 Ventilation System; - 2.5 Area Monitoring System; - 2.6 Reinspection and Maintenance Program; - 3. Summary and Outlook

  18. Decontamination of TRIGA Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor in the Centre for Research and Development Nuclear Technique Bandung has been partially decommissioned as part of an upgrading project. The upgrading project was carried out from 1995 to 2000 and is being commissioned in 2001. The decommissioning portion of the project included disassembly of some components of the reactor core, producing contaminated material. This contaminated material (grid plate, reflector, thermal column, heat exchanger and pipe) will be sent to the Decontamination Facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Development Centre. (author)

  19. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  20. Safety Management at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    Adequate safety measures and precautions, which follow relevant safety standards and procedures, should be in place so that personnel safety is assured. Nevertheless, the public, visitor, contractor or anyone who wishes to enter or be in the reactor building should be well informed with the safety measures applied. Furthermore, these same elements of safety are also applied to other irradiation facilities within the premises of Nuclear Malaysia. This paper will describes and explains current safety management system being enforced especially in the TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) namely radiation monitoring system, safety equipment, safe work instruction, and interconnected internal and external health, safety and security related departments. (author)

  1. Update of recent TRIGA reactor projects

    Recent activities related to several TRIGA projects are reported, including reactor upgrades, fuel processing, and instrumentation and control system upgrades at existing research reactors. The installations reported include: Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, Bogota, Colombia; Centre National de l'Energie des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires, Rabat, Morocco; Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania. New computer-based digital instrumentation and control systems are in various stages of completion at: - Imperial Chemical Industries, Billingham, England; - University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois; - National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; - Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques, Bandung, Indonesia

  2. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    The purpose of this technical paper is to provide status of the United State domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure (RRI) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper states the purpose of the program, lists the universities operating TRIGA reactors that are supported by the program, identifies anticipated fresh fuel needs for the reactor facilities, discusses spent fuel activities associated with the program, and addresses successes and planned activities for the program. (author)

  3. Industrial and commercial applications for a Triga reactor

    The Physics and Radioisotope Services Group of ICI operates a Triga Reactor in support of a commercial, Industrial Radioisotope Technology Service. The technical and commercial development of this business is discussed in the context of operating a Triga Reactor in an Industrial Environment. (author)

  4. 7. European conference of TRIGA reactor users. Conference papers

    At the Seventh European Conference of TRIGA Users, held in September 1982, in Istanbul, Turkey, the following aspects are discussed: safety aspects of TRIGA reactors; developments and improvements; operating and maintenance experiences; applications; reactor calculations; fuel cycle aspects and research programs

  5. Utilisation of the Research Reactor TRIGA Mainz

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor of the University of Mainz can be operated in the steady state mode with thermal powers up to a maximum of 100 kW and in the pulse mode with a maximum peak power of 250 MW. So far, more than 17 000 pulses have been performed. For irradiations the TRIGA Mainz has a central experimental tube, three pneumatic transfer systems and a rotary specimen rack. In addition, the TRIGA Mainz includes four horizontal beam ports and a graphite thermal column which provides a source of well-thermalised neutrons. A broad spectrum of commercial applications, scientific research and training can be executed. For education and training various courses in nuclear and radiochemistry, radiation protection, reactor operation and physics are held for scientists, advanced students, teachers, engineers and technicians. Isotope production and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) are applied in in-core positions for different applications. NAA in Mainz is focused to determine trace elements in different materials such as in archaeometry, forensics, biology and technical materials including semiconductors for photovoltaics. The beam ports and the thermal column are used for commercial as well as for special basic and applied research in medicine, biology, chemistry and physics. Experiments are in preparation to determine the fundamental neutron properties with very high precision using ultra cold neutrons (UCN) produced at the tangential beam port. A second source is under development at the radial piercing beam port. Another experiment under development is the determination of ground-state properties of radioactive nuclei with very high precision using a penning trap and collinear laser spectroscopy. For many years fast chemical separation procedures combining a gas-jet transport system installed in one beam tube with either continuous or discontinuous chemical separation are carried out. In addition the thermal column of the reactor is also used for medical and

  6. Triga Mark III Reactor in paleotemperatures determination

    The Triga Mark III reactor produces neutron fluxes which are used to irradiate geologic specimens with age estimation purposes. Irradiation produces radioactive nucleus in the sample as well as: 39 Ar used in the age estimation 40 Ar/39 Ar ratio, and fission fragments for the age estimation by fission tracks detection. This document presents the basis for both methods, as well as the attained results, and has the purpose to perform joint experimentation in order to extend the usefulness of the method to paleotemperature determination. A brief comment about the associated problematic of the sample irradiation is made

  7. Nondestructive examination of TRIGA reactor fuel elements

    Neutron radiography has proved to be a very useful method for nondestructive examination of used and nonused reactor elements. The method can be used for determination of homogenity and burn-up of fuel and burnable poisons, for detection of fuel and full clad damage and taking into account the capability to perform accurate geometrical measurements it is also possible to assess mechanical deformations of fuel elements. Active fuel elements of TRIGA reactor have been examined for deformations and fuel clad damage. In the course of these investigations the following methods were tested and compared: - transfer neutronradiographic techniques using In and Dy converter screens, - direct neutrongraphic method using solid state track detectors, - X-ray radiography employing lead shielding masks and highly selective photographic material. Considerable information on the burn-up of reactor fuel elements can be obtained from measuring the distribution of radioactive isotopes in the fuel element by gamma ray spectroscopy. For a used TRIGA fuel element the axial distribution of the isotope Cs-137 has been measured and the burn-up determined. We compare the experimental results with a crude estimate of burn-up

  8. Modeling the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor using MCNP code

    The 1 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Malaysian Nuclear Agency achieved initial criticality on June 28, 1982. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes. This paper describes the reactor parameters calculation for the PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP); focusing on the application of the developed reactor 3D model for criticality calculation, analysis of power and neutron flux distribution and depletion study of TRIGA fuel. The 3D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA reactor. The model represents in detailed all important components of the core and shielding with literally no physical approximation. (author)

  9. 6. European conference of TRIGA reactor users. Conference papers

    The Sixth European Conference of TRIGA Users was held in September 1980, in Mainz, Germany under the joint sponsorship of INTERATOM and the Institut fur Kernchemie. The main areas of discussions were: Fuel cycle aspects; New reactor developments and improvements; TRIGA applications; Operating and maintenance experiences and Instrumentation

  10. Fuel element situation and performance data TRIGA Mark II reactor

    Electronic data acquisition of the position and movement of Triga fuel elements (FE) in the TRIGA II Vienna reactor was the objective of this project. Using one month power data and the Fuel element position in core it is possible to calculate their burnup. Fuel element performance data during 1962 to 2003 are provided. (nevyjel)

  11. Neutron flux measurements in PUSPATI Triga Reactor

    Neutron flux measurement in the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR) was initiated after its commissioning on 28 June 1982. Initial measured thermal neutron flux at the bottom of the rotary specimen rack (rotating) and in-core pneumatic terminus were 3.81E+11 n/cm2 sec and 1.10E+12n/cm2 sec respectively at 100KW. Work to complete the neutron flux data are still going on. The cadmium ratio, thermal and epithermal neutron flux are measured in the reactor core, rotary specimen rack, in-core pneumatic terminus and thermal column. Bare and Cadmium covered gold foils and wires are used for the above measurement. The activities of the irradiated gold foils and wires are determined using Ge(Li) and hyperpure germinium detectors. (author)

  12. The TRIGA reactor as chemistry apparatus

    At the Irvine campus of the University of California, the Mark I, 250 kilowatt TRIGA reactor is used as a regular teaching and research tool by the Department of Chemistry which operates the reactor. Students are introduced to radiochemistry and activation analysis in undergraduate laboratory courses and the relation of nuclear to chemical phenomena is emphasized even in Freshman chemistry. Special peripheral items have been developed for use in graduate and undergraduate research, including a fast pneumatic transfer system for studying short-lived isotopes and arrangements for irradiations at low temperatures. These and other unique features of a purely chemically oriented operation will be discussed and some remarks appended with regard to the merits of a low budget operation. (author)

  13. TRIGA reactor dynamics: Frequency response tests

    In this work, the results of frequency response tests conducted on ITU TRIGA Reactor are presented. To conduct the experiments, a special 'micro control rod' and its submersible stepping-motor drive mechanism was designed and constructed. The experiments cover a frequency range of 0.002 - 2 Hz., and 0.02, 4, 200 kW nominal power levels. Zero-power and at-power reactivity to % power transfer functions are presented as gain, and phase shift vs. frequency diagrams. Low power response is in close agreement with the point reactor zero-power transfer function. Response at 200 kW is studied with the help of a Nyquist diagram, and found to be stable. An elaboration on the main features of the feedback mechanism is also given. Power to reactivity feedback was measured to be just about 1.5 cent / % power change. (authors)

  14. The construction, installation and commissioning of the PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    A TRIGA Mark II research reactor has been installed at the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), Selangor, Malaysia. The reactor was commissioned in July 1982. With the commissioning of the reactor, a new era in the development of nuclear science and technology in Malaysia has just begun. This report describes the construction, installation and commissioning of the reactor. (author)

  15. Oregon State TRIGA reactor power calibration study

    As a result of a recent review of the Oregon State TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) power calibration procedure, an investigation was performed on the origin and correctness of the OSTR tank factor and the calibration method. It was determined that there was no clear basis for the tank factor which was being used (0.0525 deg. C/kwh) and therefore a new value was calculated (0.0493 deg. C/kwh). The calculational method and likely errors are presented in the paper. In addition, a series of experimental tests were conducted to decide if the power calibration was best performed with or without a mixer, at 100 KW or at 1 MW. The results of these tests along with the final recommendation are presented. (author)

  16. TRIGA Mark-III reactor dismantling program

    The activation assessment of the main parts of the TRIGA Mark-III (KRR-2) was estimated to effectively dismantle the activated and contaminated areas. All of the method and the order for decommissioning the KRR-2 have been chosen as a result of the examination of the physical structure and radiological conditions of the reactor component. These decommissioning methods and orders were reviewed as part of the Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies for the project. Radiological assessment is also done to protect the workers and the environment from the dismantling work. License documents were submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) at the end of 1998. Practical work of the D and D will start at the end of 1999 once the government issues the license. Radiation protection plan was also set up to control the workers and environment. This paper summarized the main lines of those studies. (author)

  17. Ageing management for reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    The probability of a component, system or structure failure resulting from ageing degradation normally increases with the time of exposure to service condition unless countermeasures are taken. The objective of the management of ageing is to determine and apply these countermeasures. The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI ageing management includes activities such as protection, repair, refurbishment or replacement, which are similar to other activities carried out at a reactor facility during routine maintenance or when a modification project takes place. However, it is important to distinguish between these different activities, because the management of ageing requires the use of methodology which will detect and evaluate deficiencies produced by the service conditions and will lead to the application of countermeasures for prevention and mitigation of the deficiencies. One approach to this methodology is a determination that the reactor systems and components can perform their safety functions during their service life and under the service conditions. This can be achieved through appropriately selecting systems and components which should be included in long term surveillance program, through data collection and through evaluation of the potential ageing effects. The above activities will be followed by countermeasures for prevention and mitigation of the ageing effects to ensure an adequate level of safety for the reactor facility. (author)

  18. Reconditioning of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    The paper describes the activities carried out to recondition the TRIGA Mark III reactor at the Mexican Nuclear Centre, namely repair of its containment system, maintenance of its operational systems, and the obtaining of a licence for the facility and its operating staff. The process of initially obtaining the operating licence from the regulatory authority was affected by the existence of water leaks in the pool which were detected in March 1985 and were caused by corrosion in the reactor containment system. Reconditioning began with a series of activities aimed at locating, delimiting and repairing the areas damaged by corrosion and involved establishing criteria for selecting the most appropriate inspection, testing and repair methods. In order to obtain the operating licence, it was necessary to comply with various requirements laid down by the regulatory body. The most important requirements included: (a) repair of the reactor pool; (b) maintenance of its operational systems; (c) preparation and implementation of the Quality Control Programme; (d) updating of the Safety Report; (e) updating and preparation of operating, repair, radiation safety, emergency and administrative procedures; and (f) training of operating staff. In addition, the paper describes the work carried out at this reactor to widen its field of research and range of utilization. This work includes the reconditioning of a neutron diffractometer, the design and construction of a neutron diffractometer to determine the textures of materials, and the analysis of a new mixed core configuration based on fuels with 20% and 70% 235U enrichment. (author). 7 refs

  19. Current activities at the Finnish TRIGA reactor

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW TRIGA reactor, with its subsystems has experienced a large renovation work. The main purpose of the upgrading has been to install the new Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) irradiation facility. The epithermal neutrons are produced from the fast fission neutrons by a moderator block consisting of Al+AlF3 (FLUENTAL), which showed to be the optimum material for this purpose. The BNCT work dominates the current utilisation of the reactor: four days per week for BNCT purposes and only one day per week for neutron activation analysis and isotope production. The first ten patients have already been irradiated during a period of about twelve months. The Council of State (government) granted at the end of last year a new operating license for the reactor for twelve years. There is a special condition in the new license. One has now about four years' time to achieve a binding agreement between VTT and the Nuclear Power Plants about the possibility to use the final disposal facility of the Nuclear Power Plants for the spent fuel. If this will not happen, one intends to use the USDOE alternative with the well-known time limits. Recently it was started a project to study the possibilities and limitations to increase the power of the reactor to 500 kW or more. In the BNC Therapy in some cases there is the need to increase the penetration depth of the neutrons. This can be arranged by filtering low energy neutrons away from the epithermal beam. The only way to compensate the loss of neutron intensity caused by the filter is to increase the power of the reactor. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of TRIGA Mark II reactor in Turkey

    There are two research reactors in Turkey and one of them is the university Triga Mark II reactor which was in service since 1979 both for education and industrial application purposes. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the spectrum of the services carried by Turkish Triga Mark II reactor. In this work, statistical distribution of the graduate works and applications, by using Triga Mark II reactor is examined and evaluated. In addition to this, technical and scientific uses of this above mentioned reactor are also investigated. It was already showed that the uses and benefits of this reactor can not be limited. If the sufficient work and service is given, NDT and industrial applications can also be carried economically. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of fuel options in TRIGA reactor

    In this paper, nuclear characteristics of TRIGA Mark-III has been analyzed in detail for six different fuel options. Presently, 70w/o enriched FLIP fuels are adopted for TRIGA core to improve fuel lifetime. However, such highly enriched fuels are not easily obtained due to nonproliferation treaty. This research examines the possible substitution for FLIP fuels with high density fuels without reducing the nuclear performance. This work will provide long-time plan for TRIGA operation (author)

  2. Development of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor Simulator For Education Purpose

    The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor Simulator was developed in 2012 purposely for 3V program. It is an interactive tool for students understand how to operate the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Students can feeling and understand how to operate the reactor from start-up to shut-down in manual mode of operation. Movement of control rod and reactor parameters are displaying in interactively. Behavior and characteristic for reactor console and reactor itself can be evaluated and understand. Implementation of human system interface is using computer screens, keyboard and mouse. LabVIEW software are using for user interface and mathematical calculation. Polynomial equation based on control rods calibration data as well as operation parameters record was used to calculate and estimated reactor console parameters. The capabilities in user interface, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics can be expanded and explored to simulation as well as modeling for New Reactor Console, Research Reactor and Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  3. Fuel experience at a 37 year old TRIGA type reactor

    Boeck, H. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Wien (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    A survey is given on 37 years of TRIGA fuel experience at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna. Approximately 3000 fuel-years of experience have accumulated at this facility with only minor problems. Totally only 8 fuel elements had to be removed permanently from the core. Various inspection methods which have been developed throughout the years are described in this paper. (author)

  4. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  5. Research work at the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    In the last two years the research activities at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Mainz have mainly been concentrated on the investigation of short- lived nuclides of medium mass number produced by thermal-neutron induced fission of 235U and other fissile materials. For the identification of these nuclides and for detailed studies of their properties rapid chemical separation procedures in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy as well as mass-separated samples have been used. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for technetium. Continuous separation methods from aqueous solutions and in the gas phase, accomplished by combining a gas jet recoil transport system with an on-line operating solvent extraction technique and a thermo- chromatographic method, are presented. The application of such procedures to decay scheme and delayed neutron studies is demonstrated by a few examples. The experimental set-up and the method for nuclear spin - and magnetic moment measurements on alkali isotopes far from the region of beta-stability applying the nuclear radiation detected optical pumping technique to mass- separated samples of neutron-rich alkali nuclides are briefly described. (author)

  6. Small Angle Neutron Scattering instrument at Malaysian TRIGA reactor

    Shukri Mohd; Razali Kassim; Zal Uyun Mahmood [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Shahidan Radiman

    1998-10-01

    The TRIGA MARK II Research reactor at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Research (MINT) was commissioned in July 1982. Since then various works have been performed to utilise the neutrons produced from this steady state reactor. One of the project involved the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). (author)

  7. Irradiation routine in the IPR-R1 Triga reactor

    Information about irradiations in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor and procedures necessary for radioisotope solicitation are presented All procedures necessary for asking irradiation in the reactor, shielding types, norms of terrestrial and aerial expeditions, payment conditions, and catalogue of disposable isotopes with their respective saturation activities are described. (M.C.K.)

