FEM-2D, 2-D MultiGroup Diffusion in X-Y Geometry
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: FEM-2D solves the two-dimensional diffusion equation in x-y geometry. This is done by the finite elements method. 2 - Method of solution: FEM-2D uses triangular elements with first and second order Lagrange approximations. The systems equations are formulated in multigroup form and solved by Cholesky procedure which operates only on nonzero elements. Various acceleration techniques are available for the outer iteration. Fluxes along various lines and rates in arbitrary zones may be output. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The code uses variable dimensioning. Thus, the problem size is restricted by the largest array which usually is the systems matrix. Fluxes of all groups are kept in memory. This might become another restrictive data set for a large number of groups. The validity of the results is restricted by the approximations used. FEM-2D requires a finite element net which allows the approximation of fluxes by at most parabolas. The node distribution should be more dense in areas of heavy flux changes (near absorbers or the reflector)
Highlights: ► The multi-group IDE-NDK was solved numerically in 2D-Cartesian geometry. ► The progressive basic polynomial (BPn) methods showed no numerical oscillations. ► The BP2 algorithm showed good accuracy and efficiency. -- Abstract: The multi-group time-integro-differential equations of the neutron diffusion kinetics (IDE-NDK) was solved numerically in 2D Cartesian geometry with the use of the basic-progressive polynomial approximation (BPn). Two applications were computed: a ramp, and an instantaneous change of the thermal removal macroscopic cross sections of the driver material of the 2D-TWGL benchmark problems. The BP2 algorithm showed good accuracy when compared with the results of other codes. BPn did not show the undesirable oscillations that appeared in other codes.
VARI-QUIR-3, 2-D Multigroup Steady-State Neutron Diffusion in X-Y R-Z or R-Theta Geometry
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The steady-state, multigroup, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equations are solved in x-y, r-z, and r-theta geometry. 2 - Method of solution: A Gauss-Seidel type of solution with inner and outer iterations is used. The source is held constant during the inner iterations
1 - Description of program or function: DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source and criticality (concentration search) problems in 1-, 2- and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and region-wise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, up-scattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated. The DIF3D8.0/VARIANT8.0 release differs from the previous DIF3D7.0 release in that it includes a significantly expanded set of solution techniques using variational nodal methods. DIF3D's nodal option solves the multigroup steady state neutron diffusion equation in two- and three-dimensional hexagonal and cartesian geometries and solves the transport equation in two-and three-dimensional cartesian geometries. Eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source and criticality (concentration) search problems are permitted as are anisotropic diffusion coefficients. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and region-wise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, up-scattering and for finite difference option only internal black boundary conditions are also treated. VARIANT solves the multigroup steady-state neutron diffusion and transport equations in two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal geometries using variational nodal methods. The transport approximations involve complete spherical harmonic expansions up to order P5. Eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, gamma heating, and criticality (concentration) search problems are permitted. Anisotropic scattering is treated, and although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, up-scattering options are also included. Related and Auxiliary Programs: DIF3D reads and writes the standard interface files specified by the Committee on Computer Code
Three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code ANDEX based on nodal method for cartesian geometry
An analytic polynomial nodal method using partial currents has been derived for the solution of multigroup neutron diffusion equations in three-dimensional (3-D) cartesian geometry. This method is characterized by expressing the source and leakage terms in an auxiliary 1-D diffusion equation by quadratic polynomials and solving it analytically. Based on this method, we have developed a 3-D multigroup diffusion code ANDEX, and applied to 2-D LWR and 3-D FBR models. The results of keff, power distributions and computing time have been compared with those of finite difference method calculations. (author)
Second order time evolution of the multigroup diffusion and P1 equations for radiation transport
Highlights: → An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. → A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. → The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. → The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P1 forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.
Development and validation of Apros multigroup nodal diffusion model
Rintala, Antti
2015-01-01
The development of a steady state and transient multigroup nodal diffusion model for process simulation software Apros was continued and the models were validated. The initial implementation of the model was performed in 2009 and it has not been under continuous development afterwards. Some errors in the steady state model were corrected. The transient model was found to be incorrect. The solution method of the transient model was derived, and the program code not common with the steady s...
FINELM: a multigroup finite element diffusion code
FINELM is a FORTRAN IV program to solve the Neutron Diffusion Equation in X-Y, R-Z, R-theta, X-Y-Z and R-theta-Z geometries using the method of Finite Elements. Lagrangian elements of linear or higher degree to approximate the spacial flux distribution have been provided. The method of dissections, coarse mesh rebalancing and Chebyshev acceleration techniques are available. Simple user defined input is achieved through extensive input subroutines. The input preparation is described followed by a program structure description. Sample test cases are provided. (Auth.)
Multigroup finite element-boundary element method for neutron diffusion
Full text: The finite element method (FEM) is an efficient method used for the solution of partial differential equations (PDE's) of engineering physics due to its symmetric, sparse and positive-definite coefficient matrix. FEM has been successfully applied for the solution of multigroup neutron transport and diffusion equations since 1970's. The boundary element method (BEM), on the other hand, is a newer method and is unique among the numerical methods used for the solution of PDE's with its property of confining the unknowns only to the boundaries of homogeneous regions, thus, greatly reducing matrix dimensions. The first application of BEM to the neutron diffusion equation (NDE) dates back to 1985 and many researchers are currently working in this area. Although BEM is known to have the desirable property of being an internal-mesh free method, this advantage is lost in some of its application to the NDE due to the existence of fission source volume integrals in fissionable regions unless domain-decomposition methods are used. To exploit the favorable properties of both FEM and BEM, a hybrid FE/BE method has been recently proposed for reflected systems treated by one or two-group diffusion theories in a recent paper co-authored by the first author. In this work, the hybrid FE/BE method for reflected systems is generalized to multigroup diffusion theory. The core is treated by FEM to preserve the high accuracy of FEM in such neutron-producing regions. Using a boundary integral equation formerly proposed by the second author, BEM, is utilized for the discretization of the reflector, thus, eliminating the internal mesh completely for this nonfissionable region. The multigroup FE/BE method has been implemented in our recently developed FORTRAN program. The program is validated by comparison of the calculated effective multiplication factor and the group fluxes with their analytical counterparts for a two-group reflected system. Comparison of these results and
SCALE 6 computes problem-dependent multigroup (MG) cross sections through a combination of the conventional Bondarenko shielding-factor method and a deterministic pointwise (PW) transport calculation of the fine-structure spectra in the resolved resonance and thermal energy ranges. The PW calculation is performed by the CENTRM code using a 1-D cylindrical Wigner-Seitz model with the white boundary condition instead of the real rectangular cell shape to represent a lattice unit cell. The pointwise fluxes computed by CENTRM are not exact because a 1-D model is used for the transport calculation, which introduces discrepancies in the MG self-shielded cross sections, resulting in some deviation in the eigenvalue. In order to solve this problem, the method of characteristics (MOC) has been applied to enable the CENTRM PW transport calculation for a 2-D square pin cell. The computation results show that the new BONAMI/CENTRM-MOC procedure produces very precise self-shielded cross sections compared to MCNP reaction rates.
A code called COMESH based on corner mesh finite difference scheme has been developed to solve multigroup diffusion theory equations. One can solve 1-D, 2-D or 3-D problems in Cartesian geometry and 1-D (r) or 2-D (r-z) problem in cylindrical geometry. On external boundary one can use either homogeneous Dirichlet (θ-specified) or Neumann (∇θ specified) type boundary conditions or a linear combination of the two. Internal boundaries for control absorber simulations are also tackled by COMESH. Many an acceleration schemes like successive line over-relaxation, two parameter Chebyschev acceleration for fission source, generalised coarse mesh rebalancing etc., render the code COMESH a very fast one for estimating eigenvalue and flux/power profiles in any type of reactor core configuration. 6 refs. (author)
1 - Description of program or function: PARTISN (Parallel, Time-Dependent SN) is the evolutionary successor to CCC-0547/DANTSYS. User input and cross section formats are very similar to that of DANTSYS. The linear Boltzmann transport equation is solved for neutral particles using the deterministic (SN) method. Both the static (fixed source or eigenvalue) and time-dependent forms of the transport equation are solved in forward or adjoint mode. Vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, or inhomogeneous boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering and inhomogeneous sources are permitted. PARTISN solves the transport equation on orthogonal (single level or block-structured AMR) grids in 1-D (slab, two-angle slab, cylindrical, or spherical), 2-D (X-Y, R-Z, or R-T) and 3-D (X-Y-Z or R-Z-T) geometries. 2 - Methods:PARTISN numerically solves the multigroup form of the neutral-particle Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates form of approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution. For curvilinear geometries, diamond differencing is used for angular discretization. The spatial discretizations may be either low-order (diamond difference or Adaptive Weighted Diamond Difference (AWDD)) or higher-order (linear discontinuous or exponential discontinuous). Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm for the diamond case (DD/STZ). Time differencing is Crank-Nicholson (diamond), also with a set-to-zero fix-up scheme. Both inner and outer iterations can be accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method, or transport synthetic acceleration can be used to accelerate the inner iterations. The diffusion solver uses either the conjugate gradient or multigrid method. Chebyshev acceleration of the fission source is used. The angular source terms may be treated either via standard PN expansions or Galerkin scattering. An option is provided for strictly positive scattering sources
The subject is divided in two parts: In the first part a nodal method has been worked out to solve the steady state multigroup diffusion equation. This method belongs to the same set of nodal methods currently used to calculate the exact fission powers and neutron fluxes in a very short computing time. It has been tested on a two dimensional idealized reactors. The effective multiplication factor and the fission powers for each fuel element have been calculated. The second part consists in studying and mastering the multigroup diffusion code DAHRA - a reduced version of DIANE - a two dimensional code using finite difference method
FINELM: a multigroup finite element diffusion code. Part I
The author presents a two dimensional code for multigroup diffusion using the finite element method. It was realized that the extensive connectivity which contributes significantly to the accuracy, results in a matrix which, although symmetric and positive definite, is wide band and possesses an irregular profile. Hence, it was decided to introduce sparsity techniques into the code. The introduction of the R-Z geometry lead to a great deal of changes in the code since the rotational invariance of the removal matrices in X-Y geometry did not carry over in R-Z geometry. Rectangular elements were introduced to remedy the inability of the triangles to model essentially one dimensional problems such as slab geometry. The matter is discussed briefly in the text in the section on benchmark problems. This report is restricted to the general theory of the triangular elements and to the sparsity techniques viz. incomplete disections. The latter makes the size of the problem that can be handled independent of core memory and dependent only on disc storage capacity which is virtually unlimited. (Auth.)
Highlights: ► We develop a 2-D, multigroup neutron/adjoint diffusion computer code based on GFEM. ► The spatial discretization is performed using unstructured triangle elements. ► Multiplication factor, flux/adjoint and power distribution are outputs of the code. ► Sensitivity analysis to the number, arrangement and size of elements is performed. ► We proved that the developed code is a reliable tool to solve diffusion equation. -- Abstract: Various methods for solving the forward/adjoint equation in hexagonal and rectangular geometries are known in the literatures. In this paper, the solution of multigroup forward/adjoint equation using Finite Element Method (FEM) for hexagonal and rectangular reactor cores is reported. The spatial discretization of equations is based on Galerkin FEM (GFEM) using unstructured triangle elements. Calculations are performed for both linear and quadratic approximations of the shape function; based on which results are compared. Using power iteration method for the forward and adjoint calculations, the forward and adjoint fluxes with the corresponding eigenvalues are obtained. The results are then benchmarked against the valid results for IAEA-2D, BIBLIS-2D and IAEA-PWR benchmark problems. Convergence rate of GFEM in linear and quadratic approximations of the shape function are calculated and results are quantitatively compared. A sensitivity analysis of the calculations to the number and arrangement of elements has been performed.
Highlights: → Coupled neutron and gamma transport is considered in the multigroup diffusion approximation. → The model accommodates fission, up- and down-scattering and common neutron-gamma interactions. → The exact solution to the diffusion equation in a heterogeneous media of any number of regions is found. → The solution is shown to parallel the one-group case in a homogeneous medium. → The discussion concludes with a heterogeneous, 2 fuel-plate 93.2% enriched reactor fuel benchmark demonstration. - Abstract: The angular flux for the 'rod model' describing coupled neutron/gamma (n, γ) diffusion has a particularly straightforward analytical representation when viewed from the perspective of a one-group homogeneous medium. Cast in the form of matrix functions of a diagonalizable matrix, the solution to the multigroup equations in heterogeneous media is greatly simplified. We shall show exactly how the one-group homogeneous medium solution leads to the multigroup solution.
Multigroup neutron transport equation in the diffusion and P1 approximation
Investigations of the properties of the multigroup transport operator, width and without delayed neutrons in the diffusion and P1 approximation, is performed using Keldis's theory of operator families as well as a technique . recently used for investigations into the properties of the general linearized Boltzmann operator. It is shown that in the case without delayed neutrons, multigroup transport operator in the diffusion and P1 approximation possesses a complete set of generalized eigenvectors. A formal solution to the initial value problem is also given. (author)
SIXTUS-2. A two dimensional multigroup diffusion theory code in hexagonal geometry. Pt. 1
A new algorithm for solving the 2-dimensional multigroup diffusion equations in hexagonal geometry is described. It is based on three novel ideas: analytic intranodal solutions, use of the group irreducible representations and an explicit scheme for solving the response matrix equations. The resulting computer code SIXTUS-2 has been found to be very accurate and effective. (Auth.)
The Analytic Coarse-Mesh Finite-Difference method is developed in detail for multi-group and multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, including the general and particular modal solutions in the complex space for any number of groups. For rectangular multidimensional geometries, the Chao's generalized relations with transverse integration provide a high-order approximation of the ACMFD method, where all energy groups are coupled by matrix-vector FD relations and the errors are limited to the ones incurred by the interpolation of the transverse interface currents, in a non-linear iterative scheme. The implementation of the method in a multigroup 3D rectangular geometry nodal solver called ANDES is discussed, pointing out the encapsulation achieved for integration of the solver as an optional module within larger code systems. The performance of the ANDES solver in 3D rectangular (X-Y-Z) geometry and multi-groups is verified by its application to several 2D-3D model and international benchmarks (NEA-OECD), with given diffusion cross section sets in few-groups (2 to 8). The extensive verification, always required for new methods and codes, shows a quite fast convergence of ANDES in both the eigenvalue and transverse leakage iteration loops and with the nodal coarse-mesh size, allowing to reach the conclusion that quite high accuracy is achieved with rather large nodes, one node or four nodes per PWR fuel assembly, as compared with reference solutions obtained with fine-mesh finite-difference diffusion calculations using mesh sizes 64 to 128 times smaller than the ANDES nodes. (authors)
Three-dimensional h-adaptivity for the multigroup neutron diffusion equations
Wang, Yaqi
2009-04-01
Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been shown to allow solving partial differential equations to significantly higher accuracy at reduced numerical cost. This paper presents a state-of-the-art AMR algorithm applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation for reactor applications. In order to follow the physics closely, energy group-dependent meshes are employed. We present a novel algorithm for assembling the terms coupling shape functions from different meshes and show how it can be made efficient by deriving all meshes from a common coarse mesh by hierarchic refinement. Our methods are formulated using conforming finite elements of any order, for any number of energy groups. The spatial error distribution is assessed with a generalization of an error estimator originally derived for the Poisson equation. Our implementation of this algorithm is based on the widely used Open Source adaptive finite element library deal.II and is made available as part of this library\\'s extensively documented tutorial. We illustrate our methods with results for 2-D and 3-D reactor simulations using 2 and 7 energy groups, and using conforming finite elements of polynomial degree up to 6. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tredit A 3-D multigroup diffusion theory simulator for hexagonal fuel assembly cores
A multigroup 3-D reactor core simulator based on neutron diffusion theory, called TREDIT has been developed for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). It considers triangle shaped meshes in X-Y plane and variable mesh spacing in Z-direction. Thus it is especially suited for designing and analysing LWR cores with hexagonal fuel assemblied like the Russian WWER reactors. When fuel assembly cross-sections in multigroup form are input as fitted constants, the computer code TREDIT can build up core burnup distribution with power distribution computed for initial reactor conditions. The results of this code have been compared with another diffusion theory based code and found satisfactory. Xenon feedback effects on core power distribution are demonstrated. (author)
A multigroup diffusion theory code, TRIHEX-3D, has been developed for hexagonal lattice core analyses. For 2-D problems one can use hexagonal or triangular centre-mesh finite difference (FD) schemes. The geometrical description of the problem is for hexagonal geometry only. Subdivision of each hexagon into uniform triangles is facilitated by a built-in auto-triangularisati on procedure. One can analyse any symmetric part of the core or the whole core as well. Reflective (30deg, 60deg, 90deg, 120deg and 180deg) and rotational (60deg, 120deg and 180deg) symmetry boundary conditions are allowed. For 3-D problems one can use a direct 3-D FDM or an axial flux synthesis method. TRIHEX-3D can be used for the core design problems of VVER type of hexagonal lattice cores. The code has been validated against a LMFBR SNR-300 benchmark problem. (author). 8 tabs., 9 figs., 9 refs., 5 appendixes
Cassandre : a two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code for reactor transient analysis
CASSANDRE is a two-dimensional (x-y or r-z) finite element neutronics code with thermohydraulics feedback for reactor dynamics prior to the disassembly phase. It uses the multigroup neutron diffusion theory. Its main characteristics are the use of a generalized quasistatic model, the use of a flexible multigroup point-kinetics algorithm allowing for spectral matching and the use of a finite element description. The code was conceived in order to be coupled with any thermohydraulics module, although thermohydraulics feedback is only considered in r-z geometry. In steady state criticality search is possible either by control rod insertion or by homogeneous poisoning of the coolant. This report describes the main characterstics of the code structure and provides all the information needed to use the code. (Author)
FINELM: a multigroup finite element diffusion code. III
The authors describe the formalism of the finite element for r-theta geometry. The treatment of a four sided element with two circular arcs and two radial sides is presented. At the centre of the disc this element is collapsed into a three sided element by reducing the inner arc length to zero. The singularity of the leakage term of such an element at r=0 is described. The modelling of control and safety rods by introducing boundary conditions interior to the reactor is presented. This has the effect of converting the diffusion region from a simply connected to a multiply connected region. Dirichlet conditions with prescribed flux values zero are imposed on nodes in the interior of the non diffusion zones in order to decouple these nodes from the rest. The method is tested by calculating the effectiveness of control and safety rods for a 500 MW Th high temperature reactor. The results are compared with those obtained with DIFGEN using x-y geometry. The DIFGEN results and the problem data are by courtsey of Hochtemperatur Reaktor Bau AG, Mannheim. (Auth.)
Simulate-HEX - The multi-group diffusion equation in hexagonal-z geometry
The multigroup diffusion equation is solved for the hexagonal-z geometry by dividing each hexagon into 6 triangles. In each triangle, the Fourier solution of the wave equation is approximated by 8 plane waves to describe the intra-nodal flux accurately. In the end an efficient Finite Difference like equation is obtained. The coefficients of this equation depend on the flux solution itself and they are updated once per power/void iteration. A numerical example demonstrates the high accuracy of the method. (authors)
FEM-BABEL, 3-D Multigroup Neutron Diffusion by Galerkin Method
1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: This program computes the three-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equation using the finite element method. 2 - Method of solution: The equation is solved using a solution algorithm based on a Galerkin-type scheme. Prism and box-shaped finite elements are used. The resulting equation system is solved using the successive over-relaxation method and the inner iterations are accelerated by a coarse mesh re-balancing technique. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Any down-scattering of neutrons is allowed but up-scattering and region-dependent fission spectra are not permitted
Development of a three-dimensional multigroup nodal diffusion code for the LMR
STEP is a three-dimensional multigroup nodal diffusion code for the neutronics analysis of the LMR core and accepts microscopic cross section data. Material cross sections are obtained by summing the product of atom densities and microscopic cross sections over all isotopes comprising the material. STEP contains a thermal-hydraulics module which enables feedback effects from both fuel temperature and coolant temperature changes. Numerical results of the STEP code over the KALIMER core (392 MWt) agree well with those of DIF-3D. And it has been observed that the thermal-hydraulics module is working properly
An effective method of solving the multigroup diffusion problem in hexagonal geometry. Part I
An effective method of solving two-dimensional multigroup diffusion equations in hexagonal geometry is described. The method is based on the following two ideas: nodal approach, and expansion of one-dimensional neutron fluxes inside the node into polynomials up to the third order. The resulting relations for the interface-averaged partial currents, node-averaged fluxes and flux moments are used in computer code NEHEX. The code was found to be an accurate and effective computational tool. Its description and validation against reference benchmark problems will be published as Part II of this report. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 9 refs
The good features of the Analytic Function Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method are utilized to develop a practical scheme for the multigroup diffusion problems, in combination with the polynomial expansion nodal (PEN) method. The thermal group fluxes exhibiting strong gradients are solved by the AFEN method, while the fast group fluxes that are smoother than the thermal group fluxes are solved by the PEN method. The scheme is developed for cores of rectangular and hexagonal geometries. In particular, to model the fast group fluxes in the hexagonal geometry by the PEN method, a polynomial function set which shows good performance in accuracy and numerical stability is derived, in premiere. (author)
Converged accelerated finite difference scheme for the multigroup neutron diffusion equation
Computer codes involving neutron transport theory for nuclear engineering applications always require verification to assess improvement. Generally, analytical and semi-analytical benchmarks are desirable, since they are capable of high precision solutions to provide accurate standards of comparison. However, these benchmarks often involve relatively simple problems, usually assuming a certain degree of abstract modeling. In the present work, we show how semi-analytical equivalent benchmarks can be numerically generated using convergence acceleration. Specifically, we investigate the error behavior of a 1D spatial finite difference scheme for the multigroup (MG) steady-state neutron diffusion equation in plane geometry. Since solutions depending on subsequent discretization can be envisioned as terms of an infinite sequence converging to the true solution, extrapolation methods can accelerate an iterative process to obtain the limit before numerical instability sets in. The obtained results have been compared to the analytical solution to the 1D multigroup diffusion equation when available, using FORTRAN as the computational language. Finally, a slowing down problem has been solved using a cascading source update, showing how a finite difference scheme performs for ultra-fine groups (104 groups) in a reasonable computational time using convergence acceleration. (authors)
Nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) can improve the performance of a neutron transport solver significantly especially for the multigroup eigenvalue problems. The high-order transport equation and the transport-corrected low-order diffusion equation form a nonlinear system in NDA, which can be solved via a Picard iteration. The consistency of the correction of the low-order equation is important to ensure the stabilization and effectiveness of the iteration. It also makes the low-order equation preserve the scalar flux of the high-order equation. In this paper, the consistent correction for a particular discretization scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with discrete ordinates method (SN) and continuous finite element method (CFEM) is proposed for the multigroup neutron transport equation. Equations with the anisotropic scatterings and a void treatment are included. The Picard iteration with this scheme has been implemented and tested with RattleSNake, a MOOSE-based application at INL. Convergence results are presented. (authors)
Most of the neutron diffusion codes use numerical methods giving accurate results in structured meshes. However, the application of these methods in unstructured meshes to deal with complex geometries is not straightforward and it may cause problems of stability and convergence of the solution. By contrast, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is easily applied to unstructured meshes and is typically used in the transport equations due to the conservation of the transported quantity within the volume. In this paper, the FVM algorithm implemented in the ARB Partial Differential Equations Solver has been used to discretize the multigroup neutron diffusion equation to obtain the matrices of the generalized eigenvalue problem, which has been solved by means of the SLEPc library. Nevertheless, these matrices could be large for fine meshes and the eigenvalue problem resolution could require a high calculation time. Therefore, a transformation of the generalized eigenvalue problem into a standard one is performed in order to reduce the calculation time. (author)
FEM-RZ, 2-D Multigroup Neutron Transport in R-Z Geometry, Eigenvalue and Fixed Source Problems
1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: FEM-RZ is a computer program for solving multi-group neutron transport problems in two-dimensional cylindrical (r,z) geometry. It can solve not only eigenvalue problems but also other problems, such as fixed source problems. 2 - Method of solution: The method of higher order finite elements is used for the spatial variables. It is based on the discontinuous method with Galerkin-type scheme. The discrete ordinate Sn method is used for the angular variables. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: No restrictions except for computer size
AIRDIF, Neutron and Gamma Doses from Nuclear Explosion by 2-D Air Diffusion
1 - Description of problem or function: AIRDIF is a two-dimensional atmospheric radiation diffusion code designed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in the environment of a nuclear explosion. It calculates radiation fluxes in one-dimensional homogeneous air, or two-dimensional variable density air. The results are limited by the assumptions inherent in diffusion theory: the region of interest must be large compared to the radiation mean free path, the spatial flux gradients must not be steep, flux varies linearly with the cosine of the direction angle. The code requires as input data neutron and gamma source spectra, coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross sections, and, for two- dimensional problems, a set of mass integral scaling (MIS) coefficients. These latter are calculated from an AIRDIF output flux file for a one-dimensional problem by the auxiliary program MISFIT, using a least squares fitting technique to Murphy's radiation transmission equation. MISFIT can also be used to calculate one- dimensional MIS doses. The MIS coefficients and doses can be input to AIRDIF, in two- dimensional mode to calculate 2-D fluxes, doses and K-factors (the ratio of 2-D to 1-D dose). Alternatively the 2-D doses and K-factors may be computed using the output 2-D flux file of a previous AIRDIF run using the auxiliary program DOSCOMP. 2 - Method of solution: Un-collided particle flux is determined from an analytic expression describing exponential attenuation with distance. Diffusion theory is used for the flux, using un-collided flux as a source term. A central collided differencing technique is used to reduce the diffusion equation to a matrix equation, which is solved by the Successive Line Over-relaxation (SLOR) method. Total flux is calculated as the sum of collided and un-collided components. To maintain a mesh interval which has the same relationship to mean free path at all heights, an expanding non-orthogonal coordinate system is used. In homogeneous air this system
In this work we developed a software to model and generate results in tables and graphs of one-dimensional neutron transport problems in multi-group formulation of energy. The numerical method we use to solve the problem of neutron diffusion is analytic, thus eliminating the truncation errors that appear in classical numerical methods, e.g., the method of finite differences. This numerical analytical method increases the computational efficiency, since they are not refined spatial discretization necessary because for any spatial discretization grids used, the numerical result generated for the same point of the domain remains unchanged unless the rounding errors of computational finite arithmetic. We chose to develop a computational application in MatLab platform for numerical computation and program interface is simple and easy with knobs. We consider important to model this neutron transport problem with a fixed source in the context of shielding calculations of radiation that protects the biosphere, and could be sensitive to ionizing radiation
Lozano Montero, Juan Andrés; García Herranz, Nuria; Ahnert Iglesias, Carolina; Aragonés Beltrán, José María
2008-01-01
In this work we address the development and implementation of the analytic coarse-mesh finite-difference (ACMFD) method in a nodal neutron diffusion solver called ANDES. The first version of the solver is implemented in any number of neutron energy groups, and in 3D Cartesian geometries; thus it mainly addresses PWR and BWR core simulations. The details about the generalization to multigroups and 3D, as well as the implementation of the method are given. The transverse integration procedure i...
An extended version of Hassitt's one-dimension Multi-group diffusion programme has been prepared which allows for a maximum of twenty-two energy groups rather than sixteen. It also permits the use of drum storage by programme and data up to the full machine capacity of 1024 sectors, rather than 478 sectors. Some minor corrections have been made, A binary tape of an 830-sector version has been prepared (Winfrith P.5272). (author)
The fine mesh diffusion formulation is extended to deal with multigroup 3-D problems in rectangular geometries. The formulation includes interface discontinuity factors per cell type, pre-calculated from transport solutions. The iterative scheme, aiming to an efficient parallel implementation in memory distributed multi-processors, is based on domain decomposition in the 4 possible sets of 4 neighbor quarters of assemblies. The alternate dissections achieve convergence to the exact boundary conditions, while attenuating high frequency noise. Whole core convergence is accelerated in the long wavelength effects by a consistent high-order analytical nodal solution performed by the ANDES solver. A neutronics - thermal-hydraulics iterative scheme is also developed to compute best estimate results, by coupling at the detailed cell-subchannel scale the COBAYA3 code with several TH subchannel codes. The numerical performance and convergence rates are verified by computing pin-cell scale solutions for the OECD/NEA/USNRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark in 8 energy groups and heterogeneous assemblies. The cell-subchannel scale neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupling, allows the verification of the effects of the detailed TH feedbacks on cross-sections and, thus, on fuel pin powers, calculated here for a 3D color-set of two different fuel types of the previous benchmark, using COBAYA3 and COBRA-3C. (authors)
Multigroup radiation hydrodynamics with flux-limited diffusion and adaptive mesh refinement
González, Matthias; Commerçon, Benoît; Masson, Jacques
2015-01-01
Radiative transfer plays a key role in the star formation process. Due to a high computational cost, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations performed up to now have mainly been carried out in the grey approximation. In recent years, multi-frequency radiation-hydrodynamics models have started to emerge, in an attempt to better account for the large variations of opacities as a function of frequency. We wish to develop an efficient multigroup algorithm for the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES which is suited to heavy proto-stellar collapse calculations. Due to prohibitive timestep constraints of an explicit radiative transfer method, we constructed a time-implicit solver based on a stabilised bi-conjugate gradient algorithm, and implemented it in RAMSES under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We present a series of tests which demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in dealing with frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamic flows. We also present a preliminary simulation of a three-dimensional p...
Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.
2007-09-01
This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it
Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R
2007-03-02
We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory
Approximate Lie group analysis and solutions of 2D nonlinear diffusion-convection equations
Approximate Lie symmetries of the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equation with a small convection are completely classified. It is known that the invariance principle furnishes a systematic method of solving initial-value problems. The solutions of instantaneous source type of the 2D diffusion-convection equation are obtained for the case of power-law diffusivity, using a symmetry reduction
The objective of this work is to obtain an analytical solution of the neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry, to monoenergetic and multigroup problems. These equations are of the type stiff, due to large differences in the orders of magnitude of the time scales of the physical phenomena involved, which make them difficult to solve. The basic idea of the proposed method is applying the spectral expansion in the scalar flux and in the precursor concentration, taking moments and solving the resulting matrix problem by the Laplace transform technique. Bearing in mind that the equation for the precursor concentration is a first order linear differential equation in the time variable, to enable the application of the spectral method we introduce a fictitious diffusion term multiplied by a positive value which tends to zero. This procedure opened the possibility to find an analytical solution to the problem studied. We report numerical simulations and analysis of the results obtained with the precision controlled by the truncation order of the series. (author)
Prinsloo, Rian Hendrik
2006-01-01
Nodal diffusion methods have been used extensively in nuclear reactor calculations specifically for their performance advantage, but also their superior accuracy. In this work a nodal diffusion method is developed for three-dimensional cylindrical geometry. Recent developments in the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project have sparked renewed interest in the application of different modelling methods to its design, and naturally included in this effort is a nodal method for ...