  8. Irradiation behaviour of TRIGA-LEU fuel in the TRIGA 14 MW reactor facility

    In order to convert TRIGA reactors to low enriched uranium fuel cycle, General Atomic (USA) produces a new type of fuel elements (U 235 enrichment -19.7%). A part of the TRIGA 14 MW (th) core in Pitesti consists of this type of fuel, and six elements have been examined in our post-irradiation facility. These were the first measurements using non-destructive control on this type of fuel. In this paper, some interesting information about the fuel behaviour during irradiation, is presented. (Author)

  9. Education and Training Programme at the Research Reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Hampel, Gabriele; Eberhardt, Klaus [University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Education and training are important elements for the future of nuclear science, technology and safety. Fields of interest include high- technology applications in nuclear techniques and neutron sources, advances in the areas of power reactor safety, establishing the scientific basis of new reactors, training of personnel needed to operate, maintain, regulate and improve reactors or other facilities associated with nuclear power. Also, creating a knowledgeable public through education usually means less opposition and more support. Education and training for safeguards, operators, researchers and quality programmes (calibration services, etc.) are one of the main utilisations of TRIGA research reactors. Use of a reactor as a training tool for university students studying nuclear engineering and/or physics, where there is a growing demand at European Universities, is of vital importance. In particular, the TRIGA Mark II reactor, located at the University of Mainz, one of the largest universities in Germany, offers a broad range of nuclear-related courses for training and education. (author)

  10. Education and Training Programme at the Research Reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Education and training are important elements for the future of nuclear science, technology and safety. Fields of interest include high- technology applications in nuclear techniques and neutron sources, advances in the areas of power reactor safety, establishing the scientific basis of new reactors, training of personnel needed to operate, maintain, regulate and improve reactors or other facilities associated with nuclear power. Also, creating a knowledgeable public through education usually means less opposition and more support. Education and training for safeguards, operators, researchers and quality programmes (calibration services, etc.) are one of the main utilisations of TRIGA research reactors. Use of a reactor as a training tool for university students studying nuclear engineering and/or physics, where there is a growing demand at European Universities, is of vital importance. In particular, the TRIGA Mark II reactor, located at the University of Mainz, one of the largest universities in Germany, offers a broad range of nuclear-related courses for training and education. (author)

  11. TRIGA mark-II,III reactor safety re-evaluation

    For two years of 1990 and 1991, the safety of TRIGA Mk-II and III reactor has been re-evaluated. For this, domestic rules on research reactors has been reviewed, and as it was judged that standards on research reactors in USA is applicable to our ones it was evaluated whether TRIGA Mk-II and III reactors satisfy these standards. The site parameters and the environmental impacts during normal operation and hypothetical accident conditions have been analysed, and those parts for reactor facility and structure have been rewritten to fit SAR standard format based on the review of old SAR and maintenance manuals reflecting changes after the construction. Based on this re-evaluation, SAR, Technical Specifications, Radiation Emergency Plan, Environment Report, various procedures,etc. will be amended by the reactor management project. (Author)

  12. Operation experience operation experience with the TRIGA Reactor Wien

    The TRIGA Reactor Wien is the Closest Nuclear Facility to the IAEA. It is involved in: development of safeguards instrumentation, prevention of illicit trafficking, calibration of nuclear instrumentation, irradiation and test of safeguards instrumentation, storage of special nuclear material, training courses for junior inspectors (more than 120 trained and since 1992 more than 100 IAEA fellows from developing countries). The TRIGA Mark II Reactor Vienna is the only operating research reactor and the only nuclear facility in Austria, uniquely used for training and education of students and junior professionals in the fields of: nuclear technology, neutron and solid state physics, radiochemistry, radiation protection and dosimetry, low temperature physics, nuclear- and nuclear astrophysics, electron- and x-ray physics. The main technical data of the TRIGA Mark-II Reactor are reviewed as well as the operation experience during the 2004-2008 period: Visual inspection of beam tubes A (piercing) and D (radial), MCNP core calculations, investigation of shielding concrete for trace elements, estimation of radiation exposure during dismantling, replacement of both monitors at the console, problems with the NM-1000 wide range channel, Noise pick-up by nm-1000 due to grounding problems, Change of core configuration: 6 FLIP fuel elements transferred from C-ring into B-ring. The concrete studies at the TRIGA Vienna include: the determination of long-lived radionuclides in heavy concrete (mainly Ba-133, Eu 133, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co 154, Co-60), the measurement of the composition of heavy concrete, the estimation of the neutron attenuation in heavy concrete: aim is to establish a model and to predict the mass and activity of activated concrete in the Vienna TRIGA shield in view of future dismantling, the validation of model using the data from the dismantled 10 MW ASTRA reactor at Seibersdorf. In conclusions: after 50 years of successful TRIGA reactor operation (May 3, 1958) there

  13. Operation experience with the TRIGA reactor Wien 2004

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor in Vienna is now in operation for more than 42 years. The average operation time is about 230 days per year with 90 % of this time at nominal power of 250 kW. The remaining 10 % operation time is used for students' training courses at low power level. Pulse operation is rather infrequent with about 5 to 10 pulses per year. The utilization of this facility is excellent, the number of students participating in practical exercises has strongly increased, and also training courses for outside groups such as the IAEA or for the 2004 Eugene Wigner Course are using the reactor, because it is the only TRIGA reactor remaining in Austria. Therefore, there is no need for decommissioning and it is intended to operate it as long as possible into the next decade. Nevertheless, in early 2004 it was decided to prepare a report on a decommissioning procedure for a typical TRIGA Mark II reactor which lists the volumes, the activity and the weight of individual materials such as concrete, aluminium, stainless steel, graphite and others which will accumulate during this process (a summary of possible activated and contaminated materials and the activity of a single TRIGA fuel element as a function of fuel type and decay time in Bq is presented). The status of the reactor (instrumentation, fuel elements, cooling circuit, ventilation system, re-inspection and maintenance program, cost/benefit) is outlined. (nevyjel)

  14. Verification of the MCNP model for the University of Texas TRIGA reactor

    An MCNP model of The University of Texas TRIGA reactor has been used for design calculations for the neutron collimator system in the through beam port. The TRIGA MCNP model was verified by comparing its results with experimentally determined values

  15. Component and operation experience of reactor TRIGA MARK II

    Reactor TRIGA MARK II is Jozef Stefan Institute's research reactor. It has been operating since 1966. A probabilistic approach of reactor safety estimation was used first in 1989 when a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of the reactor was performed. A lack of reactor component data was found as the major problem in probabilistic assessment. It was decided to continue the work with specific data base development. The project has been divided in two phases. In the first phase specific data from year 1985 to 1990 were collected. In the second phase the collected data were treated. The comparison of generic and specific data showed significant difference between the generic and specific data and leads to a conclusion that a generic data based PSA has a limited credibility indicating that there is a need to build a specific data base for research reactors. The TRIGA MARK II research reactor has three major purposes: operator training, research involving neutrons and isotope production. The paper represents specific data base formation for TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Podgorica. Specific data on reactor scrams, components operation and human errors were collected. The data of fifteen components were estimated by classical and Bayesian method. The results of both methods are very different. Because of good specific data the results of classical methods were preferred. The comparison of specific and generic data showed that there is a great need to build a specific data base for research reactors. It is expected to use the specific data for existing PSA of TRIGA MARK II reactor reevaluation and optimisation of its operation. (authors)

  16. 78 FR 26811 - Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA...

    2013-05-08

    ...) published a notice in the Federal Register on July 20, 2012 (77 FR 42771), ``License Renewal for the Dow... COMMISSION Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA... Facility License No. R-108 for Dow Chemical Company which would authorize continued operation of the...

  17. Reactor calculations for improving utilization of TRIGA reactor

    A brief review of our work on reactor calculations of 250 kW TRIGA with mixed core (standard + FLIP fuel) will be presented. The following aspects will be treated: - development of computer programs; - optimization of in-core fuel management with respect to fuel costs and irradiation channels utilization. TRIGAP programme package will be presented as an example of computer programs. It is based on 2-group 1-D diffusion approximation and besides calculations offers possibilities for operational data logging and fuel inventory book-keeping as well. It is developed primarily for the research reactor operators as a tool for analysing reactor operation and fuel management. For this reason it is arranged for a small (PC) computer. Second part will be devoted to reactor physics properties of the mixed cores. Results of depletion calculations will be presented together with measured data to confirm some general guidelines for optimal mixed core fuel management. As the results are obtained using TRIGAP program package results can be also considered as an illustration and qualification for its application. (author)

  18. Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) spent fuel pool conceptual design

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is the one and only research reactor in Malaysia that has been safely operated and maintained since 1982. In order to enhance technical capabilities and competencies especially in nuclear reactor engineering a feasibility study on RTP power upgrading was proposed to serve future needs for advance nuclear science and technology in the country with the capability of designing and develop reactor system. The need of a Spent Fuel Pool begins with the discharge of spent fuel elements from RTP for temporary storage that includes all activities related to the storage of fuel until it is either sent for reprocessed or sent for final disposal. To support RTP power upgrading there will be major RTP systems replacement such as reactor components and a new temporary storage pool for fuel elements. The spent fuel pool is needed for temporarily store the irradiated fuel elements to accommodate a new reactor core structure. Spent fuel management has always been one of the most important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and considered among the most common problems to all countries with nuclear reactors. The output of this paper will provide sufficient information to show the Spent Fuel Pool can be design and build with the adequate and reasonable safety assurance to support newly upgraded TRIGA PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor. (author)

  19. Triga mark-II,III reactor safety re-evaluation

    In order to revise safety analysis report of old TRIGA reactors, safety re-evaluation of these reactor was started for necessary parts. This report contains the first year results of the project scheduled for two years. The guide lines of safety re-evaluation was made by translating that of nuclear power plant from the view point of TRIGA reactor confirming the basic safety philosophy as much as possible. First of all, sections of reactor history and comparison with similar reactors are made, since the actual operation records, changes, any modification of similar reactors constructed after then, etc., are realistic and valuable data from the safety aspect of old reactor. For the effectiveness of nuclear analysis, a PC based analysis system using WIMS-D/4 and VENTURE was established, and a program for the natural convection cooling analysis of TRIGA reactor was developed. As a result of thermal-hydraulic analysis it was confirmed that the operation limit of fuel temperature set at 650 deg C without any logical reason is very close to the DNB limit. (Author)

  20. Isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurement in TRIGA reactor

    Direct measurement of an isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient at room temperatures in TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is presented. Temperature reactivity coefficient was measured in the temperature range between 15 oC and 25 oC. All reactivity measurements were performed at almost zero reactor power to reduce or completely eliminate nuclear heating. Slow and steady temperature decrease was controlled using the reactor tank cooling system. In this way the temperatures of fuel, of moderator and of coolant were kept in equilibrium throughout the measurements. It was found out that TRIGA reactor core loaded with standard fuel elements with stainless steel cladding has small positive isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient in this temperature range.(author)

  1. On-line coupling of the TRIGA-SPEC facility at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    To determine ground-state properties of exotic nuclides, the TRIGA-SPEC experiment at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor was recently installed. It includes the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP and the collinear laser spectroscopy setup TRIGA-LASER. Nuclides of interest are produced via neutron-induced fission of suitable actinide isotopes, thermalized in a gas-filled volume and transported with a gas-jet system to an on-line ion source. Ionization of the fission products occurs inside a hot cavity of the ion source, which is heated by electron bombardment to temperatures of about 2000 C. The ion beam is extracted by a high potential difference and mass separated by a 90 dipole magnet. Afterwards, the ion beam is injected into an RF-cooler/buncher and finally decelerated by a pulsed drift tube so that the ions can be captured in a Penning trap. The efficiencies of the different parts of the beamline were tested recently, and the latest results about the performance are presented.

  2. Outlook on radioisotope production at TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    INR Pitesti, endowed with a research nuclear reactor of TRIGA SSR 14 MW type, has developed activities of radioisotope production, being at present licensed for production and selling Ir-192 sources for industrial gamma radiography and Co-60 sources (2,000 Ci) for medical uses (cobalto therapy). A collaboration was initiated with the CPR Department of IFIN-HH Bucharest, particularly after the WWR-S reactor shutdown on December 21, 1997. In the frame of this program the INR Pitesti offers services of raw material irradiations followed by the radioisotope production performed subsequently at the Radioisotope Production Department (CPR) of IFIN-HH Bucharest which also deals with selling the product on internal market . The experimental facilities with the two TRIGA reactors (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti are described. The maximum neutron flux is 2.9 · 1014 n/cm2s. The irradiation channels are of two neutron spectra types. Also the neutron flux is characterized by radial and axial distribution which are taken into account when a given raw material is to be irradiated, to avoid perturbing non-homogeneities in the raw material activation. Five irradiation devices are presented. Preparations are currently under way for production of fission radioisotopes Mo-99, I-131 and Xe-133 and activation radioisotope I-125 for medical application

  3. Computational analysis of irradiation facilities at the JSI TRIGA reactor.

    Snoj, Luka; Zerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej

    2012-03-01

    Characterization and optimization of irradiation facilities in a research reactor is important for optimal performance. Nowadays this is commonly done with advanced Monte Carlo neutron transport computer codes such as MCNP. However, the computational model in such calculations should be verified and validated with experiments. In the paper we describe the irradiation facilities at the JSI TRIGA reactor and demonstrate their computational characterization to support experimental campaigns by providing information on the characteristics of the irradiation facilities. PMID:22154389

  4. The role of TRIGA reactors in pure and applied nuclear research outside the United States in the last couple of years

    The last two years trend of research in European TRIGA plants, which reported to the 1970 TRIGA Owners' Conference in Helsinki, is presented. The report discusses also new TRIGA plants in Europe, 1971-72; Research at TRIGA plants and new TRIGA reactors outside Europe and the U.S.A., 1971-72; Safety, health, environment, egomania and TRIGA reactors

  5. The current status of Bandung Triga Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    Full text: The Bandung TRIGA Mark II Reactor - Indonesia was started-up on October 10, 1964 and it has been operated at power level of 250 kw. The facility has been, operated for research, production of radioisotopes and training. In 1971, the reactor has been upgraded from 250 kw to 1000 kw. Since that time the facility has been safely operating at various power levels of a maximum 1000 kw until February 1996, even though the reactor tank is kept unchanged. For a highly reliable reactor that can back-up the Ga Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor - Jakarta, Indonesia, in producing sufficient radioisotopes, a higher power reactor is needed. This can be accomplished by increasing the thermal power of current TRIGA Mark II Bandung Reactor to 2000 kw as well as by enhancing the inherent and engineered safety features of the current reactor. The upgrading of reactor power shall ensure the increasing of neutron flux in the beam ports; hence the experiments such as neutron radiography, time of flight spectrometry and other nuclear physic experiments can be conducted better. For that the reactor tank, the number and configuration of fuel element, instrumentation and control rod, primary cooling system, secondary cooling system, water treatment system, shielding, etc. have been changed, and an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) was added. One additional control rod, core configuration modification and enhancement of reactor shielding, shall increase the safety margin so that the reactor could be operated at a maximum power of 2000 kw. At the middle of May 2000 cold test (non-nuclear commissioning) was done, and continued to hot test (nuclear commissioning). Since June 24, 2000 the TRIGA Mark II Bandung has been operated at 2000 kw

  6. TRIGA-SPEC: A setup for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Ketelaer, J.; Krämer, J.; Beck, D; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eitel, G.; Ferrer, R.; Geppert, C.; George, S; Herfurth, F.; Ketter, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Neugart, R

    2008-01-01

    The research reactor TRIGA Mainz is an ideal facility to provide neutron-rich nuclides with production rates sufficiently large for mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic studies. Within the TRIGA-SPEC project, a Penning trap as well as a beam line for collinear laser spectroscopy are being installed. Several new developments will ensure high sensitivity of the trap setup enabling mass measurements even on a single ion. Besides neutron-rich fission products produced in the reactor, also h...

  7. Thermal - hydraulic analysis of the ITU TRIGA Mark - II reactor

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed to find out the temperature distribution, as a function of reactor power, in the TRIGA Mark-II reactor at Istanbul Technical University. A two-dimensional computer code was written in FORTRAN-77 language numerically solves heat conduction equation using finite difference method at the steady state. The calculated results for fuel temperature and coolant temperature distribution in the reactor core for different reactor power were compared with the experimental data. Agreements between experiment and results from the computer program are fairly good

  8. Research projects at the TRIGA-reactor Vienna

    In 1985 the thermalizing column was modified to a beam tube with a conical collimator for neutron radiography. A highly sophisticated sample and cassette changer will be constructed in the next months. The central channel of the thermal column is also used for neutron radiography especially for small objects. The four beam tubes of the TRIGA-reactor are intensively used for neutron spectroscopy, small angle scattering, neutron interferometry and investigations of magnetic structures with polarized neutrons. The neutron activation installation in the piecing beam tube is permanently used for various sample analysis using a ultrafast pneumatic transfer system. In addition to these experiments directly related to the TRIGA-reactor other research projects are carried out, some of them under an IAEA research contract which are mostly focused towards nuclear safeguards such as the magnetic scanning of power reactor fuel assemblies or the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools. (author)

  9. Preliminary neutronic design of TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    It is very important to analyse the behaviour of the research reactors, since, they play a key role in developing the power reactor technology and radiation applications such as isotope generation for medical treatments. In this study, the neutronic behaviour of the TRIGA MARK II reactor, owned and operated by Istanbul Technical University is analysed by using the SCALE code system. In the analysis, in order to overcome the disadvantages of special TRIGA codes, such as TRIGAP, the SCALE code system is chosen to perform the calculations. TRIGAP and similar codes have limited geometrical (one-dimensional geometry) and cross sectional options (two-group calculations), however, SCALE has the capability of wider range of geometrical modelling capability (three-dimensional modelling is possible) and multi-group calculations are possible

  10. Reactor TRIGA at the J.Stefan institute in Ljubljana

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor began its operation on May 1966. The power of the reactor is 250 kW. TRIGA utilizes solid fuel elements in which the zirconium hydride moderator is homogeneously mixed 20% or 70% enriched uranium. The inique featUre of these fuel - moderator elements is the prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, which gives TRIGA its built-in safety. The reactor core consist of a lattice of cylindrical fuel-moderator elements and graphite (dummy) elements at the bottom of the 6 m high tank full of light water which is used for cooling and radiation protection. The reactor has the following experimental and irradiation facilities: 2 radial beam channels, 2 tangential beam channels, 2 thermal colomns, 40 position rotary specimen rack, pneumatic transfer tube and central thimble. The reactor operates about 2.500 hours per year and it is utilized for the production of isotopes, as a source of neutrons for various experiments and for the training of personnel for the nuclear power station in Krsko

  11. Neutronic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    Highlights: • We develop a detailed MCNP model of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor. • We present a simplified approach to considering burnup. • The model is validated against available reactor data. • We present evidence of inaccuracies in the ENDF B/VII zirconium libraries. - Abstract: The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR’s relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of $6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is −0.0135 $/K while the average core void coefficient is −0.069 $/K from 0% to 20% void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 $/K

  12. Epithermal BNCT neutron beam design for a TRIGA II reactor

    In Finland a collaborative effort by Helsinki University Central Hospital, MAP Medical Technologies Inc. and VTT Reactor Laboratory has started aiming at BNCT of glioma patients. For this the capabilities of the FiR-1 TRIGA II 250 kW research reactor have been evaluated. The FiR-1 is located in the middle of the Otaniemi campus eight kilometers from the center of Helsinki and four kilometers from the Central Hospital. The power of the reactor was increased in 1965 to 250 kW and the instrumentation modernised in 1981. It is a pool reactor with graphite reflector and a core loading of 3 kg 20w% 235U in the special TRIGA uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (8-12 w% U, 91% Zr, 1% H). The advantages of using a TRIGA reactor for BNCT have already been pointed out earlier by Whittemore and have been verified in practice by the thermal neutron treatment work done at the Musashi 100 kW reactor. The advantages include a wide core face area and a wide spatial angle covered by the thermal-epithermal column system, large flux-per-Watt feature and inherent safety of the TRIGA fuel. Because of its wider applicability and less stringent requirements for clinical operation conditions, an epithermal neutron beam has been selected as the design goal. The epithermal flux should be sufficient for glioblastoma patient treatment: 109 epithermal neutrons/cm2/s with low enough fast neutron (-13Gy/epithermal n/cm2) and gamma contamination

  13. The future of spent TRIGA fuel elements from European TRIGA reactor stations

    The paper gives a summary of the information collected and presented to the General Atomics about TRIGA fuel elements available at European TRIGA stations under the initiative to solve the problem of the future of spent TRIGA fuel elements

  14. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure - TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    The purpose of the United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program is to provide fresh nuclear reactor fuel to United States universities at no, or low, cost to the university. The title of the fuel remains with the United States government and when universities are finished with the fuel, the fuel is returned to the United States government. The program is funded by the United States Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy division, managed by Department of Energy - Idaho Field Office, and contracted to the Idaho National Laboratory's Management and Operations Contractor - Battelle Energy Alliance. Program has been at Idaho since 1977 and INL subcontracts with 26 United States domestic reactor facilities (13 TRIGA facilities, 9 plate fuel facilities, 2 AGN facilities, 1 Pulstar fuel facility, 1 Critical facility). University has not shipped fuel since 1968 and as such, we have no present procedures for shipping spent fuel. In addition: floor loading rate is unknown, many interferences must be removed to allow direct access to the reactor tank, floor space in the reactor cell is very limited, pavement ends inside our fence; some of the surface is not finished. The whole approach is narrow, curving and downhill. A truck large enough to transport the cask cannot pull into the lot and then back out (nearly impossible / refused by drivers); a large capacity (100 ton), long boom crane would have to be used due to loading dock obstructions. Access to the entrance door is on a sidewalk. The campus uses it as a road for construction equipment, deliveries and security response. Large trees are on both sides of sidewalk. Spent fuel shipments have never been done, no procedures approved or in place, no approved casks, no accident or safety analysis for spent fuel loading. Any cask assembly used in this facility will have to be removed from one crane, moved on the floor and then attached to another crane to get from the staging area to the reactor room. Reactor

  15. Thermal spectra of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; El espectro termico del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The diffraction phenomenon is gave in observance of the well known Bragg law in crystalline materials and this can be performance by mean of X-rays, electrons and neutrons among others, which allows to do inside the field of each one of these techniques the obtaining of measurements focussed at each one of them. For the present work, it will be mentioned only the referring to X-ray and neutron techniques. The X-ray diffraction due to its properties just it does measurements which are known in general as superficial measurements of the sample material but for the properties of the neutrons, this diffraction it explores in volumetric form the sample material. Since the neutron diffraction process depends lots of its intensity, then it is important to know the neutron source spectra that in this case is supplied by the TRIGA Mark III reactor. Within of diffraction techniques a great number of them can be found, however some of the traditional will be mentioned such as the identification of crystalline samples, phases identification and the textures measurement. At present this last technique is founded on the dot of a minimum error and the technique of phases identification performs but not compete with that which is obtained by mean of X-rays due to this last one has a major resolution. (Author)

  16. Radiological monitoring related to the operation of PUSPATI's Triga Reactor

    Reactor operation is one of the main activities carried out at the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI) which requires radiological monitoring. This paper describes the programme for radiological monitoring which is related to the operation of the 1 MW Triga MK II research reactor which was commissioned in July, 1982. This programme includes monitoring of the radiation and contamination levels of the reactor and its associated facilities and environmental monitoring of PUSPATI's site and its environs. The data presented in this paper covers the period between 1982 to 1983 which includes both the pre-operational and operational phases of the monitoring programme. (author)

  17. Significant aspects concerning RC-1 TRIGA reactor operations

    In the present work, a brief critical survey is made of the various nuclear configurations with which the reactor operated after completion of the works directed at obtaining a power increase, from 0.1 to 1 MW, and the reactor utilizations are hinted. Furthermore, through experimental measurements of the neutron flux in significant positions, the volumetric integral of the flux in the core is solved by defining, in conservative conditions of nuclear configuration and of reactor operation, the peak factor, referred to the most stressed element of the TRIGA core. (author)

  18. Fuel elements for pulsed TRIGA research reactors

    TRIGA fuel was developed around the concept of inherent safety. A core composition was sought that had a large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity such that if all the available excess reactivity were suddenly inserted into the core, the resulting fuel temperature would automatically cause the power excursion to terminate before any core damage resulted. Experiments have demonstrated that zirconium hydride possesses a basic neutron-spectrum-hardening mechanism to produce the desired characteristic. Additional advantages include the facts that ZrH has a good heat capacity, that it results in relatively small core sizes and high flux values due to the high hydrogen content, that it has excellent fission-product retentivity and high chemical inertness in water at temperatures up to 1000C, and that it can be used effectively in a rugged fuel element size. Tens of thousands of routine pulses to the range of 500 to 8000C peak fuel temperatures have been performed with TRIGA fuel, and a core was pulse-heated to peak fuel temperatures in excess of 11000C for hundreds of pulses before a few elements exceeded the conservative tolerances on dimensional change

  19. Power stabilization in CREN-K TRIGA Mark II reactor

    In order to eliminate power oscillations in the TRIGA MARK II reactor at the 'Centre Regional d'Etudes Nucleaires de Kinshasa' (CREN-K), Zaire, specially made adapters were put around the control rods in the top grid plate. The paper briefly describes how investigations were made to find out the basic reason of the power oscillations and the way these adapters were conceived and installed. (author)

  20. Accident scenarios of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna

    The safety report of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna includes three accident scenarios and their deterministic dose consequences to the environment. The destruction of the cladding of the most activated fuel element, the destruction of all fuel elements and a plane crash were considered scenarios in that report. The calculations were made in 1978 with the software program named STRISK. In this paper, the program package PC Cosyma was applied on the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna and the deterministic consequences of the scenarios to the environment were updated. The fission product inventories of all fuel elements were calculated with ORIGEN2. To get meteorological data of the atmospheric condition around the release area, a weather station was installed. The release parameters were taken from the safety report or were replaced by worst case parameters. This paper focuses on two accident scenarios: the destruction of the cladding of the fuel element with the highest activity content and the case of a large plane crash. The current accident scenarios show good agreement with the calculations from 1978, hence no technical modifications in the safety report of the TRIGA reactor Vienna were necessary. Even in the very worst case scenario - complete destruction of all fuel elements in a large plane crash - the expected doses in the Atominstitut's neighborhood remain moderate.

  1. Accident scenarios of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna

    Villa, Mario, E-mail: mvilla@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Haydn, Markus [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.a [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Boeck, Helmuth [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    The safety report of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna includes three accident scenarios and their deterministic dose consequences to the environment. The destruction of the cladding of the most activated fuel element, the destruction of all fuel elements and a plane crash were considered scenarios in that report. The calculations were made in 1978 with the software program named STRISK. In this paper, the program package PC Cosyma was applied on the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna and the deterministic consequences of the scenarios to the environment were updated. The fission product inventories of all fuel elements were calculated with ORIGEN2. To get meteorological data of the atmospheric condition around the release area, a weather station was installed. The release parameters were taken from the safety report or were replaced by worst case parameters. This paper focuses on two accident scenarios: the destruction of the cladding of the fuel element with the highest activity content and the case of a large plane crash. The current accident scenarios show good agreement with the calculations from 1978, hence no technical modifications in the safety report of the TRIGA reactor Vienna were necessary. Even in the very worst case scenario - complete destruction of all fuel elements in a large plane crash - the expected doses in the Atominstitut's neighborhood remain moderate.

  2. Treating and conditioning the radioactive wastes produced in TRIGA Reactor

    The technologies employed in treating the radioactive waste, applied at INR Pitesti are: - treating by evaporation of the liquid radioactive wastes from the TRIGA reactor and conditioning by concrete casting of the compact radioactive product. The liquid evaporation is achieved with an evaporator of 1.2 m3/h capacity supplied by PEC Engineering, France. The radioactive compact cast in concrete is finally disposed in steel barrels of 220 l capacity; - for treating and conditioning the solid wastes produced by TRIGA reactor and the Laboratory for Post-Irradiation Examination, the technology of concrete casting is used. There are two categories of solid wastes, namely, compressible, which can be compacted to a volume of upmost 5 l, and non-compressible, in which case the material is cut into pieces of 700 x 400 x 400 mm3. In the last case the compacted or broken wastes are introduced in a metallic container which is then conditioned by casting in concrete in view of final disposal in 220 l barrels; - for treating and conditioning waste ion exchangers, produced in TRIGA reactor operation, the technology of casting in bitumen in 80 l barrels which are then conditioned in 220 l barrels for final disposal

  3. Calculation of radioactive species transport in a TRIGA reactor

    Mladin, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.mladin@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului, 1, Mioveni 115400, Arges (Romania); Mladin, Mirea, E-mail: mirea.mladin@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului, 1, Mioveni 115400, Arges (Romania); Toma, Alexandru, E-mail: alexandru.toma@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului, 1, Mioveni 115400, Arges (Romania); Dulama, Cristian, E-mail: cristian.dulama@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului, 1, Mioveni 115400, Arges (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie, E-mail: prisec@cne.pub.ro [University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, Power Engineering Faculty, Nuclear Power Plants Department, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Covaci, Stefan, E-mail: bebecus@yahoo.com [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului, 1, Mioveni 115400, Arges (Romania)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We created a TRIGA facility model with CATHARE2. • We calculated a source of fission products in postulated accident conditions. • We calculated the source of Ar-41 during reactor normal operation. • We modeled the transport and release of fission products and Ar-41 at reactor stack. • Steady-state experimental Ar-41 volumetric activity is compared with the calculated activity. -- Abstract: The objective of the paper is to develop and use a model for radioactive species transport in the primary circuit and in the reactor hall of the Romanian TRIGA facility. CATHARE2 V25 code (Code for Analysis of Thermal–Hydraulics during an Accident of Reactor and Safety Evaluation) is used. CATHARE is developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and owned in partnership with three other French partners: EDF, AREVA-ANP and IRSN. The radio-chemical components in CATHARE2 include, besides activation products, four fission products with predefined characteristics (Kr-87, Xe-133, I-131, Cs-137). New radioactive species can be defined by the user, and the characteristics of the existing ones can be modified. The TRIGA model created comprises both the primary reactor circuit and reactor hall, involving water zones and non-condensable gas (air). Ventilation system is simulated by means of boundary conditions. Using the same facility model, two separate studies are performed with externally calculated sources: -fission product species transport and evacuation. This is done as PSA support studies, postulating core damage and volatile species release; -Ar-41 transport and evacuation. Argon activity at reactor stack is calculated for normal operation and compared to monitor readings. The paper describes also the calculation of the radioactive sources based on SCALE 4.4 in case of fission products, and using MCNP5 for Ar-41.

  4. TRIGA I.N.R. Reactor liquid waste management

    During TRIGA reactor operation, primary water system cooling has been contaminated with activation products and accidentally, with fission products. The paper is a synthesis concerning the quantity and the isotopic composition of liquid waste, between 1986-1989. There are considered, in turn, the conditioned waste water as radioactive waste, and than evacuated in the river. The main isotopes generated in normal operation of INR-TRIGA reactor are Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-57, Co-58, Co-60. Cobalt isotopes activity over-stands 80% from the entire evicted activity. Computing the ratio of evicted radioactivity (A) to the consumed energy with reactor operation (E), one notes that for each operated MWh an accumulated activity in radioactive liquid waste of about 92 ± 25 μCi is generated. Attention must be paid to the interpretation of this value, because it depends on the operation power level of the reactor cooling rate, on the operation period of the ionic mixed layer filters, and the storage period of the waste in the tanks. The ratio A/E may be used for a brief characterisation of the primary cooling system corrosion and for radioactive liquid waste volume estimation which is to be evicted when the reactor operating programme is settled. Referring to the radiological impact on the environment one can state that radioactive liquid waste eviction generated in normal TRIGA reactor operation do not cause risks for population and the environment. Radioactivity measurements done for samples took from Doamnei and Arges Rivers showed that radioactivity value is lower than the detection limit of the monitor chain. For measurements it was used a CANBERRA Spectrometer, whose detection limit is 0.25x10-3 μCi/cm3 for Co-60. (authors)

  5. Probabilistic safety analysis for the Triga reactor Vienna

    Triga-type reactors are the most widely used low power research reactors with power levels up to 3 MW. Although Triga reactors are considered inherently safe, due to their unique features such as prompt negative temperature coefficient and low power density, the reactor core still contains a respectable amount of activity which could lead under very adverse circumstances to radiation exposure both of staff members and of public. Such circumstances could be external events, accidents during fuel element manipulation or a loss of coolant water with exposure of the core. Therefore, it was decided to look more closely to various accident pathways and to calculate their probability, if possible. A major drawback is the lack of statistical material because no centralized registration of failures is carried out. Therefore, in many cases values from other research reactor types or even from power reactor statistics had to be used, thus increasing the uncertainty of the results. As most undesired event or TOP-event in this analysis a radiation exposure of staff members, the public or both together was selected and the probabilities of different pathways leading to this exposure was calculated. In the present case 'radiation exposure' are dose rates or activity concentration above the international accepted limits for occupational staff or public. 20 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  6. Fast neutron benchmark proposal at TRIGA-ACPR Reactor

    The development of fast neutron benchmarks is a historical aim of reactor physics. The dry experimental tube situated in the central region of the core in TRIGA Annular-Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR) offers a suitable neutron source for fast neutron benchmark development. Our proposal consists in mounting a high-enriched uranium annular converter into the dry channel of the core. Preliminary computations and measurements are presented in this paper. Neutron flux computations in the dry channel and the uranium converter were performed using MCNP and WIMS codes. Also neutron flux spectrum measurements and fast and thermal neutron flux distribution measurements were performed using foil activation techniques. (authors)

  7. Operational experience data base of TRIGA Mark II reactor

    Two kinds of operational data available from operator logs: component failure-event data and abnormal event scenario information can be effectively used in PSA. Most operating data collection systems are aimed at improving the safety and availability of research reactors or commercial plants. This paper describes our failure-event data collection scheme, suitable for reliability and safety evaluations. Following the proposed data collection scheme the last five years operational experience was analysed and computerized data base for Triga Mark II reactor was developed. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of TRIGA reactor thermal power calibration method

    Analysis of thermal power method of the nuclear instrumentation of the TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana is described. Thermal power calibration was performed at different power levels and at different conditions. Different heat loss processes from the reactor pool to the surrounding are considered. It is shown that the use of proper calorimetric calibration procedure and the use of heat loss corrections improve the accuracy of the measurement. To correct the position of the control rods, perturbation factors are introduced. It is shown that the use of the perturbation factors enables power readings from nuclear instrumentation with accuracy better than without corrections.(author)

  9. The Berkeley TRIGA Mark III research reactor

    The Berkeley Research Reactor went critical on August 10, 1966, and achieved licensed operating power of 1000 kW shortly thereafter. Since then, the reactor has operated, by and large, trouble free on a one-shift basis. The major use of the reactor is in service irradiations, and many scientific programs are accommodated, both on and off campus. The principal off-campus user is the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. The reactor is also an important instructional tool in the Nuclear Engineering Department reactor experiments laboratory course, and as a source of radioisotopes for two other laboratory courses given by the Department. Finally, the reactor is used in several research programs conducted within the Department, involving studies with neutron beams and in reactor kinetics

  10. Radiation sources generated by TRIGA - INR reactor operation

    The main radioisotopes occurring in TRIGA reactor and in its accessories and irradiation devices during reactor operation, that determine the radiation fields in the adjacent technological halls are presented. The source data covering, the period November 1979 to May 200, were gamma spectrometric analysis reports for the liquid radioactive waste as well as analysis reports of water, gas or refuse samples and filters for radioactive aerosols retained from installations and adjacent rooms. The main radiation sources inside the reactor building are: - fission products; - radioactive wastes; - from the reactor cooling water and water additions (intrinsic activation products); - activated products of corrosion leavings. These radiation sources are analyzed in details and their occurrence and strength interpreted as probes of reactor operation. For instance, occurrence of delayed neutrons in cooling systems indicates can failure

  11. 25 years operation experience at TRIGA reactor, Inr-Pitesti

    During the 25 years of operation of the TRIGA-2-PITESTI REACTOR no events with major impact on the nuclear safety, on personnel or on population and environment occurred, this was possible because the reactor operation was done according to, and using: a) a set of internal technical and administrative procedures, b) national regulatory body safety standards, c) quality assurance management system licensed by Lloyd's Register, d) IAEA recommendations, e) the reactor operation and the fissile material handling under safeguard of IAEA, f) a new physical protection system was built with IAEA and DOE assistance and g) personnel training and evaluation program. The main aspects of the reactor operation such as core configuration, fuel elements safety management, refueling mixed core, reactor utilization, spent fuel storage and transport are briefly reviewed. (nevyjel)

  12. SANS facility at the PITESTI 14MW TRIGA reactor

    At the present time, an important not yet fully exploited potentiality is represented by the SANS instruments existent at lower power reactors and reactors in developing countries even if they are, generally, endowed with a simpler equipment and are characterized by the lack of infrastructure to maintain and repair high technology accessories. The application of SANS at lower power reactors and in developing countries nevertheless is possible in well selected topics where only a restricted Q range is required, when scattering power is expected to be sufficiently high or when the sample size can be increased at the expense of resolution. The need for the installation of a new SANS facility at the Triga Reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Researches in Pitesti, Romania become actual especially after the shutting down of the VVRS Reactor from Bucharest

  13. Maintenance programme and periodic inspection of reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has been safely operated since 1983. The safety of RTP requires provisions in order to facilitate maintenance and appropriate functional testing and inspection. During the operation of RTP lifetime, maintenance, periodic testing and inspection are required to ensure the adequacy of safety status of the reactor and compliance with the operational limits and conditions (OLCs). To help achieve these objectives, several measures such as preventive, corrective, annual and semi-annual maintenance and condition based maintenance have been carried out to maintain the reactor systems towards successful and safe operation of RTP. This paper will report the current practice of RTP maintenance and also to share experience and problems to fulfill safety operation of reactor. In the future, a well structured and systematic maintenance program will be needed as a strategy to shorten the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor. (Author)

  14. Refurbishment and Modernisation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor and Lessons Learnt

    The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor first became critical in June 1982, and has been in operation since then. Over the years, several of the reactor systems, structures and components (SSCs) experience ageing and obsolescence problems and had to be refurbished, replaced or modernised. Initially refurbishment or replacements were carried out with SSCs of equivalent quality or capability. Subsequently SSCs were replaced with higher specification to allow for future upgrading of the reactor. Features of new SSCs should include all features of SSCs to be replaced and consider human machine interface to avoid any incidents. Lessons learnt over the years have been applied to the reactor control console modernisation project. In this project the involvement of our personnel during the design, fabrication and testing stages will enable us to have the capability to solve any associated problems with minimal vendor involvement. The close cooperation between regulators of Malaysia and vendor country was also beneficial to ensure that the project meet international safety standards

  15. Ageing Management in the CENM Triga Mark II Research Reactor

    Physical ageing is one of the most important factors that may reduce the safety margins calculated in the design of safety system components of a research reactor. In this context, special efforts are necessary for ensuring the safety of research reactors through appropriate ageing management actions. The paper deals with the overall aspects of the ageing management system of the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The management system covers among others, management of structures, critical components inspections, the control command system and nuclear instrumentation verification. The paper presents also how maintenance and periodic testing are organized and managed in the reactor module. Practical examples of ageing management actions of some systems and components during recent years are presented. (author)

  16. The reactor noise analysis for a TRIGA Mark-II

    For the purpose of measurement of reactor kinetic parameter, rossi-α experiment in TRIGA Mark-II reactor are performed. The past neutron noise measurement which is using HARDWARE have had defects of inaccuracy. In this study, I developed SOFTWARE to betterment of these defects and using it investigated α which is reciprocal of prompt period. To collect neutron pulses, developed data acquisition system using 16 bit personal computer (IBM-AT) and developed pascal language program to analysis neutron pulses. As a result of experiment, α is 103, 5, 155.6, 172.7, 238.7, 266.5 (1/sec) at -1, -20, -40, -60, -80, (cent) respectively, and compare it with other experiment data convinced accurate, know S/B ratio must be larger then 10% and in case of thermal reactor, low power reactor such as AGN-201 is needed to neutron noise analysis. (Author)

  17. The optimal control of ITU TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    In this study, optimal control of ITU TRIGA Mark-II Reactor is discussed. A new controller has been designed for ITU TRIGA Mark-II Reactor. The controller consists of main and auxiliary controllers. The form is based on Pontragyn's Maximum Principle and the latter is based on PID approach. For the desired power program, a cubic function is chosen. Integral Performance Index includes the mean square of error function and the effect of selected period on the power variation. YAVCAN2 Neutronic - Thermal -Hydraulic code is used to solve the equations, namely 11 equations, dealing with neutronic - thermal - hydraulic behavior of the reactor. For the controller design, a new code, KONTCAN, is written. In the application of the code, it is seen that the controller controls the reactor power to follow the desired power program. The overshoot value alters between 100 W and 500 W depending on the selected period. There is no undershoot. The controller rapidly increases reactivity, then decreases, after that increases it until the effect of temperature feedback is compensated. Error function varies between 0-1 kW. (author)

  18. Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor

    Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

    2010-06-01

    To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24°C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

  19. Impact of a security event at a TRIGA reactor

    Highlights: • The fission product inventories of the TRIGA reactor were evaluated by Origen-Arp. • A security event was considered to happen in the reactor. • Atmospheric dispersion is done by RASCAL, HOTSPOT and GENII to evaluate the dose. • A significant difference among codes’ results is found. • Emergency actions for the near residential area are founded. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the study of the impact of security-related events and their consequences for research reactors, with particular emphasis on the off-site effects. The study case is done for the ENEA-Casaccia TRIGA RC-1 research reactor near Rome. The RC-1 Safety Report includes three different safety-related accident scenarios, namely the insertion of a step of positive reactivity, the uncontrolled extraction of all control rods at start-up or during a power variation and the emptying of the reactor pool. None of these scenarios imply radioactive releases at all. In this work, the focus is instead the description of the worst case scenario related to a security event and its consequences. Several possible scenarios have been analysed, however, the physical protection measures deter intrusions and, as shown by the Safety Report, even sabotage actions with major effects such as, the emptying of the reactor pool have no consequences on the fuel integrity. For these reasons, the worst security-related scenario considered in this work is a large plane crash with the complete destruction of the reactor hall and the reactor core. Propagation of the source term to the environment and the effective dose calculations have been performed using RASCAL, HOTSPOT and GENII codes following the ICRP-60 standards

  20. PUSPATI Triga Reactor - First year in operation

    First year operation of RTP reactor was mostly devoted to making in house training, setting up and testing the facilities in preparation for more routine operations. Generally the operations are categorized into 4 main purposes; experiment of research, teaching and training, demonstration, and testing and maintenance. These four purposes are elaborated in detail. Additions and modifications were performed in order to improve the safety of reactor operation. (A.J.)