Today, we can use a computer cluster consist of a few hundreds CPUs with reasonable budget. Such computer system enables us to do detailed modeling of reactor core. The detailed modeling will improve the safety and the economics of a nuclear reactor by eliminating un-necessary conservatism or missing consideration. To take advantage of such a cluster computer, efficient parallel algorithms must be developed. Mechanical structure analysis community has studied the domain decomposition method to solve the stress-strain equation using the finite element methods. One of the most successful domain decomposition method in terms of robustness is FETI-DP. We have modified the original FETI-DP to solve the eigenvalue problem for the multi-group diffusion problem in previous study. In this study, we report the result of recent modification to handle the three-dimensional subdomain partitioning, and the sub-domain multi-group problem. Modified FETI-DP algorithm has been successfully applied for the eigenvalue problem of multi-group neutron diffusion equation. The overall CPU time is decreasing as number of sub-domains (partitions) is increasing. However, there may be a limit in decrement due to increment of the number of primal points will increase the CPU time spent by the solution of the global equation. Even distribution of computational load (criterion a) is important to achieve fast computation. The subdomain partition can be effectively performed using suitable graph theory partition package such as MeTIS
Benchmarking with the multigroup diffusion high-order response matrix method
The benchmarking capabilities of the high-order response matrix eigenvalue method, which was developed more than a decade ago, are demonstrated by means of the numerical analysis of a variety of two-dimensional Cartesian geometry light-water reactor test problems. These problems are typical of those generally used for the benchmarking of coarse-mesh (nodal) diffusion methods and the numerical results show that the high-order response matrix eigenvalue method is well suited to be used as an alternative to fine-mesh finite-difference and refined mesh nodal methods for the purpose of generating reference solutions to such problems. (author)
In this work we address the development and implementation of the analytic coarse-mesh finite-difference (ACMFD) method in a nodal neutron diffusion solver called ANDES. The first version of the solver is implemented in any number of neutron energy groups, and in 3D Cartesian geometries; thus it mainly addresses PWR and BWR core simulations. The details about the generalization to multigroups and 3D, as well as the implementation of the method are given. The transverse integration procedure is the scheme chosen to extend the ACMFD formulation to multidimensional problems. The role of the transverse leakage treatment in the accuracy of the nodal solutions is analyzed in detail: the involved assumptions, the limitations of the method in terms of nodal width, the alternative approaches to implement the transverse leakage terms in nodal methods - implicit or explicit -, and the error assessment due to transverse integration. A new approach for solving the control rod 'cusping' problem, based on the direct application of the ACMFD method, is also developed and implemented in ANDES. The solver architecture turns ANDES into an user-friendly, modular and easily linkable tool, as required to be integrated into common software platforms for multi-scale and multi-physics simulations. ANDES can be used either as a stand-alone nodal code or as a solver to accelerate the convergence of whole core pin-by-pin code systems. The verification and performance of the solver are demonstrated using both proof-of-principle test cases and well-referenced international benchmarks
Development of 3D multi-group neutron diffusion code for hexagonal geometry
Based on the theory of new flux expansion nodal method to solve the neutron diffusion equations, the intra-nodal fluence rate distribution was expanded in a series of analytic basic functions for each group. In order to improve the accuracy of calculation result, continuities of neutron fluence rate and current were utilized across the nodal surfaces. According to the boundary conditions, the iteration method was adopted to solve the diffusion equation, where inner iteration speedup method is Gauss-Seidel method and outer is Lyusternik-Wagner. A new speedup method (one-outer-iteration and multi-inner-iteration method) was proposed according to the characteristic that the convergence speed of multiplication factor is faster than that of neutron fluence rate and the update of inner iteration matrix is slow. Based on the proposed model, the code HANDF-D was developed and tested by 3D two-group vver440 benchmark, experiment 2 of HFETR, 3D four-group thermal reactor benchmark, and 3D seven-group fast reactor benchmark. The numerical results show that HANDF-D can predict accurately the multiplication factor and nodal powers. (authors)
Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition
Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M.; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu
2016-05-01
The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality.
A variational nodal expansion method for the solution of multigroup neutron diffusion equations
An accurate neutronics analysis method is needed for light water reactor core monitoring systems to efficiently operate the core with a smaller margin to limiting parameters. It is also required in in-core fuel management systems to optimize the core loading patterns, and the fuel designs with a higher reliability. When mixed oxide fuel or much higher burnup fuel is used, a new higher order nodal method seems necessary to introduce. Based on these considerations, a new nodal diffusion method for the neutronics analysis of light water reactor cores has been developed. The method is based on an approximation of neutron fluxes by expanding them with a set of functions defined within a node. The expansion coefficients are determined in such a way that the solution becomes the most accurate approximation to the exact solution by utilizing the variational principle. The expansion functions are obtained only from single assembly diffusion calculations. The present method includes no homogenization procedure, and the assembly heterogeneity effect on neutron fluxes is taken into account in a consistent way. The intra-nodal pin-power distribution can also be determined in a consistent way with high accuracy. The present method was implemented in a two-dimensional nodal code, and tested for benchmark cases. The results proved that the accuracy of the present method was excellent. The root mean square errors of both nodal powers and nodal maximum pin powers were observed to be less than 1%. The computing time of the code was measured to be about 3% of the reference, fine-mesh calculation. A three-dimensional version is currently being developed, and since the heterogeneity effect is of less importance in axial direction, a more efficient calculation method can be adopted for the axial solution of the neutron flux. The new method can be used as a ''plug-in'' module to existing core simulators to increase the accuracy of the neutronics part of existing core models, including the
2 D patterns of soil gas diffusivity , soil respiration, and methane oxidation in a soil profile
Maier, Martin; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Lang, Friederike
2015-04-01
The apparent gas diffusion coefficient in soil (DS) is an important parameter describing soil aeration, which makes it a key parameter for root growth and gas production and consumption. Horizontal homogeneity in soil profiles is assumed in most studies for soil properties - including DS. This assumption, however, is not valid, even in apparently homogeneous soils, as we know from studies using destructive sampling methods. Using destructive methods may allow catching a glimpse, but a large uncertainty remains, since locations between the sampling positions cannot be analyzed, and measurements cannot be repeated. We developed a new method to determine in situ the apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient in order to examine 2 D pattern of DS and methane oxidation in a soil profile. Different tracer gases (SF6, CF4, C2H6) were injected continuously into the subsoil and measured at several locations in the soil profile. These data allow for modelling inversely the 2 D patterns of DS using Finite Element Modeling. The 2D DS patterns were then combined with naturally occurring CH4 and CO2 concentrations sampled at the same locations to derive the 2D pattern of soil respiration and methane oxidation in the soil profile. We show that methane oxidation and soil respiration zones shift within the soil profile while the gas fluxes at the surface remain rather stable during a the 3 week campaign.
HEXPEDITE: A net current multigroup nodal diffusion method for hexagonal-z geometry
The feasibility of a nodal diffusion algorithm for hexagonal cores was first demonstrated by Duracz and by Lawrence. They implemented a polynomial method with partial currents for internode coupling. Following them, several authors introduced variants of the expansion technique. Wagner developed an analytical method; however, like all previous authors, he still used partial currents for internode coupling and a response matrix solution approach. Very recently, another polynomial model with net currents expressed in terms of transverse-integrated fluxes and a nodal integral method based on coordinate transformations were presented. A transformation-group method was also introduced. In this paper, a hexagonal-z method similar in approach to that of the Cartesian geometry ILLICO is presented. The new method uses an analytical solution of the transverse-integrated equations, net currents for internode coupling, and a global coupling solution scheme different from that of the methods discussed earlier. An extension that treats explicitly the in-node spatial dependence of cross sections is also introduced
Al-Chalabi, Rifat M. Khalil
1997-09-01
Development of an improvement to the computational efficiency of the existing nested iterative solution strategy of the Nodal Exapansion Method (NEM) nodal based neutron diffusion code NESTLE is presented. The improvement in the solution strategy is the result of developing a multilevel acceleration scheme that does not suffer from the numerical stalling associated with a number of iterative solution methods. The acceleration scheme is based on the multigrid method, which is specifically adapted for incorporation into the NEM nonlinear iterative strategy. This scheme optimizes the computational interplay between the spatial discretization and the NEM nonlinear iterative solution process through the use of the multigrid method. The combination of the NEM nodal method, calculation of the homogenized, neutron nodal balance coefficients (i.e. restriction operator), efficient underlying smoothing algorithm (power method of NESTLE), and the finer mesh reconstruction algorithm (i.e. prolongation operator), all operating on a sequence of coarser spatial nodes, constitutes the multilevel acceleration scheme employed in this research. Two implementations of the multigrid method into the NESTLE code were examined; the Imbedded NEM Strategy and the Imbedded CMFD Strategy. The main difference in implementation between the two methods is that in the Imbedded NEM Strategy, the NEM solution is required at every MG level. Numerical tests have shown that the Imbedded NEM Strategy suffers from divergence at coarse- grid levels, hence all the results for the different benchmarks presented here were obtained using the Imbedded CMFD Strategy. The novelties in the developed MG method are as follows: the formulation of the restriction and prolongation operators, and the selection of the relaxation method. The restriction operator utilizes a variation of the reactor physics, consistent homogenization technique. The prolongation operator is based upon a variant of the pin power
The computer code block VENTURE, designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with application of the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport (or alternatively simple P1) in up to three-dimensional geometry is described. A variety of types of problems may be solved: the usual eigenvalue problem, a direct criticality search on the buckling, on a reciprocal velocity absorber (prompt mode), or on nuclide concentrations, or an indirect criticality search on nuclide concentrations, or on dimensions. First-order perturbation analysis capability is available at the macroscopic cross section level
In the present contribution we discuss the solution of the two-dimensional multi-group neutron kinetic equation in cylindrical geometry. The solution is obtained in analytical representation. To this end the scalar flux is extended in terms of the eigenfunctions associated to the respective problem in Cartesian geometry. Taking moments and using orthogonality properties of the eigenfunctions we get a matrix differential equation for the expansion coefficients which has a known solution. We apply this methodology for the neutron kinetic diffusion equation and show numerical results for two-energy groups. (author)
Oliveira, F.R.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, B.E.J., E-mail: fernando.rodrigues@ufrgs.br, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Carvalho, F., E-mail: fernando@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Institute Alberto Luiz Coimbra
2015-07-01
In the present contribution we discuss the solution of the two-dimensional multi-group neutron kinetic equation in cylindrical geometry. The solution is obtained in analytical representation. To this end the scalar flux is extended in terms of the eigenfunctions associated to the respective problem in Cartesian geometry. Taking moments and using orthogonality properties of the eigenfunctions we get a matrix differential equation for the expansion coefficients which has a known solution. We apply this methodology for the neutron kinetic diffusion equation and show numerical results for two-energy groups. (author)
The report documents the computer code block VENTURE designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with application of the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport (or alternatively simple P1) in up to three-dimensional geometry. It uses and generates interface data files adopted in the cooperative effort sponsored by the Reactor Physics Branch of the Division of Reactor Research and Development of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Several different data handling procedures have been incorporated to provide considerable flexibility; it is possible to solve a wide variety of problems on a variety of computer configurations relatively efficiently
This report presents the HEXAGA-III-programme solving multi-group time-independent real and/or adjoint neutron diffusion equations for three-dimensional-triangular-z-geometry. The method of solution is based on the AGA two-sweep iterative method belonging to the family of factorization techniques. An arbitrary neutron scattering model is permitted. The report written for users provides the description of the programme input and output and the use of HEXAGA-III is illustrated by a sample reactor problem. (orig.)
Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.
1977-11-01
The report documents the computer code block VENTURE designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with application of the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport (or alternatively simple P/sub 1/) in up to three-dimensional geometry. It uses and generates interface data files adopted in the cooperative effort sponsored by the Reactor Physics Branch of the Division of Reactor Research and Development of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Several different data handling procedures have been incorporated to provide considerable flexibility; it is possible to solve a wide variety of problems on a variety of computer configurations relatively efficiently.
A 3D multigroup transport kinetics code in hexagonal geometry for fast reactor transient analysis
A description of the 3D multigroup diffusion/transport kinetics code HEXNODYN is given and numerical results are reported. HEXNODYN couples time integration by the quasi-static method with space integration by HEXNOD's analytic (diffusion option) or discrete ordinates (transport option) nodal method. An equivalent hexagonal version of the KfK rod ejection problem has been set up to validate the diffusion option by comparison with available 2D diffusion codes. The transport option has been validated by comparison with the diffusion option. Numerical results indicate that the diffusion option may be considered as fully validated while the transport version is at least internally consistent
A Module for Radiation Hydrodynamic Calculations With ZEUS-2D Using Flux-Limited Diffusion
Turner, N J
2001-01-01
A module for the ZEUS-2D code is described which may be used to solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order unity in v/c, in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. In this approximation, the tensor Eddington factor f which closes the radiation moment equations is chosen to be an empirical function of radiation energy density. This is easier to implement and faster than full-transport techniques, in which f is computed by solving the transfer equation. However, FLD is less accurate when the flux has a component perpendicular to the gradient in radiation energy density, and in optically thin regions when the radiation field depends strongly on angle. The material component of the fluid is here assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy equations are operator-split, with transport terms, radiation diffusion term, and other source terms evolved separately. Transport terms are applied using the same consistent transport algorithm as in ZEUS-2D. The radiation diffusion term is...
3D hydrodynamic interactions lead to divergences in 2D diffusion
We investigate the influence of 3D hydrodynamic interactions on confined colloidal suspensions, where only the colloids are restricted to one or two dimensions. In the absence of static interactions among the colloids, i.e., an ideal gas of colloidal particles with a finite hydrodynamic radius, we find a divergent collective diffusion coefficient. The origin of the divergence is traced back to the dimensional mismatch of 3D hydrodynamic interactions and the colloidal particles moving only in 1D or 2D. Our results from theory are confirmed by Stokesian dynamics simulations and supported by light scattering observational data for particles at a fluid interface. (paper)
3D hydrodynamic interactions lead to divergences in 2D diffusion.
Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin
2015-05-20
We investigate the influence of 3D hydrodynamic interactions on confined colloidal suspensions, where only the colloids are restricted to one or two dimensions. In the absence of static interactions among the colloids, i.e., an ideal gas of colloidal particles with a finite hydrodynamic radius, we find a divergent collective diffusion coefficient. The origin of the divergence is traced back to the dimensional mismatch of 3D hydrodynamic interactions and the colloidal particles moving only in 1D or 2D. Our results from theory are confirmed by Stokesian dynamics simulations and supported by light scattering observational data for particles at a fluid interface. PMID:25923320
3D hydrodynamic interactions lead to divergences in 2D diffusion
Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin
2015-05-01
We investigate the influence of 3D hydrodynamic interactions on confined colloidal suspensions, where only the colloids are restricted to one or two dimensions. In the absence of static interactions among the colloids, i.e., an ideal gas of colloidal particles with a finite hydrodynamic radius, we find a divergent collective diffusion coefficient. The origin of the divergence is traced back to the dimensional mismatch of 3D hydrodynamic interactions and the colloidal particles moving only in 1D or 2D. Our results from theory are confirmed by Stokesian dynamics simulations and supported by light scattering observational data for particles at a fluid interface.
The multi-group integro-differential equations of the neutron diffusion kinetics (IDE-NDK) was presented and solved numerically in multi-slab geometry with the use of the progressive polynomial approximation. Four applications were computed: a positive ramp, a negative ramp, a sinusoidal and an instantaneous change of thermal macroscopic cross-sections in an 120 slab-nuclear reactor for a 2 prompt-group model. The results showed good accuracy for the developed non-iterative algorithms. It was shown the advantage of using the IDE-NDK over the traditional partial differential equations of the neutron diffusion kinetics from an accuracy point of view. Finite difference algorithms were also developed to obtain initial conditions and to make desired comparisons.
A New 2D-Advection-Diffusion Model Simulating Trace Gas Distributions in the Lowermost Stratosphere
Hegglin, M. I.; Brunner, D.; Peter, T.; Wirth, V.; Fischer, H.; Hoor, P.
2004-12-01
Tracer distributions in the lowermost stratosphere are affected by both, transport (advective and non-advective) and in situ sources and sinks. They influence ozone photochemistry, radiative forcing, and heating budgets. In-situ measurements of long-lived species during eight measurement campaigns revealed relatively simple behavior of the tracers in the lowermost stratosphere when represented in an equivalent-latitude versus potential temperature framework. We here present a new 2D-advection-diffusion model that simulates the main transport pathways influencing the tracer distributions in the lowermost stratosphere. The model includes slow diabatic descent of aged stratospheric air and vertical and/or horizontal diffusion across the tropopause and within the lowermost stratosphere. The diffusion coefficients used in the model represent the combined effects of different processes with the potential of mixing tropospheric air into the lowermost stratosphere such as breaking Rossby and gravity waves, deep convection penetrating the tropopause, turbulent diffusion, radiatively driven upwelling etc. They were specified by matching model simulations to observed distributions of long-lived trace gases such as CO and N2O obtained during the project SPURT. The seasonally conducted campaigns allow us to study the seasonal dependency of the diffusion coefficients. Despite its simplicity the model yields a surprisingly good description of the small scale features of the measurements and in particular of the observed tracer gradients at the tropopause. The correlation coefficients between modeled and measured trace gas distributions were up to 0.95. Moreover, mixing across isentropes appears to be more important than mixing across surfaces of constant equivalent latitude (or PV). With the aid of the model, the distribution of the fraction of tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere can be determined.
Methodology for 3-D calculation analysis of nuclear reactor cell with axial symmetry and finite mesh step is described. This methodology is based on the axial leakage calculation analysis method that has been developed for nuclear reactor with closed lattice like VVER-type. The trial functions that are used at full core level of nuclear reactor calculation analysis are defined. Connection between core reactor equation and the definition of trial functions is given. Importance of different trial functions from the point of view the full reactor core calculation is analyzed. If we deal with the case when reactor has strong neutron flux gradients caused with regularization rods it is important to take into account the influence of neutron spectrum into axial leakage. So this paper focuses upon just multi-group approach to obtain matrixes that are defined with trial functions values and with boundary conditions. Previous numerical results of comparison of the matrixes elements analytically obtained and matrix elements obtained with described methodology are given. Analytical expressions for two-group matrix elements are considered as verification results for multi-group numerical scheme. (authors)
The energy spectra of fast and thermal neutrons from fission reactions in the FZJ code TINTE are modelled by two broad energy groups. Present demands for increased numerical accuracy led to the question of how precise the 2-group approximation is compared to a multi-group model. Therefore a new simulation program called MGT (Multi Group TINTE) has recently been developed which is able to handle up to 43 energy groups. Furthermore, an internal spectrum calculation for the determination of cross-sections can be performed for each time step and location within the reactor. In this study the multi-group energy models are compared to former calculations with only two energy groups. Different scenarios (normal operation and design-basis accidents) have been defined for a high temperature pebble bed reactor design with annular core. The effect of an increasing number of energy groups on safety-related parameters like the fuel and coolant temperature, the nuclear heat source or the xenon concentration is studied. It has been found that for the studied scenarios the use of up to 8 energy groups is a good trade-off between precision and a tolerable amount of computing time. (orig.)
A modular computer code system called FEMSYN has been developed to solve the multigroup diffusion theory equations. The various methods that are incorporated in FEMSYN are (i) finite difference method (FDM) (ii) finite element method (FEM) and (iii) single channel flux synthesis method (SCFS). These methods are described in detail in parts II, III and IV of the present report. In this report, a comparison of the accuracy and the speed of different methods of solution for some benchmark problems are reported. The input preparation and listing of sample input and output are included in the Appendices. The code FEMSYN has been used to solve a wide variety of reactor core problems. It can be used for both LWR and PHWR applications. (author)
Ceolin, C.; Schramm, M.; Vilhena, M.T.; Bodmann, B.E.J., E-mail: celina.ceolin@gmail.com, E-mail: marceloschramm@hotmail.com, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica
2013-07-01
In this work the authors solved the steady state neutron diffusion equation for a multi-layer slab assuming the multi-group energy model. The method to solve the equation system is based on a expansion in Taylor Series, which was proven to be useful in [1] [2] [3]. The results obtained can be used as initial condition for neutron space kinetics problems. The neutron scalar flux was expanded in a power series, and the coefficients were found by using the ordinary differential equation and the boundary and interface conditions. The effective multiplication factor k was evaluated using the power method [4]. We divided the domain into several slabs to guarantee the convergence with a low truncation order. We present the formalism together with some numerical simulations. (author)
Ceolin, Celina; Schramm, Marcelo; Bodmann, Bardo Ernst Josef; Vilhena, Marco Tullio Mena Barreto de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Bogado Leite, Sergio de Queiroz [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2014-11-15
In this work the authors solved the steady state neutron diffusion equation for a multi-layer slab assuming the multi-group energy model. The method to solve the equation system is based on an expansion in Taylor Series resulting in an analytical expression. The results obtained can be used as initial condition for neutron space kinetics problems. The neutron scalar flux was expanded in a power series, and the coefficients were found by using the ordinary differential equation and the boundary and interface conditions. The effective multiplication factor k was evaluated using the power method. We divided the domain into several slabs to guarantee the convergence with a low truncation order. We present the formalism together with some numerical simulations.
2D BEM modeling of a singular thermal diffusion free boundary problem with phase change
Nikolayev, Vadim
2016-01-01
We report a 2D Boundary Element Method (BEM) modeling of the thermal diffusion-controlled growth of a vapor bubble attached to a heating surface during saturated pool boiling. The transient heat conduction problem is solved in a liquid that surrounds a bubble with a free boundary and in a semi-infinite solid heater. The heat generated homogeneously in the heater causes evaporation, i. e. the bubble growth. A singularity exists at the point of the triple (liquid-vapor-solid) contact. At high system pressure the bubble is assumed to grow slowly, its shape being defined by the surface tension and the vapor recoil force, a force coming from the liquid evaporating into the bubble. It is shown that at some typical time the dry spot under the bubble begins to grow rapidly under the action of the vapor recoil. Such a bubble can eventually spread into a vapor film that can separate the liquid from the heater, thus triggering the boiling crisis (Critical Heat Flux phenomenon).
More accurate modelling of physical phenomena involved in present and future nuclear reactors requires a multi-scale and multi-physics approach. This challenge can be accomplished by the coupling of best-estimate core-physics, thermal-hydraulics and multi-physics solvers. In order to make viable that coupling, the current trends in reactor simulations are along the development of a new generation of tools based on user-friendly, modular, easily linkable, faster and more accurate codes to be integrated in common platforms. These premises are in the origin of the NURESIM Integrated Project within the 6. European Framework Program, which is envisaged to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for nuclear reactors simulations. In the frame of this project and to reach the above-mentioned goals, a 3-D multigroup nodal solver for neutron diffusion calculations called ANDES (Analytic Nodal Diffusion Equation Solver) has been developed and tested in-depth in this Thesis. ANDES solves the steady-state and time-dependent neutron diffusion equation in three-dimensions and any number of energy groups, utilizing the Analytic Coarse-Mesh Finite-Difference (ACMFD) scheme to yield the nodal coupling equations. It can be applied to both Cartesian and triangular-Z geometries, so that simulations of LWR as well as VVER, HTR and fast reactors can be performed. The solver has been implemented in a fully encapsulated way, enabling it as a module to be readily integrated in other codes and platforms. In fact, it can be used either as a stand-alone nodal code or as a solver to accelerate the convergence of whole core pin-by-pin code systems. Verification of performance has shown that ANDES is a code with high order definition for whole core realistic nodal simulations. In this paper, the methodology developed and involved in ANDES is presented. (authors)
On symmetry groups of a 2D nonlinear diffusion equation with source
Radica Cimpoiasu
2015-04-01
Symmetry analysis of a 2D nonlinear evolutionary equation with mixed spatial derivative and general source term involving the dependent variable and its spatial derivatives is performed. The source terms for which the equation admits nontrivial Lie symmetries are identified for two different forms of the symmetry operator. In one of these cases, the symmetries do not depend on the form of nonlinearities and in the other case, nonlinearities of power, exponential and trigonometric forms are considered. There are no supplementary nonclassical symmetries for the investigated equation. The results reported here generalize the previous results on the 2D heat equation and the 2D Ricci model.
The four group, 2D and 3D hexagonal geometry HTGR benchmark problems and a 2D hexagonal geometry PWR (WWER) benchmark problem have been solved by using the finite element diffusion code DIFGEN. The hexagons (or hexagonal prisms) were subdivided into first order or second order triangles or quadrilaterals (or triangular or quadrilateral prisms). In the 2D HTGR case of the number of the inserted absorber rods was also varied (7, 6, 0 or 37 rods). The calculational results are in a good agreement with the results of other calculations. The larger systematic series of DIFGEN calculations have given a quantitative picture on the convergence properties of various finite element modellings of hexagonal grids in DIFGEN. (orig.)
Hernandez-Charpak, J.; Hoogeboom-Pot, K.; Anderson, E.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Nardi, D.
2014-03-01
How is thermal transport affected by spatial confinement in nanoscale systems? In past work we and others demonstrated that the Fourier Law of heat diffusion fails for length scales smaller than the mean free path of the energy carriers in a material. Here we probe how the transition from macroscopic diffusive behavior of phonons through the quasi-ballistic regime is different for 1D and 2D nano-confined hot spots. We study a series of periodic nickel lines (1D) and dots (2D) with linewidths varying from 750 to 30 nm deposited on both sapphire and silicon substrates. The thermal relaxation of these femtosecond-laser-excited nanostructures is monitored by the diffraction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light obtained from tabletop high harmonic generation. The short wavelength of EUV light, combined with the coherence and ultrashort pulses of high harmonic sources, provides a unique and powerful probe for nanostructured materials on their intrinsic length and time scales. The relaxation dynamics are linked to an effective thermal boundary resistivity with the assistance of multi-physics finite element analysis to quantify the stronger deviation from macroscopic diffusive behavior as a function of nanostructure linewidth in 2D hot spots compared to 1D. This work was supported by SRC Contract 2012-OJ-2304, by NSF Award No.: DGE 1144083, and used facilities provided by the NSF Engineering Research Center in EUV Science and Technology.
CHOLESK, Diffusion Calculation with 2-D Source in X-Y or R-Z Geometry
1 - Description of problem or function: Solution of the diffusion equation with source in two-dimensional geometries x-y or r-z. 2 - Method of solution: The finite-element method of Ritz-Galerkin is applied
Ferizi, Uran; Schneider, Torben; Alipoor, Mohammad; Eufracio, Odin; Fick, Rutger H J; Deriche, Rachid; Nilsson, Markus; Loya-Olivas, Ana K; Rivera, Mariano; Poot, Dirk H J; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Marroquin, Jose L; Rokem, Ariel; Pötter, Christian; Dougherty, Robert F; Sakaie, Ken; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia; Warfield, Simon K; Witzel, Thomas; Wald, Lawrence L; Raya, José G; Alexander, Daniel C
2016-01-01
A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and infer properties about the white matter microstructure. However, a head-to-head comparison of DW-MRI models is critically missing in the field. To address this deficiency, we organized the "White Matter Modeling Challenge" during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference. This competition aimed at identifying the DW-MRI models that best predict unseen DW data. in vivo DW-MRI data was acquired on the Connectom scanner at the A.A.Martinos Center (Massachusetts General Hospital) using gradients strength of up to 300 mT/m and a broad set of diffusion times. We focused on assessing the DW signal prediction in two regions: the genu in the corpus callosum, where the fibres are relatively straight and parallel, and the fornix, where the configuration of fibres is more complex. The challenge participants had access to three-quarters of t...
Iterative 2-D/1-D methods for the 3-D neutron diffusion calculation
To remedy the problems arising from assembly homogenization and de-homogenization, several efforts have been made to solve directly the heterogeneous problem with a fine mesh and to reduce the computational burden by coupling 2-D planar with 1-D axial solutions using a Transverse Leakage (TL) coupling. However, the potential for a numerical instability at a small axial mesh size has been observed. Lee et al. showed that one of the two existing methods, method A, is mathematically unstable at a small mesh size while the other, method B, is always stable. They also proposed a new method for a 2-D/1-D coupling, method C, and they showed that it is always stable and it provides the best performance in terms of the convergence rate. In this paper another algorithm, method D, is proposed and its stability is also investigated
A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation
Larsen, Edward
2013-06-17
The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.
Measurement of turbulent diffusivity of both gas and liquid phases in quasi-2D two-phase flow
The turbulent diffusion process has been studied experimentally by observing a tracer plume emitted continuously from a line source in a uniform, quasi-2D two-phase flow. The test section was a vertical, relatively narrow, concentric annular channel consisting of two large pipes. Air and water were used as the working fluids, and methane and acid organge II were used as tracers for the respective phases. Measurements of local, time-averaged tracer concentrations were made by means of a sampling method and image processing for bubbly flows and churn flows, and the turbulent diffusivity, the coefficient of turbulent diffusion, was determined from the concentration distributions measured. The diffusivities for the gas and liquid phases, εDG and εDL respectively, are presented and compared with each other in this paper. When a flow is bubbly, εDG is close to or slightly smaller than εDL. In a churn flow, on the contrary, εDG is much greater than εDL. Regarding bubbly flow, a plausible model on turbulent diffusivity of the liquid phase is presented and examined by the present data. (orig.)
An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion
Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.
2016-04-01
A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell
An Asymptotic Analysis of a 2-D Model of Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by Bulk Diffusion
Gou, J.; Ward, M. J.
2016-08-01
A class of coupled cell-bulk ODE-PDE models is formulated and analyzed in a two-dimensional domain, which is relevant to studying quorum-sensing behavior on thin substrates. In this model, spatially segregated dynamically active signaling cells of a common small radius ɛ ≪ 1 are coupled through a passive bulk diffusion field. For this coupled system, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct steady-state solutions and to formulate a spectral problem that characterizes the linear stability properties of the steady-state solutions, with the aim of predicting whether temporal oscillations can be triggered by the cell-bulk coupling. Phase diagrams in parameter space where such collective oscillations can occur, as obtained from our linear stability analysis, are illustrated for two specific choices of the intracellular kinetics. In the limit of very large bulk diffusion, it is shown that solutions to the ODE-PDE cell-bulk system can be approximated by a finite-dimensional dynamical system. This limiting system is studied both analytically, using a linear stability analysis and, globally, using numerical bifurcation software. For one illustrative example of the theory, it is shown that when the number of cells exceeds some critical number, i.e., when a quorum is attained, the passive bulk diffusion field can trigger oscillations through a Hopf bifurcation that would otherwise not occur without the coupling. Moreover, for two specific models for the intracellular dynamics, we show that there are rather wide regions in parameter space where these triggered oscillations are synchronous in nature. Unless the bulk diffusivity is asymptotically large, it is shown that a diffusion-sensing behavior is possible whereby more clustered spatial configurations of cells inside the domain lead to larger regions in parameter space where synchronous collective oscillations between the small cells can occur. Finally, the linear stability analysis for these cell
Katyal, Vini
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on fruit defect detection and glare removal using morphological operations, Glare removal can be considered as an important preprocessing step as uneven lighting may introduce it in images, which hamper the results produced through segmentation by Gabor filters .The problem of glare in images is very pronounced sometimes due to the unusual reflectance from the camera sensor or stray light entering, this method counteracts this problem and makes the defect detection much more pronounced. Anisotropic diffusion is used for further smoothening of the images and removing the high energy regions in an image for better defect detection and makes the defects more retrievable. Our algorithm is robust and scalable the employability of a particular mask for glare removal has been checked and proved useful for counteracting.this problem, anisotropic diffusion further enhances the defects with its use further Optimal Gabor filter at various orientations is used for defect detection.