  1. Dose Distribution Mapping at Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    Reactor has been classified as one of the radiation control area in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Currently, to monitor the radiation and contamination level of the environment around reactor, an area radiation monitoring (ARM) system has been installed in several strategic locations. Besides that, monthly dose exposure was also measured in certain areas by Health Physics Group using thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD). Most of these devices were installed at the reactor building wall or wide from working areas. Hence, there are possibilities that radiation workers may exposed to higher radiological risk compared to the values measured in these devices. In this study, dose rate distribution was determined in reactor hall. A 1x1 meter grid was used to locate the reading spots for the dose distribution mapping. Measurement was made using portable gamma survey meter (Ludlum Model 5) at ground level and 1 meter from ground. These data development may contribute in the planning of suitable working time in reactor hall area and reduce the chances of receiving annual dose exposure exceeding the recommended limit among the radiation workers. (author)

  2. Thermal Hydraulic Calculation Of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    Thermal hydraulic calculation for 1 MW (thermal) PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor will be carried out using COOLOD-N2. COOLOD-N2 was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency and this code has capability in calculating fuel temperature distribution, coolant temperature heat flux as well as departure nucleate boiling (DNB) heat flux. For the case of RTP, the parameter such as cladding and fuel meat temperature, inlet and outlet coolant temperature was calculated in order to obtain the heat flux and DNB ratio. This paper will discuss and compare the steady state thermal hydraulic calculation for RTP and some safety parameters stated in RTP Safety Analysis Report (SAR). (author)

  3. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program

  4. Emergency intervention plan for 14 MW TRIGA - PITESTI Research Reactor

    A 14 Mw TRIGA research reactor is operated on the Institute for Nuclear Research site. In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency that may affect the public the effectiveness of protective actions depends on the adequacy of intervention plans prepared in advance. Considerable planning is necessary to reduce to manageable levels the types of decisions leading to effective responses to protect the public in such an event. The essential structures of our on-site, off-site and county emergency intervention plan and the correlation between emergency intervention plans are presented. (author)

  5. The SANS facility at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor

    The SANS facility existing at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor is presented. The main characteristics and the preliminary evaluation of the installation performances are given. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A ≤ λ ≤ 5 A is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. A fruitful partnership was established between INR Pitesti (Romania) and JINR Dubna (Russia). The first step in this cooperation consists in the manufacturing in Dubna of a battery of gas-filled positional detectors devoted to the SANS instrument

  6. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    Ramli, Nurhayati, E-mail: nurhayati@nm.gov.my; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum [Reactor Technology Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Maskin, Mazleha [Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal [Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  7. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    Ramli, Nurhayati; Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  8. Monte Carlo analysis of Musashi TRIGA mark II reactor core

    Matsumoto, Tetsuo [Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Musashi Institute of Technology, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The analysis of the TRIGA-II core at the Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (Musashi reactor, 100 kW) was performed by the three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP4A). Effective multiplication factors (k{sub eff}) for the several fuel-loading patterns including the initial core criticality experiment, the fuel element and control rod reactivity worth as well as the neutron flux measurements were used in the validation process of the physical model and neutron cross section data from the ENDF/B-V evaluation. The calculated k{sub eff} overestimated the experimental data by about 1.0%{delta}k/k for both the initial core and the several fuel-loading arrangements. The calculated reactivity worths of control rod and fuel element agree well the measured ones within the uncertainties. The comparison of neutron flux distribution was consistent with the experimental ones which were measured by activation methods at the sample irradiation tubes. All in all, the agreement between the MCNP predictions and the experimentally determined values is good, which indicated that the Monte Carlo model is enough to simulate the Musashi TRIGA-II reactor core. (author)

  9. Accident scenarios of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna

    The safety report of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna includes three accident scenarios and their deterministic dose consequence to the environment. The destruction of the most activated fuel element, the destruction of all fuel elements and a plane crash were treated scenarios in that report. The calculations were made in 1978 with the computer program STRISK. In this work, the program package PC COSYMA was applied on the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna and the deterministic consequences of the scenarios to the environment were updated. The fission product inventories of all fuel elements were taken from a calculation with ORIGEN2. To get meteorological data of the atmospheric condition around the release area, a weather station was installed. The release parameters were taken from the safety report or were replaced by worst case parameters. Further on, a fourth scenario for the case of a small plane crash was added. For the sake of completeness all scenarios were calculated with different atmospheric conditions. In this paper only two accident scenarios are presented, the destruction of the fuel element with the highest activity content and the case of a large plane crash, which means a totally destruction of the reactor hall. (author)

  10. Spent fuel situation at the ASTRA Seibersdorf and the TRIGA Vienna research reactors

    In the past decades Austria operated three research reactors, the 10 MW ASTRA reactor at Seibersdorf, the 250 kW TRIGA reactor at the Atomic Institut Vienna and the 1 kW Argonaut reactor at the Technical University in Graz. Since the shut down on July 31st, 1999 and decommissioning of the ASTRA reactor and the shut down of the ARGONAUT reactor Graz on July 31, 2004 only the TRIGA reactor remains operational. The MTR fuel elements of the ASTRA reactor have been shipped in spring 2001 to Savannah River and the fuel plates from the ARGONAUT reactor Graz in December 2005 under the DOE fuel return programme. (author)

  11. AFRRI TRIGA Reactor water quality monitoring program

    AFRRI has started a water quality monitoring program to provide base line data for early detection of tank leaks. This program revealed problems with growth of algae and bacteria in the pool as a result of contamination with nitrogenous matter. Steps have been taken to reduce the nitrogen levels and to kill and remove algae and bacteria from the reactor pool. (author)

  12. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Parry, D.R.; England, M.R.; Ward, A. [BNFL, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Green, D. [ICI Chemical Polymers Ltd, Billingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  13. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  14. Computer codes used during upgrading activities at MINT TRIGA reactor

    Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Adnan Bokhari; Mohd. Idris Taib [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Kajang (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    MINT TRIGA Reactor is a 1-MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor commissioned in 1982. In 1993, a project was initiated to upgrade the thermal power to 2 MW. The IAEA assistance was sought to assist the various activities relevant to an upgrading exercise. For neutronics calculations, the IAEA has provided expert assistance to introduce the WIMS code, TRIGAP, and EXTERMINATOR2. For thermal-hydraulics calculations, PARET and RELAP5 were introduced. Shielding codes include ANISN and MERCURE. However, in the middle of 1997, MINT has decided to change the scope of the project to safety upgrading of the MINT Reactor. This paper describes some of the activities carried out during the upgrading process. (author)

  15. Assessment of TRIGA pulsing reactor safety without loss of coolant

    The fuel temperature, fuel can pressure and cladding stresses in the TRIGA fuel elements at various transient states has in part been measured and semiempirically estimated in cases where no experiments could be carried out. To the end of obtaining more reliable and up-to-date data and reactor parameters, reactor power and fuel temperatures were measured both at steady and transient states, including pulsing up to 280 MW. A novel and more realistic model for the fuel temperature at pulsing was also presented and used in the assessments. Based on the present assessment with the water coolant present and a maximum excess reactivity of (Δksub(max)/β = ) 4 $, no reactivity induced transients can bring about any undue hazards to the reactor or to the surroundings. (author)

  16. Neutronic Analysis of the 3 MW TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor, Part II: Benchmark Analysis of TRIGA Experiments

    The three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used to develop a versatile and accurate full-core model of the TRIGA MARK II research reactor at AERE, Savar. Thr consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics was established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Analysis of neutron flux and reactivity experiments comprising control rod worths, critical rod height, excess reactivity and shutdown margin were used in the validation process. Calculations of fast neutron flux, and fuel and graphite element worths distribution are also presented. Good agreement between the experiments and MCNP calculations indicate that the simulation of TRIGA reactor is treated adequately. (author)

  17. PSA application for the scram system of Romanian TRIGA Reactor

    The paper is dedicated to the fault tree analysis of the scram system in TRIGA-INR Pitesti reactor. It is a brief description of the scram system which involves instrumentation, mechanical, electrical,and control devices. The failure criteria considered is fail to drop 5 of 8 control rods. Fault tree was developed using immediate cause principle. The reliability data base used is developed in INR Pitesti based on the IAEA data available. The fault tree was analyzed by an original PC code developed for Romanian PSA program. The dominant for this fault tree appeared to be the human errors. This deserves a sensitivity analysis. If we do not consider the CCF errors contribution, the system computed unavailability is: A = 1.25 · 10-7. The failure rate is 1.087 · 10-2 eV/1000 yr. The mean time between failures is 105 years. Taking in the account roads stuck common cause failure, unavailability will increase by two magnitude orders, A = 3.02 · 10-5. We considered this number still provides a reassuring mean time between failures. This value is within the limits accepted by similar scram system studies, but is higher than the value obtained in a similar way for the TRIGA reactor of University of Texas. The reason was the taking into account in our case the human error and CCF

  18. Comparing failure rates in different research reactors including Romanian TRIGA SSR Reactor

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a tool for evaluating and enhancing the safety of a nuclear reactor. In general, the PSA is used to support the system design, configuration decisions and the operational safety management of the plant. Ideally, the failure data used for safety and reliability analyses should be based on site-specific data. The paper presents failure rates for some components, both stand-alone taken from Romanian TRIGA SSR Reactor Data Collection and in comparison with other research reactors, as well as statistics pertaining to the failures and failure modes of the investigated components. Most of the work in the purpose of obtaining reliability data for Romanian TRIGA as well as for different research reactors was performed during IAEA Coordinated Research Project: 'Update and Expand Reliability database for research reactors for PSA use' (2000-2004). (authors)

  19. Operation and maintenance experiences at the C.R.E. Casaccia TRIGA reactor

    The memoir explains TRIGA RC-1 plant activities from last European TRIGA Users' Conference till today. In particular, measures following reactor exercise license renewing (March 1987) are described. Finally, difficulties and measures about shielding tank's water funguses and spores contamination, are explained. (author)

  20. On Line Measurement of Reactivity Worth of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor Control Rods

    Nusrat Jahan; Mamunur M. Rashid; F. Ahmed; M. G. S. Islam; M. Aliuzzaman; Islam, S.M.A

    2011-01-01

    The reactivity worth measurement system for control rods of the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor of Bangladesh has been design and developed. The theory of the kinetic technique of measuring reactivity has been used by this measurement system. The system comprises of indigenous hardware and software for online acquisition of neutron flux signals from reactor console and then computes the reactivity worth accordingly. Here for the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor, the reactivity measurement system...

  1. Experience, status and future of the computerized reactor instrumentation at the TRIGA reactor Vienna

    The paper describes the 33 years old history of the instrumentation of the TRIGA reactor Vienna and focuses on the present computerized instrumentation installed in 1992. The experience of three years of operation is discussed and some of the failures are analyzed. Potential future problems both with soft- and hardware as well as with spare part supplies are analyzed. (author). 6 figs

  2. STAR 3D nodal kinetics and thermal-hydraulic model for the Pennsylvania State TRIGA reactor

    A detailed three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent STAR nodal kinetics model coupled to a one-dimensional (1 D) thermal-hydraulics WIGL model has been developed to describe conservatively the peak power and pulse behavior of the Penn State University (PSU) Breazeale TRIGA reactor. This paper describes how the STAR model and its cross section data input was developed and benchmarked against actual TRIGA pulse experiments. Different core configurations (i.e., different core loading patterns, and with/without the TRIGA core next to the D20 tank) were used for several TRIGA pulse tests with different reactivity insertion worths (1.5$, 2.0$ , 2.5$). This paper shows that the STAR nodal kinetics code adequately simulates TRIGA pulses when group constants are generated from physics codes (i.e., WIMS-D4) that can accurately model the TRIGA uranium-zirconium-hydride fuel. (author)

  3. Conceptual design of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in the thermalizing column of TRIGA reactor

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of the epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials in thermalising column (TC) of TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The results prove, that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in TC/DC of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients.(author)

  4. Transportation of radioactive materials from TRIGA reactors - operational considerations and regulatory problems: The situation at the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor

    General information regarding transportation of radioactive materials is presented with the idea that not everyone in our audience is fully conversant with the complexities and impact of current transportation requirements. Certain considerations and problems associated with OSU's program for the transportation of radioactive materials are briefly described. The roundtable discussion entitled: 'Transportation of Radioactive Materials from TRIGA Reactors - Operational Considerations and Regulatory Problems', at the Sixth TRIGA Owner's Conference, Corvallis, Oregon, February 27 to March 1, 1978 is attached

  5. About the safety analysis of Istanbul TRIGA Mark II reactor

    The accidents potentially related to the operation of TRIGA Mark-II reactor have been analysed in Safety Analysis Report of ITU Research Reactor, with special consideration being given to site characteristics. The maximum credible accident which can take place in a swimming pool type research reactor - accidental dropping of a fuel element into of the critical reactor core - is considered. In the safety analysis of pool type reactors BORAX accident is also included. The following events are abnormal incidents that should be taken into account: 1. Cladding rupture. 2. Reactivity accident. 3. Loss of coolant accident. Fission product release during an accident is analysed. Even though the possibility is believed to be exceedingly remote, the most unfavourable assumptions are made: the rapid insertion of the total excess' reactivity in the reactor operating at a power less then 1 kW; Coincidence of the reactivity insertion and loss of coolant accident; Cladding rupture occurring at one of the highest power density fuel elements as a consequence; Emergency ventilation system failure, leading to a vanishing filter efficiency. It is shown that, even under this most unfavourable condition, the maximum radiation to which the nearby inhabitants will be subjected, is 3.8 x 10-2 mRem per 1/2 hr. Even in the hypothetical case of the coincidence of four abnormal incidents the resulting radiation dose to the population does not exceed much the magnitude of the permissible dose of the ICRP recommendations

  6. Key role of TRIGA reactors in nuclear development in Romania

    Nuclear Power successful use depends on research and development directed toward ensuring that technology in all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle which is appropriate as well as the safety systems to protect the public and the environment. The Institute for Nuclear Research is the Romanian centre for research and development in the field of nuclear power and materials testing. To achieve the main objective - development of the scientific and technological support for the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Project - the INR main activities are directed toward: Reactor Physics - development of methods and computer codes for commissioning, in-core fuel management and safety analyses; Nuclear Fuel Cycle - performance evaluation in normal and abnormal operation conditions, irradiation tests, advanced fuels, structural materials studies; Out-of-pile Testing - fuelling machine heads and other NPS equipment testing (ultrasonic, eddy current and acoustic emission non-destructive testing); Radioactive Waste Management - low and medium level wastes treatment, conditioning and storage and decontamination methods; Radiation Protection - personnel exposure and environmental monitoring and assessment. In 1973 a contract was concluded with General Atomics to build a Research and Testing Reactor in Romania. The construction of the reactor started by the end of 1974, with a large contribution of Romanian industry. The reactor construction and pre-operational tests was completed in 1979; at the end of the same year, the reactor reached its first criticality. Since that time, the 14 MW steady state reactor was the most powerful TRIGA in the world and remains so. Twelve years of reactor operation will be soon celebrated. During this period, the reactor was operated successfully in a heavy duty cycle in order to test the experimental nuclear fuel, nuclear materials as well for irradiation of thousands of samples for electronic and electrotechnical industry needed for nuclear power plant in

  7. Environmental impact assessment around TRIGA research reactor

    Population distribution, atmospheric change, X/Q, characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem around Seoul site were surveyed. Environmental radiation and radioactivities such as grossα, grossβ, Cs-137, Sr-90 and H-3 of various environmental samples were analyzed. The values of environmental radiation dose tended to increase gradually in the light of the recent five years' results of environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear power plants from 1980 to 1984, however, the changes were not significant. In addition, continuous assessment of environmental radiation monitoring on the roofs of main building and life science building at KAERI showed that the environmental radiation dose tended to increase a little during the night time. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that environmental contamination level by radioactive materials could be ignored in the case of radioisotope production or experiment using radioisotopes except the release of gaseous radioactive materials such as Ar-41 of short half life by the operation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  8. Oregon State TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) console upgrading

    It was decided in the summer of 1977 to replace and upgrade part of the electronics of the OSTR console. The console was the original system installed in 1967 when the reactor first went critical. Although it was generally quite reliable, maintenance was becoming more frequent, and locating spare and replacement parts was getting very difficult. The upgrading would replace the majority of the system with new, state- of-the-art electronics. The new, upgrading package consisted of replacing the left-hand console electronics drawer; specifically: 1. The present multirange linear channel using an ion chamber was replaced by a new 9.5-decade linear channel driven by a fission chamber. No scram features are on the new linear channel. 2. The present multirange log channel with a period circuit using an ion chamber was replaced by a new 10-decade wide- range log channel, also with a period circuit, driven by a fission chamber. The same fission chamber drives the new linear and wide-range log channels. 3. The present count-rate (startup) channel using a fission chamber was removed. Its function was taken over by the new wide-range log and linear channels. 4. A new safety channel with scram capability, driven by an ion chamber, was added. 5. A new fuel element temperature circuit with scram capability was added. The upgrading package was ordered in February 1978 and installation was completed in January 1980. One of the biggest time delays in the process was the NRC review time of the Technical Specifications amendment that was requested for this change. The actual installation of the new package required five weeks, including functional testing. The linearity of the new instrument systems is excellent, and the wide-range capability of the new log and linear channels provides increased operational flexibility and accuracy, especially when a low power run immediately follows a high power run. (author)

  9. Study on neutronic safety parameters of BAEC TRIGA research reactor

    Highlights: • The control rod worth is measured using the positive period method. • Core excess reactivities are measured at different power levels. • Shut down margin of the reactor has been determined. • Fuel and water temperatures are measured at different power levels. • All the safety parameters are compared with the safety analysis report of the reactor. - Abstract: Measurement and validation of safety parameters of a nuclear reactor are required for reactor start up, normal power operation, experimental research and shutdown. The reactivity of the control rod is one of the important parameters for management of reactor operations, and is used for the prediction of control rod position at startup and the estimation of the core excess reactivity during the reactor operation. In this study, some reactor safety parameters such as control rod worth, core excess reactivity, shutdown margin, reactivity changes by fuel and control rods, and temperature effect on reactivity has been measured using digital instrumentation & control (I&C) system of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor (BTRR). All of these safety parameters have significant effects on the reactor control system. The measured total worth of all control rods of BTRR are 14.888 $, 14.672 $, 14.348 $ for 1.5 folding time, doubling time, 5 folding time, respectively. The measured reactivity has also been compared with the previously measured reactivity. The core excess reactivity and shutdown margin were found to be 6.38 $ and 5.20 $, respectively. The measured values were found to be within the safety limit as mentioned in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of the BTRR

  10. Operating history and experience at the Penn State TRIGA reactor

    Reactor operation began at Penn State with the startup of the first University Park reactor. The first core was assembled from typical MTR fuel elements, and logged 2200 MW hours during its life. In the early 1960's, a concern for the integrity of the fuel assemblies, and a desire for increased capability developed. As a result, funding was obtained for a new core, and after a study of various alternatives the TRIGA reactor was selected. The new core and control system was installed in December of 1965 and on December 31, the 'new' Penn State reactor was loaded to criticality. The present low excess reactivity is not an operational problem because the reactor is operated on a two shift basis five days a week and is often operated at low power levels for various experiments, laboratory classes and training. Problems due to activation were experienced in December of 1968, when a detailed inspection of the core structure was accomplished. The objective of this was to reveal any deterioration of the structure. It was found that such an inspection was quite feasible

  11. Upgraded reactor systems for enhanced safety at TRIGA-INR

    After almost three decades of operation of stationary TRIGA 14MW with systems provided and installed at reactor first start-up, it appeared obvious that an extended modernization program is required, both for enhancing the nuclear safety and to expand the facility lifetime. A first step has been achieved through complete HEU to LEU core conversion, meaning also core refuelling possibility for the future. Systems that have been subjected to the upgrading program are: control rods, radiation monitoring, data acquisition and processing, ventilation, irradiation devices, and above all, the outstanding modernization of the I and C system, including a brand new reactor control desk. Taking into account own and research reactors community operation experience, IAEA guides and recommendations, the basic requirement for the Instrumentation and Control System is the separation between safety and operation components, in order to decrease human error consequences and avoid common cause failures. Modernization did not cover any sensor replacement, but preserve the present scram logic and conditions (as given and approved in the Safety Report and Licensed Limits and Conditions) The entire modernization program is performed according to QA system. Out of intrinsic nuclear safety enhancement, enhanced population and environment protection is a concern and an expected result of the program. Upgrading the overall performances of the reactor and extending its operational lifetime, the Reactor Department of Institute will be able to perform competitive irradiation tests for nuclear fuel and materials, and to continue to develop nuclear investigation techniques or isotope production. (author)

  12. Perturbation analysis of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    The safety design of a nuclear reactor needs to maintain the steady state operation at desired power level. The safe and reliable reactor operation demands the complete knowledge of the core multiplication and its changes during the reactor operation. Therefore it is frequently of interest to compute the changes in core multiplication caused by small disturbances in the field of reactor physics. These disturbances can be created either by geometry or composition changes of the core. Fortunately if these changes (or perturbations) are very small, one does not have to repeat the reactivity calculations. This article focuses the study of small perturbations created in the Central Irradiation Channel (CIC) of the TRIGA mark II core to investigate their reactivity influences on the core reactivity. For this purpose, 3 different kinds of perturbations are created by inserting 3 different samples in the CIC. The cylindrical void (air), heavy water (D2O) and Cadmium (Cd) samples are inserted into the CIC separately to determine their neutronics behavior along the length of the core. The Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code (MCNP) is applied to simulate these perturbations in the CIC. The MCNP theoretical predictions are verified by the experiments performed on the current reactor core. The behavior of void in the whole core and its dependence on position and water fraction is also presented in this article. (orig.)

  13. Perturbation analysis of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    Khan, R. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Villa, M.; Stummer, T.; Boeck, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Atominstitut; Saeedbadshah [International Islamic Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-04-15

    The safety design of a nuclear reactor needs to maintain the steady state operation at desired power level. The safe and reliable reactor operation demands the complete knowledge of the core multiplication and its changes during the reactor operation. Therefore it is frequently of interest to compute the changes in core multiplication caused by small disturbances in the field of reactor physics. These disturbances can be created either by geometry or composition changes of the core. Fortunately if these changes (or perturbations) are very small, one does not have to repeat the reactivity calculations. This article focuses the study of small perturbations created in the Central Irradiation Channel (CIC) of the TRIGA mark II core to investigate their reactivity influences on the core reactivity. For this purpose, 3 different kinds of perturbations are created by inserting 3 different samples in the CIC. The cylindrical void (air), heavy water (D2O) and Cadmium (Cd) samples are inserted into the CIC separately to determine their neutronics behavior along the length of the core. The Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code (MCNP) is applied to simulate these perturbations in the CIC. The MCNP theoretical predictions are verified by the experiments performed on the current reactor core. The behavior of void in the whole core and its dependence on position and water fraction is also presented in this article. (orig.)

  14. Dual-core TRIGA research and materials testing reactor

    General Atomic Company is under contract from the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Technologies to design, fabricate, and install a research reactor in support of the Romanian National Program for Power Reactor Development. The goal was to select a design concept that provided reasonably high neutron fluxes for long term testing of various fuel-cladding-coolant combinations and also provide high performance pulsing for transient testing of fuel specimens. An effective solution was achieved by the selection of a 14 MW steady-state TRIGA reactor for high flux endurance testing, and an Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR) for high performance pulsing testing, with both reactors mounted in the same reactor tank and operated independently. The fuel bundles for the steady-state reactor consist of 25 uranium-zirconium hydride rods clad in stainless steel arranged in a square 5 x 5 array. The steady-state core is provided with downflow cooling at a rate of approximately 275 gpm/bundle. Bundle flow tests will be performed with both heated and unheated models. The core will be optimized for peak thermal neutron flux and reactivity lifetime within the constraint of a peak fuel meat temperature of 7500C. The operation of the steady-state reactor at a power level of 14 MW will yield peak unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes in the central experiment position of 2.9 x 1014 n/cm2-sec. The corresponding fast neutron flux (less than 1.125 keV) will be 2.6 x 1014 nv. (U.S.)

  15. Fuel burnup analysis for the Moroccan TRIGA research reactor

    Highlights: ► A fuel burnup analysis of the 2 MW TRIGA MARK II Moroccan research reactor was established. ► Burnup calculations were done by means of the in-house developed burnup code BUCAL1. ► BUCAL1 uses the MCNP tallies directly in the calculation of the isotopic inventories. ► The reactor life time was found to be 3360 MW h considering full power operating conditions. ► Power factors and fluxes of the in-core irradiation positions are strongly affected by burnup. -- Abstract: The fundamental advantage and main reason to use Monte Carlo methods for burnup calculations is the possibility to generate extremely accurate burnup dependent one group cross-sections and neutron fluxes for arbitrary core and fuel geometries. Yet, a set of values determined for a material at a given position and time remains accurate only in a local region, in which neutron spectrum and flux vary weakly — and only for a limited period of time, during which changes of the local isotopic composition are minor. This paper presents the approach of fuel burnup evaluation used at the Moroccan TRIGA MARK II research reactor. The approach is essentially based upon the utilization of BUCAL1, an in-house developed burnup code. BUCAL1 is a FORTRAN computer code designed to aid in analysis, prediction, and optimization of fuel burnup performance in nuclear reactors. The code was developed to incorporate the neutron absorption reaction tally information generated directly by MCNP5 code in the calculation of fissioned or neutron-transmuted isotopes for multi-fueled regions. The fuel cycle length and changes in several core parameters such as: core excess reactivity, control rods position, fluxes at the irradiation positions, axial and radial power factors and other parameters are estimated. Besides, this study gives valuable insight into the behavior of the reactor and will ensure better utilization and operation of the reactor during its life-time and it will allow the establishment of

  16. Testing Of Secondary Cooling Component Of TRIGA Mark Reactor

    The aim of this activity is to improve the knowledge of the mechanical testing technology of the research reactor cooling pipe material. The way which was chosen is through a series of testing to know the mechanical properties of carbon steel pipe used in TRIGA-MARK II secondary cooling pipe. Scopes of these testing activities are tensile testing, hardness testing, chemical composition analysis, and metallography analysis. Visual examination shows that thickness of the pipe was reduced over the range 0.31-1.76 mm and there was scales inside the pipe about 7.1-9.1 mm. Result of the mechanical testing shows that ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and. hardness of that material are 39 kg mm2, 34 kg/mm2, 38 %, and HV161, respectively. That yield strength value is on the design range

  17. Activation of TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield

    To determine neutron activation inside the TRIGA research reactor concrete body a special sample-holder for irradiation inside horizontal channel was developed and tested. In the sample-holder various samples can be irradiated at different concrete shielding depths. In this paper the description of the sample-holder, experiment conditions and results of long-lived activation measurements are given. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides in the samples were measured with HPGe detector. The most active long-lived radioactive nuclides in ordinary concrete samples were found to be 60Co and 152Eu and in barytes concrete samples 60Co, 152Eu and 133Ba. Measured activity density of all nuclides was found to decrease almost linearly with depth in logarithmic scale. (author)

  18. Fast Sample Transportation Systems for INAA at TRIGA Reactors

    Ismail, S.S., E-mail: ismail@ati.ac.a [Atomic Institute, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    The facilities of short-time neutron activation analysis at the TRIGA Mark-II (250 kW) reactor of Atomic Institute-Vienna were completely reconstructed to implement the new generation of digital gamma spectrometers, to facilitate the analysis of large samples, to enhance the sensitivity and the quality of measurements, to develop modern and fast control units, to implement moveable neutron filters for thermal-/epithermal irradiation, to implement moveable counting chambers for accurate analysis at high count rates and to develop software packages for fully-automatic analysis. The quality and performance of the facilities were tested using radioactive sources and standard reference materials. The results indicate the effective and dynamic operation of the new irradiation-counting facilities. (author)

  19. Power spectra of stochastic signals in reactor TRIGA

    On TRIGA Mark II reactor measurements and analyses of some stochastic signals were performed to determine their reference spectra in the frequency band from 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz. Autopower spectra of neutron flux fluctuations were computed for full power and for 50 KW and 5 KW at different cooling conditions. The spectra show a significant resonance at the frequency of 2.3 Hz which dependence on the state of the cooling system. To determine the cause of the resonance vibrations of coolant water inlet pipe, ionization chamber and control rod were also investigated. Reference power spectra of these vibrations were found and only a slight correlation between the ionization chamber and control rod vibrations and the resonance were established. Since control rod vibration are most probable cause of the resonance preliminary measurements of control rod vibrations should be improved to prove this hypothesis

  20. Planned Scientific programs around the Triga Mark 2 Reactor

    Full text: Nuclear techniques have been introduced to Morocco since the sixties. After the energy crisis of 1973, Morocco decides to create the National Center for Energy Sciences and Nuclear Techniques (CNESTEN) under the supervision of the Ministry of high Education and Research, with a research commercial and support vocation. CNESTEN is in charge of promoting nuclear application, to act as technical support for the authorities and to prepare the technological basis for nuclear power option. In 1998, CNESTEN started the construction of Nuclear Research Centre. The on going activities cover many sectors : earth and environmental sciences, high energy physics, safety and security, waste management. In 2001, CNESTEN started the construction of a 2MW TRiga Mark 2 Reactor, with the possibility to increase the power to 3 MW. The construction was achieved in January 2007. The operation of the reactor is expected for April 2007. The program of the utilization of the reactor was established with th contribution of the university and with the assistance of IAEA. Some of the experimental set-up installed around the reactor have been designed. CNESTEN has developed cooperation with Nuclear research centres from other countries and is receiving visitors and trainees mainly through the IAEA

  1. TRIGA reactor relocation at the University of Texas at Austin

    The University of Texas at Austin (UT) is in the process of relocating its TRIGA reactor facilities. This undertaking includes the construction of a new reactor building with laboratories and offices and the decommissioning of the existing facility. The main campus of The University of Texas at Austin is becoming congested, and several major research projects (mostly engineering) are moving to the Balcones Research Center ∼ 8 miles from the main campus. The process of constructing a new nuclear facility in today's regulatory environment can best be described as challenging. Fortunately, research reactor licensing is not as complicated as that for commercial power facilities, although many procedures are similar. Unfortunately, the university has its own challenging procedures for building construction. Considerable time has been expended coordinating the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and UT licensing and construction activities. The paper summarizes the major steps and dates accomplished. The new reactor facility at the Balcones Research Center will enhance the universities ability to carry on teaching and research activities. The increased power level and the Mark II arrangement will allow us to perform new and additional projects. Considerable time and effort were devoted by the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory staff to ensure that the facility would provide educational and research flexibility over the next several years

  2. Analysis of cocked fuel elements in the AFRRI TRIGA Mark-F reactor

    The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) TRIGA Mark-F pulsing reactor has experienced eight cocked fuel elements during the period 5 November 1974 through 17 February 1982. Although there are no adverse health and safety consequences associated with their occurrence and there is no credible potential for system damage, cocked TRIGA fuel elements do cause inconvenience to the reactor staff and a temporary delay in operations. This paper presents the history of cocked TRIGA fuel elements at AFRRI, discusses possible mechanisms for their occurrence, and outlines a plan to isolate and ultimately determine their actual cause

  3. 44 years of operation - The successful fuel history of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    A review is given on the fuel element situation of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna after 44 years of operation. Since March 7th, 1962, the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna operates with an average of 263 MWh per year, which corresponds to a uranium burn-up of 11.5 g per year. Presently we have 82 TRIGA fuel elements in the core, 51 of them are old aluminium clad elements from the initial criticality while the rest are stainless steel clad elements which had been added later to compensate the uranium consumption. (author)

  4. Proposal of LDR Ir-192 Production in the TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor

    Karimzadeh, S.; Khan, R.; Boeck, H., E-mail: Sam.karimzadeh@ati.ac.a, E-mail: Nrustam@ati.ac.a, E-mail: Boeck@ati.ac.a [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics (ATI), Vienna University of Technology (TU-Vienna) Stadionallee 2, 1020-Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    The TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Vienna provides some irradiation positions with different flux distribution. In this regard, a case study is under investigation to appraise the possibility of medical radioisotope production in Vienna. For this purpose, neutron flux mapping and the axial neutron flux distribution are calculated by MCNP5 for the TRIGA Mark II core. This paper describes the feasibility of Low Dose Rate (LDR) {sup 192}Ir production in the core of the low power research reactor. (author)

  5. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and storage of TRIGA reg-sign reactor fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    In order to allow the shutdown of the Hanford 308 Building in the 300 Area, it is proposed to relocate fuel assemblies (101 irradiated, three unirradiated) from the Mark I TRIGA Reactor storage pool. The irradiated fuel assemblies would be stored in casks in the Interim Storage Area in the Hanford 400 Area; the three unirradiated ones would be transferred to another TRIGA reactor. The relocation is not expected to change the offsite exposure from all Hanford Site 300 and 400 Area operations

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of 3 MW TRIGA Research Reactor of Bangladesh Considering Different Cycles of Burnup

    M. H. Altaf; N.H. Badrun

    2014-01-01

    Burnup dependent steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of TRIGA Mark-II research reactor has been carried out utilizing coupled point kinetics, neutronics and thermal hydraulics code EUREKA-2/RR. From the previous calculations of neutronics parameters including percentage burnup of individual fuel elements performed so far for 700 MWD burnt core of TRIGA reactor showed that the fuel rod predicted as hottest at the beginning of cycle (fresh core) was found to remain as the hottest until 200 ...

  7. Proposal of LDR Ir-192 Production in the TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor

    The TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Vienna provides some irradiation positions with different flux distribution. In this regard, a case study is under investigation to appraise the possibility of medical radioisotope production in Vienna. For this purpose, neutron flux mapping and the axial neutron flux distribution are calculated by MCNP5 for the TRIGA Mark II core. This paper describes the feasibility of Low Dose Rate (LDR) 192Ir production in the core of the low power research reactor. (author)

  8. Numerical simulation of non-steady state neutron kinetics of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    Riede, Julia; Boeck, Helmuth

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for numerical simulations of non-steady states of the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna, Austria. The primary focus of this work has been the development of an algorithm which provides time series of integral neutron flux after reactivity changes introduced by perturbations without the usage of thermal-hydraulic / neutronic numerical code systems for the TRIGA reactor in Vienna, Austria. The algorithm presented takes into account both external reactivity changes...

  9. New practical exercises at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor

    Since the 1990s the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor has been extensively used for performing training in experimental reactor physics. In 2012 we upgraded some of the existing and introduced some new exercises. The pulse mode operation exercise was upgraded by installation of new data acquisition system. The critical experiment exercise was improved by adding a new detector inside the reactor core and changing the data acquisition system. Now we monitor neutron population with two independent fission chambers on different locations. In the past the void reactivity coefficient exercise was performed by inserting Al tube into various positions in the reactor core and measuring the corresponding reactivity changes. In order to make the exercise more realistic, we installed a pneumatic system for generating air bubbles just below the core. The aim of the exercise is to measure reactivity changes versus flow rate and air bubble position. The second new exercise was measurement of water activation. In this exercise we installed special system which pumps the water through the core at a constant flow rate to the reactor platform, where the water activity is measured. The purpose of the exercise is to measure the 16N and 19O gamma line intensity and dose rate versus reactor power. The third new exercise, named in core flux mapping, was performed by measuring the axial fission rate distribution at various radial positions in the core. We used CEA - developed mini fission chambers and a special home developed system for moving the fission chamber in axial direction and measuring the count rate versus fission chamber position. In the paper the experiments are presented together with results. (author)

  10. New burnup calculation of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, operates since 1960.The reactor is operating for more than fifty years and has a long history of operation. Determining the current composition of the fuel is very important to calculate various parameters. The reactor burnup calculation has been performed before, however, new techniques, methods, software and increase of the processing capacity of the new computers motivates new investigations to be performed. This work presents the evolution of effective multiplication constant and the results of burnup. This new model has a more detailed geometry with the introduction of the new devices, like the control rods and the samarium discs. This increase of materials in the simulation in burnup calculation was very important for results. For these series of simulations a more recently cross section library, ENDF/B-VII, was used. To perform the calculations two Monte Carlo particle transport code were used: Serpent and MCNPX. The results obtained from two codes are presented and compared with previous studies in the literature. (author)

  11. BNCT-Project at the Finnish TRIGA Reactor

    An epithermal neutron irradiation station for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) will be constructed in the thermal column of the Finnish Triga reactor. The first target of the BNCT at FiR 1 is the treatment of malignant brain tumors. The epithermal neutrons have the capability to penetrate deep into the brain tissue thermalizing at the same time. The thermal neutrons are captured by 10B-nuclei situated ideally in the tumor cells only and thus the reaction products destroy selectively only the tumor cells. The graphite filling of the thermal column will be replaced by a special moderator material: Al+AlF3. The moderator material and its thickness has been chosen so that the system produces as much as possible epithermal neutrons with low fast neutron and gamma contamination. Both fast neutrons and gamma radiation are harmful for the patient. To reduce the gamma radiation there is a lead-bismuth gamma shield at the outer end of the moderator block. In spite of the low power (250 kW) of the reactor the needed epithermal neutron dose to destroy the tumor will be accumulated in a reasonable time e.g. 0.5 to 1.5 h. This is possible because of the rather short distance between the reactor core and the irradiation target. (author)

  12. IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor decommissioning plan

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerning to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In this way the IAEA recommends that decommissioning planning should be part of all radioactive installation licensing process. There are over 200 research reactors that have either not operated for a considerable period of time and may never return to operation or, are close to permanent shutdown. Many countries do not have a decommissioning policy, and like Brazil not all installations have their decommissioning plan as part of the licensing documentation. Brazil is signatory of Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management, but until now there is no decommissioning policy, and specifically for research reactor there is no decommissioning guidelines in the standards. The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has a TRIGA Mark I Research Reactor IPR-R1 in operation for 47 years with 3.6% average fuel burn-up. The original power was 100 k W and it is being licensed for 250 k W, and it needs the decommissioning plan as part of the licensing requirements. In the paper it is presented the basis of decommissioning plan, an overview and the end state / final goal of decommissioning activities for the IPR-R1, and the Brazilian ongoing activities about this subject. (author)

  13. IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor decommissioning plan

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerning to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In this way the IAEA recommends that decommissioning planning should be part of all radioactive installation licensing process. There are over 200 research reactors that have either not operated for a considerable period of time and may never return to operation or, are close to permanent shutdown. Many countries do not have a decommissioning policy, and like Brazil not all installations have their decommissioning plan as part of the licensing documentation. Brazil is signatory of Joint Convention on the safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, but until now there is no decommissioning policy, and specifically for research reactor there is no decommissioning guidelines in the standards. The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has a TRIGA Mark I Research Reactor IPR-R1 in operation for 47 years with 3.6% average fuel burn-up. The original power was 100 kW and it is being licensed for 250 kW, and it needs the decommissioning plan as part of the licensing requirements. In the paper it is presented the basis of decommissioning plan, an overview and the end state / final goal of decommissioning activities for the IPR-R1, and the Brazilian ongoing activities about this subject. (author)

  14. New burnup calculation of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Campolina, Daniel de A.M.; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: sinclercdtn@hotmail.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, operates since 1960.The reactor is operating for more than fifty years and has a long history of operation. Determining the current composition of the fuel is very important to calculate various parameters. The reactor burnup calculation has been performed before, however, new techniques, methods, software and increase of the processing capacity of the new computers motivates new investigations to be performed. This work presents the evolution of effective multiplication constant and the results of burnup. This new model has a more detailed geometry with the introduction of the new devices, like the control rods and the samarium discs. This increase of materials in the simulation in burnup calculation was very important for results. For these series of simulations a more recently cross section library, ENDF/B-VII, was used. To perform the calculations two Monte Carlo particle transport code were used: Serpent and MCNPX. The results obtained from two codes are presented and compared with previous studies in the literature. (author)