Selected neutron reaction nuclear data libraries and photon-atomic interaction cross section libraries for elements of interest to the IAEA's program on Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) have been processed into MATXSR format using the NJOY system on the VAX4000 computer of the IAEA. This document lists the resulting multigroup data libraries. All the multigroup data generated are available cost-free upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 9 refs
3D coarse mesh NEM embedded with 2D fine mesh NDOM for PWR core analysis - 032
The paper describes an algorithm of 3D multi-group coarse mesh Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) embedded with 2D multi-group fine mesh Nodal Discrete Ordinate Method (NDOM). The main idea of the algorithm is to substitute the radial part of 3D NEM inner iteration, which is based on coarse mesh diffusion theory, with 2D NDOM inner iteration, which is based on transport theory. Taking advantages of both NEM and NDOM, the algorithm efficiently models the heterogeneous pin-by-pin layout in radial planes of PWR core and overcomes the challenges of computer memory and computation time, which are inherent bottlenecks of 3D fine mesh discrete ordinate method (Sn). 2 prototype codes MGNSNM and MGNEM are developed, which are based on 2D multi-group NDOM and 3D multi-group NEM respectively; the final computer code HANWIND is integrated based on the above 2 prototype codes. Numerical experiments on benchmark problem OECD/NEA-2D C5G7MOX and a self-established benchmark problem of 2-loop PWR 3D core are summarized in the paper. (authors)
Highlights: • New type of multi-level rebalancing approach for nodal transport. • Generally improved and more mesh-independent convergence behavior. • Importance for intended regime of 3D pin-by-pin core computations. - Abstract: A new multi-level surface rebalancing (MLSR) approach has been developed, aimed at enabling an improved non-linear acceleration of nodal flux iteration convergence in 3D steady-state and transient reactor simulation. This development is meant specifically for anticipating computational needs for solving envisaged multi-group diffusion-like SPN calculations with enhanced mesh resolution (i.e. 3D multi-box up to 3D pin-by-pin grid). For the latter grid refinement regime, the previously available multi-level coarse mesh rebalancing (MLCMR) strategy has been observed to become increasingly inefficient with increasing 3D mesh resolution. Furthermore, for very fine 3D grids that feature a very fine axial mesh as well, non-convergence phenomena have been observed to emerge. In the verifications pursued up to now, these problems have been resolved by the new approach. The novelty arises from taking the interface current balance equations defined over all Cartesian box edges, instead of the nodal volume-integrated process-rate balance equation, as an appropriate restriction basis for setting up multi-level acceleration of fine grid interface current iterations. The new restriction strategy calls for the use of a newly derived set of adjoint spectral equations that are needed for computing a limited set of spectral response vectors per node. This enables a straightforward determination of group-condensed interface current spectral coupling operators that are of crucial relevance in the new rebalancing setup. Another novelty in the approach is a new variational method for computing the neutronic eigenvalue. Within this context, the latter is treated as a control parameter for driving another, newly defined and numerically more fundamental
Discontinuous diffusion synthetic acceleration for Sn transport on 2D arbitrary polygonal meshes
In this paper, a Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) technique applied to the Sn radiation transport equation is developed using Piece-Wise Linear Discontinuous (PWLD) finite elements on arbitrary polygonal grids. The discretization of the DSA equations employs an Interior Penalty technique, as is classically done for the stabilization of the diffusion equation using discontinuous finite element approximations. The penalty method yields a system of linear equations that is Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD). Thus, solution techniques such as Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) can be effectively employed. Algebraic MultiGrid (AMG) and Symmetric Gauss–Seidel (SGS) are employed as conjugate gradient preconditioners for the DSA system. AMG is shown to be significantly more efficient than SGS. Fourier analyses are carried out and we show that this discontinuous finite element DSA scheme is always stable and effective at reducing the spectral radius for iterative transport solves, even for grids with high-aspect ratio cells. Numerical results are presented for different grid types: quadrilateral, hexagonal, and polygonal grids as well as grids with local mesh adaptivity
2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion
Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning
2016-08-01
Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility.
We report developments of the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method with improved accuracy and increased versatility for the description of atomic diffusivity on metal surfaces. The on-lattice constraint built into our recently proposed self-learning KMC (SLKMC) (Trushin et al 2005 Phys. Rev. B 72 115401) is released, leaving atoms free to occupy 'off-lattice' positions to accommodate several processes responsible for small-cluster diffusion, periphery atom motion and heteroepitaxial growth. This technique combines the ideas embedded in the SLKMC method with a new pattern-recognition scheme fitted to an off-lattice model in which relative atomic positions are used to characterize and store configurations. Application of a combination of the 'drag' and the repulsive bias potential (RBP) methods for saddle point searches allows the treatment of concerted cluster, and multiple- and single-atom, motions on an equal footing. This tandem approach has helped reveal several new atomic mechanisms which contribute to cluster migration. We present applications of this off-lattice SLKMC to the diffusion of 2D islands of Cu (containing 2-30 atoms) on Cu and Ag(111), using the interatomic potential from the embedded-atom method. For the hetero-system Cu/Ag(111), this technique has uncovered mechanisms involving concerted motions such as shear, breathing and commensurate-incommensurate occupancies. Although the technique introduces complexities in storage and retrieval, it does not introduce noticeable extra computational cost.
Simulation of Ultra-Small MOSFETs Using a 2-D Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Model
Biegal, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Connor S.; Yu, Zhiping; Ancona, Mario G.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The continued down-scaling of electronic devices, in particular the commercially dominant MOSFET, will force a fundamental change in the process of new electronics technology development in the next five to ten years. The cost of developing new technology generations is soaring along with the price of new fabrication facilities, even as competitive pressure intensifies to bring this new technology to market faster than ever before. To reduce cost and time to market, device simulation must become a more fundamental, indeed dominant, part of the technology development cycle. In order to produce these benefits, simulation accuracy must improve markedly. At the same time, device physics will become more complex, with the rapid increase in various small-geometry and quantum effects. This work describes both an approach to device simulator development and a physical model which advance the effort to meet the tremendous electronic device simulation challenge described above. The device simulation approach is to specify the physical model at a high level to a general-purpose (but highly efficient) partial differential equation solver (in this case PROPHET, developed by Lucent Technologies), which then simulates the model in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D for a specified device and test regime. This approach allows for the rapid investigation of a wide range of device models and effects, which is certainly essential for device simulation to catch up with, and then stay ahead of, electronic device technology of the present and future. The physical device model used in this work is the density-gradient (DG) quantum correction to the drift-diffusion model [Ancona, Phys. Rev. B 35(5), 7959 (1987)]. This model adds tunneling and quantum smoothing of carrier density profiles to the drift-diffusion model. We used the DG model in 1-D and 2-D (for the first time) to simulate both bipolar and unipolar devices. Simulations of heavily-doped, short-base diodes indicated that the DG quantum
D3D and D3E, branches of a computer program, solve two- and three-dimensional real and ajoint stationary multigroup neutron diffusion equations by approximating the differential equations by finite difference equations. The discrete grid is a mesh edged one, so that the neutron fluxes are calculated on surfaces separating zones to which different physical conditions apply. Different options allow to treat homogeneous, i.e. eigenvalue problems as well as inhomogeneous, i.e. external source driven problems. The linear algebraic system of the difference equations is solved by the outer and inner iterations method. An outer iteration of the homogeneous problem is the power iteration with the fission source, whereas the outer iteration of the inhomogeneous problem is an iteration with the fission source. Within the process of an outer iteration the group fluxes are determined by inner iterations, either via block overrelaxation or a method of conjugate gradients. (orig./HP)
Huang, Aimin
2014-01-01
Global well-posedness of strong solutions and existence of the global attractor to the initial and boundary value problem of 2D Boussinesq system in a periodic channel with non-homogeneous boundary conditions for the temperature and viscosity and thermal diffusivity depending on the temperature are proved.
The Suppression of Energy Discretization Errors in Multigroup Transport Calculations
Larsen, Edward
2013-06-17
The Objective of this project is to develop, implement, and test new deterministric methods to solve, as efficiently as possible, multigroup neutron transport problems having an extremely large number of groups. Our approach was to (i) use the standard CMFD method to "coarsen" the space-angle grid, yielding a multigroup diffusion equation, and (ii) use a new multigrid-in-space-and-energy technique to efficiently solve the multigroup diffusion problem. The overall strategy of (i) how to coarsen the spatial and energy grids, and (ii) how to navigate through the various grids, has the goal of minimizing the overall computational effort. This approach yields not only the fine-grid solution, but also coarse-group flux-weighted cross sections that can be used for other related problems.
The Suppression of Energy Discretization Errors in Multigroup Transport Calculations
The Objective of this project is to develop, implement, and test new deterministric methods to solve, as efficiently as possible, multigroup neutron transport problems having an extremely large number of groups. Our approach was to (i) use the standard CMFD method to 'coarsen' the space-angle grid, yielding a multigroup diffusion equation, and (ii) use a new multigrid-in-space-and-energy technique to efficiently solve the multigroup diffusion problem. The overall strategy of (i) how to coarsen the spatial an energy grids, and (ii) how to navigate through the various grids, has the goal of minimizing the overall computational effort. This approach yields not only the fine-grid solution, but also coarse-group flux-weighted cross sections that can be used for other related problems.
Noguchi, Naoki; Kubo, Tomoaki; Durham, William B.; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Ichiko
2016-08-01
We have developed a high-resolution technique based on micro Raman spectroscopy to measure hydrogen isotope diffusion profiles in ice Ih. The calibration curve for quantitative analysis of deuterium in ice Ih was constructed using micro Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion experiments using diffusion couples composed of dense polycrystalline H2O and D2O ice were carried out under a gas confining pressure of 100 MPa (to suppress micro-fracturing and pore formation) at temperatures from 235 K to 245 K and diffusion times from 0.2 to 94 hours. Two-dimensional deuterium profiles across the diffusion couples were determined by Raman imaging. The location of small spots of frost from room air could be detected from the shapes of the Raman bands of OH and OD stretching modes, which change because of the effect of the molar ratio of deuterium on the molecular coupling interaction. We emphasize the validity for screening the impurities utilizing the coupling interaction. Some recrystallization and grain boundary migration occurred in recovered diffusion couples, but analysis of two-dimensional diffusion profiles of regions not affected by grain boundary migration allowed us to measure a volume diffusivity for ice at 100 MPa of (2.8 ± 0.4) ×10-3exp[ -57.0±15.4kJ/mol/RT ] m2 /s (R is the gas constant, T is temperature). Based on ambient pressure diffusivity measurements by others, this value indicates a high (negative) activation volume for volume diffusivity of -29.5 cm3/mol or more. We can also constrain the value of grain boundary diffusivity in ice at 100 MPa to be <104 that of volume diffusivity.
2D hybrid simulations of super-diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
Cowee, Misa M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
This manuscript describes the self-consistent simulation of diffusion at the magnetopause driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. Two-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations of the most KH-unstable configuration where the shear flow is oriented perpendicular to the uniform magnetic field are carried out. The motion of the simulation particles are tracked during the run and their mean-square displacement normal to the magnetopause is calculated from which diffusion coefficients are determined. The diffusion coefficients are found to be time dependent, with D{sub x} {proportional_to} t{sup {alpha}}, where {alpha} > 1. Additionally, the probability distribution functions (PDF) of the 'jump lengths' the particles make over time are found to be non-gaussian. Such time-dependent diffusion coefficients and non-gaussian PDF's have been associated with so-called 'super-diffusion', in which diffusive mixing of particles is enhanced over classical diffusion. The results indicate that while turbulence associated with the break-down of vortices contributes to this enhanced diffusion, it is the growth of large-scale, coherent vortices is the more important process in facilitating it.
Tzannis, A.P.; Beaud, P.; Frey, H.M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-06-01
Resonant Holographic Interferometry is a method based on the anomalous dispersion of light having a frequency close to an electronic transition of a molecule. We propose a novel single-laser, two-colour setup for recording resonant holograms and apply it to 2D species concentration measurements. The second colour is generated by optical phase-conjugation from Stimulated Brillouin scattering in a cell. Phase-Conjugate Resonant Holographic Interferometry (PCRHI) is demonstrated in a 2D NH{sub 3}/O{sub 2} flame yielding interferograms that contain information on the NH radical distribution in the flame. Experimental results are quantified by applying a numerical computation of the Voigt profiles. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.
Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss S
2010-01-01
We establish global existence and uniqueness theorems for the two-dimensional non-diffusive Boussinesq system with viscosity only in the horizontal direction, which arises in Ocean dynamics. This work improves the global well-posedness results established recently by R. Danchin and M. Paicu for the Boussinesq system with anisotropic viscosity and zero diffusion. Although we follow some of their ideas, in proving the uniqueness result, we have used an alternative approach by writing the transported temperature (density) as $\\theta = \\Delta\\xi$ and adapting the techniques of V. Yudovich for the 2D incompressible Euler equations. This new idea allows us to establish uniqueness results with fewer assumptions on the initial data for the transported quantity $\\theta$. Furthermore, this new technique allows us to establish uniqueness results without having to resort to the paraproduct calculus of J. Bony. We also propose an inviscid $\\alpha$-regularization for the two-dimensional inviscid, non-diffusive Boussinesq s...
We have analyzed the 2D convective motion of coherent structures, which is associated with plasma blobs, under attached and detached plasma conditions of a linear divertor simulator, NAGDIS-II. Data analysis of probes and a fast-imaging camera by spatio-temporal correlation with three decomposition and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was carried out to determine the basic properties of coherent structures detached from a bulk plasma column. Under the attached plasma condition, the spatio-temporal correlation with three decomposition based on the probe measurement showed that two types of coherent structures with different sizes detached from the bulk plasma and the azimuthally localized structure radially propagated faster than the larger structure. Under the detached plasma condition, movies taken by the fast-imaging camera clearly showed the dynamics of a 2D spiral structure at peripheral regions of the bulk plasma; this dynamics caused the broadening of the plasma profile. The POD method was used for the data processing of the movies to obtain low-dimensional mode shapes. It was found that the m=1 and m=2 ring-shaped coherent structures were dominant. Comparison between the POD analysis of both the movie and the probe data suggested that the coherent structure could be detached from the bulk plasma mainly associated with the m=2 fluctuation. This phenomena could play an important role in the reduction of the particle and heat flux as well as the plasma recombination processes in plasma detachment (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Conklin, Chris J; Middleton, Devon M; Alizadeh, Mahdi; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Raunig, David L; Faro, Scott H; Shah, Pallav; Krisa, Laura; Sinko, Rebecca; Delalic, Joan Z; Mulcahey, M J; Mohamed, Feroze B
2016-01-01
Magnetic resonance based diffusion imaging has been gaining more utility and clinical relevance over the past decade. Using conventional echo planar techniques, it is possible to acquire and characterize water diffusion within the central nervous system (CNS); namely in the form of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). While each modality provides valuable clinical information in terms of the presence of diffusion and its directionality, both techniques are limited to assuming an ideal Gaussian distribution for water displacement with no intermolecular interactions. This assumption neglects pathological processes that are not Gaussian therefore reducing the amount of potentially clinically relevant information. Additions to the Gaussian distribution measured by the excess kurtosis, or peakedness, of the probabilistic model provide a better understanding of the underlying cellular structure. The objective of this work is to provide mathematical and experimental evidence that Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) can offer additional information about the micromolecular environment of the pediatric spinal cord. This is accomplished by a more thorough characterization of the nature of random water displacement within the cord. A novel DKI imaging sequence based on a tilted 2D spatially selective radio frequency pulse providing reduced field of view (FOV) imaging was developed, implemented, and optimized on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and tested on pediatric subjects (healthy subjects: 15; patients with spinal cord injury (SCI):5). Software was developed and validated for post processing of the DKI images and estimation of the tensor parameters. The results show statistically significant differences in mean kurtosis (p < 0.01) and radial kurtosis (p < 0.01) between healthy subjects and subjects with SCI. DKI provides incremental and novel information over conventional diffusion acquisitions when coupled with higher order estimation algorithms
Chris J. Conklin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic resonance based diffusion imaging has been gaining more utility and clinical relevance over the past decade. Using conventional echo planar techniques, it is possible to acquire and characterize water diffusion within the central nervous system (CNS; namely in the form of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. While each modality provides valuable clinical information in terms of the presence of diffusion and its directionality, both techniques are limited to assuming an ideal Gaussian distribution for water displacement with no intermolecular interactions. This assumption neglects pathological processes that are not Gaussian therefore reducing the amount of potentially clinically relevant information. Additions to the Gaussian distribution measured by the excess kurtosis, or peakedness, of the probabilistic model provide a better understanding of the underlying cellular structure. The objective of this work is to provide mathematical and experimental evidence that Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI can offer additional information about the micromolecular environment of the pediatric spinal cord. This is accomplished by a more thorough characterization of the nature of random water displacement within the cord. A novel DKI imaging sequence based on a tilted 2D spatially selective radio frequency pulse providing reduced field of view (FOV imaging was developed, implemented, and optimized on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and tested on pediatric subjects (healthy subjects: 15; patients with spinal cord injury (SCI:5. Software was developed and validated for post processing of the DKI images and estimation of the tensor parameters. The results show statistically significant differences in mean kurtosis (p < 0.01 and radial kurtosis (p < 0.01 between healthy subjects and subjects with SCI. DKI provides incremental and novel information over conventional diffusion acquisitions when coupled with higher order estimation
Ivanov, Konstantin L., E-mail: ivanov@tomo.nsc.ru; Lukzen, Nikita N. [International Tomography Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya St. 3a, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Sadovsky, Vladimir M. [Institute of Computational Modeling, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 50/44, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)
2015-08-28
In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical “microreactor,” i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the “pole” of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting
Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Sadovsky, Vladimir M.; Lukzen, Nikita N.
2015-08-01
In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical "microreactor," i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the "pole" of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting
In this work, we treat spin-selective recombination of a geminate radical pair (RP) in a spherical “microreactor,” i.e., of a RP confined in a micelle, vesicle, or liposome. We consider the microreactor model proposed earlier, in which one of the radicals is located at the center of the micelle and the other one undergoes three-dimensional diffusion inside the micelle. In addition, we suggest a two-dimensional model, in which one of the radicals is located at the “pole” of the sphere, while the other one diffuses on the spherical surface. For this model, we have obtained a general analytical expression for the RP recombination yield in terms of the free Green function of two-dimensional diffusion motion. In turn, this Green function is expressed via the Legendre functions and thus takes account of diffusion over a restricted spherical surface and its curvature. The obtained expression allows one to calculate the RP recombination efficiency at an arbitrary magnetic field strength. We performed a comparison of the two models taking the same geometric parameters (i.e., the microreactor radius and the closest approach distance of the radicals), chemical reactivity, magnetic interactions in the RP and diffusion coefficient. Significant difference between the predictions of the two models is found, which is thus originating solely from the dimensionality effect: for different dimensionality of space, the statistics of diffusional contacts of radicals becomes different altering the reaction yield. We have calculated the magnetic field dependence of the RP reaction yield and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization of the reaction products at different sizes of the microreactor, exchange interaction, and spin relaxation rates. Interestingly, due to the intricate interplay of diffusional contacts of reactants and spin dynamics, the dependence of the reaction yield on the microreactor radius is non-monotonous. Our results are of importance for (i) interpreting
Numerical method for a 2D drift diffusion model arising in strained n-type MOSFET device
BENSEGUENI RACHIDA; LATRECHE SAIDA
2016-06-01
This paper reports the calculation of electron transport in metal oxide semiconductor field effects transistors (MOSFETs) with biaxially tensile strained silicon channel. The calculation is formulated based on two-dimensional drift diffusion model (DDM) including strain effects. The carrier mobility dependence on the lateral and vertical electric field model is especially consideredin the formulation. By using the model presented here, numerical method based on finite difference approach is performed. The obtained results show that the presence of biaxially tensile strain enhances the current in the devices.
Petersen, Claudio Z. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico
2014-12-15
In the present work we solve in analytical representation the three dimensional neutron kinetic diffusion problem in rectangular Cartesian geometry for homogeneous and bounded domains for any number of energy groups and precursor concentrations. The solution in analytical representation is constructed using a hierarchical procedure, i.e. the original problem is reduced to a problem previously solved by the authors making use of a combination of the spectral method and a recursive decomposition approach. Time dependent absorption cross sections of the thermal energy group are considered with step, ramp and Chebyshev polynomial variations. For these three cases, we present numerical results and discuss convergence properties and compare our results to those available in the literature.
SCORE-4, 2-D Removal Diffusion in X-Y or R-Z Geometry for Rectangular Shields
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The neutron flux is calculated for a shield made up of rectangular regions. The geometry is either x-y or r-z. 2 - Method of solution: Removal fluxes and sources throughout the shield regions are calculated from a given reactor core power distribution using a point kernel method. The diffusion neutron fluxes are obtained from the removal source distribution using an iterative Method of solution. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The amount of fast core required for the program depends on the size of shield being calculated. For example, a 100 by 100 mesh shielding calculation would require approximately 300 k bytes. Larger problems could be solved by increasing the fast storage requirements
2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion.
Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning
2016-08-01
Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility. PMID:27159015
HEXNOD23, 2-D, 3-D Coarse Mesh Solution of Steady State Diffusion Equation in Hexagonal Geometry
1 - Description of program or function: Two- or three dimensional coarse mesh solution of steady state two group neutron diffusion equation in arrays of regular hexagons or hexagonal subassemblies. 2 - Method of solution: The neutron flux in a hexagonal node is expanded in a series of Bessel functions in the hexagonal plane. Polynomials up to the 4. order are used for the approximation of neutron flux in axial direction of three dimensional cases. Resulting relations between node averaged fluxes and mean partial currents of node faces in connection with the neutron balance of nodes are used to calculate the eigenvalue Keff, mean fluxes and mean powers of nodes. The iterations process is divided into inner and outer iterations. The iterations are accelerated by Ljusternik and Tschebyscheff extrapolation schemes. The power densities in the nodes and subassembly powers are computed for given reactor power in three dimensional cases. 30 degree reflectional, 60 and 120 degree rotational core symmetry and the whole core can be treated. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: If the problem size designated by LIAR and LRAR exceeds 3000 and 50000 respectively, the lengths of the working array MIAR and MRAR in the main program can be increased. External sources are not permitted
The multigroup neutronics model of NuStar's 3D core code EGRET
As a key component of NuStar's core analysis system for PWR application, EGRET is designed to perform steady-state coupled neutronic/hydraulic analysis of PWRs. This paper presents EGRET's unique 3D nodal diffusion model and 2D pin power reconstruction (PPR) model. Unlike the practice in most of today's production codes that iteratively solves the global 3D coarse-mesh problem and the local axially 1D fine-mesh problem to handle the axial heterogeneity within a node caused by fuel grid and partially-inserted control rod, EGRET resolves the issue by inventing a new nodal technology and introducing the adaptive meshing technique to follow the movement of control rod tip. The new nodal method employs fine-mesh heterogeneous calculation with coarse-mesh transverse coupling such that the axial heterogeneous nodes can be explicitly modeled in exact geometry and directly incorporated into the scheme of transversely coupled coarse-mesh nodal methods. Each axial channel can have its own fine-mesh division without the need of dividing the whole core into radially coupled fine-meshes. There is no need to do 1D fine-mesh and 3D coarse-mesh iteration either. While for the PPR model, EGRET adopts a group-decoupled direct fitting method, which avoids both the complication of constructing 2D analytic multigroup flux solution and any group-coupled iteration. Another unique feature of the PPR model is that it fully utilizes all the information available from 3D core calculation into the downstream PPR process. Particularly, for the first time, the 1D profiles of transversely-integrated fluxes are utilized as the additional conditions to reconstruct pin power. Numerical results of series of benchmark problems verify the good performance of EGRET's unique multi-group neutronics model. (author)
Maryam Mobed-Miremadi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Hollow alginate microfibers (od = 1.3 mm, id = 0.9 mm, th = 400 µm, L = 3.5 cm comprised of 2% (w/v medium molecular weight alginate cross-linked with 0.9 M CaCl2 were fabricated to model outward diffusion capture by 2D fluorescent microscopy. A two-fold comparison of diffusivity determination based on real-time diffusion of Fluorescein isothiocyanate molecular weight (FITC MW markers was conducted using a proposed Fickian-based approach in conjunction with a previously established numerical model developed based on spectrophotometric data. Computed empirical/numerical (Dempiricial/Dnumerical diffusivities characterized by small standard deviations for the 4-, 70- and 500-kDa markers expressed in m2/s are (1.06 × 10−9 ± 1.96 × 10−10/(2.03 × 10−11, (5.89 × 10−11 ± 2.83 × 10−12/(4.6 × 10−12 and (4.89 × 10−12 ± 3.94 × 10−13/(1.27 × 10−12, respectively, with the discrimination between the computation techniques narrowing down as a function of MW. The use of the numerical approach is recommended for fluorescence-based measurements as the standard computational method for effective diffusivity determination until capture rates (minimum 12 fps for the 4-kDa marker and the use of linear instead of polynomial interpolating functions to model temporal intensity gradients have been proven to minimize the extent of systematic errors associated with the proposed empirical method.
A multigroup treatment of radiation transport
A multi-group radiation package is outlined which will accurately handle radiation transfer problems in laser-produced plasmas. Bremsstrahlung, recombination and line radiation are included as well as fast electron Bremsstrahlung radiation. The entire radiation field is divided into a large number of groups (typically 20), which diffuse radiation energy in real space as well as in energy space, the latter occurring via electron-radiation interaction. Using this model a radiation transport code will be developed to be incorporated into MEDUSA. This modified version of MEDUSA will be used to study radiative preheat effects in laser-compression experiments at the Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Laboratory. The model is also relevant to heavy ion fusion studies. (author)
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of 2D-selective, parallel-transmit excitation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (pTX-EPI) of the prostate, and to compare it to conventional, single-shot EPI (c-EPI). The MRI examinations of 35 patients were evaluated in this prospective study. PTX-EPI was performed with a TX-acceleration factor of 1.7 and a field of view (FOV) of 150 x 90 mm2, whereas c-EPI used a full FOV of 380 x 297 mm2. Two readers evaluated three different aspects of image quality on 5-point Likert scales. To quantify distortion artefacts, maximum diameters and prostate volume were determined for both techniques and compared to T2-weighted imaging. The zoomed pTX-EPI was superior to c-EPI with respect to overall image quality (3.39 ± 0.62 vs 2.45 ± 0.67) and anatomic differentiability (3.29 ± 0.65 vs 2.41 ± 0.65), each with p 0.05). Zoomed pTX-EPI leads to substantial improvements in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the prostate with respect to different aspects of image quality and severity of artefacts. (orig.)
Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Scherr, Michael K.; Weiss, Jakob; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Theisen, Daniel [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Dietrich, Olaf [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Pfeuffer, Josef [Siemens Healthcare, Application Development, Erlangen (Germany)
2014-12-15
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of 2D-selective, parallel-transmit excitation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (pTX-EPI) of the prostate, and to compare it to conventional, single-shot EPI (c-EPI). The MRI examinations of 35 patients were evaluated in this prospective study. PTX-EPI was performed with a TX-acceleration factor of 1.7 and a field of view (FOV) of 150 x 90 mm{sup 2}, whereas c-EPI used a full FOV of 380 x 297 mm{sup 2}. Two readers evaluated three different aspects of image quality on 5-point Likert scales. To quantify distortion artefacts, maximum diameters and prostate volume were determined for both techniques and compared to T2-weighted imaging. The zoomed pTX-EPI was superior to c-EPI with respect to overall image quality (3.39 ± 0.62 vs 2.45 ± 0.67) and anatomic differentiability (3.29 ± 0.65 vs 2.41 ± 0.65), each with p < 0.0001. Artefacts were significantly less severe in pTX-EPI (0.93 ± 0.73 vs 1.49 ± 1.08), p < 0.001. The quantitative analysis yielded a higher agreement of pTX-EPI with T2-weighted imaging than c-EPI with respect to coronal (ICCs: 0.95 vs 0.93) and sagittal (0.86 vs 0.73) diameters as well as prostate volume (0.94 vs 0.92). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p > 0.05). Zoomed pTX-EPI leads to substantial improvements in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the prostate with respect to different aspects of image quality and severity of artefacts. (orig.)
Gao, Longfei
2015-01-01
In this paper, we combine the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) algorithm with the concept of preconditioning and apply it to linear systems discretized from the 2D steady-state diffusion equations with orthotropic heterogeneous coefficients by the finite element method assuming tensor product basis functions. Specifically, we adopt the compound iteration idea and use ADI iterations as the preconditioner for the outside Krylov subspace method that is used to solve the preconditioned linear system. An efficient algorithm to perform each ADI iteration is crucial to the efficiency of the overall iterative scheme. We exploit the Kronecker product structure in the matrices, inherited from the tensor product basis functions, to achieve high efficiency in each ADI iteration. Meanwhile, in order to reduce the number of Krylov subspace iterations, we incorporate partially the coefficient information into the preconditioner by exploiting the local support property of the finite element basis functions. Numerical results demonstrated the efficiency and quality of the proposed preconditioner. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Procedure to Generate the MPACT Multigroup Library
Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-12-17
The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the light water reactor. The objective of this document is focused on reviewing the current procedure to generate the MPACT multigroup library. Detailed methodologies and procedures are included in this document for further discussion to improve the MPACT multigroup library.
Procedure to Generate the MPACT Multigroup Library
The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the light water reactor. The objective of this document is focused on reviewing the current procedure to generate the MPACT multigroup library. Detailed methodologies and procedures are included in this document for further discussion to improve the MPACT multigroup library.
Current theories for approximating the effects of stochastic media on radiation transport assume very limited physics such as one dimension, constant grey opacities, and no material energy balance equation. When applied to more complex physical problems, the standard theory fails to match the results from direct numerical simulations. This work presents the first direct numerical simulations of multigroup radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 2D stochastic medium that are compared to closures proposed by various authors. After extending it from grey to multigroup physics, one closure that is not commonly used successfully models the results in dilute systems where one material comprises less than 5% of the total. This closure is more accurate for related grey transport problems than it is for the multigroup problem. When the specific heats are material- and temperature-dependent, it is much more difficult to fit the direct numerical solutions with an approximate closure.
The spatial eigenfunction expansion method is used to solve the multigroup time-dependent diffusion equation when the absorption cross-section in the thermal group is a function of time. An expression for the multi region reactor transfer function is obtained. Some numerical results for two energy groups are also presented. (author)
A discretization of the multigroup PN radiative transfer equation on general meshes
Hermeline, F.
2016-05-01
We propose and study a finite volume method of discrete duality type for discretizing the multigroup PN approximation of radiative transfer equation on general meshes. This method is second order-accurate on a very large variety of meshes, stable under a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition and it preserves naturally the diffusion asymptotic limit.
Multi-group SP3 approximation for simulation of a three-dimensional PWR rod ejection accident
Highlights: • The multi-group SP3 method developed and implemented in PARCS for the MOX analysis. • The verifications were performed in 2D and 3D, 2G and MG, diffusion and transport, with and without feedback. • All results show consistency with the reference results obtained from the ANL PN transport code VARIANT for steady-state and transport calculations. • It was found that the SP3 angular approximation captures sufficient transport effects for both steady-state and transient, and provides essentially the same results as the VARIANT P5 method. • From the transient results of the full-core problem, it was noted that MG is more conservative than 2G, and P1 is more conservative than SP3. - Abstract: Previous researchers have shown that the simplified P3 (SP3) approximation is capable of providing sufficiently high accuracy for both static and transient simulations for reactor core analysis with considerably less computational expense than higher order transport methods such as the discrete ordinate or the full spherical harmonics methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a consistent comparison of two-group (2G) and multi-group (MG) diffusion and SP3 transport for rod ejection accident (REA) in a practical light water reactor (LWR) problem. The analysis is performed on two numerical benchmarks, a 3 × 3 assembly mini-core and a full pressurized water reactor (PWR) core. The calculations were performed using pin homogenized and assembly homogenized cross sections for a series of benchmarks of increasing difficulty, in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D), 2G and MG, diffusion and transport, as well as with and without feedback. All results show consistency with the reference results obtained from higher-order methods. It is demonstrated that the analyzed problems show small group-homogenization effects, but relatively significant transport effects which are satisfactorily addressed by the SP3 transport method. The sensitivity tests
LWR fuel reactivity depletion verification using 2D full-core MOC and flux map data
Experimental quantification of PWR fuel reactivity (k-infinity) burnup decrement biases and uncertainties using in-core flux map data from operating power reactors has previously been conducted employing analytical methods to systematically determine experimental fuel reactivities that best match measured fission rate distributions. This optimal core reactivity distribution that best matches the measured fission rate distribution is assumed to be associated with the true fuel reactivity distribution. Some parties have questioned whether fortuitous cancellation of errors between various approximations inherent in the 3D nodal diffusion core analysis models might have caused reactivity decrement biases and uncertainties to be unrealistically small. In this study, the BEAVRS benchmark is modeled with both 2D, full-core, multi-group transport calculations and 2-group nodal diffusion calculations. The calculated in-core detector U-235 fission rates are compared with measured fission rates supplied in the benchmark. The same analytical methods previously mentioned are again used to obtain fuel reactivity biases and uncertainties. Results demonstrate that fuel batch reactivities inferred from flux map data using full-core transport calculations are nearly identical to those inferred using nodal diffusion calculations. Consequently, nodal methods do not contribute significantly to reactivity decrement biases in the BEAVRS cores. It is recommended that fuel reactivity biases and uncertainties inferred from 3D nodal diffusion calculations remain valid. (author)
A numerical model for multigroup radiation hydrodynamics
We present in this paper a multigroup model for radiation hydrodynamics to account for variations of the gas opacity as a function of frequency. The entropy closure model (M1) is applied to multigroup radiation transfer in a radiation hydrodynamics code. In difference from the previous grey model, we are able to reproduce the crucial effects of frequency-variable gas opacities, a situation omnipresent in physics and astrophysics. We also account for the energy exchange between neighbouring groups which is important in flows with strong velocity divergence. These terms were computed using a finite volume method in the frequency domain. The radiative transfer aspect of the method was first tested separately for global consistency (reversion to grey model) and against a well-established kinetic model through Marshak wave tests with frequency-dependent opacities. Very good agreement between the multigroup M1 and kinetic models was observed in all tests. The successful coupling of the multigroup radiative transfer to the hydrodynamics was then confirmed through a second series of tests. Finally, the model was linked to a database of opacities for a Xe gas in order to simulate realistic multigroup radiative shocks in Xe. The differences with the previous grey models are discussed.