  15. Twenty years of operation of Ljubljana's TRIGA Mark II reactor

    Twenty years have now passed since the start of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana. The reactor was critical on May 31, 1966. The total energy produced until the end of May 1986 was 14.048 MWh or 585 MWd. For the first 14 years (until 1981) the yearly energy produced was about 600 MWh, since 1981 the yearly energy produced was 1000 MWh when a routine radioactive isotopes production started for medical use as well as other industrial applications, such as doping and irradiation with fast neutrons of silicon monocrystals, production of level indicators (irradiated cobalt wire), production of radioactive iridium for gamma-radiography, leak detection in pipes by sodium, etc. Besides these, applied research around the reactor is being conducted in the following main fields, where- many unique methods have been developed or have found their way into the local industry or hospitals: neutron radiography, neutron induced auto-radiography using solid state nuclear track detectors, nondestructive methods for assessment of nuclear burn-up, neutron dosimetry, calculation of core burn-up for the optimal in-core fuel management strategy. The solvent extraction method was developed for the everyday production of 99mTc, which is the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The methods were developed for the production of the following isotopes: 18F, 85mKr, 24Na, 82Br, 64Zn, 125I. Neutron activation analysis represents one of the major usages for the TRIGA reactor. Basic research is being conducted in the following main fields: solid state physics (elastic and inelastic scattering of the neutrons), neutron dosimetry, neutron radiography, reactor physics and neutron activation analysis. The reactor is used very extensively as a main instrument in the Reactor Training Centre in Ljubljana where manpower training for our nuclear power plant and other organisations has been performed. Although the reactor was designed very carefully in order to be used for

  16. Analysis of JSI TRIGA MARK II reactor physical parameters calculated with TRIPOLI and MCNP

    New computational model of the JSI TRIGA Mark II research reactor was built for TRIPOLI computer code and compared with existing MCNP code model. The same modelling assumptions were used in order to check the differences of the mathematical models of both Monte Carlo codes. Differences between the TRIPOLI and MCNP predictions of keff were up to 100 pcm. Further validation was performed with analyses of the normalized reaction rates and computations of kinetic parameters for various core configurations. - Highlights: • TRIGA Benchmark keff calculated with the TRIPOLI code. • Reaction rate profiles in TRIGA calculated with TRIPOLI code. • TRIPOLI model of the JSI TRIGA was validated. • TRIGA Kinetic parameters were calculated with TRIPOLI code. • All results are in good agreement, largest discrepancies due to nuclear data

  17. INR TRIGA Research Reactors: A Neutron Source for Radioisotopes and Materials Investigation

    At the INR there are 2 high intensity neutron sources. These sources are in fact the two nuclear TRIGA reactors: TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR. TRIGA stationary reactor is provided with several in-core irradiation channels. Other several out-of-core irradiation channels are located in the vertical channels in the beryllium reflector blocks. The maximum value of the thermal neutron flux (E14 cm-2s-1 and of fast neutron flux (E>1 MeV) is 6.89×1013 cm-2s-1. For neutron activation analysis both reactors are used and k0-NAA method has been implemented. At INR Pitesti a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis devices has been designed, manufactured ant put into operation. For nuclear materials properties investigation neutron radiography methods was developed in INR. For these purposes two neutron radiography devices were manufacture, one of them underwater and other one dry. The neutron beams are used for investigation of materials properties and components produced or under development for applications in the energy sector (fission and fusion). At TRIGA 14 MW reactor a neutron difractormeter and a SANS devices are available for material residual stress and texture measurements. TRIGA 14 MW reactor is used for medical and industrial radioisotopes production (131I, 125I, 192Ir, etc) and a method for 99Mo-99Tc production from fission is under developing. At INR Pitesti several special programmes for new types of nuclear fuel behavior characterization are under development. (author)

  18. Neutron measurements at the TRIGA reactor Ljubljana for core inventory verification

    Safeguards inspections are periodically made in nuclear facilities as a consequence to the Nonproliferation Treaty. The inspection methods are permanently being improved and should not cause serious interference with the reactor operation. Therefore, Core Inventory Verifier (CIVR) is being developed as an indirect quantitative method for verification of the core inventory and detection of the declared operation of research reactors. The CIVR method measures the kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the neutron flux and its energy distribution at several points inside or outside the core. Measured data taken during inspection is compared with the set of reference data determined previously. The inspection result ''nothing has changed'' indicates that all declared nuclear material really exists in the core. TRIGA reactors are one of the target groups for the CIVR method. The TRIGA reactor Ljubljana was chosen as a reference facility. First results of test series at the TRIGA reactor Ljubljana will be presented in this paper.(author)

  19. Qualitative Analysis on Void Fraction of TRIGA 2000 Reactor in Bandung

    A qualitative analysis concerning the void fraction of TRIGA 2000 reactor has been done. That analysis is performed by studying the void phenomenon theoretically, followed by studying the cooling system performance, measuring the fuel element and cooling temperature, and visually observing the operation of reactor system. TRIGA 2000 reactor is a TRIGA Mark II reactor, which originally has 1000 kW thermal power, and then is upgraded up to 2000 kW. During reactor operation, voids are observed beginning at 1000 kW power and increased at higher power. The are several probability on where the voids come from. They might be caused by boiling process, water radiolysis, pump leakage, or cavitation. From the analysis performed, the voids might be caused by nucleate boiling, which do not affect the safety of reactor operation at certain margin. (author)

  20. Determination of neutronic fluxes in research nuclear reactor of Triga Mark I and WWRS types

    In this paper is presented the determination of the thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes, using neutron activation analysis technique, for two research nuclear reactors of different design: the Triga Mark I reactor was designed by Gulf General Atomic Co in USA and the WWRS reactor was designed in the URSS, both in the 50's years. (Author)

  1. Experience in the operation and maintenance of the Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    The Austrian TRIGA Mark II reactor ia in operation since March 1962. The reactor instrumentation, core design and irradiation facilities and operation are described. Besides steady state power and pulse operation, square wave operation has been installed 1968, allowing power squares up to 750 kW. A Survey of reactor operation and experiments is given

  2. Inspection of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) core and control rod

    The 1 MW PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP), located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has been operated since its first criticality on 28 June 1982. The RTP uses uranium zirconium hydride fuel enriched to about 20% of U-235. The RTP has four control rods made up of boron carbide where three are fuel-followers and one is an air-follower. The aluminium cylindrical core can accommodate up to 127 fuel elements while the reflector surrounding it is made from high purity graphite. Since, the reactor power is relatively small, natural convection is used for cooling. Light water is used both as a coolant and as well as a moderator. Visual inspection of the core, fuel and control rods are carried out routinely to ascertain their integrity. An underwater camera and boroscope was used to visually inspect the top grid plate of the core as well as the control rods. No visible defect was detected at the top grid plate however, two of the fuel-follower control rods had blemishes on its surface. This paper will describe the findings of the visual inspection as well as corrective actions taken. (author)

  3. The new neutron imaging facility at TRIGA reactor in Morocco

    A new neutron imaging facility is currently developed around 2 MW TRIGA MARK-II reactor at Maamora Nuclear research centre (CENM). Neutron imaging combined to X-ray or gamma radiography offers the opportunity to extend Non Destructive Testing (NDT) activities DT in Morocco to new fields of applications such as space and aircraft Moroccan industry, mining, wood industry and Archeology. The facility is planed to be completed in the end of 2011. In order to reduce the gamma-ray content in the neutron beam, the reactor tangential channel is selected. For power of 2 MW, the corresponding thermal neutron flux at the inlet of the tangential channel is around 1.1013ncm2/s. The facility will be based on a conical neutron collimator with a flight tube of 8m and offers three circular diaphragms with diameters of 1cm, 2 cm and 4 cm corresponding to L/D-ratio varying between 200 and 600. The holes will be housed in the primary shutter. These diaphragms' sizes allow to perform neutron radiography with high resolution (L/D = 600) and high speed (L/D= 200). Monte Carlo calculations by a fully 3D numerical code GEANT4 are used to optimize the whole neutron beam line and to reach a shorten distance between the source and detector and reduce as possible the exposure time. (author)

  4. SANS facility at the Pitesti 14MW Triga reactor

    The SANS configuration with mechanical monochromator has significantly increased luminosity while the spatial extension of the instrument is quite reasonable. Tacking account that TRIGA reactor existing at INR Pitesti is a medium flux reactor and that the available dimension for the SANS instrument is severely limited by the dimensions of the room where the instrument has to be installed, this experimental configuration has been chosen as the most suited for the situation existing in our institute. For usual collimation values of about 30 minutes, and for an inclination angle of the monochromator axis of about 2-3 degrees, Dl/l is about 20-30%, i.e. quite reasonable value. The sample width may be fixed between 10 mm and 20 mm. The minimum value of the scattering vector is Qmin = 0.005 A-0-1 while the maximal value is Qmax = 0.5 A-0-1. The relative error is ΔQ/Qmin = 0.5. In the case of our SANS instrument a monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A-0 ≤ λ ≤ 5 A-0 is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. The distance between sample and detectors plane is (5.2 m). (author)

  5. The new neutron imaging facility at TRIGA reactor in Morocco

    Ouardi, A.; Alami, R.; Bensitel, A. [Centre National de l' Energie des Science et des Techniques Nucleaires, PB.1382 R.P 10001 Rabat (Morocco)

    2011-07-01

    A new neutron imaging facility is currently developed around 2 MW TRIGA MARK-II reactor at Maamora Nuclear research centre (CENM). Neutron imaging combined to X-ray or gamma radiography offers the opportunity to extend Non Destructive Testing (NDT) activities DT in Morocco to new fields of applications such as space and aircraft Moroccan industry, mining, wood industry and Archeology. The facility is planed to be completed in the end of 2011. In order to reduce the gamma-ray content in the neutron beam, the reactor tangential channel is selected. For power of 2 MW, the corresponding thermal neutron flux at the inlet of the tangential channel is around 1.10{sup 13}ncm{sup 2}/s. The facility will be based on a conical neutron collimator with a flight tube of 8m and offers three circular diaphragms with diameters of 1cm, 2 cm and 4 cm corresponding to L/D-ratio varying between 200 and 600. The holes will be housed in the primary shutter. These diaphragms' sizes allow to perform neutron radiography with high resolution (L/D = 600) and high speed (L/D= 200). Monte Carlo calculations by a fully 3D numerical code GEANT4 are used to optimize the whole neutron beam line and to reach a shorten distance between the source and detector and reduce as possible the exposure time. (author)

  6. Different microprocessor controlled devices for ITU TRIGA Mark II reactor

    In this paper the design of a period meter and multichannel thermometer, which are controlled by a microprocessor, in order to be used at ITU TRIGA Mark-II Reactor is presented. The system works as a simple microcomputer, which includes a CPU, a EPROM, a RAM, a CTC, a PIO, a PIA a keyboard and displays, using the assembly language. The period meter can work either with pulse signal or with analog signal depending on demand of the user. The period is calculated by software and its range is -99,9 sec, to +2.1 sec. When the period drops +3 sec, the system gives alarm illuminating a LED. The multichannel thermometer has eight temperature channels. Temperature channels can manually or automatically be selected. The channel selection time can be adjusted. The thermometer gives alarm illuminating a LED, when the temperature rises to 600 C. Temperature data is stored in the RAM and is shown on a display. This system provides us to use four spare thermocouples in the reactor. (orig.)

  7. Current activities at the FiR 1 TRIGA reactor

    The FiR 1 -reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The epithermal neutrons needed for the irradiation of brain tumor patients are produced from the fast fission neutrons by a moderator block consisting of Al+AlF3 (FLUENTAL), which showed to be the optimum material for this purpose. Twenty-one patients have been treated since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor: three days per week for BNCT purposes and only two days per week for other purposes such as the neutron activation analysis and isotope production. In the near future the back end solutions of the spent fuel management will have a very important role in our activities. The Finnish Parliament ratified in May 2001 the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent fuel in Olkiluoto, on the western coast of Finland. There is a special condition in our operating license. We have now about two years' time to achieve a binding agreement between VTT and the Nuclear Power Plant Companies about the possibility to use the final disposal facility of the Nuclear Power Plants for our spent fuel. If this will not happen, we have to make the agreement with the USDOE with the well-known time limits. At the moment it seems to be reasonable to prepare for both spent fuel management possibilities: the domestic final disposal and the return to the USA offered by USDOE. Because the cost estimates of the both possibilities are on the same order of magnitude, the future of the reactor itself will determine, which of the spent fuel policies will be obeyed. In a couple of years' time it will be seen, if the funding of the reactor and the incomes from the BNC treatments will cover

  8. 14 MW INR-TRIGA research reactor core conversion - emergency preparedness challenges

    INR-Pitesti TRIGA research reactor is basically a pool type reactor with a special design in order to fulfil the requirements for material testing, power reactor fuel and nuclear safety studies. The safety evaluation involved a several design basis accidents. For training purposes, and to exercise our ability to conduct Level-3 PSA studies, a severe accident scenario involving 14-MW INR-TRIGA research reactor has been developed. In this scenario is assumed that a large part of the reactor hall roof or a heavy object escaped from the crane hook is dropped over the 14-MW TRIGA-SSR core, resulting in mechanical damage of the core. It is assumed, also, that no core melting is occurring, but only fuel-cladding rupture being involved for several 25-pins fuel bundles. The paper evaluates the radiological consequences, both early and late consequences, from the emergency preparedness point of view. (author)

  9. The research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz

    Hampel, Gabriele; Eberhardt, Klaus [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2012-10-15

    The TRIGA Mark II research reactor of the University of Mainz was built in the 1960ies on the initiative of Fritz Strassmann, co-discoverer of the fission, at that time the director of the Institute for Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. On August 3{sup rd}, 1965 the TRIGA Mainz reached first criticality with the insertion of the 57{sup th} fuel element in the reactor core. Two years later, in April 1967, the Nobel Prize laureate Otto Hahn initiated the first of now more than 18,000 pulses at the official inauguration. Since then, the TRIGA Mainz has operated without failure about 200 days per year. The TRIGA Mainz can be operated in the steady state mode at power levels ranging up to 100 kW{sub th}, depending on the requirements of the different experiments. Pulse-mode operation is also possible. (orig.)

  10. The research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz

    The TRIGA Mark II research reactor of the University of Mainz was built in the 1960ies on the initiative of Fritz Strassmann, co-discoverer of the fission, at that time the director of the Institute for Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. On August 3rd, 1965 the TRIGA Mainz reached first criticality with the insertion of the 57th fuel element in the reactor core. Two years later, in April 1967, the Nobel Prize laureate Otto Hahn initiated the first of now more than 18,000 pulses at the official inauguration. Since then, the TRIGA Mainz has operated without failure about 200 days per year. The TRIGA Mainz can be operated in the steady state mode at power levels ranging up to 100 kWth, depending on the requirements of the different experiments. Pulse-mode operation is also possible. (orig.)

  11. Safe operation of TRIGA reactor in the situation of LEU-HEU core conversion

    Romanian TRIGA reactor was commissioned in 1980. The location of the research institute is Pitesti, 100 Km west of Bucharest. In fact there are two independent cores sharing the same pool. There are a 14 MW Steady State Reactor (SSR), high flux, and materials testing reactor and an Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR). The SSR reactor is a forced convection reactor cooled via a primary circuit with 4 pumps and 3 heat exchangers. The ACPR is natural convection reactor cooled by the pool water. The characteristics of the two reactors are presented. The reactor core configuration is shown as well as the original start-up core configuration. Fuel management of TRIGA steady state core allows obtaining the requested fluxes for experimental purposes in safe operation condition. One can firmly state that the present operation of the reactor and the HEU-LEU (High Enriched Uranium - Low Enriched Uranium), core conversion fully respect the provisions of the National Regulatory Body and IAEA. (authors)

  12. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  13. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  14. Computer code for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of ITU TRIGA Mark-II reactor

    Istanbul Technical University (ITU) TRIGA Mark-II reactor core consists of ninety vertical cylindrical elements located in five rings. Sixty-nine of them are fuel elements. The reactor is operated and cooled with natural convection by pool water, which is also cooled and purified in external coolant circuits by forced convection. This characteristic leads to consider both the natural and forced convection heat transfer in a 'porous-medium analysis'. The safety analysis of the reactor requires a thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor to determine the thermal-hydraulic parameters in each mode of operation. In this study, a computer code cooled TRIGA-PM (TRIGA - Porous Medium) for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of ITU is considered. TRIGA Mark-II reactor code has been developed to obtain velocity, pressure and temperature distributions in the reactor pool as a function of core design parameters and pool configuration. The code is a transient, thermal-hydraulic code and requires geometric and physical modelling parameters. In the model, although the reactor is considered as only porous medium, the other part of the reactor pool is considered partly as continuum and partly as porous medium. COMMIX-1C code is used for the benchmark purpose of TRIGA-PM code. For the normal operating conditions of the reactor, estimations of TRIGA-PM are in good agreement with those of COMMIX-1C. After some more improvements, this code will be employed for the estimation of LOCA scenario, which can not be analyses by COMMIX-1C and the other multi-purpose codes, considering a break at one of the beam tubes of the reactor

  15. Thermal hydraulics modeling of the US Geological Survey TRIGA reactor

    Alkaabi, Ahmed K.

    The Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW Mark I TRIGA reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. Single channel GSTR thermal hydraulics models built using RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, TRACE, and COMSOL Multiphysics predict the fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures as a function of position in the core. The results from the RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, and COMSOL models are similar. The TRACE model predicts significantly higher temperatures, potentially resulting from inappropriate convection correlations. To more accurately study the complex fluid flow patterns within the core, this research develops detailed RELAP5/MOD3.3 and COMSOL multichannel models of the GSTR core. The multichannel models predict lower fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures compared to the single channel models by up to 16.7°C, 4.8°C, and 9.6°C, respectively, as a result of the higher mass flow rates predicted by these models. The single channel models and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 multichannel model predict that the coolant temperatures in all fuel rings rise axially with core height, as the coolant in these models flows predominantly in the axial direction. The coolant temperatures predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model rise with core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings and peak and then decrease in the E-, F-, and G-rings, as the coolant tends to flow from the bottom sides of the core to the center of the core in this model. Experiments at the GSTR measured coolant temperatures in the GSTR core to validate the developed models. The axial temperature profiles measured in the GSTR show that the flow patterns predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model are consistent with the actual conditions in the core. Adjusting the RELAP5/MOD3.3 single and multichannel models by modifying the axial and cross-flow areas allow them to better predict the GSTR coolant temperatures; however, the adjusted models still fail to predict accurate axial temperature profiles in the E-, F-, and G-rings.

  16. An analysis of decommissioning costs for the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility

    A decommissioning cost analysis for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility was made. AFRRI is not at this time suggesting that the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility be decommissioned. This report was prepared to be in compliance with paragraph 50.33 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations which requires the assurance of availability of future decommissioning funding. The planned method of decommissioning is the immediate decontamination of the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor site to allow for restoration of the site to full public access - this is called DECON. The cost of DECON for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility in 1990 dollars is estimated to be $3,200,000. The anticipated ancillary costs of facility site demobilization and spent fuel shipment is an additional $600,000. Thus the total cost of terminating reactor operations at AFRRI will be about $3,800,000. The primary basis for this cost estimate is a study of the decommissioning costs of a similar reactor facility that was performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as provided in USNRC publication NUREG/CR-1756. The data in this study were adapted to reflect the decommissioning requirements of the AFRRI TRIGA. (author)

  17. TRIGA-SPEC: A setup for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    The research reactor TRIGA Mainz is an ideal facility to provide neutron-rich nuclides with production rates sufficiently large for mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic studies. Within the TRIGA-SPEC project, a Penning trap as well as a beamline for collinear laser spectroscopy are being installed. Several new developments will ensure high sensitivity of the trap setup enabling mass measurements even on a single ion. Besides neutron-rich fission products produced in the reactor, also heavy nuclides such as 235U or 252Cf can be investigated for the first time with an off-line ion source. The data provided by the mass measurements will be of interest for astrophysical calculations on the rapid neutron-capture process as well as for tests of mass models in the heavy-mass region. The laser spectroscopic measurements will yield model-independent information on nuclear ground-state properties such as nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-rich nuclei of refractory elements far from stability. TRIGA-SPEC also serves as a test facility for mass and laser spectroscopic experiments at SHIPTRAP and the low-energy branch of the future GSI facility FAIR. This publication describes the experimental setup as well as its present status

  18. Calculation of fundamental parameters for the dynamical study of TRIGA-3-Salazar reactor (Mixed reactor core)

    Kinetic parameters for dynamic study of two different configurations, 8 and 9, both with standard fuel, 20% enrichment and Flip (Fuel Life Improvement Program with 70% enrichment) fuel, for TRIGA Mark-III reactor from Mexico Nuclear Center, are obtained. A calculation method using both WIMS-D4 and DTF-IV and DAC1 was established, to decide which of those two configurations has the best safety and operational conditions. Validation of this methodology is done by calculate those parameters for a reactor core with new standard fuel. Configuration 9 is recommended to be use. (Author)

  19. RIA and LOCA simulating tests on experimental fuel elements in TRIGA MT reactor of INR Pitesti

    Full text: One of the main objectives of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Pitesti R and D Program is to investigate thermal and mechanical behaviour of fuel elements, thresholds and mechanisms of cladding failure during RIA and LOCA tests. Dual core TRIGA Material Testing Reactor of INR Pitesti (TRIGA SS MTR and TRIGA ACPR) is utilized extensively for studies of fuel behaviour under normal and postulated accident condition. A total of 39 test fuel elements have been irradiated in the TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti under RIA conditions. The ACPR tests program is still in progress and new experiments are foreseen to be performed in the following period. The test fuel elements are instrumented with CrAl thermocouples for cladding surface temperature measurement and every test fuel element has a pressure sensor for the internal pressure measurement. An experimental database of fuel behaviour parameters including fission - gas release, sheath strain, power - burnup history, etc. has been obtained using in-pile measurements and PIE results of test fuel elements irradiated in the TRIGA Steady State Material Testing Reactor (TRIGA SS MTR) of INR Pitesti. More than 100 test fuel elements have been irradiated in TRIGA SS MTR in different power history conditions. LOCA simulating tests are planned to be performed in C2 LOCA tests capsule and in Loop A of TRIGA SS MTR of INR Pitesti. The LOCA tests in capsule C2 are instrumented to measure fuel, sheath and coolant temperature, internal element and coolant pressure during the entire irradiation period. In the second phase of the experiment the C2 capsule will be connected to the sweep gas system with the on-line gamma ray spectrometer included. RIA type tests are planned in C6 capsule of TRIGA ACPR on test fuel elements with pre-hydrided claddings in order to investigate the influence of the precipitated hydride on fuel element cladding failure at high burnups in RIA conditions. This paper

  20. Design and implementation of the control system for the new console of TRIGA-3-Salazar Reactor

    TRIGA-3-Salazar Reactor was set in operation in 1968 and the aging of its components has cause the increasing in the maintenance. In the presence of this, it becomes necessary to replace the reactor console using new technologies, considering the incorporation of a personal computer. The aim of this work is the design and construction of the equipment interfaces as well as the digital computer program for the automation and control of the TRIGA-3-Salazar Reactor by means of a personal computer. (Author)

  1. Operation and maintenance experience at the General Atomic Company's TRIGA reactor facility at San Diego, California

    Since the startup of the original 250 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor in 1958, General Atomic Company has accumulated nearly 24 years of operation and maintenance experience with this type of reactor. In addition to the nearly 24 years of experience gained on the Mark I, GA has operated the 1.5 MW Advanced Prototype Test Reactor (Mark F) for 22 years and operated a 2 MW below-ground TRIGA Mark III for five years. Information obtained from normal and abnormal operation are presented. (author)

  2. The Application of Estimator Module for Controlling of TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    The estimator module application for control TRIGA Mark II reactor have been done. This application have purpose to help operator quickly and exactly when they control reactor reactivity. Which this module, if in the reactor will do experiment ( neutron activation, radioisotope production ect.) so the operator not need to calculate probability of reactivity changes. The result of estimator is close to measurements result (< 7 sec.), it is cause estimator can be used as equipment that can be used to help operation of TRIGA Mark II. (author)

  3. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor

    The subchannel approach, normally employed for the analysis of power reactor cores that work under forced convection, have been used for the thermal hydraulic evaluation of a TRIGA Mark I reactor, named IPR-R1, at 250 kW power level. This was accomplished by using the PANTERA-1P subchannel code, which has been conveniently adapted to the characteristics of natural convection of TRIGA reactors. The analysis of results indicates that the steady state operation of IPR-R1 at 250 kW do not imply risks to installations, workers and public. (author)

  4. The new 10 MW(t) multipurpose TRIGA reactor in Thailand

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Thailand awarded a turnkey contract to General Atomics (GA) to design, build and commission the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC), which is to include a 10 MW(t) multipurpose TRIGA research reactor. This paper describes the basic design features of this 10 MW(t) multipurpose TRIGA reactor, including features of the reactor fuel, core and related structures. The results of analyses performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are also described. (author)

  5. Design of a 250 kW mini-TRIGA reactor

    General Atomic Company has designed an inexpensive, compact core for a below-ground research reactor capable of up to 250 kW steady-state operation. This mini-TRIGA reactor is a simplified version of the familiar TRIGA Mark I. Created as a tool for small laboratories, the mini-TRIGA is intended for applications such as neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography, isotope production, and training. Like the Mark I, the mini-TRIGA is a below ground, graphite reflected, natural convection cooled reactor utilizing uranium-zirconium-hydride fuel. The principal difference between the mini-TRIGA and the Mark I is the U-235 enrichment in the fuel. In order to reduce core size, uranium enriched to 93 percent has been used instead of the standard 20 percent enrichment. Aluminum cladding is used for mini-TRIGA elements instead of stainless steel in order to reduce parasitic neutron capture and thus further reduce core size. A standard seventeen-element core results from these features which provides a thermal neutron flux of approximately 8.7 x 1012 n/cm2-sec at 250 kW in the central thimble. The standard instrumentation and control system has been greatly simplified for the mini-TRIGA. Included in the mini-TRIGA instrumentation package are a wide range log power instrument with period and safety channel and a multi-range linear power channel. The rod control chassis includes one rod position indicator with a selector switch, magnet power supply, annunciators, and scram switches. Experimental facilities available include an in-core thimble and an optional pneumatic transfer system and rotary specimen rack. (U.S.)

  6. Thermal spectra of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    The diffraction phenomenon is gave in observance of the well known Bragg law in crystalline materials and this can be performance by mean of X-rays, electrons and neutrons among others, which allows to do inside the field of each one of these techniques the obtaining of measurements focussed at each one of them. For the present work, it will be mentioned only the referring to X-ray and neutron techniques. The X-ray diffraction due to its properties just it does measurements which are known in general as superficial measurements of the sample material but for the properties of the neutrons, this diffraction it explores in volumetric form the sample material. Since the neutron diffraction process depends lots of its intensity, then it is important to know the neutron source spectra that in this case is supplied by the TRIGA Mark III reactor. Within of diffraction techniques a great number of them can be found, however some of the traditional will be mentioned such as the identification of crystalline samples, phases identification and the textures measurement. At present this last technique is founded on the dot of a minimum error and the technique of phases identification performs but not compete with that which is obtained by mean of X-rays due to this last one has a major resolution. (Author)

  7. Medical and radiobiological applications at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    At the University of Mainz, Germany, a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) project has been started with the aim to expand and advance the research on the basis of the TAOrMINA protocol for the BNCT treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. Irradiations take place at the TRIGA Mark II reactor. Biological and clinical research and surgery take place at the University and its hospital of Mainz. Both are situated in close vicinity to each other, which is an ideal situation for BNCT treatment, as similarly performed in Pavia, in 2001 and 2003. The application of BNCT to auto-transplanted organs requires development in the methodology, as well as regard to the irradiation facility and is part of the complex, interdisciplinary treatment process. The additional high surgical risk of auto-transplantation is only justified when a therapeutic benefit can be achieved. A BNCT protocol including explantation and conservation of the organ, neutron irradiation and re-implantation is logistically a very challenging task. Within the last years, research on all scientific, clinical and logistical aspects for the therapy has been performed. This includes work on computational modelling for the irradiation facility, tissue and blood analysis, radiation biology, dosimetry and surgery. Most recently, a clinical study on boron uptake in both healthy and tumour tissue of the liver and issues regarding dosimetry has been started, as well as a series of cell-biology experiments to obtain concrete results on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ionizing radiation in liver tissue. (author)

  8. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    2013-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115... No. R-115, for the University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor (ATR). The NRC has terminated the..., Facility Operating License No. R-115 is terminated. The above referenced documents may be examined,...

  9. 77 FR 7613 - Dow Chemical Company; Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Facility Operating License No. R-108

    2012-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Dow Chemical Company; Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Facility Operating License No. R-108... Chemical Company (the licensee) to operate the Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor (DTRR) at a maximum... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process...

  10. SANS facility at the Pitesti 14 MW Triga reactor

    Ionita, I.; Anghel, E.; Mincu, M.; Datcu, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti (Romania); Grabcev, B.; Todireanu, S. [National Institute of Materials Physics (NIMP) Bucharest (Romania); Constantin, F. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania); Shvetsov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Dubna (Russian Federation); Popescu, G. [National College Al. Odobescu Pitesti (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: At the present time, an important not yet fully exploited potentiality is represented by the SANS instruments existent at lower power reactors and reactors in developing countries even if they are, generally, endowed with a simpler equipment and are characterized by the lack of infrastructure to maintain and repair high technology accessories. The application of SANS at lower power reactors and in developing countries nevertheless is possible in well selected topics where only a restricted Q range is required, when scattering power is expected to be sufficiently high or when the sample size can be increased at the expense of resolution. Examples of this type of applications are: 1) Phase separation and precipitates in material science, 2) Ultrafine grained materials (nano-crystals, ceramics), 3) Porous materials such as concretes and filter materials, 4) Conformation and entanglements of polymer-chains, 5) Aggregates of micelles in microemulsions, gels and colloids, 6) Radiation damage in steels and alloys. The need for the installation of a new SANS facility at the Triga Reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Researches in Pitesti, Romania become actual especially after the shutting down of the VVRS Reactor from Bucharest. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 Angstrom {<=} {lambda} {<=} 5 Angstrom is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots.The distance between sample and detectors plane is (5.2 m ). The sample width may be fixed between 10 mm and 20 mm. The minimum value of the scattering vector is Q{sub min} = 0.005 Angstrom{sup -1} while the maximal value is Q{sub max} = 0.5 Angstrom{sup -1}. The relative error is {delta}Q/Q{sub min} = 0.5. The cooperation partnership between advanced research centers and the smaller ones from developing countries could be fruitful. The formers act as mentors in solving specific problems. Such a partnership was established between INR Pitesti, Romania and JINR Dubna, Russia

  11. SANS facility at the Pitesti 14 MW Triga reactor

    Full text of publication follows: At the present time, an important not yet fully exploited potentiality is represented by the SANS instruments existent at lower power reactors and reactors in developing countries even if they are, generally, endowed with a simpler equipment and are characterized by the lack of infrastructure to maintain and repair high technology accessories. The application of SANS at lower power reactors and in developing countries nevertheless is possible in well selected topics where only a restricted Q range is required, when scattering power is expected to be sufficiently high or when the sample size can be increased at the expense of resolution. Examples of this type of applications are: 1) Phase separation and precipitates in material science, 2) Ultrafine grained materials (nano-crystals, ceramics), 3) Porous materials such as concretes and filter materials, 4) Conformation and entanglements of polymer-chains, 5) Aggregates of micelles in microemulsions, gels and colloids, 6) Radiation damage in steels and alloys. The need for the installation of a new SANS facility at the Triga Reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Researches in Pitesti, Romania become actual especially after the shutting down of the VVRS Reactor from Bucharest. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 Angstrom ≤ λ ≤ 5 Angstrom is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots.The distance between sample and detectors plane is (5.2 m ). The sample width may be fixed between 10 mm and 20 mm. The minimum value of the scattering vector is Qmin = 0.005 Angstrom-1 while the maximal value is Qmax = 0.5 Angstrom-1. The relative error is ΔQ/Qmin = 0.5. The cooperation partnership between advanced research centers and the smaller ones from developing countries could be fruitful. The formers act as mentors in solving specific problems. Such a partnership was established between INR Pitesti, Romania and JINR Dubna, Russia. The first step in this cooperation consists

  12. SANS Facility at the Pitesti 14 MW TRIGA Reactor

    At the present time, an important not yet fully exploited potentiality is represented by the SANS instruments existent at lower power reactors and reactors in developing countries even if they are, generally, endowed with a simpler equipment and are characterized by the lack of infrastructure to maintain and repair high technology accessories. The application of SANS at lower power reactors and in developing countries nevertheless is possible in well selected topics where only a restricted Q range is required, when scattering power is expected to be sufficiently high or when the sample size can be increased at the expense of resolution. Examples of this type of applications are: 1) Phase separation and precipitates in material science, 2) Ultrafine grained materials (nanocrystals, ceramics), 3) Porous materials such as concretes and filter materials, 4) Conformation and entanglements of polymer-chains, 5) Aggregates of micelles in microemulsions, gels and colloids, 6) Radiation damage in steels and alloys. The need for the installation of a new SANS facility at the TRIGA Reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Research in Pitesti, Romania becomes actual especially after the shutting down of the WWR-S Reactor from Bucharest. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A ≤ λ ≤ 5 A is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. The distance between sample and detectors plane is 5.2 m. The sample width may be fixed between 10 mm and 20 mm. The minimum value of the scattering vector is Qmin = 0.005 A-1 while the maximal value is Qmax = 0.5 A-1. The relative error is ΔQ/Qmin = 0.5. The cooperation partnership between advanced research centers and the smaller ones from developing countries could be fruitful. The formers act as mentors in solving specific problems. Such a partnership was established between INR Pitesti, Romania and JINR Dubna, Russia. The first step in this cooperation consists in the manufacturing at Dubna of a battery of gas filled

  13. Measuring temperature coefficient of TRIGA MARK I reactor by noise analysis

    The transfer function of TRIGA MARK I Reactor is measured at power zero (5w) and power 118Kw, in the frequency range of 0.02 to 0.5 rd/s. The method of intercorrelation between a pseudostochasticbinary signal is used. A simple dynamic model of the reactor is developed and the coefficient of temperature is estimated

  14. Examples of the work of the Health Physics Division of the Austrian TRIGA reactor

    It will be reported about some problems of radiation protection which arise during the operation of the Austrian TRIGA reactor. Determination of noble gas concentration in the gaseous effluent. Determination of aerosol activity in the gaseous effluent. Levels of dose- equivalent rate on the shieldings of the beam holes. Cases of contamination during the reactor operation. (author)

  15. Event Investigation at Research Reactor: Case Study at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Any events or incidents at research reactors have to be investigated thoroughly to determine the direct and root causes so that corrective or preventive actions could be taken to minimise or eliminate such events or incidents from occurring in the future. These events or incidents should then be reported to the Incident Reporting System for Research Reactors (IRSRR) managed by the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA) as lessons learnt for the research reactor community. This paper will present methodology for event investigation and several events at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) that has been reported to the national regulator. However, no nuclear safety related event or incident has occurred since RTP first reached criticality in June 1982. (author)

  16. Transient rod failure in a pulsing TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Full text: On July 7, 1970 the University of Texas at Austin TRIGA Mark I Pulsing Reactor experienced a failure of the transient control rod. Although no danger to personnel or damage to the reactor other than the pulse rod occurred, the failure was promptly reported to the USAEC regional compliance office. The first indication of an abnormal situation was unusual multiplication behavior during the first start-up of the day. As usual for steady state operation, the operator removed the transient rod and began to withdraw the shim and regulating rods. After partial withdrawal, he noticed that the count rate was not increasing as rapidly as was customary. While remaining at the console,the operator had a technician make a visual inspection of the core. The technician observed the transient drive rod was swinging freely in the pool and the poison section was detached. It was concluded, based on the indications of the.reactor instrumentation and visual inspection, that the transient control rod had broken off and remained in position in the core. The regulating and shim rods were inserted and the transient rod was manually cranked to the down position. The manual manipulation of the transient rod, instead of dropping the rod by gravity, was used so that the connecting rod could be reinserted in the control rod guide tube. The reactor core was then partially unloaded so that a critical mass was not present. The transient rod drive and connecting rod were removed from the pool. The poison section was retrieved from its position in the core by welding a tap to a long rod and tapping into the top of the poison section. Visual inspection of the poison section showed that the weld joining the male threads on the poison section to the main body of the control rod had failed. The threads remained screwed in the control rod drive shaft upon separation and the poison section remained fully inserted in the core. A new control rod was fabricated by Gulf General Atomic and shipped

  17. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    Maucec, Marko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division, Lubljana (Slovenia). E-mail: marko.mauce@ijs.si

    1999-07-01

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  18. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  19. Operational safety experience at 14 MW TRIGA research reactor from INR Pitesti, Romania

    The safe operation of TRIGA-14 MW Core and Annular Pulsed TRIGA Core in the assembly of Research Reactor in Pitesti, Romania for 27 years is presented from historical perspective as well in the light of evolving safety experience. The accomplishment of safety objectives and responsibilities of operating organization is described and sustained with practical examples including management responsibilities, resources of management, performance indicators, measurement analysis and monitoring. Further improvement of safety of Research Reactor trough a large refurbishment and modernization program under way is also presented in the paper. (author)

  20. Numerical simulation of non-steady state neutron kinetics of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna

    Riede, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for numerical simulations of non-steady states of the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna, Austria. The primary focus of this work has been the development of an algorithm which provides time series of integral neutron flux after reactivity changes introduced by perturbations without the usage of thermal-hydraulic / neutronic numerical code systems for the TRIGA reactor in Vienna, Austria. The algorithm presented takes into account both external reactivity changes as well as internal reactivity changes caused by feedback mechanisms like effects caused by temperature changes of the fuel and poisoning effects. The resulting time series have been compared to experimental results.

  1. Validation of the Monteburns code for criticality calculation of TRIGA reactors

    Dalle, Hugo Moura [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jeraj, Robert [Jozef Stafan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01

    Use of Monte Carlo methods in burnup calculations of nuclear fuel has become practical due to increased speed of computers. Monteburns is an automated computational tool that links the Monte Carlo code MCNP with the burnup and decay code ORIGEN2.1. This code system was used to simulate a criticality benchmark experiment with burned fuel on a TRIGA Mark II research reactor. Two core configurations were simulated and k{sub eff} values calculated. The comparison between the calculated and experimental values shows good agreement, which indicates that the MCNP/Monteburns/ORIGEN2.1 system gives reliable results for neutronic simulations of TRIGA reactors. (author)

  2. Generic Procedures for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency at Triga Research Reactors. Attachment 1 (2011)

    The publication provides guidance for response to emergencies at TRIGA research reactors in Threat Category II and III. It contains information on the unique behaviour of TRIGA fuel during accident conditions; it describes design characteristics of TRIGA research reactors and provides specific symptom-based emergency classification for this type of research reactor. This publication covers the determination of the appropriate emergency class and protective actions for a nuclear or radiological emergency at TRIGA research reactors. It does not cover nuclear security at TRIGA research reactors. The term 'threat category' is used in this publication as described in Ref. [6] and for the purposes of emergency preparedness and response only; this usage does not imply that any threat, in the sense of an intention and capability to cause harm, has been made in relation to facilities, activities or sources. The threat category is determined by an analysis of potential nuclear and radiological emergencies and the associated radiation hazard that could arise as a consequence of those emergencies. STRUCTURE. The attachment consists of an introduction which defines the background, objective, scope and structure, two sections covering technical aspects and appendices. Section 2 describes the characteristics of TRIGA fuel in normal and accident conditions. Section 3 contains TRIGA research reactor specific emergency classification tables for Threat Category II and III. These tables should be used instead of the corresponding emergency classification tables presented in Ref. [1] while developing the emergency response arrangements at TRIGA research reactors. The appendices present some historical overview and typical general data for TRIGA research reactor projects and the list of TRIGA installations around the world. The terms used in this document are defined in the IAEA Safety Glossary and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors.