Ford, Jason E.; McCoy, Anne B.
2016-02-01
In this work the efficacy of a combined approach for capturing rovibrational coupling is investigated. Specifically, the multi-state rotational DMC method is used in combination with fixed-node DMC in a study of the rotation vibration energy levels of H2D+ and HD2+. Analysis of the results of these calculations shows very good agreement between the calculated energies and previously reported values. Where differences are found, they can be attributed to Coriolis couplings, which are large in these ions and which are not fully accounted for in this approach.
Highlights: • We present a computational scheme for the determination of reflector properties in a PWR. • The approach is based on the minimization of a functional. • We use a data assimilation method or a parametric complementarity principle. • The reference target is a solution obtained with the method of characteristics. • The simplified flux solution is based on diffusion theory or on the simplified Pn method. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational scheme for the determination of equivalent 2D multi-group spatially dependant reflector parameters in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The proposed strategy is to define a full-core calculation consistent with a reference lattice code calculation such as the Method Of Characteristics (MOC) as implemented in APOLLO2 lattice code. The computational scheme presented here relies on the data assimilation module known as “Assimilation de données et Aide à l’Optimisation (ADAO)” of the SALOME platform developed at Électricité De France (EDF), coupled with the full-core code COCAGNE and with the lattice code APOLLO2. A first code-to-code verification of the computational scheme is made using the OPTEX reflector model developed at École Polytechnique de Montréal (EPM). As a result, we obtain 2D multi-group, spatially dependant reflector parameters, using both diffusion or SPN operators. We observe important improvements of the power discrepancies distribution over the core when using reflector parameters computed with the proposed computational scheme, and the SPN operator enables additional improvements
Clerc, T., E-mail: thomas.clerc2@gmail.com [Institut de Génie Nucléaire, P.O. Box 6079, Station “Centre-Ville”, Montréal, Qc., Canada H3C 3A7 (Canada); Hébert, A., E-mail: alain.hebert@polymtl.ca [Institut de Génie Nucléaire, P.O. Box 6079, Station “Centre-Ville”, Montréal, Qc., Canada H3C 3A7 (Canada); Leroyer, H.; Argaud, J.P.; Bouriquet, B.; Ponçot, A. [Électricité de France, R and D, SINETICS, 1 Av. du Général de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)
2014-07-01
Highlights: • We present a computational scheme for the determination of reflector properties in a PWR. • The approach is based on the minimization of a functional. • We use a data assimilation method or a parametric complementarity principle. • The reference target is a solution obtained with the method of characteristics. • The simplified flux solution is based on diffusion theory or on the simplified Pn method. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational scheme for the determination of equivalent 2D multi-group spatially dependant reflector parameters in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The proposed strategy is to define a full-core calculation consistent with a reference lattice code calculation such as the Method Of Characteristics (MOC) as implemented in APOLLO2 lattice code. The computational scheme presented here relies on the data assimilation module known as “Assimilation de données et Aide à l’Optimisation (ADAO)” of the SALOME platform developed at Électricité De France (EDF), coupled with the full-core code COCAGNE and with the lattice code APOLLO2. A first code-to-code verification of the computational scheme is made using the OPTEX reflector model developed at École Polytechnique de Montréal (EPM). As a result, we obtain 2D multi-group, spatially dependant reflector parameters, using both diffusion or SP{sub N} operators. We observe important improvements of the power discrepancies distribution over the core when using reflector parameters computed with the proposed computational scheme, and the SP{sub N} operator enables additional improvements.
1 - Description of problem or function: KENO is a multigroup, Monte Carlo criticality code containing a special geometry package which allows easy description of systems composed of cylinders, spheres, and cuboids (rectangular parallelepipeds) arranged in any order with only one restriction. They cannot be rotated or translated. Each geometrical region must be described as completely enclosing all regions interior to it. For systems not describable using this special geometry package, the program can use the generalized geometry package (GEOM) developed for the O5R Monte Carlo code. It allows any system that can be described by a collection of planes and/or quadratic surfaces, arbitrarily oriented and intersecting in arbitrary fashion. The entire problem can be mocked up in generalized geometry, or one generalized geometry unit or box type can be used alone or in combination with standard KENO units or box types. Rectangular arrays of fissile units are allowed with or without external reflector regions. Output from KENO consists of keff for the system plus an estimate of its standard deviation and the leakage, absorption, and fissions for each energy group plus the totals for all groups. Flux as a function of energy group and region and fission densities as a function of region are optional output. KENO-4: Added features include a neutron balance edit, PICTURE routines to check the input geometry, and a random number sequencing subroutine written in FORTRAN-4. 2 - Method of solution: The scattering treatment used in KENO assumes that the differential neutron scattering cross section can be represented by a P1 Legendre polynomial. Absorption of neutrons in KENO is not allowed. Instead, at each collision point of a neutron tracking history the weight of the neutron is reduced by the absorption probability. When the neutron weight has been reduced below a specified point for the region in which the collision occurs, Russian roulette is played to determine if the
Brinkman, Daniel
2013-05-01
We present and discuss a mathematical model for the operation of bilayer organic photovoltaic devices. Our model couples drift-diffusion-recombination equations for the charge carriers (specifically, electrons and holes) with a reaction-diffusion equation for the excitons/polaron pairs and Poisson\\'s equation for the self-consistent electrostatic potential. The material difference (i.e. the HOMO/LUMO gap) of the two organic substrates forming the bilayer device is included as a work-function potential. Firstly, we perform an asymptotic analysis of the scaled one-dimensional stationary state system: (i) with focus on the dynamics on the interface and (ii) with the goal of simplifying the bulk dynamics away from the interface. Secondly, we present a two-dimensional hybrid discontinuous Galerkin finite element numerical scheme which is very well suited to resolve: (i) the material changes, (ii) the resulting strong variation over the interface, and (iii) the necessary upwinding in the discretization of drift-diffusion equations. Finally, we compare the numerical results with the approximating asymptotics. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Najafi, Amin
2014-05-01
Using the Monte Carlo simulations, we have calculated mean-square fluctuations in statistical mechanics, such as those for colloids energy configuration are set on square 2D periodic substrates interacting via a long range screened Coulomb potential on any specific and fixed substrate. Random fluctuations with small deviations from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium arise from the granular structure of them and appear as thermal diffusion with Gaussian distribution structure as well. The variations are showing linear form of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem on the energy of particles constitutive a canonical ensemble with continuous diffusion process of colloidal particle systems. The noise-like variation of the energy per particle and the order parameter versus the Brownian displacement of sum of large number of random steps of particles at low temperatures phase are presenting a markovian process on colloidal particles configuration, too.
Using the Monte Carlo simulations, we have calculated mean-square fluctuations in statistical mechanics, such as those for colloids energy configuration are set on square 2D periodic substrates interacting via a long range screened Coulomb potential on any specific and fixed substrate. Random fluctuations with small deviations from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium arise from the granular structure of them and appear as thermal diffusion with Gaussian distribution structure as well. The variations are showing linear form of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem on the energy of particles constitutive a canonical ensemble with continuous diffusion process of colloidal particle systems. The noise-like variation of the energy per particle and the order parameter versus the Brownian displacement of sum of large number of random steps of particles at low temperatures phase are presenting a markovian process on colloidal particles configuration, too.
Developments in MRI have made it possible to use diffusion-weighted MRI, perfusion MRI and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) to study lesions in the brain. We evaluated whether these techniques provide useful, complementary information for grading gliomas, in comparison with conventional MRI. We studied 17 patients with histologically verified gliomas, adding multivoxel proton MRS, echoplanar diffusion and perfusion MRI the a routine MRI examination. The maximum relative cerebral blood volume (CBV), minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and metabolic peak area ratios in proton MRS were calculated in solid parts of tumours on the same slice from each imaging data set. The mean minimum ADC of the 13 high-grade gliomas (0.92±0.27 x 10-3 mm2/s) was lower than that of the four low-grade gliomas (1.28±0.15 x 10-3 mm2/s) (P<0.05). Means of maximum choline (Cho)/N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Cho/creatine (Cr), Cho/Cr in normal brain (Cr-n) and minimum NAA/Cr ratios were 5.90±2.62, 4.73±2.22, 2.66±0.68 and 0.40±0.06, respectively, in the high-grade gliomas, and 1.65±1.37, 1.84±1.20, 1.61±1.29 and 1.65±1.61, respectively, in the low-grade gliomas. Significant differences were found on spectroscopy between the high- and low-grade gliomas (P<0.05). Mean maximum relative CBV in the high-grade gliomas (6.10±3.98) was higher than in the low-grade gliomas (1.74±0.57) (P<0.05). Echoplanar diffusion, perfusion MRI and multivoxel proton MRS can offer diagnostic information, not available with conventional MRI, in the assessment of glioma grade. (orig.)
Multigroup albedo method applied to gamma radiation shielding
The Albedo method, when applied to shielding calculations, is characterized by following the radiation through the materials, determining the reflected, absorbed and transmitted fractions of the incident current, independently of flux calculations. The excellent results obtained to neutron shielding cases in which the diffusion approximation could be applied motivated this work, where the method was applied in order to develop a multigroup and multilayered algorithm. A gamma radiation shielding simulation was carried out to a system constituted by three infinite slabs of varied materials and six energy groups. The results obtained by Albedo Method were the same generated by ANISN, a consecrated deterministic nuclear code. Concludingly, this work demonstrates the validity of Albedo Method to gamma radiation shielding analysis through its agreement with the full Transport Equation. (author)
Wells, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lessard, Guillaume A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phipps, Marry E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lidke, Diane S [UNM; Wilson, Bridget S [UNM
2008-01-01
The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.
Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method
One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium
Coremelt-2D Code for Analysis of Severe Accidents in a Sodium Fast Reactor
In the paper there is a description of COREMELT-2D code designed for carrying out coupled two-dimensional analysis of neutronic and thermohydraulic transients, which may occur in the core of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR), including severe accidents resulting in damage of SFR core and relocation of its components with the change of their aggregative state, namely: boiling and condensation of coolant, damage and melting of fuel element claddings and fuel, relocation of molten core components, thermal interaction of fuel and coolant and freezing of steel and fuel. So, COREMELT-2D code is capable of analyzing all stages of ULOF accident up to expansion phase characterized by the intensive interaction of molten fuel and sodium. Modular structure of COREMELT-2D code consisting of thermohydraulic module COREMELT and neutronic module RADAR is presented. Preservation equations are solved in COREMELT module in two-dimensional cylindrical R-Z geometry in porous body approximation. RADAR module is used for solving multi-group neutron diffusion equation in R-Z and X-Y geometry. Application of the code for solving dynamics tasks with rather rapid changes of neutron constants requires efficient unit for constants preparation. For this purpose, steady state analysis TRIGEX code (HEX-Z geometry) is used, which includes the program of nuclear data preparation CONSYST connected to the ABBN-93 group constants library. In the paper presented are the results of comparative analytical studies on ULOF beyond design severe accident as applied to the BN-1200 reactor design made by COREMELT-2D code and by its previous version based on neutron kinetics point model. The results of analysis make it possible to evaluate the effect of space-time changes of reactor neutronics caused by sodium removal from the core as a result of sodium boiling. (author)
Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis
2010-05-01
2. The long-time behavior of the msd of the centroid walk scales linearly with time for naïve groups (diffusion), but shows a sharp transition to quadratic scaling (advection) for informed ones. These observations suggest that the mesoscopic variables of interest are the magnitude of the drift, the diffusion coefficient and the time-scales at which the anomalous and the asymptotic behavior respectively dominate transport, the latter being linked to the time scale at which the group reaches a decision. In order to estimate these summary statistics from the msd, we assumed that the configuration centroid follows an uncoupled Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) with smooth jump and waiting time pdf's. The mesoscopic transport equation for this type of random walk corresponds to an Advection-Diffusion Equation with Memory (ADEM). The introduction of the memory, and thus non-Markovian effects, is necessary in order to correctly account for the two time scales present. Although we were not able to calculate the memory directly from the individual-level rules, we show that it can estimated from a single, relatively short, simulation run using a Mittag-Leffler function as template. With this function it is possible to predict accurately the behavior of the msd, as well as the full pdf for the position of the centroid. The resulting ADEM is self-consistent in the sense that transport parameters estimated from the memory via a Kubo relationship coincide with those estimated from the moments of the jump size pdf of the associated CTRW for a large number of group sizes, proportions of informed individuals, and degrees of bias along the preferred direction. We also discuss the phase diagrams for the transport coefficients estimated from this method, where we notice velocity-precision trade-offs, where precision is a measure of the deviation of realized group orientations with respect to the informed direction. We also note that the time scale to collective decision is invariant
Establishment of multi-groups atomic parametric database
A method is given to establish multi-groups atomic parametric database for multi-groups radiation transport equation. The equation can be used in calculating the X-ray radiation from plasma. Several methods to check the calculation of the multi-groups database is also given. A 20 groups atomic parametric database of Au element with grid of 20 (plasma density) x 20 (electron temperature) x 20 (photon temperature) is given too
胡法龙; 周灿灿; 李潮流; 徐红军; 周凤鸣; 司兆伟
2012-01-01
Based on current acquisition modes of MRIL-Prime NMR logging tool, 2D NMR signals could be obtained by the combination of logging data from different modes, then the fluid properties in complicated reservoirs could be distinguished by 2D diflusion-relaxation NMR logging data distribution of pore fluids, generated by multi-echotrain joint inversion. In comparison with ID NMR logging, this method could increase fluid information in diffusion regime, separate oil, gas and water signals in 2D space and enhance the identification capacity of fluid properties from NMR logging. The 2D NMR logging in the multi-echowave interval was applied in the oil pays in Well A and the water layers in Well B in the Nanpu Sag by MRIL-Prime tool, and the interpretation matches the well testing result. It indicates that 2D NMR logging has advantages on the identification of light oil, and fluids in macropore reservoirs than ID NMR logging.%基于MRIL-Prime核磁共振测井仪器现有采集模式,将不同采集模式测井信息进行组合后获得二维核磁共振信号,利用多回波串联合反演技术获得孔隙流体弛豫-扩散的二维核磁共振信息分布,用以识别复杂储集层流体性质.相对一维核磁共振测井,该流体性质识别方法增加了扩散域流体信息,可以在二维空间内将油、气、水信号分离,提高核磁共振测井流体性质识别能力.利用MRIL-Prime仪器对南堡凹陷A井油层和B井水层进行多回波间隔的二维核磁共振测井试验,解释结果与试油结果相吻合,说明二维核磁共振测井在轻质油识别和大孔隙储集层流体识别方面相对一维核磁共振测井技术有明显优势.
CASSANDRE, 2-D Reactor Dynamic FEM Program with Thermohydraulic Feedback
1 - Description of program or function: CASSANDRE is a two-dimensional (x-y or r-z) finite-elements neutronics code with thermohydraulic feedback for reactor dynamics prior to the disassembly phase. The code was conceived in order to be coupled with any thermohydraulics module, although thermohydraulics feedback is only considered in r-z geometry. In the steady state, criticality search is possible either by control-rod insertion or by homogeneous poisoning of the coolant. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses multigroup diffusion theory. Its main characteristics are the use of a generalized quasi-static model, the use of a flexible multigroup point-kinetics algorithm allowing for spectral matching, and the use of a finite elements description. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user must prepare a cross section library
For satisfaction of future global customer needs, dedicated efforts are being coordinated internationally and pursued continuously at AREVA NP. The currently ongoing CONVERGENCE project is committed to the development of the ARCADIAR next generation core simulation software package. ARCADIAR will be put to global use by all AREVA NP business regions, for the entire spectrum of core design processes, licensing computations and safety studies. As part of the currently ongoing trend towards more sophisticated neutronics methodologies, an SP3 nodal transport concept has been developed for ARTEMIS which is the steady-state and transient core simulation part of ARCADIAR. For enabling a high computational performance, the SPN calculations are accelerated by applying multi-level coarse mesh re-balancing. In the current implementation, SP3 is about 1.4 times as expensive computationally as SP1 (diffusion). The developed SP3 solution concept is foreseen as the future computational workhorse for many-group 3D pin-by-pin full core computations by ARCADIAR. With the entire numerical workload being highly parallelizable through domain decomposition techniques, associated CPU-time requirements that adhere to the efficiency needs in the nuclear industry can be expected to become feasible in the near future. The accuracy enhancement obtainable by using SP3 instead of SP1 has been verified by a detailed comparison of ARTEMIS 16-group pin-by-pin SPN results with KAERI's DeCart reference results for the 2D pin-by-pin Purdue UO2/MOX benchmark. This article presents the accuracy enhancement verification and quantifies the achieved ARTEMIS-SP3 computational performance for a number of 2D and 3D multi-group and multi-box (up to pin-by-pin) core computations. (authors)
Cross section probability tables in multi-group transport calculations
The use of cross section probability tables in multigroup transport calculations is presented. Emphasis is placed on how probability table parameters are generated in a multigroup cross section processor and how existing transport codes must be modifed to use them. In order to illustrate the accuracy obtained by using probability tables, results are presented for a variety of neutron and photon transport problems
A Note on Multigroup Comparisons Using SAS PROC CALIS
Jones-Farmer, L. Allison; Pitts, Jennifer P.; Rainer, R. Kelly
2008-01-01
Although SAS PROC CALIS is not designed to perform multigroup comparisons, it is believed that SAS can be "tricked" into doing so for groups of equal size. At present, there are no comprehensive examples of the steps involved in performing a multigroup comparison in SAS. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these steps. We demonstrate…
In multigroup calculations of reactivity and sensitivity coefficients, methodical errors can appear if the interdependence of multigroup constants is not taken into account. For this effect to be taken into account, so-called implicit components of the aforementioned values are introduced. A simple technique for computing these values is proposed. It is based on the use of subgroup parameters.
Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy
We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations
Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy
Kelsey Iv, Charles T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prinja, Anil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations.
Cascos, V; Martínez-Coronado, R; Alonso, J A; Fernández-Díaz, M T
2014-06-25
Sr0.7Ho0.3CoO3-δ oxide has been recently described as an excellent cathode material (1274 mW cm(-2) at 850 °C with pure H2 as fuel1) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with LSGM as electrolyte. In this work, we describe a detailed study of its crystal structure conducted to find out the correlation between the excellent performance as a cathode and the structural features. The tetragonal crystal structure (e.g., I4/mmm) basically contains layers of octahedrally coordinated Co2O6 units alternated with layers of Co1O4 tetrahedra sharing corners. An "in situ" neutron power diffraction (NPD) experiment, between 25 and 800 °C, reveals the presence of a high oxygen deficiency affecting O4 oxygen atoms, with large displacement factors that suggest a large lability and mobility. Difference Fourier maps allow the visualization at high temperatures of the 2D diffusion pathways within the tetrahedral layers, where O3 and O4 oxygens participate. The measured thermal expansion coefficient is 16.61 × 10(-6) K(-1) between 300 and 850 °C, exhibiting an excellent chemical compatibility with the electrolyte. PMID:24873238
Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Theory
Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-11-06
Multigroup cross sections at a one target temperature can be Doppler-broadened to multigroup cross sections at a higher target temperature by matrix multiplication if the group structure suf- ficiently resolves the original temperature continuous energy cross section. Matrix elements are the higher temperature group weighted averages of the integral over the lower temperature group boundaries of the free-atom Doppler-broadening kernel. The results match theory for constant and 1/v multigroup cross sections at 618 lanl group structure resolution.
Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow
Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan
2016-01-01
We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.
Multigroup fast fission factor treatment in a thermal reactor lattice
A multigroup procedure for the studies of the fast fission effects in the thermal reactor lattice and the calculation of the fast fission factor was developed. The Monte Carlo method and the multigroup procedure were combined to calculate the fast neutron interaction and backscattering effects in a reactor lattice. A set of probabilities calculated by the Monte Carlo method gives a multigroup spectrum of neutrons coming from the moderator and entering the fuel element. Thus, the assumptions adopted so far in defining and calculating the fast fission factor has been avoided, and a new definition including the backscattering and interaction effects in a reactor lattice have been given. (author)
Multigroup cross section library; WIMS library
The WIMS library has been extensively used in thermal reactor calculations. This multigroup constants library was originally developed from the UKNDL in the late 60's and has been updated in 1986. This library has been distributed with the WIMS-D code by NEA data bank. The references to WIMS library in literature are the 'old' which is the original as developed by the AEA Winfrith and the 'new' which is the current 1986 WIMS library. IAEA has organised a CRP where a new and fully updated WIMS library will soon be available. This paper gives an overview of the definitions of the group constants that go into any basic nuclear data library used for reactor calculations. This paper also outlines the contents of the WIMS library and some of its shortcomings
Multi-group neutron transport theory
Multi-group neutron transport theory. In the paper the general theory of the application of the K. M. Case method to N-group neutron transport theory in plane geometry is given. The eigenfunctions (distributions) for the system of Boltzmann equations have been derived and the completeness theorem has been proved. By means of general solution two examples important for reactor and shielding calculations are given: the solution of a critical and albedo problem for a slab. In both cases the system of singular integral equations for expansion coefficients into a full set of eigenfunction distributions has been reduced to the system of Fredholm-type integral equations. Some results can be applied also to some spherical problems. (author)
Application of equivalence methods on Monte Carlo method based homogenization multi-group constants
The multi-group constants generated via continuous energy Monte Carlo method do not satisfy the equivalence between reference calculation and diffusion calculation applied in reactor core analysis. To the satisfaction of the equivalence theory, general equivalence theory (GET) and super homogenization method (SPH) were applied to the Monte Carlo method based group constants, and a simplified reactor core and C5G7 benchmark were examined with the Monte Carlo constants. The results show that the calculating precision of group constants is improved, and GET and SPH are good candidates for the equivalence treatment of Monte Carlo homogenization. (authors)
Ventura, P; Li, L; Sofia, S; Basu, S; Demarque, P
2009-01-01
Understanding the reasons of the cyclic variation of the total solar irradiance is one of the most challenging targets of modern astrophysics. These studies prove to be essential also for a more climatologic issue, associated to the global warming. Any attempt to determine the solar components of this phenomenon must include the effects of the magnetic field, whose strength and shape in the solar interior are far from being completely known. Modelling the presence and the effects of a magnetic field requires a 2D approach, since the assumption of radial symmetry is too limiting for this topic. We present the structure of a 2D evolution code that was purposely designed for this scope; rotation, magnetic field and turbulence can be taken into account. Some preliminary results are presented and commented.
Benchmark Calculation for the VHTR 2-D Core by Using the DeCART Code
Cho, Jin-Young; Kim, Kang-Seog; Lee, Chung-Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-01
Recently, a hexagonal module has been equipped to the DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) whole core code for a hexagonal core analysis. The equipment includes a ray tracing module to solve the 2-D whole-core transport problem and a multi-group CMFD module to perform an efficient transport calculation. In this paper, the capability of the DeCART hexagonal module is examined by solving VHTR core problems.
Benchmark Calculation for the VHTR 2-D Core by Using the DeCART Code
Recently, a hexagonal module has been equipped to the DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) whole core code for a hexagonal core analysis. The equipment includes a ray tracing module to solve the 2-D whole-core transport problem and a multi-group CMFD module to perform an efficient transport calculation. In this paper, the capability of the DeCART hexagonal module is examined by solving VHTR core problems
Lotsch, Bettina V.
2015-07-01
Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.
A code to calculate multigroup constants for fast neutron reactor
KQCS-2 code is a new improved version of KQCS code, which was designed to calculate multigroup constants for fast neutron reactor. The changes and improvements on KQCS are described in this paper. (author)
Consistent Multigroup Theory Enabling Accurate Course-Group Simulation of Gen IV Reactors
Rahnema, Farzad; Haghighat, Alireza; Ougouag, Abderrafi
2013-11-29
The objective of this proposal is the development of a consistent multi-group theory that accurately accounts for the energy-angle coupling associated with collapsed-group cross sections. This will allow for coarse-group transport and diffusion theory calculations that exhibit continuous energy accuracy and implicitly treat cross- section resonances. This is of particular importance when considering the highly heterogeneous and optically thin reactor designs within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) framework. In such reactors, ignoring the influence of anisotropy in the angular flux on the collapsed cross section, especially at the interface between core and reflector near which control rods are located, results in inaccurate estimates of the rod worth, a serious safety concern. The scope of this project will include the development and verification of a new multi-group theory enabling high-fidelity transport and diffusion calculations in coarse groups, as well as a methodology for the implementation of this method in existing codes. This will allow for a higher accuracy solution of reactor problems while using fewer groups and will reduce the computational expense. The proposed research represents a fundamental advancement in the understanding and improvement of multi- group theory for reactor analysis.
Van Geemert, Rene [AREVA, AREVA NP, Erlangen (Germany)
2008-07-01
For satisfaction of future global customer needs, dedicated efforts are being coordinated internationally and pursued continuously at AREVA NP. The currently ongoing CONVERGENCE project is committed to the development of the ARCADIA{sup R} next generation core simulation software package. ARCADIA{sup R} will be put to global use by all AREVA NP business regions, for the entire spectrum of core design processes, licensing computations and safety studies. As part of the currently ongoing trend towards more sophisticated neutronics methodologies, an SP{sub 3} nodal transport concept has been developed for ARTEMIS which is the steady-state and transient core simulation part of ARCADIA{sup R}. For enabling a high computational performance, the SP{sub N} calculations are accelerated by applying multi-level coarse mesh re-balancing. In the current implementation, SP{sub 3} is about 1.4 times as expensive computationally as SP{sub 1} (diffusion). The developed SP{sub 3} solution concept is foreseen as the future computational workhorse for many-group 3D pin-by-pin full core computations by ARCADIA{sup R}. With the entire numerical workload being highly parallelizable through domain decomposition techniques, associated CPU-time requirements that adhere to the efficiency needs in the nuclear industry can be expected to become feasible in the near future. The accuracy enhancement obtainable by using SP{sub 3} instead of SP{sub 1} has been verified by a detailed comparison of ARTEMIS 16-group pin-by-pin SP{sub N} results with KAERI's DeCart reference results for the 2D pin-by-pin Purdue UO{sub 2}/MOX benchmark. This article presents the accuracy enhancement verification and quantifies the achieved ARTEMIS-SP{sub 3} computational performance for a number of 2D and 3D multi-group and multi-box (up to pin-by-pin) core computations. (authors)
Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d
Henze, M.
1999-01-01
The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...
Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: A Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method
Wollaeger, Ryan T; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean M; Jordan, George C; Lamb, Donald Q; Moses, Gregory A
2013-01-01
We explore the application of Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) to radiation transport in strong fluid outflows with structured opacity. The IMC method of Fleck & Cummings is a stochastic computational technique for nonlinear radiation transport. IMC is partially implicit in time and may suffer in efficiency when tracking Monte Carlo particles through optically thick materials. The DDMC method of Densmore accelerates an IMC computation where the domain is diffusive. Recently, Abdikamalov extended IMC and DDMC to multigroup, velocity-dependent neutrino transport with the intent of modeling neutrino dynamics in core-collapse supernovae. Densmore has also formulated a multifrequency extension to the originally grey DDMC method. In this article we rigorously formulate IMC and DDMC over a high-velocity Lagrangian grid for possible application to photon transport in the post-explosion phase of Type Ia supernovae. The method described is suitable for a large variety of non-mono...
A general multigroup formulation of the analytic nodal method
In this paper the theoretical description of an alternative approach to the Analytic Nodal Method is given, in which a full multigroup formulations is developed. This approach differs from the well known QUANDRY approach in three aspects. Firstly, a notation which is more widely used in Quantum Mechanics has been adopted to enable a clear and concise presentation of this multigroup approach. A basis transformation is then used to reduce the directional equations to a scalar form and finally, Green's secondary identity is used to rewrite each of the resulting scalar equations in a form which eventually leads to a response matrix, as opposed to using classical methods to actually solve the coupled multigroup directional equations
AMPX-77, Modular System for Coupled Neutron-Gamma Multigroup Cross-Sections from ENDF/B-5
1 - Description of program or function: The AMPX system is a system of computer programs (modules) capable of producing coupled multigroup neutron-gamma-ray cross section sets. The system is one of the standards for producing multigroup neutron, gamma-ray production, gamma-ray interaction, and coupled neutron-gamma cross-section sets from ENDF data. AMPX-produced cross sections can be used directly with a variety of diffusion theory, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo radiation transport computer codes. A one-dimensional Sn calculation capability is provided for general use and for cross section collapsing. Treatments are included for resonance self-shielding effects. 2 - Method of solution: The system includes a full range of features needed to: (1) produce multigroup neutron, gamma-ray production, and/or gamma-ray interaction cross-section data, (2) resonance self-shield, (3) spectrally collapse, (4) convert cross-section libraries from one format to another format, (5) execute a one- dimensional (1-D) discrete-ordinates calculation, and (6) perform miscellaneous cross section-operations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The principal restriction is the availability of adequate core storage. All large modules are variably dimensioned. Certain modules will automatically use external storage (disk,tape), if in-core storage is inadequate. While these procedures are of little consequence on today's large computers with 'virtual memory' capabilities, they can be important when small-core PC's or workstations are used
Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Energy, TN (United States); Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1995-05-01
The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are {approx} 13%, while the average differences are < 8%.
Demange, D.; Beauchene, P.; Casulleras, R.; Bejet, M. [ONERA, 92 - Chatillon (France); Maillet, D.; Sanson, O. [Lemta (France)
1996-12-31
A new experimental method of simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity along the two main directions of thin composite materials with a ceramic-based matrix has been developed by the ONERA, the French national office of aerospace studies and research. The principle of this method, derived from the `flash` method consists in the heterogeneous insolation of one face of a cylindrical sample (central spot or ring) in order to analyze the thermal transfers along the axial and radial directions of the sample. Experimental development are in progress and will be integrated to a flash diffusion-meter in operation at the ONERA. (J.S.) 11 refs.
Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Locating the Invariant Referent Sets
French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes
2008-01-01
Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) is a popular method for the examination of measurement invariance and specifically, factor invariance. Recent research has begun to focus on using MCFA to detect invariance for test items. MCFA requires certain parameters (e.g., factor loadings) to be constrained for model identification, which are…
Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory
This report the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity I: path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity II: canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology I: method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology II: loops on the lattice; matrix model technology III: free fermions from the lattice; loops and states in matrix model quantum gravity; loops and states in the C=1 matrix model; 6V model fermi sea dynamics and collective field theory; and string scattering in two spacetime dimensions
Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe
Martin, Nicolas
effects of the scattering reaction consistent with the subgroup method. In this study, we generalize the Discrete Angle Technique, already proposed for homogeneous, multigroup cross sections, to isotopic cross sections on the form of probability tables. In this technique, the angular density is discretized into probability tables. Similarly to the cross-section case, a moment approach is used to compute the probability tables for the scattering cosine. (4) The introduction of a leakage model based on the B1 fundamental mode approximation. Unlike deterministic lattice packages, most Monte Carlo-based lattice physics codes do not include leakage models. However the generation of homogenized and condensed group constants (cross sections, diffusion coefficients) require the critical flux. This project has involved the development of a program into the DRAGON framework, written in Fortran 2003 and wrapped with a driver in C, the GANLIB 5. Choosing Fortran 2003 has permitted the use of some modern features, such as the definition of objects and methods, data encapsulation and polymorphism. The validation of the proposed code has been performed by comparison with other numerical methods: (1) The continuous-energy Monte Carlo method of the SERPENT code. (2) The Collision Probability (CP) method and the discrete ordinates (SN) method of the DRAGON lattice code. (3) The multigroup Monte Carlo code MORET, coupled with the DRAGON code. Benchmarks used in this work are representative of some industrial configurations encountered in reactor and criticality-safety calculations: (1)Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) cells and assemblies. (2) Canada-Deuterium Uranium Reactors (CANDU-6) clusters. (3) Critical experiments from the ICSBEP handbook (International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program).
Multi-group calculations for fast reactors
The paper deals with various causes of error in calculations. The first part sets out the mathematical approximations (diffusion approximation, Sn method, etc.), the numerical resolution methods (effect of integration step), the models used, and the implications of these various factors in the determination of the principal characteristics of a fast neutron reactor. The second part studies the effect on reactivity of variations of element cross-sections, using various fuels, in a reactor of rather hard spectrum. (author)
2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikat
Smolander, Aku
2009-01-01
Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan erilaisia 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoita. Aluksi luodaan yleiskatsaus animoinnin historiaan ja tekniikoihin piirtämisestä mallintamiseen. Alkukatsauksen jälkeen tutkitaan 2D-hahmon suunnittelua ja liikkeitä koskevia sääntöjä. Hahmoanimaation liikkeissä huomionarvoisia asioita ovat muun muassa ajastus, liioittelu, ennakointi ja painovoima. Seuraavaksi perehdytään itse 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoihin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, tutkia ja vertailla ...
Multigroup cross sections of resonant nuclei considering moderator mass differences
The multigroup constants library MGCL in the nuclear criticality safety evaluation code system JACS has been produced by the Bondarenko method to treat self-shielding effects. For estimating errors of this treatment, the multigroup cross sections of MGCL are compared with those obtained by precise treatment, i.e. with the weighted cross sections by ultra-fine spectra of neutron. The precise calculations are made for homogeneous mixtures of a resonant nucleus (235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu or 56Fe) and a fictitious moderator nucleus with mass number 1, 12 or 200. The ultra-fine spectrum is calculated by the RABBLE code. Distinct differences are found in the self-shielding factors by comparisons between both treatments. Moreover, as the mass number increases, depressions of the self-shielding factor at the resonance peaks and its enhancements at the window of resonances are observed. (author)
Cyclotron radiation by a multi-group method
A multi-energy group technique is developed to study conditions under which cyclotron radiation emission can shift a Maxwellian electron distribution into a non-Maxwellian; and if the electron distribution is non-Maxwellian, to study the rate of cyclotron radiation emission as compared to that emitted by a Maxwellian having the same mean electron density and energy. The assumptions in this study are: the electrons should be in an isotropic medium and the magnetic field should be uniform. The multi-group technique is coupled into a multi-group Fokker-Planck computer code to study electron behavior under the influence of cyclotron radiation emission in a self-consistent fashion. Several non-Maxwellian distributions were simulated to compare their cyclotron emissions with the corresponding energy and number density equivalent Maxwellian distribtions
Optimal calculational schemes for solving multigroup photon transport problem
A scheme of complex algorithm for solving multigroup equation of radiation transport is suggested. The algorithm is based on using the method of successive collisions, the method of forward scattering and the spherical harmonics method, and is realized in the FORAP program (FORTRAN, BESM-6 computer). As an example the results of calculating reactor photon transport in water are presented. The considered algorithm being modified may be used for solving neutron transport problems
Multigroup-multiwaves Lisrel modeling in tourist satisfaction analysis
Cristina Bernini; Silvia Cagnone
2013-01-01
The paper analyzes the influence of tourist heterogeneity on the Tourist Local System Overall Satisfaction and its changes over time. We investigate two aspects: if different tourists segmented according to their trip motivation (seaside, conference and sport) show the same pattern of evaluation toward some relevant features of the TLS and if the evaluation scheme is dynamic. At this aim, a Multigroup-Multiwaves Lisrel model is estimated on a data set from the Tourist Satisfaction Survey, con...
Nuclear data and multigroup methods in fast reactor calculations
The work deals with fast reactor multigroup calculations, and the efficient treatment of basic nuclear data, which serves as raw material for the calculations. Its purpose is twofold: to build a computer code system that handles a large, detailed library of basic neutron cross section data, (such as ENDF/B-III) and yields a compact set of multigroup cross sections for reactor calculations; to use the code system for comparative analysis of different libraries, in order to discover basic uncertainties that still exist in the measurement of neutron cross sections, and to determine their influence upon uncertainties in nuclear calculations. A program named NANICK which was written in two versions is presented. The first handles the American basic data library, ENDF/B-III, while the second handles the German basic data library, KEDAK. The mathematical algorithm is identical in both versions, and only the file management is different. This program calculates infinitely diluted multigroup cross sections and scattering matrices. It is complemented by the program NASIF that calculates shielding factors from resonance parameters. Different versions of NASIF were written to handle ENDF/B-III or KEDAK. New methods for evaluating in reactor calculations the long term behavior of the neutron flux as well as its fine structure are described and an efficient calculation of the shielding factors from resonance parameters is offered. (B.G.)
Starting from the radiation transport equation for homogeneous, refractive lossy media, we derive the corresponding time-dependent multifrequency diffusion equations. Zeroth and first moments of the transport equation couple the energy density, flux and pressure tensor. The system is closed by neglecting the temporal derivative of the flux and replacing the pressure tensor by its diagonal analogue. The radiation equations are coupled to a diffusion equation for the matter temperature. We are interested in modeling heating and cooling of silica (SiO2), at possibly rapid rates. Hence, in contrast to related work, we retain the temporal derivative of the radiation field. We derive boundary conditions at a planar air-silica interface taking account of reflectivities obtained from the Fresnel relations that include absorption. The spectral dimension is discretized into a finite number of intervals leading to a system of multigroup diffusion equations. Three simulations are presented. One models cooling of a silica slab, initially at 2500 K, for 10 s. The other two are 1D and 2D simulations of irradiating silica with a CO2 laser, λ = 10.59 μm. In 2D, a laser beam (Gaussian profile, r0 = 0.5 mm for 1/e decay) shines on a disk (radius = 0.4, thickness = 0.4 cm).
Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors
Mueller, Thomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.
Accretion Disks Phase Transitions 2-D or not 2-D?
Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Bjornsson, Gunnlaugur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.
2000-01-01
We argue that the proper way to treat thin-thick accretion-disk transitions should take into account the 2-D nature of the problem. We illustrate the physical inconsistency of the 1-D vertically integrated approach by discussing a particular example of the convective transport of energy.
SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run
Blanco, O R; Bambade, P
2015-01-01
The Oide effect considers the synchrotron radiation in the final focusing quadrupole and it sets a lower limit on the vertical beam size at the Interaction Point, particularly relevant for high energy linear colliders. The theory of the Oide effect was derived considering only the radiation in the focusing plane of the magnet. This article addresses the theoretical calculation of the radiation effect on the beam size consider- ing both focusing and defocusing planes of the quadrupole, refered to as 2D-Oide. The CLIC 3 TeV final quadrupole (QD0) and beam parameters are used to compare the theoretical results from the Oide effect and the 2D-Oide effect with particle tracking in PLACET. The 2D-oide demonstrates to be important as it increases by 17% the contribution to the beam size. Further insight into the aberrations induced by the synchrotron radiation opens the possibility to partially correct the 2D-Oide effect with octupole magn
A nodal expansion method for solving the multigroup SP3 equations in the reactor code DYN3D
The core model DYN3D which has been developed for three-dimensional analyses of steady states and transients in thermal reactors with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assemblies is based on nodal methods for the solution of the two-group neutron diffusion equation. Loading cores with higher content of MOX fuel, the increase of the fuel cycle length and new types of reactors are challenging for these standard methods. A nodal expansion method for solving the equations of the simplified P3 approximation (SP3) of the multigroup transport equation was developed to improve the accuracy of the DYN3D code. In this paper, the method used in DYN3D-SP3 is described. It is applied for the pin-wise calculation of a steady state of the OECD/NEA and U.S. NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark. The eigenvalue keff, assembly powers and the pin powers are computed. The results calculated with different approaches including diffusion theory are compared with the reference solution obtained from a heterogeneous transport calculation with the code DeCART. Different approaches of the diffusion coefficient used in the SP3 equations are investigated. The SP3 results obtained with the transport cross section of multigroup diffusion theory show the smallest deviations from the reference solution. These deviations are in the same order as the results of the code DORT, whereas the DORT and DYN3D calculations were carried out with the same library of group constants for homogenized pin cells. (authors)
SERKON program for compiling a multigroup library to be used in BETTY calculation
A SERKON-type program was written to compile data sets generated by FEDGROUP-3 into a multigroup library for BETTY calculation. A multigroup library was generated from the ENDF/B-IV data file and tested against the TRX-1 and TRX-2 lattices with good results. (author)
MUXS: a code to generate multigroup cross sections for sputtering calculations
This report documents MUXS, a computer code to generate multigroup cross sections for charged particle transport problems. Cross sections generated by MUXS can be used in many multigroup transport codes, with minor modifications to these codes, to calculate sputtering yields, reflection coefficients, penetration distances, etc
Nonparametric Multi-group Membership Model for Dynamic Networks
Kim, Myunghwan; Leskovec, Jure
2013-01-01
Relational data-like graphs, networks, and matrices-is often dynamic, where the relational structure evolves over time. A fundamental problem in the analysis of time-varying network data is to extract a summary of the common structure and the dynamics of the underlying relations between the entities. Here we build on the intuition that changes in the network structure are driven by the dynamics at the level of groups of nodes. We propose a nonparametric multi-group membership model for dynami...
Status of multigroup cross-section data for shielding applications
Multigroup cross-section libraries for shielding applications in formats for direct use in discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo codes have long been a part of the Data Library Collection (DLC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). In recent years libraries in more flexible and comprehensive formats, which allow the user to derive his own problem-dependent sets, have been added to the collection. The current status of both types is described, as well as projections for adding data libraries based on ENDF/B-V
Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Experiment
Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-11-06
The multigroup energy Doppler-broadening approximation agrees with continuous energy Dopplerbroadening generally to within ten percent for the total cross sections of ^{1}H,^{ 56}Fe, and ^{235}U at 250 lanl. Although this is probably not good enough for broadening from room temperature through the entire temperature range in production use, it is better than any interpolation scheme between temperatures proposed to date, and may be good enough for extrapolation from high temperatures. The method deserves further study since additional improvements are possible.
Variational nodal solution algorithms for multigroup criticality problems
Variational nodal transport methods are generalized for the treatment of multigroup criticality problems. The generation of variational response matrices is streamlined and automated through the use of symbolic manipulation. A new red-black partitioned matrix algorithm for the solution of the within-group equations is formulated and shown to be at once both a regular matrix splitting and a synthetic acceleration method. The methods are implemented in X- Y geometry as a module of the Argonne National Laboratory code DIF3D. For few group problems highly accurate P3 eigenvalues are obtained with computing times comparable to those of an existing interface-current nodal transport method
SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code
This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)
H on He: sticking and 2d-superfluidity
The sticking coefficient, which governs the sticking time τs, is discussed for high surface-coverage conditions. We point out that τs must remain large compared to a characteristic vortex diffusion time, if the system is to display 2d-superfluidity
Highlights: • A new AFEN code, MGANSP3, is developed for simplified P3 (SP3) calculations. • Surface averaged partial currents are used for coupling the nodes. • Coarse group rebalancing method is applied to increase the speed of calculations. • Four benchmark problems are used to examine the accuracy of the MGANSP3 code. - Abstract: In this study, a new analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method was developed to solve multi-group and three dimensional neutron simplified P3 equations (SP3) in reactor cores with rectangular fuel assemblies. In this method, the intranodal fluxes are expanded into a set of analytic basis functions for each group and moment. The nodes are coupled through the surface averaged partial currents at each nodal interface. Thus, six boundary conditions at each group and Legendre moments have been considered. Coarse group rebalancing (CGR) method was applied to increase the speed of code calculations. The code takes few-groups cross sections produced by a lattice code such as WIMS and calculates the effective multiplication factor, zeroth and second moments of the flux in multi-group energy, reactivity, and the relative power density at each fuel assembly. The numerical results for different benchmark problems demonstrate that solution of SP3 equations by our AFEN method improves both effective multiplication factor (keff) and power distribution compared to our AFEN diffusion method, especially in heterogeneous geometry and mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel problems
2D-animaatiotuotannon optimointi
Saturo, Reetta
2015-01-01
Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tutkia 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimoinnin mahdollisuuksia tiukan tuotantoaikataulun vaatimuksissa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kahta asiakasprojektia, jotka on toteutettu pienellä tuotantotiimillä. Työkaluna animaatioissa on käytetty pääosin Adoben After Effects -ohjelmistoa. Tutkielman alussa esitellään animaatiotuotannot, joiden tuloksena syntyi kaksi lyhyttä mainoselokuvaa. Sen jälkeen käydään läpi animaatioelokuvan tuotantoprosessia vaiheittain ja tark...
Fallow), Stray
2009-01-01
Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and
BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra
1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low
Generation of subgroup parameters from JENDL-2 based multigroup data set for FBR core materials
Subgroup method gives a more accurate treatment to the resonance absorption in nuclear reactors, especially when it is heterogeneous, than the usual multigroup method. An algorithm has been developed based on a modified form of Roth's procedure, to calculate subgroup parameters, from the multigroup table of self-shielding factors given against a set of temperatures and dilution cross sections. A program SPART has been written with this algorithm, and it has been used to generate subgroup parameters for some important fast reactor core materials from the JENDL-2 based multigroup set, recently created and validated at IGCAR. In this report, the algorithm is discussed, and the subgroup parameters generated are presented. (author)
Adaptive matrix formation (AMF) method has been developed for the numerical solution of the transient multigroup neutron diffusion and delayed precursor equations in two- and three-dimensional geometry. The method is applied to a general class of two- and three- dimensional problems. The results of numerical experiments, as well as comparison with space-time experimental results indicate that the method is accurate and that the two- and three-dimensional calculations can be performed at 'reasonable' computer costs. Moreover, the AMF method offers the flexibility of using smaller time steps between flux shape calculations to achieve a specified accuracy and capability, without encountering numerical problems that occur in the other conventional methods. There is a large considerable saving in computer time and costs due to the partitioning of the matrix adopted in the presented AMF method. The two- and three-dimensional problems were analyzed with the present calculations model to illustrate the accuracy and stability of the method. Furthermore, the stability of the investigated method has been tested for sinusoidal, ramp, and step-change reactivity insertions. The results are in a good agreement with those of the other less approximate methods, including the problems in which the reflector zone is perturbed
Reflector modelling of small high leakage cores making use of multi-group nodal equivalence theory
This research focuses on modelling reflectors in typical material testing reactors (MTRs). Equivalence theory is used to homogenise and collapse detailed transport solutions to generate equivalent nodal parameters and albedo boundary conditions for reflectors, for subsequent use in full core nodal diffusion codes. This approach to reflector modelling has been shown to be accurate for two-group large commercial light water reactor (LWR) analysis, but has not been investigated for MTRs. MTRs are smaller, with much larger leakage, environment sensitivity and multi-group spectrum dependencies than LWRs. This study aims to determine if this approach to reflector modelling is an accurate and plausible homogenisation technique for the modelling of small MTR cores. The successful implementation will result in simplified core models, better accuracy and improved efficiency of computer simulations. Codes used in this study include SCALE 6.1, OSCAR-4 and EQUIVA (the last two codes are developed and used at Necsa). The results show a five times reduction in calculational time for the proposed reduced reactor model compared to the traditional explicit model. The calculated equivalent parameters however show some sensitivity to the environment used to generate them. Differences in the results compared to the current explicit model, require more careful investigation including comparisons with a reference result, before its implementation can be recommended. (authors)
无
2003-01-01
A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.
Waldin, Nicholas
2016-06-24
2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.
ATHENA2D, Simulation Hypothetical Recriticality Accident in a Thermal Neutron Spectrum
1 - Description of program or function: ATHENA2D was written to simulate a hypothetical water reflood of a highly-damaged light water reactor (such as the Three-Mile-Island Unit-2 after meltdown, with a packed debris bed near the center of the core), but with insufficiently-borated reflood water. A recriticality transient may result because of the potentially more reactive debris bed. ATHENA-2D solves the transient multigroup neutron diffusion equations in (r,z) geometry. Executing in parallel with the transient neutronics, is a single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, driven by multichannel thermal hydraulics based on detailed pin models. Numerous PV-Wave procedure files are included on the distribution media, useful for those who already have PV-Wave from Visual Numerics. These procedures are documented in the 'README' files included on the distribution CD. Some reactor lattice computer code such as WIMS-E, CCC-576/WIMSD4, or CCC-656/WIMSD5B is required for the creation of macroscopic cross section libraries, given pin-cell geometries. WIMS-E is a commercial product available from AEA Technologies, England, WIMS is not included on the ATHENA2D distribution CD. Several auxiliary routines are included in the package. TFMAX: Utility that searches through ATHENA2D binary output to find the maximum fuel temperature over space and time. POSTVEL: Utility that searches through ATHENA2D binary output to find maximum scalar and flow field values (over space) and outputs normalization factors as a function of time. These results are used to correctly scale animations. CONVT: If executing ATHENA2D on a PC under Windows, this utility converts one form of binary output (directly from ATHENA2D) to another, which is readable by PV-Wave for Windows (PV-Wave is data animation and visualization software from Visual Numerics, Inc.) CALCMTX: Post-processing utility for calculating the model coefficients for the calculation matrix. 2 - Methods: Both the neutronics and
Development and verification of a nodal approach for solving the multigroup SP{sub 3} equations
Beckert, C. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Grundmann, U. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: U.Grundmann@fzd.de
2008-01-15
The core model DYN3D which has been developed for three-dimensional analyses of steady states and transients in thermal reactors with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assemblies is based on nodal methods for the solution of the two-group neutron diffusion equation. Loading cores with higher content of MOX fuel, the increase of the fuel cycle length, and the consideration of new reactor types are challenging for these standard methods. A nodal expansion method for solving the equations of the simplified P{sub 3} (SP{sub 3}) approximation of the multigroup transport equation was developed to improve the accuracy of the DYN3D code. The method described in the paper is verified with pinwise calculations of a steady state of the OECD/NEA and US NRC PWR MOX/UO{sub 2} Core Transient Benchmark. The used 16-group cross section library was generated for DORT calculations with homogenized pin cells. Two different approximations of the diffusion coefficient which occurs in the within-group form of the SP{sub 3} equations are investigated. Using the transport cross section for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient gives much better results than those obtained with the removal cross section. The improvement of the results in comparison to a pinwise diffusion calculation is shown. The results are compared with the DORT and the heterogeneous reference solution of the code DeCART. Concerning the SP{sub 3} calculation using the diffusion coefficient based on the transport cross section (DYN3D-SP3-TR) the deviations of the eigenvalue k{sub eff} and the assembly powers from the transport solutions of DORT and DeCART are in the same order as those between the two transport solutions themselves. The improvement of the DYN3D-SP3-TR results in comparison to the diffusion calculation is presented. As the DYN3D-SP3-TR and DORT calculations are performed with homogenized pin cells, the pin powers of the two calculations are closer to each other than to the pin powers of the DeCART solution
Development and verification of a nodal approach for solving the multigroup SP3 equations
The core model DYN3D which has been developed for three-dimensional analyses of steady states and transients in thermal reactors with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assemblies is based on nodal methods for the solution of the two-group neutron diffusion equation. Loading cores with higher content of MOX fuel, the increase of the fuel cycle length, and the consideration of new reactor types are challenging for these standard methods. A nodal expansion method for solving the equations of the simplified P3 (SP3) approximation of the multigroup transport equation was developed to improve the accuracy of the DYN3D code. The method described in the paper is verified with pinwise calculations of a steady state of the OECD/NEA and US NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark. The used 16-group cross section library was generated for DORT calculations with homogenized pin cells. Two different approximations of the diffusion coefficient which occurs in the within-group form of the SP3 equations are investigated. Using the transport cross section for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient gives much better results than those obtained with the removal cross section. The improvement of the results in comparison to a pinwise diffusion calculation is shown. The results are compared with the DORT and the heterogeneous reference solution of the code DeCART. Concerning the SP3 calculation using the diffusion coefficient based on the transport cross section (DYN3D-SP3-TR) the deviations of the eigenvalue keff and the assembly powers from the transport solutions of DORT and DeCART are in the same order as those between the two transport solutions themselves. The improvement of the DYN3D-SP3-TR results in comparison to the diffusion calculation is presented. As the DYN3D-SP3-TR and DORT calculations are performed with homogenized pin cells, the pin powers of the two calculations are closer to each other than to the pin powers of the DeCART solution. To estimate the contribution of
Intragroup Socialization for Adult Korean Adoptees: A Multigroup Analysis
Kimberly J. Langrehr
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to test a model of socialization among a sample of adult Korean adoptees. Based on the tenants of homophily and social identity theory, it was hypothesized that participants’ early racial and ethnic socialization experiences would account for their current intragroup friendships as adults, and that this relationship would be mediated by early intragroup contact and moderated by early ethnic identity status. The two ethnic and racial socialization variables (i.e., ethnic heritage activities and racial in-exposure significantly accounted for participants’ relationships with other Korean adoptees and nonadopted Koreans, and the effects were partially explained by early intragroup contact. Results of multigroup testing indicated the proposed socialization model was non-invariant across groups, such that the effects of ethnic heritage activities on intragroup contact and the effect of racial in-exposure on friendships with Korean adoptees were significantly different based on early ethnic identity status.
MORET: Version 4.B. A multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code
MORET 4 is a three dimensional multigroup Monte Carlo code which calculates the effective multiplication factor (keff) of any configurations more or less complex as well as reaction rates in the different volumes of the geometry and the leakage out of the system. MORET 4 is the Monte Carlo code of the APOLLO2-MORET 4 standard route of CRISTAL, the French criticality package. It is the most commonly used Monte Carlo code for French criticality calculations. During the last four years, the MORET 4 team has developed or improved the following major points: modernization of the geometry, implementation of perturbation algorithms, source distribution convergence, statistical detection of stationarity, unbiased variance estimation and creation of pre-processing and post-processing tools. The purpose of this paper is not only to present the new features of MORET but also to detail clearly the physical models and the mathematical methods used in the code. (author)
Multigroup representation of fusion product orbits in a plasma column
A method is derived for describing the time-depending behavior of α particles produced in a radially nonuniform slender plasma column as a distribution function among the possible orbits. A multigroup numerical approximation is introduced to analyze the development of the distribution function and its moments. Results are presented of calculations of the time-dependent α-particle energy spectrum and radial density, energy, and electron heating profiles in plasma columns with radii comparable to the α Larmor radius. This technique allows calculation of the α particle history at much more rapid rates than allowed by Monte Carlo technuques: The characteristic time scale is the α-electron slowing-down time rather than the cyclotron period
Multigroup-multiwaves Lisrel modeling in tourist satisfaction analysis
Cristina Bernini
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the influence of tourist heterogeneity on the Tourist Local System Overall Satisfaction and its changes over time. We investigate two aspects: if different tourists segmented according to their trip motivation (seaside, conference and sport show the same pattern of evaluation toward some relevant features of the TLS and if the evaluation scheme is dynamic. At this aim, a Multigroup-Multiwaves Lisrel model is estimated on a data set from the Tourist Satisfaction Survey, conducted in Rimini from 2004 to 2006 by the Faculty of Statistics – University of Bologna. The analysis shows that tourist evaluation scheme toward Rimini is quite similar among groups and over time, suggesting that differences among tourists do not affect TLS satisfaction.
Multigroup covariance matrices for fast-reactor studies
This report presents the multigroup covariance matrices based on the ENDF/B-V nuclear data evaluations. The materials and reactions have been chosen according to the specifications of ORNL-5517. Several cross section covariances, other than those specified by that report, are included due to the derived nature of the uncertainty files in ENDF/B-V. The materials represented are Ni, Cr, 16O, 12C, Fe, Na, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 10B (present due to its correlation to 238U). The data have been originally processed into a 52-group energy structure by PUFF-II and subsequently collapsed to smaller subgroup strutures. The results are illustrated in 52-group correlation matrix plots and tabulated into thirteen groups for convenience
In reactor physics, calculation schemes with deterministic codes are validated with respect to a reference Monte Carlo code. The remaining biases are attributed to the approximations and models induced by the multigroup theory (self-shielding models and expansion of the scattering law using Legendre polynomials) to represent physical phenomena (resonant absorption and scattering anisotropy respectively). This work focuses on the relevance of a polynomial expansion to model the scattering law. Since the outset of reactor physics, the latter has been expanded on a truncated Legendre polynomial basis. However, the transfer cross sections are highly anisotropic, with non-zero values for a very small range of the cosine of the scattering angle. Besides, the finer the energy mesh and the lighter the scattering nucleus, the more exacerbated is the peaked shape of this cross section. As such, the Legendre expansion is less suited to represent the scattering law. Furthermore, this model induces negative values which are non-physical. In this work, various scattering laws are briefly described and the limitations of the existing model are pointed out. Hence, piecewise-constant functions have been used to represent the multigroup scattering cross section. This representation requires a different model for the diffusion source. The discrete ordinates method which is widely employed to solve the transport equation has been adapted. Thus, the finite volume method for angular discretization has been developed and implemented in Paris environment which hosts the Sn solver, Snatch. The angular finite volume method has been compared to the collocation method with Legendre moments to ensure its proper performance. Moreover, unlike the latter, this method is adapted for both the Legendre moments and the piecewise-constant functions representations of the scattering cross section. This hybrid-source method has been validated for different cases: fuel cell in infinite lattice
Daskalov, George M; Baker, R S; Rogers, D W O; Williamson, J F
2002-02-01
Our purpose in this work is to demonstrate that the efficiency of dose-rate computations in 125I brachytherapy, using multigroup discrete ordinates radiation transport simulations, can be significantly enhanced using broad energy group cross sections without a loss of accuracy. To this end, the DANTSYS multigroup discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code was used to estimate the absorbed dose-rate distributions around an 125I-model 6702 seed in two-dimensional (2-D) cylindrical R-Z geometry for four different problems spanning the geometries found in clinical practice. First, simulations with a high resolution 210 energy groups library were used to analyze the photon flux spectral distribution throughout this set of problems. These distributions were used to design an energy group structure consisting of three broad groups along with suitable weighting functions from which the three-group cross sections were derived. The accuracy of 2-D DANTSYS dose-rate calculations was benchmarked against parallel Monte Carlo simulations. Ray effects were remedied by using the DANTSYS internal first collision source algorithm. It is demonstrated that the 125I primary photon spectrum leads to inappropriate weighting functions. An accuracy of +/-5% is achieved in the four problem geometries considered using geometry-independent three-group libraries derived from either material-specific weighting functions or a single material-independent weighting function. Agreement between Monte Carlo and the three-group DANTSYS calculations, within three standard Monte Carlo deviations, is observed everywhere except for a limited region along the Z axis of rotational symmetry, where ray effects are difficult to mitigate. The three-group DANTSYS calculations are 10-13 times faster than ones with a 210-group cross section library for 125I dosimetry problems. Compared to 2-D EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations, the 3-group DANTSYS simulations are a 100-fold more efficient. Provided that these
Our purpose in this work is to demonstrate that the efficiency of dose-rate computations in 125I brachytherapy, using multigroup discrete ordinates radiation transport simulations, can be significantly enhanced using broad energy group cross sections without a loss of accuracy. To this end, the DANTSYS multigroup discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code was used to estimate the absorbed dose-rate distributions around an 125I-model 6702 seed in two-dimensional (2-D) cylindrical R-Z geometry for four different problems spanning the geometries found in clinical practice. First, simulations with a high resolution 210 energy groups library were used to analyze the photon flux spectral distribution throughout this set of problems. These distributions were used to design an energy group structure consisting of three broad groups along with suitable weighting functions from which the three-group cross sections were derived. The accuracy of 2-D DANTSYS dose-rate calculations was benchmarked against parallel Monte Carlo simulations. Ray effects were remedied by using the DANTSYS internal first collision source algorithm. It is demonstrated that the 125I primary photon spectrum leads to inappropriate weighting functions. An accuracy of ±5% is achieved in the four problem geometries considered using geometry-independent three-group libraries derived from either material-specific weighting functions or a single material-independent weighting function. Agreement between Monte Carlo and the three-group DANTSYS calculations, within three standard Monte Carlo deviations, is observed everywhere except for a limited region along the Z axis of rotational symmetry, where ray effects are difficult to mitigate. The three-group DANTSYS calculations are 10-13 times faster than ones with a 210-group cross section library for 125I dosimetry problems. Compared to 2-D EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations, the 3-group DANTSYS simulations are a 100-fold more efficient. Provided that these
Kalpakkam multigroup cross section set for fast reactor applications - status and performance
This report documents the status of the presently created set of multigroup constants at Kalpakkam. The list of nuclides processed and the details of multigroup structure are given. Also included are the particulars of dilutions and temperatures for each nuclide in the multigroup cross section set for which self shielding factors have been calculated. Using this new multigroup cross section set, measured integral quantities such as K-eff, central reaction rate ratios, central reactivity worths etc. were calculated for a few fast critical benchmark assemblies and the calculated values of neutronic parameters obtained were compared with those obtained using the available Cadarache cross section library and those published in literature for ENDF/B-IV based set and Japanese evaluated nuclear data library (JENDL). The details of analyses are documented along with the conclusions. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs
MCMG: a 3-D multigroup P3 Monte Carlo code and its benchmarks
In this paper a 3-D Monte Carlo multigroup neutron transport code MCMG has been developed from a coupled neutron and photon transport Monte Carlo code MCNP. The continuous-energy cross section library of the MCNP code is replaced by the multigroup cross section data generated by the transport lattice code, such as the WIMS code. It maintains the strong abilities of MCNP for geometry treatment, counting, variance reduction techniques and plotting. The multigroup neutron scattering cross sections adopt the Pn (n ≤ 3) approximation. The test results are in good agreement with the results of other methods and experiments. The number of energy groups can be varied from few groups to multigroup, and either macroscopic or microscopic cross section can be used. (author)
Coste-Delclaux, M
2006-03-15
This document describes the improvements carried out for modelling the self-shielding phenomenon in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. They concern the space and energy treatment of the slowing-down equation, the setting up of quadrature formulas to calculate reaction rates, the setting-up of a method that treats directly a resonant mixture and the development of a sub-group method. We validate these improvements either in an elementary or in a global way. Now, we obtain, more accurate multigroup reaction rates and we are able to carry out a reference self-shielding calculation on a very fine multigroup mesh. To end, we draw a conclusion and give some prospects on the remaining work. (author)
A variational finite element-spherical harmonics method is presented for the solution of the even-parity multigroup equations with anisotropic scattering and sources. It is shown that by using a simple and natural formulation the numerical implementation of the method for any desired geometry is greatly eased and the anisotropy of scatter treated without any difficulty. Numerical examples demonstrate the ability of the resulting code to solve geometrically complex multigroup problems. (Author)
Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: A Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method
Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Graziani, Carlo; Couch, Sean M.; Jordan, George C., IV; Lamb, Donald Q.; Moses, Gregory A.
2013-12-01
We explore Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) for radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with structured opacity. The IMC method is a stochastic computational technique for nonlinear radiation transport. IMC is partially implicit in time and may suffer in efficiency when tracking MC particles through optically thick materials. DDMC accelerates IMC in diffusive domains. Abdikamalov extended IMC and DDMC to multigroup, velocity-dependent transport with the intent of modeling neutrino dynamics in core-collapse supernovae. Densmore has also formulated a multifrequency extension to the originally gray DDMC method. We rigorously formulate IMC and DDMC over a high-velocity Lagrangian grid for possible application to photon transport in the post-explosion phase of Type Ia supernovae. This formulation includes an analysis that yields an additional factor in the standard IMC-to-DDMC spatial interface condition. To our knowledge the new boundary condition is distinct from others presented in prior DDMC literature. The method is suitable for a variety of opacity distributions and may be applied to semi-relativistic radiation transport in simple fluids and geometries. Additionally, we test the code, called SuperNu, using an analytic solution having static material, as well as with a manufactured solution for moving material with structured opacities. Finally, we demonstrate with a simple source and 10 group logarithmic wavelength grid that IMC-DDMC performs better than pure IMC in terms of accuracy and speed when there are large disparities between the magnitudes of opacities in adjacent groups. We also present and test our implementation of the new boundary condition.
Optimization of multi-group cross sections for fast reactor analysis
The selection of the number of broad energy groups, collapsed broad energy group boundaries, and their associated evaluation into collapsed macroscopic cross sections from a general 238-group ENDF/B-VII library dramatically impacted the k eigenvalue for fast reactor analysis. An analysis was undertaken to assess the minimum number of energy groups that would preserve problem physics; this involved studies using the 3D deterministic transport parallel code PENTRAN, the 2D deterministic transport code SCALE6.1, the Monte Carlo based MCNP5 code, and the YGROUP cross section collapsing tool on a spatially discretized MOX fuel pin comprised of 21% PUO2-UO2 with sodium coolant. The various cases resulted in a few hundred pcm difference between cross section libraries that included the 238 multi-group reference, and cross sections rendered using various reaction and adjoint weighted cross sections rendered by the YGROUP tool, and a reference continuous energy MCNP case. Particular emphasis was placed on the higher energies characteristic of fission neutrons in a fast spectrum; adjoint computations were performed to determine the average per-group adjoint fission importance for the MOX fuel pin. This study concluded that at least 10 energy groups for neutron transport calculations are required to accurately predict the eigenvalue for a fast reactor system to within 250 pcm of the 238 group case. In addition, the cross section collapsing/weighting schemes within YGROUP that provided a collapsed library rendering eigenvalues closest to the reference were the contribution collapsed, reaction rate weighted scheme. A brief analysis on homogenization of the MOX fuel pin is also provided, although more work is in progress in this area. (authors)
Learn Unity for 2D game development
Thorn, Alan
2013-01-01
The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity
2D growth processes: SLE and Loewner chains
Bauer, Michel [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) and Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: michel.bauer@cea.fr; Bernard, Denis [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) and Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: denis.bernard@cea.fr
2006-10-15
This review provides an introduction to two dimensional growth processes. Although it covers a variety of processes such as diffusion limited aggregation, it is mostly devoted to a detailed presentation of stochastic Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLE) which are Markov processes describing interfaces in 2D critical systems. It starts with an informal discussion, using numerical simulations, of various examples of 2D growth processes and their connections with statistical mechanics. SLE is then introduced and Schramm's argument mapping conformally invariant interfaces to SLE is explained. A substantial part of the review is devoted to reveal the deep connections between statistical mechanics and processes, and more specifically to the present context, between 2D critical systems and SLE. Some of the remarkable properties of SLE are explained, together with the tools for computing with it. This review has been written with the aim of filling the gap between the mathematical and the physical literature on the subject.
2-D model for pollutant dispersion at the coastal outfall off Paradip
Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.; Gouveia, A.D
Simulation of dispersion of the effluent discharge has been carried out using 2-D Model to verify the advection and diffusion of the pollutant patch of the proposed effluent disposal off Paradip, Orissa, India. The simulation of dispersion...
Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems
Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions
Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation
The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)
MCNP - transport calculations in ducts using multigroup albedo coefficients
In this work, the use of multigroup albedo coefficients in Monte Carlo calculations of particle reflection and transmission by ducts is investigated. The procedure consists in modifying the MCNP code so that an albedo matrix computed previously by deterministic methods or Monte Carlo is introduced into the program to describe particle reflection by a surface. This way it becomes possible to avoid the need of considering particle transport in the duct wall explicitly, changing the problem to a problem of transport in the duct interior only and reducing significantly the difficulty of the real problem. The probability of particle reflection at the duct wall is given, for each group, as the sum of the albedo coefficients over the final groups. The calculation is started by sampling a source particle and simulating its reflection on the duct wall by sampling a group for the emerging particle. The particle weight is then reduced by the reflection probability. Next, a new direction and trajectory for the particle is selected. Numerical results obtained for the model are compared with results from a discrete ordinates code and results from Monte Carlo simulations that take particle transport in the wall into account. (author)
Surface modelling for 2D imagery
Lieng, Henrik
2014-01-01
Vector graphics provides powerful tools for drawing scalable 2D imagery. With the rise of mobile computers, of different types of displays and image resolutions, vector graphics is receiving an increasing amount of attention. However, vector graphics is not the leading framework for creating and manipulating 2D imagery. The reason for this reluctance of employing vector graphical frameworks is that it is difficult to handle complex behaviour of colour across the 2D domain. ...
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
Han, Wei
2016-03-01
The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
Wei Han
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Elena Purcaru
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.
Purcaru, Elena
2012-01-01
The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.
Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis
Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian
energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...... characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...
Kaur, Kuldeep; Khan, Manju
2012-01-01
Let $p$ be an odd prime, $D_{2p}$ be the dihedral group of order 2p, and $F_{2}$ be the finite field with two elements. If * denotes the canonical involution of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$, then bicyclic units are unitary units. In this note, we investigate the structure of the group $\\mathcal{B}(F_2D_{2p})$, generated by the bicyclic units of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$. Further, we obtain the structure of the unit group $\\mathcal{U}(F_2D_{2p})$ and the unitary subgroup $\\mathcal{U}_*(F_...
This paper presents a benchmark framework established as a basis for investigation of the validity of multi-group approximation with respect to the continuous energy approach, of the level of spatial homogenization with respect to heterogeneous solution, and of the level of angular approximation to the linear Boltzmann transport equation in respect to the Monte Carlo reference solution. Several steady-state solutions of this benchmark have been generated using three different computer codes focusing on the two-dimensional (2-D) geometry model. MCNP5 has been used to generate the reference solution using the continuous energy library. HELIOS is then used for both to solve the problem using a 45 group cross-section library and to generate new sets of few-group cross-sections for the core simulator NEM. The results from the diffusion option of the NEM code on pin-by-pin and Fuel Assembly (FA) basis are presented and discussed in the paper. The benchmark is being designed for evaluation of number of energy groups (number of energy groups and energy cut off points) and spatial (homogenized assembly level vs. homogenized pin cell level) representation needed for high-fidelity reactor core calculation schemes developed at the Pennsylvania State Univ. such as NEM SP3, hybrid NEM-BEM and some recent developments of embedded three-dimensional pin-by-pin diffusion / SP3 finite element calculation schemes. (authors)
Dorval, Eric
2016-01-01
Neutron transport calculations by Monte Carlo methods are finding increased application in nuclear reactor simulations. In particular, a versatile approach entails the use of a 2-step pro-cedure, with Monte Carlo as a few-group cross section data generator at lattice level, followed by deterministic multi-group diffusion calculations at core level. In this thesis, the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code is used in order to test a set of diffusion coefficient model...
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables
2D NMR studies of biomolecules
The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs
Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan
2005-06-24
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.
Optimal control in multi-group coupled within-host and between-host models
Eric Numfor
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We formulate and then analyze a multi-group coupled within-host model of ODEs and between-host model of ODE and first-order PDEs, using the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV for illustration. The basic reproduction number of the multi-group coupled epidemiological model is derived, steady states solutions are calculated and stability analysis of equilbria is investigated. An optimal control problem for our model with drug treatment on the multi-group within-host system is formulated and analyzed. Ekeland's principle is used in proving existence and uniqueness of an optimal control pair. Numerical simulations based on the semi-implicit finite difference schemes and the forward-backward sweep iterative method are obtained.
Development of a multi-group SN transport calculation code with unstructured tetrahedral meshes
This paper reviews the computational methods used in the MUST (Multi-group Unstructured geometry SN Transport) code for solving the multi-group Sn transport equation in general geometries and describes the status of development of MUST. MUST solves the multi-group transport equation with unstructured tetrahedral meshes for modeling complicated geometrical problems. For tetrahedral mesh generation, input generation, and output visualization, we developed a management program where the mesh generation is based on Gmsh and TetGen that are open softwares. The geometrical modeling is done with the commercial CAD softwares such as CATIA. MUST uses the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) and two-sub cell balance methods with linear discontinuous expansion (LDEM-SCB) to spatially discretize the transport equation. We applied MUST to three neutron and gamma coupled test problems for testing MUST. (author)
Development of a Multi-Group Neutron Cross Section Library Generation System for PWR
Kim, Kang Seog; Hong, Ser Gi; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Ha Yong; Koo, Bon Seung; Shim, Hyung Jin; Park, Sang Yoon
2008-10-15
This report describes a generation system of multi-group cross section library which is used in the KARMA lattice calculation code. In particular, the theoretical methodologies, program structures, and input preparations for the constituent programs of the system are described in detail. The library generation system consists of the following five programs : ANJOY, GREDIT, MERIT, SUBDATA, and LIBGEN. ANJOY generates automatically the NJOY input files and two batch files for automatic NJOY run for all the nuclides considered. The automatic NJOY run gives TAPE 23 (PENDF output file of BROADR module of NJOY) and TAPE24 (GENDF output file of GROUPR module of NJOY) files for each nuclide. GREDIT prepares a formatted multi-group cross section file in which the cross sections are tabulated versus temperature and background cross section after reading the TAPE24 file. MERIT generates the hydrogen equivalence factors and the resonance integral tables by solving the slowing down equation with ultra-fine group cross sections which are prepared with the TAPE 23 file. SUBDATA generates the subgroup data including subgroup levels and weights after reading the MERIT output file. Finally, LIBGEN generates the final multi-group library file by assembling the data prepared in the previous steps and by reading the other data such as fission product yield data and decay data.The multi-group cross section library includes general multi-group cross sections, resonance data, subgroup data, fission product yield data, kappa-values (energy release per fission), and all the data which are required in the depletion calculation. The addition or elimination of the cross sections for some nuclides can be easily done by changing the LIBGEN input file if the general multi-group cross section and the subgroup data files are prepared.
Development of a Multi-Group Neutron Cross Section Library Generation System for PWR
This report describes a generation system of multi-group cross section library which is used in the KARMA lattice calculation code. In particular, the theoretical methodologies, program structures, and input preparations for the constituent programs of the system are described in detail. The library generation system consists of the following five programs : ANJOY, GREDIT, MERIT, SUBDATA, and LIBGEN. ANJOY generates automatically the NJOY input files and two batch files for automatic NJOY run for all the nuclides considered. The automatic NJOY run gives TAPE 23 (PENDF output file of BROADR module of NJOY) and TAPE24 (GENDF output file of GROUPR module of NJOY) files for each nuclide. GREDIT prepares a formatted multi-group cross section file in which the cross sections are tabulated versus temperature and background cross section after reading the TAPE24 file. MERIT generates the hydrogen equivalence factors and the resonance integral tables by solving the slowing down equation with ultra-fine group cross sections which are prepared with the TAPE 23 file. SUBDATA generates the subgroup data including subgroup levels and weights after reading the MERIT output file. Finally, LIBGEN generates the final multi-group library file by assembling the data prepared in the previous steps and by reading the other data such as fission product yield data and decay data.The multi-group cross section library includes general multi-group cross sections, resonance data, subgroup data, fission product yield data, kappa-values (energy release per fission), and all the data which are required in the depletion calculation. The addition or elimination of the cross sections for some nuclides can be easily done by changing the LIBGEN input file if the general multi-group cross section and the subgroup data files are prepared
Driven microswimmers on a 2D substrate: A stochastic towed sled model
Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio
2015-11-01
We investigate, both numerically and analytically, the diffusion properties of a stochastic sled sliding on a substrate, subject to a constant towing force. The problem is motivated by the growing interest in controlling transport of artificial microswimmers in 2D geometries at low Reynolds numbers. We simulated both symmetric and asymmetric towed sleds. Remarkable properties of their mobilities and diffusion constants include sidewise drifts and excess diffusion peaks. We interpret our numerical findings by making use of stochastic approximation techniques.
Driven microswimmers on a 2D substrate: A stochastic towed sled model
We investigate, both numerically and analytically, the diffusion properties of a stochastic sled sliding on a substrate, subject to a constant towing force. The problem is motivated by the growing interest in controlling transport of artificial microswimmers in 2D geometries at low Reynolds numbers. We simulated both symmetric and asymmetric towed sleds. Remarkable properties of their mobilities and diffusion constants include sidewise drifts and excess diffusion peaks. We interpret our numerical findings by making use of stochastic approximation techniques
DORT-PC, 2-D Discrete Ordinates Transport System
1 - Description of program or function: This version of DORT (ORNL Mod 5, 12 Oct 89, INEL Ver 2.1) was derived from the Cray UNICOS version distributed in CCC-543/TORT, which was developed at ORNL under Defense Nuclear Agency sponsorship. DORT is directly based on the earlier DOT codes. DORT-PC determines the fluence of particles throughout one- or two-dimensional geometric systems due to sources either generated as a result of particle interaction with the medium or incident upon the system from extraneous sources. The principal application is to the deep-penetration transport of neutrons and photons. Criticality (k-type and search) problems can also be solved. Numerous printed edits of the results are available, and results can be transferred to output files for subsequent analysis. 2 - Method of solution: The Boltzmann transport equation is solved, using either the method of discrete ordinates or diffusion theory approximation. In the discrete ordinates method, the primary mode of operation, balance equations are solved for the flow of particles moving in a set of discrete directions in each cell of a space mesh and in each group of a multigroup energy structure. Iterations are performed until all implicitness in the coupling of cells, directions, groups, and source regeneration has been resolved. Several methods are available to accelerate convergence. Anisotropic cross sections can be expressed in a Legendre expansion of arbitrary order. Output data sets can be used to provide an accurate restart of a previous problem or to deliver information to other codes. Several techniques are available to remove the effects of negative fluxes caused by the finite difference approximation and of negative scattering sources due to truncation of the cross-section expansion. The space mesh can be described such that the number of first-dimensional (i) intervals varies with the second dimension (j). The number of discrete directions can vary across the space mesh and with
Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra
Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David
2001-03-01
We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.
Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials
Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin
Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.
Application of diffusion theory to the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas
It is shown that the widely held view that diffusion theory can not provide good accuracy for the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas is misplaced. In fact, it is shown that multigroup diffusion theory gives quite good accuracy as compared to the transport theory. The reasons for this are elaborated and some of the physical and theoretical reasons which make the multigroup diffusion theory provide good accuracy are explained. Energy dependence must be taken into consideration to obtain a realistic neutral atom distribution in fusion plasmas. There are two reasons for this; presence of either is enough to necessitate an energy dependent treatment. First, the plasma temperature varies spatially, and second, the ratio of charge-exchange to total plasma-neutral interaction cross section (c) is not close to one. A computer code to solve the one-dimensional multigroup diffusion theory in general geometry (slab, cylindrical and spherical) has been written for use on Cray computers, and its results are compared with those from the one-dimensional transport code ANISN to support the above finding. A fast, compact and versatile two-dimensional finite element multigroup diffusion theory code, FINAT, in X-Y and R-Z cylindrical/toroidal geometries has been written for use on CRAY computers. This code has been compared with the two dimensional transport code DOT-4.3. The accuracy is very good, and FENAT runs much faster compared even to DOT-4.3 which is a finite difference code
2D supergravity in p+1 dimensions
Gustafsson, H.; Lindstrom, U.
1998-01-01
We describe new $N$-extended 2D supergravities on a $(p+1)$-dimensional (bosonic) space. The fundamental objects are moving frame densities that equip each $(p+1)$-dimensional point with a 2D ``tangent space''. The theory is presented in a $[p+1, 2]$ superspace. For the special case of $p=1$ we recover the 2D supergravities in an unusual form. The formalism has been developed with applications to the string-parton picture of $D$-branes at strong coupling in mind.
Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma
2012-01-01
The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...
Two-dimensional multigroup finite element calculation of fast reactor in diffusion approximation
When a linear element of triangular shape is used the actual finite element calculation is relatively simple. Extensive programs for mesh generation were written for easy inputting the configuration of reactors. A number of other programs were written for plotting neutron flux fields in individual groups, the power distribution, spatial plotting of fields, etc. The operation of selected programs, data preparation and operating instructions are described and examples given of data and results. All programs are written in GIER ALGOL. The used method and the developed programs have demonstrated that they are a useful instrument for the calculation of criticality and the distribution of neutron flux and power of both fast and thermal reactors. (J.B.)
Ceolin, Celina; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques, E-mail: alvim@nuclear.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear
2011-07-01
The authors solved analytically the neutron kinetic equations in a homogeneous slab, assuming the multi group energy model and six delayed neutron precursor groups by the Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique (GILTT) for a multi-layered slab. To this end, averaged values for the nuclear parameters in the multi-layered slab are used and the solution is constructed following the idea of Adomian's decomposition method upon reducing the heterogeneous problem to a set of recursive problems with constant parameters in the multi-layered slab. More specifically, the corrections that render the initially homogeneous problem into a heterogeneous one are plugged into the equation as successive source terms. To the best of our knowledge this sort of solution is novel and not found in literature. We further present some numerical simulations. (author)
Adoption as a Social Marker: The Diffusion of Products in a Multigroup Environment
Smaldino, Paul E; Hillis, Vicken; Bednar, Jenna
2015-01-01
Social identities are among the key factors driving social behavior in complex societies. Recent attention to social identity in consumer behavior indicates that individuals avoid products that might signal membership in an outgroup. Yet the population-level consequences of adoption as identity signaling are largely unknown. Whereas previous work has focused on asymmetric attraction and repulsion among groups with different social identities, here we consider the spread of innovations in a structured population in which there are multiple groups who don't want to be mistaken for one another, using both analytical and agent-based modeling. This formal analysis, the first to take the spatial structure of a population into account, allows us to consider empirically important factors, including demographic skew and communication scale, that likely influence overall patterns of adoption. We find that as products become emergent social markers, aversion to outgroup-associated products can decrease overall patterns ...
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date
2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers
Robert I. Woodward
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.
Beltrami States in 2D Electron Magnetohydrodynamics
Shivamoggi, B. K.
2015-01-01
In this paper, the Hamiltonian formulations along with the Poisson brackets for two-dimensional (2D) electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) flows are developed. These formulations are used to deduce the Beltrami states for 2D EMHD flows. In the massless electron limit, the EMHD Beltrami states reduce to the force-free states, though there is no force-free Beltrami state in the general EMHD case.
In these lectures, I shall focus on the matrix formulation of 2-d gravity. In the first one, I shall discuss the main results of the continuum formulation of 2-d gravity, starting from the first renormalization group calculations which led to the concept of the conformal anomaly, going through the Polyakov bosonic string and the Liouville action, up to the recent results on the scaling properties of conformal field theories coupled to 2-d gravity. In the second lecture, I shall discuss the discrete formulation of 2-d gravity in term of random lattices, and the mapping onto random matrix models. The occurrence of critical points in the planar limit and the scaling limit at those critical points will be described, as well as the identification of these scaling limits with continuum 2-d gravity coupled to some matter field theory. In the third lecture, the double scaling limit in the one matrix model, and its connection with continuum non perturbative 2-d gravity, will be presented. The connection with the KdV hierarchy and the general form of the string equation will be discuted. In the fourth lecture, I shall discuss the non-perturbative effects present in the non perturbative solutions, in the case of pure gravity. The Schwinger-Dyson equations for pure gravity in the double scaling limit are described and their compatibility with the solutions of the string equation for pure gravity is shown to be somewhat problematic
2d index and surface operators
In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role
DIAMANT2 - A multigroup neutron transport program for triangular and hexagonal geometry
DIAMANT2 evolved out of the DIAMANT-code. DIAMANT2 solves the multigroup neutron transport equation in planar geometry using the Ssub(N) method. Spatial discretization is accomplished by taking finite differences on a meshgrid composed of equilateral triangles. This report contains a detailed documentation of the program and the input description. (orig./HJ)
Jones, K.; Johnston, R.; Manley, D.J.; Owen, D.; Charlton, C.
2015-01-01
We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson
2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计
康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅
2014-01-01
This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究，在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上，以均匀平面阵列为例，对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真，分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。
A finite element option for the MARC transport/ diffusion theory computer code
The MARC multigroup transport/diffusion theory computer code has been extended to include a finite element option. The facility is available in two-dimensional geometry and has a novel feature in allowing high order polynomial approximations to the flux using an automated computer procedure. (U.K.)
Solution of the 1D kinetic diffusion equations using a reduced nodal cubic scheme
In this work it is described a novel method to solve the multi-group time-dependent diffusion equations based on a nodal cubic space interpolation in addition to the application of quadrature rules simplifying the stiffness and mass matrices arising in a finite element procedure. Numerical results for a well known benchmark problem are also provided. (authors)
An effective depression filling algorithm for DEM-based 2-D surface flow modelling
Zhu, D.; Ren, Q.; Xuan, Y.; Y. Chen; I. D. Cluckie
2013-01-01
The surface runoff process in fluvial/pluvial flood modelling is often simulated employing a two-dimensional (2-D) diffusive wave approximation described by grid based digital elevation models (DEMs). However, this approach may cause potential problems when using the 2-D surface flow model which exchanges flows through adjacent cells, with conventional sink removal algorithms which also allow for flow exchange along diagonal directions, due to the existence of artificial dep...
Mezzacappa, A; Bruenn, S W; Blondin, J M; Guidry, M W; Strayer, M R; Umar, A S
1996-01-01
We investigate neutrino-driven convection in core collapse supernovae and its ramifications for the explosion mechanism. We begin with an ``optimistic'' 15 solar mass precollapse model, which is representative of the class of stars with compact iron cores. This model is evolved through core collapse and bounce in one dimension using multigroup (neutrino-energy--dependent) flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport and Lagrangian hydrodynamics, providing realistic initial conditions for the postbounce convection and evolution. Our two-dimensional simulation begins at 106 ms after bounce at a time when there is a well-developed gain region, and proceeds for 400 ms. We couple two-dimensional (PPM) hydrodynamics to one-dimensional MGFLD neutrino transport. At 225 ms after bounce we see large-scale convection behind the shock, characterized by high-entropy, mushroom-like, expanding upflows and dense, low-entropy, finger-like downflows. The upflows reach the shock and distort it from sphericity. The radial c...
Optical modulators with 2D layered materials
Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng
2016-04-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image
Panagiotis GIOANNIS
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.
Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C
2014-11-01
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
A multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Self-Shielding) based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data has been generated using Bondarenko and flux calculator method for the correction of self-shielding effect of neutronics analyses. To validate the reliability of the multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS, transport calculations for fusion-fission hybrid system FDS-I were performed in this paper. It was verified that the calculations with the HENDL2.1/SS gave almost the same results with MCNP calculations and were better than calculations with the HENDL2.0/MG which is another multigroup library without self-shielding correction. The test results also showed that neglecting resonance self-shielding caused underestimation of the Keff, neutron fluxes and waste transmutation ratios in the multigroup calculations of FDS-I.
Zou Jun, E-mail: jzou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); He Zhaozhong; Zeng Qin; Qiu Yuefeng; Wang Minghuang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)
2010-12-15
A multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Self-Shielding) based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data has been generated using Bondarenko and flux calculator method for the correction of self-shielding effect of neutronics analyses. To validate the reliability of the multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS, transport calculations for fusion-fission hybrid system FDS-I were performed in this paper. It was verified that the calculations with the HENDL2.1/SS gave almost the same results with MCNP calculations and were better than calculations with the HENDL2.0/MG which is another multigroup library without self-shielding correction. The test results also showed that neglecting resonance self-shielding caused underestimation of the K{sub eff}, neutron fluxes and waste transmutation ratios in the multigroup calculations of FDS-I.
Path integral quantization of 2 D- gravity
2 D- gravity is investigated using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equations of motion and the action integral are obtained as total differential equations in many variables. The integrability conditions, lead us to obtain the path integral quantization without any need to introduce any extra un-physical variables. (author)
Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU). The objective of the tests was: To identify cross section design which restrict the overtopping to acceptable levels and to record the...
Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity
Ambjorn, J.; S. Jain; G. Thorleifsson
1993-01-01
We investigate the fractal structure of $2d$ quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent $\\g_{string}$.
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter
This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...
A hybrid multigroup/continuous-energy Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation. This algorithm differs significantly from previous charged-particle Monte Carlo algorithms. Most importantly, it can be used to perform both forward and adjoint transport calculations, using the same basic multigroup cross-section data. The new algorithm is fully described, computationally tested, and compared with a standard condensed history algorithm for coupled electron-photon transport calculations
FAYEZ MOUSTAFA MOAWAD, RAGAB
2016-01-01
[EN] The neutron diffusion equation is an approximation of the neutron transport equation that describes the neutron population in a nuclear reactor core. In particular, we will consider here VVER-type reactors which use the neutron diffusion equation discretized on hexagonal meshes. Most of the simulation codes of a nuclear power reactor use the multigroup neutron diffusion equation to describe the neutron distribution inside the reactor core.To study the stationary state of a reactor, the r...
ORION, Post-processor for Finite Elements Program NIKE2D and DYNA2D
Description of program or function: ORION is an interactive post- processor for the analysis programs NIKE2D (NESC 9923), DYNA2D (NESC 9910), TOPAZ, TOPAZ2D (NESC9801), GEM2D (NESC9679), and TACO2D. ORION reads the binary plot data files generated by the two- dimensional finite element programs used at LLNL. Contours and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has the capability to plot color fringes, contour lines, vector plots, principal stress lines, deformed meshes and material outlines, time histories, reaction forces along constraint boundaries, interface pressures along slide lines, and user-supplied labels
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
Hursin, Mathieu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Xiao Shanjie [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States); Jevremovic, Tatjana [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, IN 47907 (United States)]. E-mail: tatjanaj@purdue.edu
2006-09-15
This paper summarizes the theoretical and numerical aspects of the AGENT code methodology accurately applied for detailed three-dimensional (3D) multigroup steady-state modeling of neutron interactions in complex heterogeneous reactor domains. For the first time we show the fine-mesh neutron scalar flux distribution in Purdue research reactor (that was built over forty years ago). The AGENT methodology is based on the unique combination of the three theories: the method of characteristics (MOC) used to simulate the neutron transport in two-dimensional (2D) whole core heterogeneous calculation, the theory of R-functions used as a mathematical tool to describe the true geometry and fuse with the MOC equations, and one-dimensional (1D) higher-order diffusion correction of 2D transport model to account for full 3D heterogeneous whole core representation. The synergism between the radial 2D transport and the 1D axial transport (to take into account the axial neutron interactions and leakage), called the 2D/1D method (used in DeCART and CHAPLET codes), provides a 3D computational solution. The unique synergism between the AGENT geometrical algorithm capable of modeling any current or future reactor core geometry and 3D neutron transport methodology is described in details. The 3D AGENT accuracy and its efficiency are demonstrated showing the eigenvalues, point-wise flux and reaction rate distributions in representative reactor geometries. The AGENT code, comprising this synergism, represents a building block of the computational system, called the virtual reactor. Its main purpose is to perform 'virtual' experiments and demonstrations of various mainly university research reactor experiments.
This paper summarizes the theoretical and numerical aspects of the AGENT code methodology accurately applied for detailed three-dimensional (3D) multigroup steady-state modeling of neutron interactions in complex heterogeneous reactor domains. For the first time we show the fine-mesh neutron scalar flux distribution in Purdue research reactor (that was built over forty years ago). The AGENT methodology is based on the unique combination of the three theories: the method of characteristics (MOC) used to simulate the neutron transport in two-dimensional (2D) whole core heterogeneous calculation, the theory of R-functions used as a mathematical tool to describe the true geometry and fuse with the MOC equations, and one-dimensional (1D) higher-order diffusion correction of 2D transport model to account for full 3D heterogeneous whole core representation. The synergism between the radial 2D transport and the 1D axial transport (to take into account the axial neutron interactions and leakage), called the 2D/1D method (used in DeCART and CHAPLET codes), provides a 3D computational solution. The unique synergism between the AGENT geometrical algorithm capable of modeling any current or future reactor core geometry and 3D neutron transport methodology is described in details. The 3D AGENT accuracy and its efficiency are demonstrated showing the eigenvalues, point-wise flux and reaction rate distributions in representative reactor geometries. The AGENT code, comprising this synergism, represents a building block of the computational system, called the virtual reactor. Its main purpose is to perform 'virtual' experiments and demonstrations of various mainly university research reactor experiments
MC2-2: a code to calculate fast neutron spectra and multigroup cross sections
MC2-2 is a program to solve the neutron slowing down problem using basic neutron data derived from the ENDF/B data files. The spectrum calculated by MC2-2 is used to collapse the basic data to multigroup cross sections for use in standard reactor neutronics codes. Four different slowing down formulations are used by MC2-2: multigroup, continuous slowing down using the Goertzel-Greuling or Improved Goertzel-Greuling moderating parameters, and a hyper-fine-group integral transport calculation. Resolved and unresolved resonance cross sections are calculated accounting for self-shielding, broadening and overlap effects. This document provides a description of the MC2-2 program. The physics and mathematics of the neutron slowing down problem are derived and detailed information is provided to aid the MC2-2 user in preparing input for the program and implementation of the program on IBM 370 or CDC 7600 computers
A Multigroup Method for the Calculation of Neutron Fluence with a Source Term
Heinbockel, J. H.; Clowdsley, M. S.
1998-01-01
Current research on the Grant involves the development of a multigroup method for the calculation of low energy evaporation neutron fluences associated with the Boltzmann equation. This research will enable one to predict radiation exposure under a variety of circumstances. Knowledge of radiation exposure in a free-space environment is a necessity for space travel, high altitude space planes and satellite design. This is because certain radiation environments can cause damage to biological and electronic systems involving both short term and long term effects. By having apriori knowledge of the environment one can use prediction techniques to estimate radiation damage to such systems. Appropriate shielding can be designed to protect both humans and electronic systems that are exposed to a known radiation environment. This is the goal of the current research efforts involving the multi-group method and the Green's function approach.
Processing ENDF/B-V uncertainty data into multigroup covariance matrices
The purpose of this work is to develop and demonstrate the capability of processing Evaluated Nuclear Data File, system B, version five (ENDF/B-V) uncertainty data into multigroup covariance matrices. These covariances may then be folded with sensitivity coefficients to obtain uncertainties in selected integral parameters such as K-effective and breeding ratio. The project consisted of separating the previous uncertainty processor (PUFF) from the basic nuclear data cross section processor (MINX), updating the uncertanty processor to theENDF/B-V format, programming the processor for new uncertainty data, and demonstrating the processor capabilities by producing a multigroup covariance library. These capabilities were verified in various ways including hand calculations and comparisons with other known results. A computer code named PUFF-II was written to perform the task described above
A conservative multi-group approach to the Boltzmann equations for reactive gas mixtures
Bisi, M.; Rossani, A.; Spiga, G.