  3. Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a 6LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port. - Highlights: • Neutron spectra of a TRIGA reactor were measured. • The reactor core is loaded with HEU. • The spectra were measured at two reactor beam ports. • Measurements were carried out at 5 and 10 W

  4. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic experimental program in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor at CDTN

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, located at CDTN (Belo Horizonte/Brazil), is a typical 100 kW Mark I light-water reactor cooled by assisted natural convection with an annular graphite reflector. In order to study the safety aspects connected with the increase of the maximum steady state power of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, experimental measures were taken. This paper summarizes the experimental program and some recent results and procedures of the neutronic and thermalhydraulic experiments carried out in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor. (authors)

  5. 30 years of reactor operation of the TRIGA reactor in Vienna

    The TRIGA reactor Vienna first went critical on March 7th 1962 at 12.04 p.m. with 57 Al-clad fuel elements. Since this time the reactor operated without major undesired shut down as students training and education reactor. Until May 1 1992 it has produced 340 MWd of power. About 90 % of the operation schedule is at maximum power level of 250 kW. Pulsing is possible up to 250 MW, until now totally 1186 pulses have been shot. Since about ten years pulse operation has diminished. Only 200 pulses have been carried out since 1980. During the last 30 years 3 reactor instrumentations have been installed, the latest one in July 1992. Two rotary specimen racks have been used during this period; presently the reactor is operated without rotary specimen rack. The experimental facilities are intensively used, all four beam tubes and the thermal column are used for solid state-, neutron- and low temperature physics experiments. Two neutron radiography facilities are installed in the thermal column and in the former experimental tank which has been converted to an irradiation channel. The core is composed of 55 old Al-clad fuel elements together with 14 SST elements and 9 FLIP elements, totally 78 fuel elements. This shows that 70 % of the core is composed of 30 year old Al-clad elements. Only 10 fuel elements have been permanently removed due to damage and are stored in a wet storage facility. Throughout the past three decades the TRIGA reactor Vienna operated without any major problems. Some components had to be replaced due to failure or ageing, but none of these problems can be considered as unacceptable for further operation. On the other hand, the operation of the TRIGA reactor Vienna together with other associated facilities like two accelerators, a helium-liquefaction plant, several x-ray facilities etc. resulted in approximately 600 engineering diploma 200 Ph.D. doctorate 3000 scientific publications in international journals or at conferences The institute's staff is

  6. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor; Analise termo-hidraulica do reator TRIGA IPR-R1

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fortini, Maria Auxiliadora [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The subchannel approach, normally employed for the analysis of power reactor cores that work under forced convection, have been used for the thermal hydraulic evaluation of a TRIGA Mark I reactor, named IPR-R1, at 250 kW power level. This was accomplished by using the PANTERA-1P subchannel code, which has been conveniently adapted to the characteristics of natural convection of TRIGA reactors. The analysis of results indicates that the steady state operation of IPR-R1 at 250 kW do not imply risks to installations, workers and public. (author)

  7. Visual examination program of the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna with the nuclear underwater telescope

    The visual inspection programm carried out during a three month shut-period at the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna is described. Optical inspection of all welds inside the reactor tank was carried out with an underwater telescope developed by the Central Research Institute of Physics, Budapest, Hungary. It is shown that even after 23 years of reactor operation all tank internals were found to be in good condition and minor defects can be easily repaired by remote handling tools. (Author)

  8. Data base formation for important components of reactor TRIGA MARK II

    The paper represents specific data base formation for reactor TRIGA MARK II in Podgorica. Reactor operation data from year 1985 to 1990 were collected. Two groups of collected data were formed. The first group includes components data and the second group covers data of reactor scrams. Time related and demand related models were used for data evaluation. Parameters were estimated by classical method. Similar data bases are useful everywhere where components unavailabilities may have severe drawback. (author)

  9. Power pulse tests on CANDU type fuel elements in TRIGA reactor of INR Pitesti

    Pulse irradiation tests on short fuel elements have been carried out in TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti to investigate aspects related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of CANDU type fuel elements under short duration and large amplitude power pulse conditions. Short test fuel elements were instrumented with thermocouples for cladding surface temperature measurements and pressure sensor for element internal pressure measurement. Transient histories of reactor power, cooling water pressure, fuel element internal pressure and cladding temperature were recorded during tests. The fuel elements were subjected to total energy deposition from 70 to 280cal g-1 UO2. Rapid fuel pellet expansion due to a power excursion caused radial and longitudinal deformation of the cladding. Cladding failure mechanism and the failure threshold have been established. This paper presents some recent results obtained from these power pulse tests performed in TRIGA ACPR of INR Pitesti. (author)

  10. Behavior of CANDU fuel under power pulse conditions at the TRIGA reactor of INR Pitesti

    Pulse irradiation tests on short fuel elements have been carried out in TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti to investigate aspects related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of CANDU type fuel elements under short duration and large amplitude power pulse conditions. Short test fuel elements were instrumented with thermocouples for cladding surface temperature measurements and pressure sensors for element internal pressure measurement. Transient histories of reactor power, cooling water pressure, fuel element internal pressure and cladding temperature were recorded during tests. The fuel elements were subjected to total energy deposition from 70 to 280 cal g-1 UO2. Rapid fuel pellet expansion due to a power excursion caused radial and longitudinal deformation of the cladding. Cladding failure mechanism and the failure threshold have been established. This paper presents some recent results obtained from these power pulse tests performed in TRIGA ACPR of INR Pitesti. (orig.)

  11. Behavior of CANDU fuel under power pulse conditions at the TRIGA reactor of INR Pitesti

    Horhoianu, G.; Dobrea, D.; Parvan, M.; Stefan, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2009-04-15

    Pulse irradiation tests on short fuel elements have been carried out in TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti to investigate aspects related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of CANDU type fuel elements under short duration and large amplitude power pulse conditions. Short test fuel elements were instrumented with thermocouples for cladding surface temperature measurements and pressure sensors for element internal pressure measurement. Transient histories of reactor power, cooling water pressure, fuel element internal pressure and cladding temperature were recorded during tests. The fuel elements were subjected to total energy deposition from 70 to 280 cal g{sup -1} UO{sub 2}. Rapid fuel pellet expansion due to a power excursion caused radial and longitudinal deformation of the cladding. Cladding failure mechanism and the failure threshold have been established. This paper presents some recent results obtained from these power pulse tests performed in TRIGA ACPR of INR Pitesti. (orig.)

  12. Power pulse tests on CANDU type fuel elements in TRIGA reactor of INR Pitesti

    Horhoianu, G.; Ionescu, D.; Olteanu, G. [Inst. for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    Pulse irradiation tests on short fuel elements have been carried out in TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti to investigate aspects related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of CANDU type fuel elements under short duration and large amplitude power pulse conditions. Short test fuel elements were instrumented with thermocouples for cladding surface temperature measurements and pressure sensor for element internal pressure measurement. Transient histories of reactor power, cooling water pressure, fuel element internal pressure and cladding temperature were recorded during tests. The fuel elements were subjected to total energy deposition from 70 to 280cal g{sup -1} UO{sub 2}. Rapid fuel pellet expansion due to a power excursion caused radial and longitudinal deformation of the cladding. Cladding failure mechanism and the failure threshold have been established. This paper presents some recent results obtained from these power pulse tests performed in TRIGA ACPR of INR Pitesti. (author)

  13. Power and neutron flux calculation for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor using MCNP

    The Malaysian 1 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Malaysian Nuclear Agency is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the calculation of neutron flux and power distribution in PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) 14th core configuration. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core and fuels. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data as well as S (α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. Results of calculations are analyzed and discussed. (author)

  14. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristic of TRIGA 2000 Reactor for The 110 Percent Normal Power

    In order to accomplish the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of TRIGA 2000 reactor according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendation, the thermal hydraulic aspect’s analysis of TRIGA 2000 reactor for the 110 percent normal power had been carried out by using STAT computer code. STAT code was made by General Atomic and used specifically for analysing the characteristic of TRIGA 2000 reactor. The purpose of the thermal hydraulic analysis is to considerably study the safety problems to achieve thermal hydraulic parameters in the TRIGA 2000 reactor’s core in order to convince that the reactor was not operating unless in the safety condition. Result of this analysis indicated that the film boiling does not occur in the reactor core and DNBR for 2200 kW power with the inlet temperature range between 34 °C – 40 °C is about 2.5 – 2.8 for Mc Adams correlation and about 1.6 – 1.8 for Bernath correlation. (author)

  15. TRIGA-SPEC: A setup for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Ketelaer, J; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Block, M; Eberhardt, K; Eitel, G; Ferrer, R; Geppert, C; George, S; Herfurth, F; Ketter, J; Nagy, Sz; Neidherr, D; Neugart, R; Nörtershäuser, W; Repp, J; Smorra, C; Trautmann, N; Weber, C

    2008-01-01

    The research reactor TRIGA Mainz is an ideal facility to provide neutron-rich nuclides with production rates sufficiently large for mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic studies. Within the TRIGA-SPEC project, a Penning trap as well as a beam line for collinear laser spectroscopy are being installed. Several new developments will ensure high sensitivity of the trap setup enabling mass measurements even on a single ion. Besides neutron-rich fission products produced in the reactor, also heavy nuclides such as 235-U or 252-Cf can be investigated for the first time with an off-line ion source. The data provided by the mass measurements will be of interest for astrophysical calculations on the rapid neutron-capture process as well as for tests of mass models in the heavy-mass region. The laser spectroscopic measurements will yield model-independent information on nuclear ground-state properties such as nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-rich nuclei of refractory elements far from stability. This pub...

  16. The Management of TRIGA Spent Fuel at ENEA RC-1 Research Reactor

    TRIGA Mark II reactor of ENEA's Casaccia research Center (in Italy named RC-1) reached first criticality in 1960. Reactor core was realized with 61 standard TRIGA fuel elements, aluminium clad. In this condition, the reactor was operated until August 1965 at a steady state power level of 100 kW. In the summer of 1965, a programme was established to increase the reactor power to 1 MW. After significant plant modifications (in order both to adapt the reactor to the new operative circumstances, including safety regulations, and to extend reactor flexibility in the widest research areas), the new criticality was reached in July 1967. The 1 MW reactor operative configuration was initially obtained with 76 standard TRIGA fuel elements, but stainless steel clad. The RC-1 Reactor is still operational and during these years, many fuel elements were used. In this paper we describe the facility, the infrastructure available for spent fuel storage, and the operative experience accumulated during these years in the management of RC-1 Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The activities and the incumbencies during SNF shipment that was carried out in 1999, in the frame of the USA Return of Foreign Research Reactors Spent Fuel Programme, are also described. (author)

  17. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  18. Neutronic performance of a 14 MW TRIGA reactor: LEU vs HEU fuel

    A primary objective of the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is to develop means for replacing, wherever possible, currently used highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel (235U enrichment > 90%) with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel (235U enrichment < 20%) without significantly degrading the performance of research and test reactors. The General Atomic Company has developed a low-enriched but high uranium content Er-U-ZrH/sub 1.6/ fuel to enable the conversion of TRIGA reactors (and others) from HEU to LEU. One possible application is to the water-moderated 14 MW TRIGA Steady State Reactor (SSR) at the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors. The work reported here was undertaken for the purpose of comparing the neutronic performance of the SSR for HEU fuel with that for LEU fuel. In order to make these relative comparisons as valid as possible, identical methods and models were used for the neutronic calculations

  19. Results of MCNP analysis for Moroccan TRIGA Mark-II Reactor

    The construction work on the Moroccan Triga Mark II research reactor has already started and the first criticality is planned for the near future. The main objective of this study is to ensure that the calculations tools available at CNESTEN as the operator of this reactor are sufficiently adequate for the prediction of the neutronic and the operating characteristics of the first Moroccan research reactor. In this work, we have analyzed the 2 MW Triga Mark II reactor using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. In order to reduce possible errors due to inexact core geometry specification, a complete and exact 3D model of this reactor was developed. The parameters of interest in this study are the core excess reactivity, the critical size of the cold and clean core, the total reactivity worth of the control rods and the verification of the shutdown margin. (author)

  20. Full conversion of materials and nuclear fuel in TRIGA SSR 14 MW research and test reactor

    During 1952-2005 General Atomics built and commissioned worldwide 62 TRIGA research reactors. Almost all reactors built by General Atomics use Low Enriched Uranium (19,9%). One exception was the TRIGA reactor from ICN Pitesti. The transition from HEU to LEU utilization, called a core conversion, is supported by Department of Energy - USA and Member States in the project 'Reduced Enrichment in Research and Testing Reactors (RERTR)' and by Member States and IAEA through Technical Cooperation programmes. The activities that are related to core conversion are managed and reviewed as refueling operations. This type of activities was performed at least six times from reactor commissioning stage until now. The implied personnel in this type of activities is licensed by CNCAN, the Romanian Regulatory Body and periodically trained. (authors)

  1. The neutron radiography facility designed for TRIGA reactors and its results

    The two TRIGA reactors of INR, the Steady State Reactor (SSR) having a power of 14 MW and Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR) having in steady state a power of 500 kW and being capable of a pulse to the peak power of 20000 MW, are placed in the same pool. The neutron flux ranging at the edges of those reactors cores is suitable for neutron radiography. The neutron radiography facility is placed in the pool of the TRIGA reactors. Till now as neutron source only the ACPR, in steady state or pulsing mode has been used. For the future one intends to use also the neutron flux of SSR. The aim of this facility is to achieve neutron radiographs of the nuclear fuel elements. (authors)

  2. Overview of probabilistic safety assessment activity for Romanian TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    Current international approach of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is not only for Nuclear Power Plants but also for Research Reactors. Recently commissioned Research Reactors use PSA in the process of licensing. In case of the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, PSA for TRIGA Research Reactor was developed with a scientific aim joint to the Deterministic Analysis, covering the qualitative and quantitative approach of safety. The paper presents the PSA activity related to TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor starting with raw data collection for obtaining a historical view of the reactor operation and to obtain reliability data used in PSA. Further on, an overall presentation of the PSA model (Initiating Events, Event Trees and Fault Trees) is made. (authors)

  3. Experience in operation and maintenance of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Pavia

    Experience in the operation and maintenance of the 250 kW steady state/250 MW pulsed TRIGA Mark II Reactor of the University of Pavia in the past two years is reported. Data for the reactor utilization and of Health Physics activity are also presented. Since the Second European Conference of TRIGA Reactor Users in 1972, reactor operation continued normally. No major troubles occurred during this time except for rotary specimen rack rotation. Maintenance of reactor facilities, including the substitution of the rotary specimen rack with a new one manufactured on-site is described. In June 1974 measurements of fluxes in the thermal column, with most of the graphite elements removed, were carried out in order to install a neutron converter in thermal column. Some results of fluxes and cadmium ratio values are reported. A description of the converter facility set up is given. (U.S.)

  4. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  5. Experience with service and maintenance of a TRIGA Mark II reactor after 24 years of operation

    The maintenance work and the inspection program carried out at the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna after more than two decades of reactor operation is described. With the help of a special underwater telescope all surfaces inside the reactor tank were inspected visually and two beam tubes were inspected with an endoscope. A new water purification loop was installed in 1985, which was followed by a new primary coolant circuit in 1986. The reactor bridge was dismantled, all control rod drives were serviced and some components replaced. As a result of this program it was observed that a TRIGA reactor can be serviced, improved and backfitted even after 24 years of operation with minor efforts. (author)

  6. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system. PMID:26141293

  7. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: rrr@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: edson@cdtn.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  8. Irradiation tests in TRIGA MT reactor of INR Pitesti related to safety of nuclear fuel

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Olteanu, Gheorghe [Institute for Nuclear Research, INR, PO Box 78, 1 Campului Street, RO-115400 Mioveni, Jud. Arges (Romania); Makihara, Yoshiaki [International Atomic Energy Agency Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The design of modern power reactors reflects the close attention paid to improve safety and reliability of nuclear fuel. With the evolution of fuel design and the possibilities for more stringent operational conditions it is of concern to determine if the present safety criteria are adequate as most of them were established 15 to 20 years ago most of the time on un-irradiated materials. One of the main objectives of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Pitesti R and D Program is to investigate thermal and mechanical behaviour of fuel elements, thresholds and mechanisms of cladding failure during RIA and LOCA tests. Dual core TRIGA Material Testing Reactor of INR Pitesti (TRIGA SS MTR and TRIGA ACPR) is utilized extensively for studies of fuel behaviour under normal and postulated accident conditions such as reactivity - initiated accident (RIA) and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A total of 40 test fuel elements have been irradiated in the TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti under RIA conditions. The ACPR tests program is still in progress and new experiments are foreseen to be performed in the following period. The test fuel elements are instrumented with CrAl thermocouples for cladding surface temperature measurement and every test fuel element has a pressure sensor for the internal pressure measurement. New RIA type tests are planned in C6 capsule of TRIGA ACPR on test fuel elements with pre-hydrided claddings in order to investigate the influence of the precipitated hydride on fuel element cladding failure at high burnups in RIA conditions. An experimental database of fuel behaviour parameters concerning fission - gas release, sheath strain, power - burnup history, etc. has been obtained using in-pile measurements and PIE results of test fuel elements irradiated in the TRIGA Steady State Material Testing Reactor (TRIGA SS MTR) of INR Pitesti. More than 110 test fuel elements have been irradiated in TRIGA SS MTR in different power

  9. Irradiation tests in TRIGA MT reactor of INR Pitesti related to safety of nuclear fuel

    The design of modern power reactors reflects the close attention paid to improve safety and reliability of nuclear fuel. With the evolution of fuel design and the possibilities for more stringent operational conditions it is of concern to determine if the present safety criteria are adequate as most of them were established 15 to 20 years ago most of the time on un-irradiated materials. One of the main objectives of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Pitesti R and D Program is to investigate thermal and mechanical behaviour of fuel elements, thresholds and mechanisms of cladding failure during RIA and LOCA tests. Dual core TRIGA Material Testing Reactor of INR Pitesti (TRIGA SS MTR and TRIGA ACPR) is utilized extensively for studies of fuel behaviour under normal and postulated accident conditions such as reactivity - initiated accident (RIA) and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A total of 40 test fuel elements have been irradiated in the TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti under RIA conditions. The ACPR tests program is still in progress and new experiments are foreseen to be performed in the following period. The test fuel elements are instrumented with CrAl thermocouples for cladding surface temperature measurement and every test fuel element has a pressure sensor for the internal pressure measurement. New RIA type tests are planned in C6 capsule of TRIGA ACPR on test fuel elements with pre-hydrided claddings in order to investigate the influence of the precipitated hydride on fuel element cladding failure at high burnups in RIA conditions. An experimental database of fuel behaviour parameters concerning fission - gas release, sheath strain, power - burnup history, etc. has been obtained using in-pile measurements and PIE results of test fuel elements irradiated in the TRIGA Steady State Material Testing Reactor (TRIGA SS MTR) of INR Pitesti. More than 110 test fuel elements have been irradiated in TRIGA SS MTR in different power

  10. The 10 MW multipurpose TRIGA reactor at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center, Thailand

    General Atomics (GA), has been selected to lead a team of firms from the United States, Japan, Australia and Thailand to design, build and commission the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center near Bangkok, Thailand, for the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace. The facilities to be provided comprise of: A Reactor Island, consisting of a 10 MW TRIGA reactor that takes full advantage of the inherent safety characteristics of uranium-zirconium hydride (UZrH) fuel; An Isotope Production Facility for the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals using the TRIGA reactor; A Waste Processing and Storage Facility for the processing and storage of radioactive waste from the facility as well as other locations in Thailand. The centerpiece of the Center will be the TRIGA reactor, fueled with low-enriched UZrH fuel, cooled and moderated by light water, and reflected by beryllium and heavy water. The UZrH fueled reactor will have a rated steady state thermal power output of 10 MW, and will be capable of performing the following: Radioisotope production for medical, industrial and agricultural uses; Neutron transmutation doping of silicon; Beam experiments such as Neutron Scattering, Neutron Radiography (NR), and Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA); Medical therapy of patients using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); Applied research and technology development in the nuclear field; Training in principles of reactor operation, reactor physics, reactor experiments, etc. (author)