2015-11-01
Starting from a simple kinetic model for a quaternary mixture of gases undergoing a bimolecular chemical reaction, multi-group integro-differential equations are derived for the particle distribution functions of all species. The procedure takes advantage of a suitable probabilistic formulation, based on the underlying collision frequencies and transition probabilities, of the relevant reactive kinetic equations of Boltzmann type. Owing to an appropriate choice of a sufficiently large number of weight functions, it is shown that the proposed multi-group equations are able to fulfil exactly, at any order of approximation, the correct conservation laws that must be inherited from the original kinetic equations, where speed was a continuous variable. Future developments are also discussed.
Updated multi-group cross sections of minor actinides with improved resonance treatment
The study of minor actinide in transmutation reactors and other future applications makes resonance self-shielding treatment a significant issue for criticality and isotope depletion. Resonance treatment for minor actinides has been carried out by subgroup method with improved interference effect through interference correction. Subgroup data was generated using RMET21 and GENP codes along with multi-group cross section data by NJOY nuclear data processing system. Updated multi-group cross section data library for a neutron transport code nTRACER was compared with solutions from MCNPX. The resonance interaction of uranium with minor actinides has been included by modified interference treatment of interference correction in subgroup methodology. The comparison of cross sections and multiplication factor in pin and assembly problems showed significant improvement from systematic resonance treatment especially for 237Np and 243Am. (author)
Correction of multigroup cross sections for resolved resonance interference in mixed absorbers
The effect that interference between resolved resonances has on averaging multigroup cross sections is examined for thermal reactor-type problems. A simple and efficient numerical scheme is presented to correct a preprocessed multigroup library for interference effects. The procedure is implemented in a design oriented lattice physics computer code and compared with rigorous numerical calculations. The approximate method for computing resonance interference correction factors is applied to obtaining fine-group cross sections for a homogeneous uranium-plutonium mixture and a uranium oxide lattice. It was found that some fine group cross sections are changed by more than 40% due to resonance interference. The change in resonance interference correction factors due to burnup of a PWR fuel pin is examined and found to be small. The effect of resolved resonance interference on collapsed broad-group cross sections for thermal reactor calculations is discussed
PHISICS multi-group transport neutronic capabilities for RELAP5
Epiney, A.; Rabiti, C.; Alfonsi, A.; Wang, Y.; Cogliati, J.; Strydom, G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)
2012-07-01
PHISICS is a neutronic code system currently under development at INL. Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. This paper reports on the effort of coupling this package to the thermal hydraulic system code RELAP5. This will enable full prismatic core and system modeling and the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5 (NESTLE). The paper describes the capabilities of the coupling and illustrates them with a set of sample problems. (authors)
TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticallity studies
TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclar components containing fissionnable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies
Ribault, Sylvain E-mail: ribault@mth.kcl.ac.uk; Schomerus, Volker
2004-02-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models. (author)
Ribault, S; Ribault, Sylvain; Schomerus, Volker
2004-01-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models.
We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models. (author)
2-D geometrical analysis of deformation
Engineering structures such as dams, bridges, high rise buildings, etc. are subject to deformation. Deformation survey is therefore necessary to determine the magnitude and direction of such movements for the purpose of safety assessment. In this study, a strategy for two-step analyses for deformation survey rising the two dimensional (2-D) geodetic method has been developed, consisting of independent least squares estimation (LSE) of each epoch followed by deformation detection. Important aspects on LSE include global and local testing. In deformation detection, the following aspects were implemented; datum definition by the user. determination of stable datum points, geometrical analysis of deformation and graphic presentation. The developed strategy has been implemented in three computer programs, COMPUT, DEFORM and STRANS. Tests carried out with simulated and known data show that the developed strategy and programs are applicable for 2-D geometrical detection of deformation. (Author)
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
2D materials: Graphene and others
Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh
2016-05-01
Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.
2D-Tasks for Cognitive Rehabilitation
Caballero Hernandez, Ruth; Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; García Molina, A.; Ferrer Celma, S.; Solana Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Carrion, R.; Fernandez Casado, E.; Pérez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gomez Pulido, A.; Anglès Tafalla, C.; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Ferre Vergada, M.; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Garcia Lopez, P.; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.
2011-01-01
Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a complex clinic process which tries to restore or compensate cognitive and behavioral disorders in people suffering from a central nervous system injury. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Biomedical Engineering play an essential role in this field, allowing improvement and expansion of present rehabilitation programs. This paper presents a set of cognitive rehabilitation 2D-Tasks for patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). These t...
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials
Lien, Derhsien
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.
2D NMR技术在石油测井中的应用%Application of 2D NMR Techniques in Petroleum Logging
顾兆斌; 刘卫; 孙佃庆; 孙威
2009-01-01
近几年, 2D NMR技术得到迅速发展, 特别是在核磁共振测井领域. 该文将主要介绍2D NMR技术的脉冲序列、弛豫原理以及2D NMR技术在石油测井中应用. 2D NMR技术是在梯度场的作用下, 利用一系列回波时间间隔不同的CPMG脉冲进行测量, 利用二维的数学反演得到2D NMR. 2D NMR技术可以直接测量自扩散系数、弛豫时间、原油粘度、含油饱和度、可动水饱和度、孔隙度、 渗透率等地层流体性质和岩石物性参数. 从2D NMR谱上, 可以直观的区分油、气、水, 判断储层润湿性, 确定内部磁场梯度等. 2D NMR技术为识别流体类型提供了新方法.%This review paper introduces 2D NMR pulse trains frequently used in petroleum logging and their applications, as well as relevant relaxation mechanisms. In NMR logging, often a set of data is acquired at different CPMG echo spacing in the presence of constant gradient magnetic field. Two-dimensional mathematical inversion is then applied to solve the dataset, yielding two-dimensional NMR map (D-T_2). In the meanwhile, 2D NMR technique can be used to measure the property parameters of formation fluid and the petrophysics parameters directly, such as diffusion coefficient, relaxation time, crude oil viscosity, oil saturation, free water saturation, porosity, permeability and so on. The 2D NMR map can also be used to differentiate oil, gas and water, determine internal gradient field in and judge wettability of the sample. 2D NMR techniques offer powerful tools for identifying fluid type in NMR logging.
Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Diggs, B.R.; Comolander, H.E.
1979-01-01
Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and execute a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation are detailed. 25 figures, 9 tables.
Gint2D-T2 correlation NMR of porous media
Zhang, Yan; Blümich, Bernhard
2015-03-01
The internal magnetic field gradient induced in porous media by magnetic susceptibility differences at material interfaces impacts diffusion measurements in particular at high magnetic field and can be used to probe the pore structure. Insight about the relationship between pore space and internal gradient Gint can be obtained from 2D Laplace NMR experiments. When measuring distributions of transverse relaxation times T2 in fluid filled porous media, relaxation and diffusion in internal gradients arise simultaneously and data are often interpreted with the assumption that one or the other parameter be constant throughout the sample. To examine this assumption we measure correlations of the distributions of Gint2D and T2 by 2D Laplace NMR for three different kinds of samples, glass beads with different bead diameters saturated with water, glass beads filled with oil and water, and a wet mortar sample. For the first two samples the cases where either the internal gradient or diffusion dominates were examined separately in order to better understand the relationship between Gint and D. These results are useful for assessing the impact of internal gradients and diffusion in unknown samples, such as the mortar sample. The experiments were performed at different magnetic field strengths corresponding to 300 MHz and 700 MHz 1H Larmor frequency to identify the impact of the magnetic field on the internal gradient. Subsequently, spatially resolved Gint2D-T2 maps were obtained to study the sample heterogeneity.
Statistical mechanics of shell models for 2D-Turbulence
Aurell, E; Crisanti, A; Frick, P; Paladin, G; Vulpiani, A
1994-01-01
We study shell models that conserve the analogues of energy and enstrophy, hence designed to mimic fluid turbulence in 2D. The main result is that the observed state is well described as a formal statistical equilibrium, closely analogous to the approach to two-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics of Onsager, Hopf and Lee. In the presence of forcing and dissipation we observe a forward flux of enstrophy and a backward flux of energy. These fluxes can be understood as mean diffusive drifts from a source to two sinks in a system which is close to local equilibrium with Lagrange multipliers (``shell temperatures'') changing slowly with scale. The dimensional predictions on the power spectra from a supposed forward cascade of enstrophy, and from one branch of the formal statistical equilibrium, coincide in these shell models at difference to the corresponding predictions for the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations in 2D. This coincidence have previously led to the mistaken conclusion that shell models exhibit a forward ...
The application and performance of ACMFD acceleration in 2D/3D full core MOC transport fuse method
It has been shown that the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD) method is very robust in nodal diffusion acceleration because of its rigorous derivation, and also should be applicable in core transport methods. In the past decade, the Method of Characteristics (MOC) was widely studied either in 2D or 2D/1D fuse cases with Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD). In this paper, the application of ACMFD in 2D or 2D/1D fuse MOC transport theory as an acceleration method is presented. Numerical result indicates that the performance of ACMFD is similar to CMFD. (author)
TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base
Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.
1990-05-01
TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.
Interparticle attraction in 2D complex plasmas
Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V
2015-01-01
Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecular-like. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecular-like interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.
2D vector-cyclic deformable templates
Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut
1998-01-01
In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation and...
Limit theorems for 2D invasion percolation
Damron, Michael
2010-01-01
We prove limit theorems and variance estimates for quantities related to ponds and outlets for 2D invasion percolation. We first exhibit several properties of a sequence (O(n)) of outlet variables, the n-th of which gives the number of outlets in the box centered at the origin of side length 2^n. The most important of these properties describe the sequence's renewal structure and exponentially fast mixing behavior. We use these to prove a central limit theorem and strong law of large numbers for (O(n)). We then show consequences of these limit theorems for the pond radii and outlet weights.
Temple, Aidan
2013-01-01
Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to
Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas
Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.
2016-03-01
Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Z; Wu, RJ; Wickramaratne, D.; Shahrezaei, S; Liu, C; Temiz, S; Patalano, A; M Ozkan; Lake, RK; Mkhoyan, KA; Ozkan, CS
2016-01-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2...
Perturbation Methods represent a powerful tool to do sensitivity analysis, and they found many aplications in nuclear engineering.As an introduction to this kind of analysis, we develope a program that apply the Generalized Perturbation Theory or GPT Method to bidimensional system of rectangular geometry.We first consider an homogeneous system of non-multiplying material and then an heterogeneous system with region of multiplying material, with the intention of make concret aplications of perturbation method to nuclear engineering problems.The program, that we called Pert, determines neutron fluxes and importance functions applying the Multigroup Diffusion Theory; and also solves the integrals required to calculate sensitivity coefficients.Using this perturbation methods we could verify the low computational cost required to make this kind of analysis and the simplicity of the equations systems involved, allowing us to make elaborates sensitivity analysis for the responses of our interest
Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials
Cobden, David
Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.
Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.
Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel
2015-08-19
The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072
Comments on Thermalization in 2D CFT
de Boer, Jan
2016-01-01
We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D CFT. In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a BTZ black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering $c < 1$ theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect o...
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test
Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D
2005-06-06
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is
2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory
A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)
Program package for 2D burnup calculation
The program package for 2 dimension burnup calculation was developed for TRIGA Mark III reactor. The package consists of 3 modules: PRESIX, SIXTUS-2, and BURN; 1 library, and 2 input files. PRESIX module prepared cross sections for diffusion calculation. SIXTUS-2 module, a two dimensional diffusion code in hexagonal geometry, calculates keff, neutron fluxes and power distributions. BURN module performs the burnup of fuel elements and stored the result in the ELEM.DAT file. PRESIX.LIB is two group cross section library for major reactor core components prepared using WIMS-D4 code. PRES.INP, the first input file, reads information on reactor power and core loading pattern. ELEM.DAT, the second input file, is prepared for specific TRIGA reactor and dependent on operation history. To verify the reactor model and computational methods, the calculated excess reactivities were compared to the measurement. The results are in good agreement. (author)
Locality constraints and 2D quasicrystals
The plausible assumption that long-range interactions between atoms are negligible in a quasicrystal leaks to the study of tilings that obey constraints on the local configurations of tiles. The theory of such constraints (called matching rules) for 2D quasicrystal tilings is reviewed here. Different types of matching rules are defined and examples of tilings obeying them are given where known. The role of tile decoration is discussed and is shown to be significant in at least two cases (octagonal and dodecagonal duals of periodic 4-grids and 6-grids). A new result is introduced: a constructive procedure is described for generating weak matching rules for tilings with N-fold symmetry, for any N that is either a prime number or twice a prime number. The physics associated with weak matching rules, results on local growth rules, and the case of icosahedral symmetry are all briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs
Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States
Kolkovska, Natalia
2016-02-01
A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.
2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater
Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou
1994-01-01
The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992). To...... extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment was on the...
Graphene suspensions for 2D printing
Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.
2016-04-01
It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).
Area preserving diffeomorphisms and 2-d gravity
La, H S
1995-01-01
Area preserving diffeomorphisms of a 2-d compact Riemannian manifold with or without boundary are studied. We find two classes of decompositions of a Riemannian metric, namely, h- and g-decomposition, that help to formulate a gravitational theory which is area preserving diffeomorphism (SDiffM-) invariant but not necessarily diffeomorphism invariant. The general covariance of equations of motion of such a theory can be achieved by incorporating proper Weyl rescaling. The h-decomposition makes the conformal factor of a metric SDiffM-invariant and the rest of the metric invariant under conformal diffeomorphisms, whilst the g-decomposition makes the conformal factor a SDiffM scalar and the rest a SDiffM tensor. Using these, we reformulate Liouville gravity in SDiffM invariant way. In this context we also further clarify the dual formulation of Liouville gravity introduced by the author before, in which the affine spin connection is dual to the Liouville field.
Metrology for graphene and 2D materials
Pollard, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the
Reference calculations on critical assemblies with Apollo2 code working with a fine multigroup mesh
The objective of this thesis is to add to the multigroup transport code APOLLO2 the capability to perform deterministic reference calculations, for any type of reactor, using a very fine energy mesh of several thousand groups. This new reference tool allows us to validate the self-shielding model used in industrial applications, to perform depletion calculations, differential effects calculations, critical buckling calculations or to evaluate precisely data required by the self shielding model. At its origin, APOLLO2 was designed to perform routine calculations with energy meshes around one hundred groups. That is why, in the current format of cross sections libraries, almost each value of the multigroup energy transfer matrix is stored. As this format is not convenient for a high number of groups (concerning memory size), we had to search out a new format for removal matrices and consequently to modify the code. In the new format we found, only some values of removal matrices are kept (these values depend on a reconstruction precision choice), the other ones being reconstructed by a linear interpolation, what reduces the size of these matrices. Then we had to show that APOLLO2 working with a fine multigroup mesh had the capability to perform reference calculations on any assembly geometry. For that, we successfully carried out the validation with several calculations for which we compared APOLLO2 results (obtained with the universal mesh of 11276 groups) to results obtained with Monte Carlo codes (MCNP, TRIPOLI4). Physical analysis led with this new tool have been very fruitful and show a great potential for such an R and D tool. (author)
Confinement and diffusion in tokamaks
The effect of electric field fluctuations on confinement and diffusion in tokamak is discussed. Based on the experimentally determined cross-field turbolent diffusion coefficient, D∼3.7*cTe/eB(δni/ni)rms which is also derived by a simple theory, the cross-field diffusion time, tp=a2/D, is calculated and compared to experimental results from 51 tokamak for standard Ohmic operation
Global analysis on a class of multi-group SEIR model with latency and relapse.
Wang, Jinliang; Shu, Hongying
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigate the global dynamics of a multi-group SEIR epidemic model, allowing heterogeneity of the host population, delay in latency and delay due to relapse distribution for the human population. Our results indicate that when certain restrictions on nonlinear growth rate and incidence are fulfilled, the basic reproduction number R0 plays the key role of a global threshold parameter in the sense that the long-time behaviors of the model depend only on R0. The proofs of the main results utilize the persistence theory in dynamical systems, Lyapunov functionals guided by graph-theoretical approach. PMID:26776266
Modification of the resonance treatment in multigroup neutron slowing-down codes
The previously reported computer codes GRACE and BETTY for resonance treatment in the multigroup neutron slowing-down processes have been improved, employing the new results of resonance absorption calculations. The total resonance integral formulae were changed, 239Pu resonance integral data were included in the library of group constants and the selection of partial resonance integral distribution functions was automatized. The users of the GRACE and BETTY codes are provided with a more credible and more comfortable resonance treatment. Explicit description of modification of user's manuals is given. (D.P.)
Multi-group pin power reconstruction method based on colorset form functions
A multi-group pin power reconstruction method that fully exploits nodal information obtained from global coarse mesh solution has been developed. It expands the intra-nodal flux distributions into nonseparable semi-analytic basis functions, and a colorset based form function generating method is proposed, which can accurately model the spectral interaction occurring at assembly interface. To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability to realistic problems, the new method is tested against two benchmark problems, including a mixed-oxide fuel problem. The results show that the new methods is comparable in accuracy to fine-mesh methods. (authors)
Specifications for a two-dimensional multi-group scattering code: ALCI
This report describes the specifications of the ALCI programme. This programme resolves the system of difference equations similar to the homogeneous problem of multigroup neutron scattering, with two dimensions in space, in the three geometries XY, RZ, RΘ. It is possible with this method to calculate geometric and composition criticalities and also to calculate the accessory problem on demand. The maximum number of points dealt with is 6000. The maximum permissible number of groups is 12. The internal iterations are treated by the method of alternating directions. The external iterations are accelerated using the extrapolation method due to Tchebychev. (authors)
Xiaoming Fan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss multigroup SIRS (susceptible, infectious, and recovered epidemic models with random perturbations. We carry out a detailed analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic model; when reproduction number ℛ0>1, we deduce the globally asymptotic stability of the endemic equilibrium by measuring the difference between the solution and the endemic equilibrium of the deterministic model in time average. Numerical methods are employed to illustrate the dynamic behavior of the model and simulate the system of equations developed. The effect of the rate of immunity loss on susceptible and recovered individuals is also analyzed in the deterministic model.
On the dynamics of a class of multi-group models for vector-borne diseases
Iggidr, Abderrahman; Sallet, Gauthier; Souza, Max O.
2016-01-01
The resurgence of vector-borne diseases is an increasing public health concern, and there is a need for a better understanding of their dynamics. For a number of diseases, e.g. dengue and chikungunya, this resurgence occurs mostly in urban environments, which are naturally very heterogeneous, particularly due to population circulation. In this scenario, there is an increasing interest in both multi-patch and multi-group models for such diseases. In this work, we study the dynamics of a vector...
On the completeness of the multigroup eigenfunctions set of a reactor system Boltzmann operator
An example is given, which illustrates how the set of the eigenfunctions shifts from incompleteness to completeness when a coupling relationship is established between the spectrum of the neutrons produced by fission and the energy of the neutrons which generate the fissions. The proposed method allows one to complete the set of eigenfunctions of the Boltzmann operator in the multigroup case. That, in principle, enlarges the possibility to apply the SM, Standard Method, and the GSM, Generalized Standard Method, to any problem in reactor physics, regardless of the number of energy groups. (author)
Hybrid method of deterministic and probabilistic approaches for multigroup neutron transport problem
A hybrid method of deterministic and probabilistic methods is proposed to solve Boltzmann transport equation. The new method uses a deterministic method, Method of Characteristics (MOC), for the fast and thermal neutron energy ranges and a probabilistic method, Monte Carlo (MC), for the intermediate resonance energy range. The hybrid method, in case of continuous energy problem, will be able to take advantage of fast MOC calculation and accurate resonance self shielding treatment of MC method. As a proof of principle, this paper presents the hybrid methodology applied to a multigroup form of Boltzmann transport equation and confirms that the hybrid method can produce consistent results with MC and MOC methods. (authors)
REX1-87, Multigroup Neutron Cross-Sections from ENDF/B
1 - Description of program or function: The program calculates self- shielding factors for reactor applications from a pre-processed (linearized) evaluated nuclear data file in the ENDF/B format. 2 - Method of solution: Bondarenko definition of multigroup self- shielding factors invoking narrow resonance treatment is used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: a) Maximum no. of energy group is 620. b) Only the built-in forms of the weighting functions can be chosen. c) The program is strictly limited to resolved resonance region from physical considerations
Geospatial Data Fusion and Multigroup Decision Support for Surface Water Quality Management
Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.; Green, R. T.; Xie, H.
2010-12-01
Social networking and social media have gained significant popularity and brought fundamental changes to many facets of our everyday life. With the ever-increasing adoption of GPS-enabled gadgets and technology, location-based content is likely to play a central role in social networking sites. While location-based content is not new to the geoscience community, where geographic information systems (GIS) are extensively used, the delivery of useful geospatial data to targeted user groups for decision support is new. Decision makers and modelers ought to make more effective use of the new web-based tools to expand the scope of environmental awareness education, public outreach, and stakeholder interaction. Environmental decision processes are often rife with uncertainty and controversy, requiring integration of multiple sources of information and compromises between diverse interests. Fusing of multisource, multiscale environmental data for multigroup decision support is a challenging task. Toward this goal, a multigroup decision support platform should strive to achieve transparency, impartiality, and timely synthesis of information. The latter criterion often constitutes a major technical bottleneck to traditional GIS-based media, featuring large file or image sizes and requiring special processing before web deployment. Many tools and design patterns have appeared in recent years to ease the situation somewhat. In this project, we explore the use of Web 2.0 technologies for “pushing” location-based content to multigroups involved in surface water quality management and decision making. In particular, our granular bottom-up approach facilitates effective delivery of information to most relevant user groups. Our location-based content includes in-situ and remotely sensed data disseminated by NASA and other national and local agencies. Our project is demonstrated for managing the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program in the Arroyo Colorado coastal river basin
The Generation IV [1] International forum identified six advanced reactor concepts and related fuel cycles along with the R and D programs necessary to achieve the four key goals: (1) sustainability, (2) safety and reliability, (3) economics, (4) proliferation resistance and physical protection. Among these six promising reactor concepts, the lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) has been selected for development by EURATOM, which in 2006 decided to finance the European Lead Cooled System (ELSY) project. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the possibility to design a safe and competitive lead-cooled fast power reactor using simple engineering solutions. This paper demonstrates the use of the code package SCALE5.1 and its NEWT/TRITON modules [3] for preliminary neutronic core analysis of a LFR within Generation IV Nuclear Energy systems program. More specifically, the analysis of the reference design of the ELSY-600 open square fuel assembly is presented. In particular, the use of ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI.7 and multigroup energy structure was investigated. The homogenized cross sections calculated for the ELSY fuel assembly 2D model have been evaluated and compared to the results obtained with calculations performed with the deterministic code ERANOS/ECCO using JEFF2.2 cross section library. A good agreement has been observed in the energy range of interests, and generally for energy above 1 eV. (authors)
Water of Hydration Dynamics in Minerals Gypsum and Bassanite: Ultrafast 2D IR Spectroscopy of Rocks.
Yan, Chang; Nishida, Jun; Yuan, Rongfeng; Fayer, Michael D
2016-08-01
Water of hydration plays an important role in minerals, determining their crystal structures and physical properties. Here ultrafast nonlinear infrared (IR) techniques, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) spectroscopies, were used to measure the dynamics and disorder of water of hydration in two minerals, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). 2D IR spectra revealed that water arrangement in freshly precipitated gypsum contained a small amount of inhomogeneity. Following annealing at 348 K, water molecules became highly ordered; the 2D IR spectrum became homogeneously broadened (motional narrowed). PSPP measurements observed only inertial orientational relaxation. In contrast, water in bassanite's tubular channels is dynamically disordered. 2D IR spectra showed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening caused by a range of water configurations. At 298 K, water dynamics cause spectral diffusion that sampled a portion of the inhomogeneous line width on the time scale of ∼30 ps, while the rest of inhomogeneity is static on the time scale of the measurements. At higher temperature, the dynamics become faster. Spectral diffusion accelerates, and a portion of the lower temperature spectral diffusion became motionally narrowed. At sufficiently high temperature, all of the dynamics that produced spectral diffusion at lower temperatures became motionally narrowed, and only homogeneous broadening and static inhomogeneity were observed. Water angular motions in bassanite exhibit temperature-dependent diffusive orientational relaxation in a restricted cone of angles. The experiments were made possible by eliminating the vast amount of scattered light produced by the granulated powder samples using phase cycling methods. PMID:27385320
Local 2D-2D tunneling in high mobility electron systems
Pelliccione, Matthew; Sciambi, Adam; Bartel, John; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Lilly, Michael; Bank, Seth; Gossard, Arthur
2012-02-01
Many scanning probe techniques have been utilized in recent years to measure local properties of high mobility two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in GaAs. However, most techniques lack the ability to tunnel into the buried 2D system and measure local spectroscopic information. We report scanning gate measurements on a bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure that allows for a local modulation of tunneling between two 2D electron layers. We call this technique Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (VSTM) [1,2] as the influence of the scanning gate is analogous to an STM tip, except at a GaAs/AlGaAs interface instead of a surface. We will discuss the spectroscopic capabilities of the technique, and show preliminary results of measurements on a high mobility 2D electron system.[1] A. Sciambi, M. Pelliccione et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 132103 (2010).[2] A. Sciambi, M. Pelliccione et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 085301 (2011).
Face recognition method based on 2D-PCA and 2D-LDA%基于2D-PCA和2D-LDA的人脸识别方法
温福喜; 刘宏伟
2007-01-01
提出了基于2D-PCA、2D-LDA两种特征采用融合分类器的人脸识别方法.首先提取人脸图像的2D-PCA和2D-LDA特征,对不同特征在决策层对分类器进行融合.在ORL人脸库上的试验结果表明,分类器决策层融合方法在识别性能上优于2D-PCA和2D-LDA,更具有鲁棒性.
2D DIGITAL SIMPLIFIED FLOW VALVE
Ruan Jian; Li Sheng; Pei Xiang; Burton R; Ukrainetz P; Bitner D
2004-01-01
The 2D digital simplified flow valve is composed of a pilot-operated valve designed with both rotary and linear motions of a single spool,and a stepper motor under continual control.How the structural parameters affect the static and dynamic characteristics of the valve is first clarified and a criterion for stability is presented.Experiments are designed to test the performance of the valve.It is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless,it is possible to maintain the dynamic response at a fairly high level,while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.One of the features of the digital valve is stage control.In stage control the nonlinearities,such as electromagnetic saturation and hysteresis,are greatly reduced.To a large extent the dynamic response of the valve is decided by the executing cycle of the control algorithm.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-05-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.
2D manifold-independent spinfoam theory
A number of background-independent quantization procedures have recently been employed in 4D nonperturbative quantum gravity. We investigate and illustrate these techniques and their relation in the context of a simple 2D topological theory. We discuss canonical quantization, loop or spin network states, path integral quantization over a discretization of the manifold, spin foam formulation and the fully background-independent definition of the theory using an auxiliary field theory on a group manifold. While several of these techniques have already been applied to this theory by Witten, the last one is novel: it allows us to give a precise meaning to the sum over topologies, and to compute background-independent and, in fact, 'manifold-independent' transition amplitudes. These transition amplitudes play the role of Wightman functions of the theory. They are physical observable quantities, and the canonical structure of the theory can be reconstructed from them via a C* algebraic GNS construction. We expect an analogous structure to be relevant in 4D quantum gravity
Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels
Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua
2015-11-01
Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S
2016-06-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water.
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
Resolution Independent 2D Cartoon Video Conversion
MSF. Fayaza
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a novel system for vectorizing 2D raster cartoon. The output videos are the resolution independent, smaller in file size. As a first step, input video is segment to scene thereafter all processes are done for each scene separately. Every scene contains foreground and background objects so in each and every scene foreground background classification is performed. Background details can occlude by foreground objects but when foreground objects move its previous position such occluded details exposed in one of the next frame so using that frame can fill the occluded area and can generate static background. Classified foreground objects are identified and the motion of the foreground objects tracked for this simple user assistance is required from those motion details of foreground object’s animation generated. Static background and foreground objects segmented using K-means clustering and each and every cluster’s vectorized using potrace. Using vectored background and foreground object animation path vector video regenerated.
Multi-group unified nodal method with two-group coarse-mesh finite difference formulation
The one-node kernels of the unified nodal method (UNM) which were originally developed for two-group (2G) problems are extended to solve multi-group (MG) problems within the framework of the 2G coarse-mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation. The analytic nodal method (ANM) kernel of UNM is reformulated for the MG application by adopting the Pade approximation to avoid the similarity transform required to diagonalize the G x G buckling matrix. In addition, a one-node semi-analytic nodal method (SANM) kernel which is considered adequate for multi-group calculations is also integrated into the UNM formulation by expressing it in the form consistent with the other UNM kernels. As an efficient global solution framework, the 2G CMFD formulation with dynamic group condensation and prolongation is established and the performance of the various MG kernels is examined using various static and transient benchmark problems. It turns out that the SANM kernel is the best one for MG problems not only because it retains accuracy comparable to MGANM with a shorter computing time but also because its accuracy or its convergence does not depend on the eigenvalue range of the buckling matrix of the system. The 2G CMFD formulation with MG one-node UNM kernels turns out to be very effective in that it conveniently accelerates the MG source iteration
Comparative calculations of the experimental benchmark of iron sphere with Cf source have been performed in order to assess the sensibility of the calculations of neutron transmission through iron media to different multigroup libraries generated on the base of ENDF/B-6 and ENDF/B-4. Similar calculations and comparison of the neutron flux passed through media typical as geometry and material compositions for the WWER-1000 and WWER-440 vessels have been carried out. Except the already well-known problem dependent libraries, the new libraries BGL-440 and BGL-1000 generated on the base of ENDF/B-6 for the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 RPV neutron fluence calculations have been applied. The solving of neutron transport through iron media using ENDF/B-6 data gives better consistency with the experiment than using ENDF/B-4. The latter underestimate the experimental fluxes more substantially in the energy range above 2 MeV and the evaluations of the neutron flux responses for the WWER vessel surveillance is preferably to be carried out by the appropriate BGL library. Key words: neutron transport, multigroup neutron cross section libraries
Verification of a Multi-group Cross Section Library for Burnup Calculation
Daing, Aung Tharn; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hang Yu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-05-15
Despite satisfying the estimation of the neutronic parameters without depletion to some extent, it still requires detailed investigation of the behavior of a fuel with strong neutron absorber over its operating life time by nTRACER, the direct whole core calculation code with the conventional semi Predictor-Corrector method. This study is mainly focused on the verification of the newly generated multi-group library for burnup calculation by nTRACER through the analysis of its performance of depletion calculation of UO{sub 2} fuel with strong neutron absorbers such as Gadolinium. Firstly, the depletion calculation results of nTRACER are presented by comparing the evolution of k-inf and the inventories of commonly found important isotopes as a function of burnup in the cases of gadolinia(GAD)-bearing fuel pin and fuel assembly (FA) with those of MCNPX-version.2.6.0. The newly generated multi-group library for burnup calculation by nTRACER was verified through GAD-bearing fuel after the new approach of resonance treatment had been employed. Though very good agreement in the overall effect reflected on the multiplication factor of FA at BOC, the evolution of k-inf along fuel irradiation history was systematically well underestimated by nTRACER when compared to Monte Carlo results.
The group-level consequences of sexual conflict in multigroup populations.
Omar Tonsi Eldakar
Full Text Available In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within- and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics.
The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures
Identification of novel CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids: non-functional and functional variants
Andrea Gaedigk
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Polymorphic expression of CYP2D6 contributes to the wide range of activity observed for this clinically important drug metabolizing enzyme. In this report we describe novel CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid genes encoding non-functional and functional CYP2D6 protein and a CYP2D7 variant that mimics a CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene. Five kb long PCR products encompassing the novel genes were entirely sequenced. A quantitative assay probing in different gene regions was employed to determine CYP2D6 and 2D7 copy number variations and the relative position of the hybrid genes within the locus was assessed by long-range PCR. In addition to the previously known CYP2D6*13 and *66 hybrids, we describe three novel non-functional CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids with gene switching in exon 2 (CYP2D6*79, intron 2 (CYP2D6*80 and intron 5 (CYP2D6*67. A CYP2D7-specific T-ins in exon 1 causes a detrimental frame shift. One subject revealed a CYP2D7 conversion in the 5’-flanking region of a CYP2D6*35 allele, was otherwise unaffected (designated CYP2D6*35B. Finally, three DNAs revealed a CYP2D7 gene with a CYP2D6-like region downstream of exon 9 (designated CYP2D7[REP6]. Quantitative copy number determination, sequence analyses and long-range PCR mapping were in agreement and excluded the presence of additional gene units. Undetected hybrid genes may cause over-estimation of CYP2D6 activity (CYP2D6*1/*1 vs *1/hybrid, etc, but may also cause results that may interfere with the genotype determination. Detection of hybrid events, ‘single’ and tandem, will contribute to more accurate phenotype prediction from genotype data.
Single-photon 2-D imaging X-ray spectrometer employing trapping with four tunnel junctions
We are developing single-photon 2-D imaging X-ray spectrometers for applications in X-ray astrophysics. The devices employing a Ta strip X-ray absorber with Al traps and a tunnel junction at each end have been tested. They achieve an energy resolution of 26 eV out of 5.9 keV over a limited length (Segall, IEEE Trans., in press) with a 1-D spatial resolution of about 2 μm over the full 160 μm length. By analytical and numerical simulations of the quasiparticle diffusion process, we study related devices with a square Ta absorber having four traps and attached junctions to provide 2-D imaging. The traps give charge division to the corners or to the edges of the square absorber. We find that these devices can give good 2-D spatial resolution. We discuss the operating principle and the factors which affect the spatial resolution
Propagator-resolved 2D exchange in porous media in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.
Burcaw, Lauren M; Hunter, Mark W; Callaghan, Paul T
2010-08-01
We present a propagator-resolved 2D exchange spectroscopy technique for observing fluid motion in a porous medium. The susceptibility difference between the matrix and the fluid is exploited to produce an inhomogeneous internal magnetic field, causing the Larmor frequency to change as molecules migrate. We test our method using a randomly packed monodisperse 100 microm diameter glass bead matrix saturated with distilled water. Building upon previous 2D exchange spectroscopy work we add a displacement dimension which allows us to obtain 2D exchange spectra that are defined by both mixing time and spatial displacement rather than by mixing time alone. We also simulate our system using a Monte Carlo process in a random nonpenetrating monodisperse bead pack, finding good agreement with experiment. A simple analytic model is used to interpret the NMR data in terms of a characteristic length scale over which molecules must diffuse to sample the inhomogeneous field distribution. PMID:20554230
Finite state models of constrained 2d data
Justesen, Jørn
2004-01-01
This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods.......This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods....
BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems
Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.
2016-02-01
We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).
Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer
Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.
2000-05-01
During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.
Assessment and improvement of the 2D/1D method stability in DeCART
As part of ongoing work with Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the 2D/1D code, DeCART, has demonstrated some of the advantages of the 2D/1D method with respect to realistic, full-core analysis, particularly over explicit 3D transport methods, which generally have higher memory and computation requirements. The 2D/1D method performs 2D-radial transport sweeps coupled with ID-axial diffusion calculations to provide a full 3D simulation. DeCART employs the 2D method of characteristics for the radial sweeps and ID one-node nodal diffusion for the axial sweeps, coupling the two methods with transverse leakages to ensure a more consistent representation of the transport equation. It has been observed that refinement of the axial plane thickness leads to instabilities in the calculation scheme. This work assesses the sources of these instabilities and the approaches to improve them, especially with respect to negative scattering cross sections and the tightness of the 2D-radial/ID-axial coupling schemes. Fourier analyses show that the existing iteration scheme is not unconditionally stable, suggesting a tighter coupling scheme is required. For this reason 3D-CMFD has been implemented, among other developments, to ensure more stable calculation. A matrix of test cases has been used to assess the convergence, with the primary parameter being the axial plane thickness, which has been refined down to 1 cm. These cases demonstrate the issues observed and how the modification improve the stability. However, it is apparent that more work is necessary to ensure unconditional stability. (authors)
Assessment and improvement of the 2D/1D method stability in DeCART
Stimpson, S.; Young, M.; Collins, B.; Kelley, B.; Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)
2013-07-01
As part of ongoing work with Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the 2D/1D code, DeCART, has demonstrated some of the advantages of the 2D/1D method with respect to realistic, full-core analysis, particularly over explicit 3D transport methods, which generally have higher memory and computation requirements. The 2D/1D method performs 2D-radial transport sweeps coupled with ID-axial diffusion calculations to provide a full 3D simulation. DeCART employs the 2D method of characteristics for the radial sweeps and ID one-node nodal diffusion for the axial sweeps, coupling the two methods with transverse leakages to ensure a more consistent representation of the transport equation. It has been observed that refinement of the axial plane thickness leads to instabilities in the calculation scheme. This work assesses the sources of these instabilities and the approaches to improve them, especially with respect to negative scattering cross sections and the tightness of the 2D-radial/ID-axial coupling schemes. Fourier analyses show that the existing iteration scheme is not unconditionally stable, suggesting a tighter coupling scheme is required. For this reason 3D-CMFD has been implemented, among other developments, to ensure more stable calculation. A matrix of test cases has been used to assess the convergence, with the primary parameter being the axial plane thickness, which has been refined down to 1 cm. These cases demonstrate the issues observed and how the modification improve the stability. However, it is apparent that more work is necessary to ensure unconditional stability. (authors)
Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem
Sebek, M.
1992-01-01
The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2)
Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem
Sebek, M.
1992-01-01
The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2) as well.
DNTM/R2D, 2-D Transport in X-Y Geometry
1 - Description of program or function: DNTM/R2D solves the neutron transport equation in two-dimensional X-Y geometry by the discrete nodal transport method. Source and eigenvalue problems can be solved. As compared to the two-dimensional nodal transport code DNTM/2D, the following new improved features are included: - Anisotropic scattering is considered. The order of anisotropic scattering is from P0 to P3. - The cross section input format is the same as for ANISN. Multi- group cross section libraries such as DLC-37 and DLC-BUGLE-80 can be used. 2 - Method of solution: DNTM/R2D uses the discrete nodal transport method. Anisotropic scattering is treated using Legendre expansion. Order of interior flux approximation is 2. Plane leakage approximation of surface flux is used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of: anisotropic scattering order = 3; material composition = 20; energy groups = 2; angular quadrature = 8; zones = 30. When coarse-mesh re-balancing is used, the maximum number of coarse meshes is 12 in each direction. If the computer permits some arrays can be enlarged to reduce the above restrictions
Fluid and plastic flow dynamics of the critical state for a strongly pinned 2D superconductor
Monier, D.; Fruchter, L. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides
2000-09-01
We present simulations of the dynamic critical state for a 2D superconductor with strong pinning centers, corresponding to a matching field twice the applied magnetic field. The sharp crossover between the plastic regime, at low current density and temperature, and the fluid flow regime for flux motion is characterized by the activation energy for flux motion and the transverse diffusion of the vortices trajectory. (orig.)
2D Stochastic Monte Carlo to evaluate the modulation of GCR for positive and negative periods
We developed a 2D model Stochastic Monte Carlo for Cosmic Rays propagation in the Heliosphere. The model solves numerically the transport equation of particles in the heliosphere, including major processes affecting the heliospheric particle propagation: diffusion, convection, adiabatic energy losses and drift of particles. We evaluated the modulated flux at several distances from the sun (i.e. at planets distance) and we compared our results for both solar polarities with measurements of CR protons at the Earth distance, 1 AU. (authors)
Historical review of group diffusion computation
Diffusion theory neutron flux computations are the backbone of reactor physics design studies. Early one-space-dimension computations of simple configurations with Marchand and Friden desk computers were swept with the computer revolution into detailed three-space-dimension calculations of complex reactor configurations on today's parallel and vector machines. Methods for modeling reactors have evolved during the past 45 yr. The multigroup diffusion theory first described by Ehrlich and Hurwitz has been embellished with transport theory corrections and accounting for mesh effects in discrete modeling. Spectral variations within a few-group framework were accounted for by space-dependent group constants based on estimated hardness of spectrum. A more sophisticated procedure used overlapping energy groups
P1 adaptation of TRIPOLI-4 code for the use of 3D realistic core multigroup cross section generation
In this paper, we discuss some improvements we recently implemented in the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4 associated with the homogenization and collapsing of subassemblies cross sections. The improvement offered us another approach to get critical multigroup cross sections with Monte-Carlo method. The new calculation method in TRIPOLI-4 tries to ensure the neutronic balances, the multiplicative factors and the critical flux spectra for some realistic geometries. We make it by at first improving the treatment of the energy transfer probability, the neutron excess weight and the neutron fission spectrum. This step is necessary for infinite geometries. The second step which will be enlarged in this paper is aimed at better dealing with the multigroup anisotropy distribution law for finite geometries. Usually, Monte-Carlo homogenized multi-group cross sections are validated within a core calculation by a deterministic code. Here, the validation of multigroup constants will also be carried out by Monte-Carlo core calculation code. Different subassemblies are tested with the new collapsing method, especially for the fast neutron reactors subassemblies. (authors)
The FOEHN critical experiments were analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. Eleven critical configurations were evaluated using the KENO, DORT, and VENTURE neutronics codes. Eigenvalue and power density profiles were computed and show very good agreement with measured values
Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors (LSCRs) are high temperature reactors, cooled by liquid salt, with a TRISO-particle based fuel in a solid form (stationary fuel elements or circulating fuel pebbles); this paper is focusing on the former. In either case, due to the double heterogeneity, core physics analysis require different considerations with more complex approaches than LWRs core physics calculations. Additional challenges appear when using the multi-group approach. In this paper we examine the use of SCALE6.1.1. Double heterogeneity may be accounted for through the Dancoff factor, however, SCALE6.1.1 does not provide an automated method to calculate Dancoff Factors for fuel planks with TRISO fuel particles. Therefore, depletion with continuous energy Monte Carlo Transport (CE depletion) in SCALE6.2 beta was used to generate MC Dancoff factors for multi-group calculations. MCDancoff corrected multi-group depletion agrees with the results for CE depletion within ±100 pcm, and within ±2σ. Producing MCDancoff factors for multi-group (MG) depletion calculations is necessary to LSCR analysis because CE depletion runtime and memory requirements are prohibitive for routine use. MG depletion with MCDancoff provides significantly shorter runtime and lower memory requirements while providing results of acceptable accuracy. (author)
Cai, Li; Pénéliau, Yannick; Diop, Cheikh M.; Malvagi, Fausto
2014-06-01
In this paper, we discuss some improvements we recently implemented in the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4® associated with the homogenization and collapsing of subassemblies cross sections. The improvement offered us another approach to get critical multigroup cross sections with Monte-Carlo method. The new calculation method in TRIPOLI-4® tries to ensure the neutronic balances, the multiplicative factors and the critical flux spectra for some realistic geometries. We make it by at first improving the treatment of the energy transfer probability, the neutron excess weight and the neutron fission spectrum. This step is necessary for infinite geometries. The second step which will be enlarged in this paper is aimed at better dealing with the multigroup anisotropy distribution law for finite geometries. Usually, Monte-Carlo homogenized multi-group cross sections are validated within a core calculation by a deterministic code. Here, the validation of multigroup constants will also be carried out by Monte-Carlo core calculation code. Different subassemblies are tested with the new collapsing method, especially for the fast neutron reactors subassemblies.
Dessart, L; Dessart, Luc
2005-01-01
We present initial attempts to include the multi-dimensional nature of radiation transport in hydrodynamical simulations of the small-scale structure that arises from the line-driven instability in hot-star winds. Compared to previous 1D or 2D models that assume a purely radial radiation force, we seek additionally to treat the lateral momentum and transport of diffuse line-radiation, initially here within a 2D context. A key incentive is to study the damping effect of the associated diffuse line-drag on the dynamical properties of the flow, focusing particularly on whether this might prevent lateral break-up of shell structures at scales near the lateral Sobolev angle of ca. $1^{\\rm o}$. We first explore nonlinear simulations that cast the lateral diffuse force in the simple, local form of a parallel viscosity. Second, to account for the lateral mixing of radiation associated with the radial driving, we next explore models in which the radial force is azimuthally smoothed over a chosen scale. Third, to accou...
Stability Test for 2-D Continuous-Discrete Systems
无
2002-01-01
Models of 2-D continuous-discrete systems are introduced, which can be used to describe some complex systems. Different from classical 2-D continuous systems or 2-D discrete systems, the asymptotic stability of the continuous-discrete systems is determined by Hurwitz-Schur stability (hybrid one) of 2-D characteristic polynomials of the systems. An algebraic algorithm with simpler test procedure for Hurwitz-Schur stability test of 2-D polynomials is developed. An example to illustrate the applications of the test approach is provided.
Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials
Lambert, Joseph G.
In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in
Cooperative dynamics in ultrasoft 2D crystals
Sprakel, Joris; van der Meer, Berend; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van der Gucht, Jasper
2015-03-01
The creation, annihilation, and diffusion of defects in crystal lattices play an important role during crystal melting and deformation. Although it is well understood how defects form and react when crystals are subjected to external stresses, it remains unclear how crystals cope with internal stresses. We report a study in which we create a highly localized internal stress, by means of optical tweezing, in a crystal formed from micrometer-sized colloidal spheres and directly observe how the solid reacts using microscopy. We find that, even though the excitation is highly localized, a collective dance of colloidal particles results; these collective modes take the form of closed rings or open-ended strings, depending on the sequence of events which nucleate the rearrangements. Surprisingly, we find from Brownian Dynamics simulations that these cooperative dynamics are thermally-activated modes inherent to the crystal, and can even occur through a single, sufficiently large thermal fluctuation, resulting in the irreversible displacement of 100s of particles from their lattice sites.
Fast 2D flood modelling using GPU technology - recent applications and new developments
Crossley, Amanda; Lamb, Rob; Waller, Simon; Dunning, Paul
2010-05-01
In recent years there has been considerable interest amongst scientists and engineers in exploiting the potential of commodity graphics hardware for desktop parallel computing. The Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) that are used in PC graphics cards have now evolved into powerful parallel co-processors that can be used to accelerate the numerical codes used for floodplain inundation modelling. We report in this paper on experience over the past two years in developing and applying two dimensional (2D) flood inundation models using GPUs to achieve significant practical performance benefits. Starting with a solution scheme for the 2D diffusion wave approximation to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWEs), we have demonstrated the capability to reduce model run times in ‘real-world' applications using GPU hardware and programming techniques. We then present results from a GPU-based 2D finite volume SWE solver. A series of numerical test cases demonstrate that the model produces outputs that are accurate and consistent with reference results published elsewhere. In comparisons conducted for a real world test case, the GPU-based SWE model was over 100 times faster than the CPU version. We conclude with some discussion of practical experience in using the GPU technology for flood mapping applications, and for research projects investigating use of Monte Carlo simulation methods for the analysis of uncertainty in 2D flood modelling.
CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping
Amanda K Riffel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe
Nelson, Adam
Multi-group scattering moment matrices are critical to the solution of the multi-group form of the neutron transport equation, as they are responsible for describing the change in direction and energy of neutrons. These matrices, however, are difficult to correctly calculate from the measured nuclear data with both deterministic and stochastic methods. Calculating these parameters when using deterministic methods requires a set of assumptions which do not hold true in all conditions. These quantities can be calculated accurately with stochastic methods, however doing so is computationally expensive due to the poor efficiency of tallying scattering moment matrices. This work presents an improved method of obtaining multi-group scattering moment matrices from a Monte Carlo neutron transport code. This improved method of tallying the scattering moment matrices is based on recognizing that all of the outgoing particle information is known a priori and can be taken advantage of to increase the tallying efficiency (therefore reducing the uncertainty) of the stochastically integrated tallies. In this scheme, the complete outgoing probability distribution is tallied, supplying every one of the scattering moment matrices elements with its share of data. In addition to reducing the uncertainty, this method allows for the use of a track-length estimation process potentially offering even further improvement to the tallying efficiency. Unfortunately, to produce the needed distributions, the probability functions themselves must undergo an integration over the outgoing energy and scattering angle dimensions. This integration is too costly to perform during the Monte Carlo simulation itself and therefore must be performed in advance by way of a pre-processing code. The new method increases the information obtained from tally events and therefore has a significantly higher efficiency than the currently used techniques. The improved method has been implemented in a code system
MPI version of NJOY and its application to multigroup cross-section generation
Multigroup cross-section libraries are needed in performing neutronics calculations. These libraries are referred to as broad-group libraries. The number of energy groups and group structure are highly dependent on the application and/or user's objectives. For example, for shielding calculations, broad-group libraries such as SAILOR and BUGLE with 47-neutron and 20-gamma energy groups are used. The common procedure to obtain a broad-group library is a three-step process: (1) processing pointwise ENDF (PENDF) format cross sections; (2) generating fine-group cross sections; and (3) collapsing fine-group cross sections to broad-group. The NJOY code is used to prepare fine-group cross sections by processing pointwise ENDF data. The code has several modules, each one performing a specific task. For instance, the module RECONR performs linearization and reconstruction of the cross sections, and the module GROUPR generates multigroup self-shielded cross sections. After fine-group, i.e., groupwise ENDF (GENDF), cross sections are produced, cross sections are self-shielded, and a one-dimensional transport calculation is performed to obtain flux spectra at specific regions in the model. These fluxes are then used as weighting functions to collapse the fine-group cross sections to obtain a broad-group cross-section library. The third step described is commonly performed by the AMPX code system. SMILER converts NJOY GENDF filed to AMPX master libraries, AJAX collects the master libraries. BONAMI performs self-shielding calculations, NITAWL converts the AMPX master library to a working library, XSDRNPM performs one-dimensional transport calculations, and MALOCS collapses fine-group cross sections to broad-group. Finally, ALPO is used to generate ANISN format libraries. In this three-step procedure, generally NJOY requires the largest amount of CPU time. This time varies depending on the user's specified parameters for each module, such as reconstruction tolerances, temperatures
Highlights: • Multigroup nuclear data are sampled based on multivariate normal distributions. • Multigroup perturbation factors are applied to pointwise-ACE nuclear data. • Samples of perturbed pointwise-ACE nuclear data are generated by NUSS for MCNPX. • Variances in MCNPX outputs due to perturbed samples of ACE data are quantified. • NUSS is verified with TSUNAMI and MCNPX PERT CARD sensitivity/uncertainty methods. - Abstract: Stochastic sampling (SS) method for quantifying nuclear data uncertainties is accomplished by using perturbed nuclear data in routine neutronics calculations and determining the variance of output parameters due to the input nuclear data uncertainties. Existing SS-based methods have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of propagating uncertainties in multigroup nuclear data. However, in fields such as criticality safety assessment, pointwise representation of nuclear data is more appropriate in order to corroborate the increasing safety demand and best-estimate modeling capabilities. In this work, an SS-based tool, called NUSS is implemented which perturbs pointwise ACE-formatted nuclear data using multigroup nuclear data covariance. The use of pointwise ACE-formatted nuclear data in NUSS can accommodate flexible multigroup covariance structures and allows for nuclear data uncertainty propagation through the continuous/pointwise-energy transport code MCNPX. As a first step of the NUSS development and verification, uncertainty contributions from 239Pu and 235U nuclear data were assessed for Jezebel (Pu-fueled) and Godiva (U-fueled) fast-spectrum criticality benchmarks. NUSS results are compared to those by other uncertainty quantification methods such as TSUNAMI and MCNPX PERT CARD. Next, Light Water Reactor (LWR) pin cell models from the OECD/NEA UAM Phase-1 benchmark were analyzed. Results of cross section and kinf uncertainties in consideration of different nuclear data covariance libraries are presented
Development of advanced nodal diffusion methods for modern computer architectures
A family of highly efficient multidimensional multigroup advanced neutron-diffusion nodal methods, ILLICO, were implemented on sequential, vector, and vector-concurrent computers. Three-dimensional realistic benchmark problems can be solved in vectorized mode in less than 0.73 s (33.86 Mflops) on a Cray X-MP/48. Vector-concurrent implementations yield speedups as high as 9.19 on an Alliant FX/8. These results show that the ILLICO method preserves essentially all of its speed advantage over finite-difference methods. A self-consistent higher-order nodal diffusion method was developed and implemented. Nodal methods for global nuclear reactor multigroup diffusion calculations which account explicitly for heterogeneities in the assembly nuclear properties were developed and evaluated. A systematic analysis of the zero-order variable cross section nodal method was conducted. Analyzing the KWU PWR depletion benchmark problem, it is shown that when burnup heterogeneities arise, ordinary nodal methods, which do not explicitly treat the heterogeneities, suffer a significant systematic error that accumulates. A nodal method that treats explicitly the space dependence of diffusion coefficients was developed and implemented. A consistent burnup-correction method for nodal microscopic depletion analysis was developed
Lagrangian statistics in laboratory 2D turbulence
Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael
2014-05-01
Turbulent mixing in liquids and gases is ubiquitous in nature and industrial flows. Understanding statistical properties of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulence is crucial for a range of problems such as spreading of plankton in the ocean, transport of pollutants, etc. Oceanic data on trajectories of the free-drifting instruments, indicate that the trajectory statistics can often be described by a Lagrangian integral scale. Turbulence however is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, and it is not clear which of these scales mostly affect particle dispersion. Moreover, coherent structures often coexist with turbulence in laboratory experiments [1]. The effect of coherent structures on particle dispersion in turbulent flows is not well understood. Recent progress in scientific imaging and computational power made it possible to tackle this problem experimentally. In this talk, we report the analysis of the higher order Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results show that fluid particle dispersion is diffusive and it is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale [2]. Higher order moments of the particle dispersion show strong self-similarity in fully developed turbulence [3]. Here we introduce a new dispersion law that describes single particle dispersion during the turbulence development [4]. These results offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales are persistent. It may help better understanding of drifter Lagrangian statistics in the regions of the ocean where small scale coherent eddies are present [5]. Reference: 1. H. Xia, H. Punzmann, G. Falkovich and M. Shats, Physical Review Letters, 101, 194504 (2008) 2. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann, and M. Shats, Nature Communications, 4, 2013 (2013) 3. R. Ferrari, A.J. Manfroi , W.R. Young, Physica D 154 111 (2001) 4. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann and M. Shats, submitted (2014
Greene, N.M.; Ford, W.E. III; Petrie, L.M.; Arwood, J.W.
1992-10-01
AMPX-77 is a modular system of computer programs that pertain to nuclear analyses, with a primary emphasis on tasks associated with the production and use of multigroup cross sections. AH basic cross-section data are to be input in the formats used by the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B), and output can be obtained in a variety of formats, including its own internal and very general formats, along with a variety of other useful formats used by major transport, diffusion theory, and Monte Carlo codes. Processing is provided for both neutron and gamma-my data. The present release contains codes all written in the FORTRAN-77 dialect of FORTRAN and wig process ENDF/B-V and earlier evaluations, though major modules are being upgraded in order to process ENDF/B-VI and will be released when a complete collection of usable routines is available.
AMPX-77 is a modular system of computer programs that pertain to nuclear analyses, with a primary emphasis on tasks associated with the production and use of multigroup cross sections. AH basic cross-section data are to be input in the formats used by the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B), and output can be obtained in a variety of formats, including its own internal and very general formats, along with a variety of other useful formats used by major transport, diffusion theory, and Monte Carlo codes. Processing is provided for both neutron and gamma-my data. The present release contains codes all written in the FORTRAN-77 dialect of FORTRAN and wig process ENDF/B-V and earlier evaluations, though major modules are being upgraded in order to process ENDF/B-VI and will be released when a complete collection of usable routines is available
Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms
In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)
On the feasibility of a homogenised multi-group Monte Carlo method in reactor analysis
The use of homogenised multi-group cross sections to speed up Monte Carlo calculation has been studied to some extent, but the method is not widely implemented in modern calculation codes. This paper presents a calculation scheme in which homogenised material parameters are generated using the PSG continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics code and used by MORA, a new full-core Monte Carlo code entirely based on homogenisation. The theory of homogenisation and its implementation in the Monte Carlo method are briefly introduced. The PSG-MORA calculation scheme is put to practice in two fundamentally different test cases: a small sodium-cooled fast reactor (JOYO) and a large PWR core. It is shown that the homogenisation results in a dramatic increase in efficiency. The results are in a reasonably good agreement with reference PSG and MCNP5 calculations, although fission source convergence becomes a problem in the PWR test case. (authors)
The French 'CEA 86' multigroup cross-section library and its integral qualification
This paper describe the up-dated 99 groups library of the APOLLO French neutron computer code, the denominated 'CEA 86' library. The multigroup cross-section sets are based on the more recent nuclear data evaluations. The THEMIS code was generally used for the JEF-1 processing. In order to account for recent differential measurements and to improve the consistency between calculation and integral experiments, we produced our own CEA evaluations for the actinide nuclides: 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am. This new APOLLO library was checked against critical experiments and PWR measurements: computed Conversion Factor, Reactivity Coefficients, Multiplication Factor, and Pu build-up are now in good agreement with LWR experimental results. PWR Pu recycling calculations, as does as HCLWR design studies, are also significantly improved. (author)
Approximate analytical solution of two-dimensional multigroup P-3 equations
Iterative solution of multigroup spherical harmonics equations reduces, in the P-3 approximation and in two-dimensional geometry, to a problem of solving an inhomogeneous system of eight ordinary first order differential equations. With appropriate boundary conditions, these equations have to be solved for each energy group and in each iteration step. The general solution of the corresponding homogeneous system of equations is known in analytical form. The present paper shows how the right-hand side of the system can be approximated in order to derive a particular solution and thus an approximate analytical expression for the general solution of the inhomogeneous system. This combined analytical-numerical approach was shown to have certain advantages compared to the finite-difference method or the Lie-series expansion method, which have been used to solve similar problems. (orig./RW)
A Method to Solve Multigroup P3 Equations in Cylindrical Geometry
To determine the space-energy distribution of thermal neutrons in a reactor cell a combination of the spherical harmonics method and multigroup procedure has been chosen. In P-3 approximation and cylindrical geometry such a scheme implies the solution of an inhomogeneous system of six ordinary first order differential equations. The general solution of the corresponding homogeneous system is known in analytical form. The present work shows how the free term of the system can be approximated in order to find a particular solution, and thus the general solution, of the inhomogeneous system. The procedure has been applied to calculate thermal spectra in a number of different reactor cells. Some results are presented and discussed. (author)
Approximate analytical solution of two-dimensional multigroup P-3 equations
Iterative solution of multigroup spherical harmonics equations reduces, in the P-3 approximation and in two-dimensional geometry, to a problem of solving an inhomogeneous system of eight ordinary first order differential equations. With appropriate boundary conditions, these equations have to be solved for each energy group and in each iteration step. The general solution of the corresponding homogeneous system of equations is known in analytical form. The present paper shows how the right-hand side of the system can be approximated in order to derive a particular solution and thus an approximate analytical expression for the general solution of the inhomogeneous system. This combined analytical-numerical approach was shown to have certain advantages compared to the finite-difference method or the Lie-series expansion method, which have been used to solve similar problems. (author)
Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron; Manley, David; Owen, Dewi; Charlton, Chris
2015-12-01
We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson model allows the calculation of the variance estimates of the degree of segregation in a single overall model, and credible intervals are obtained to provide a measure of uncertainty around those estimates. The procedure partitions the variance at different levels and implicitly models the dependency (or autocorrelation) at each spatial scale below the topmost one. Substantively, we apply the model to 2011 census data for London, one of the world's most ethnically diverse cities. We find that the degree of segregation depends both on scale and group. PMID:26487190
The solution of the multigroup neutron transport equation using spherical harmonics
A solution of the multi-group neutron transport equation in up to three space dimensions is presented. The flux is expanded in a series of unnormalised spherical harmonics. Using the various recurrence formulae a linked set of first order differential equations is obtained for the moments psisup(g)sub(lm)(r), γsup(g)sub(lm)(r). Terms with odd l are eliminated resulting in a second order system which is solved by two methods. The first is a finite difference formulation using an iterative procedure, secondly, in XYZ and XY geometry a finite element solution is given. Results for a test problem using both methods are exhibited and compared. (orig./RW)
The importance of accounting for resonance self-screening effects in multigroup cross sections when calculating fast reactors and neutron shields is considered. Formulae for averaging cross sections over resonance features with the account of anisotropy for scattering with large energy losses are derived. The model calculations of neutron fluxes have been performed for a U-H mixture (rhosub(H)/rhosub(U)=0.1), a U-Fe-H mixture and for the latter with rhosub(5)/rhosub(Fe)=0.01-0.5. It is concluded that in hydrogen-containing reactors the effect may be significant if the core contains iron in large quantities. The cross section averaging is considered for 3 systems: the KBR-2 critical assembly, spherical model of a large breeder, critical sphere of UO2 with 30% enrichment. The scattering anisotropy changes the multiplication factors of the first two systems by about 0.3%
Analyzing Average and Conditional Effects with Multigroup Multilevel Structural EquationModels
Axel Mayer
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Conventionally, multilevel analysis of covariance (ML-ANCOVA has been therecommended approach for analyzing treatment effects in quasi-experimental multilevel designswith treatment application at the cluster-level. In this paper, we introduce the generalizedML-ANCOVA with linear effect functions that identifies average and conditional treatment effectsin the presence of treatment-covariate interactions. We show how the generalized ML-ANCOVAmodel can be estimated with multigroup multilevel structural equation models that offerconsiderable advances compared to traditional ML-ANCOVA. The proposed model takes intoaccount measurement error in the covariates, sampling error in contextual covariates,treatment-covariate interactions, and stochastic predictors. We illustrate the implementation ofML-ANCOVA with an example from educational effectiveness research where we estimateaverage and conditional effects of early transition to secondary schooling on readingcomprehension.
Release of the mtmg01ex NDI Neutron Multigroup Data Library
We have released the multi-temperature neutron multigroup transport library mtmg01ex, consisting of 181 isotope tables from mtmg01 and 18 element tables calculated from the isotope tables, all at 15 temperatures. These data, based primarily on the evaluations that produced the lanl2006 library, include gamma production and americium branching data. They were subjected to our standard production library testing. Because there are still known problems with and unanswered questions about multi-temperature data, including data size and load time issues, we do not recommend this data for general use; however, its quality is good enough for production release, and we request user help in addressing the remaining problems.
ETOA, ABBN Multigroup Constants from ENDF/B for Fast Reactors
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Production of ABBN type group constants up to 70 groups for fast reactor calculations, reading ENDF/B library as input. 2 - Method of solution: The multigroup method of Bondarenko et al. is used for processing basic nuclear data. Calculational algorithms for an unresolved resonance region are the same as those in the MC2 code. For a resolved resonance region, an ultrafine energy structure dependent on a level scheme is adopted. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of: energy groups: 70; sigma0 values: 6; temperatures: 5. Self-shielding factors for an unrealistically low value of sigma0 are not guaranteed because of the approximations used in the unresolved resonance region
Recent validation experience with multigroup cross-section libraries and scale
This paper will discuss the results obtained and lessons learned from an extensive validation of new ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross-section libraries using analyses of critical experiments. The KENO V. a Monte Carlo code in version 4.3 of the SCALE computer code system was used to perform the critical benchmark calculations via the automated SCALE sequence CSAS25. The cross-section data were processed by the SCALE automated problem-dependent resonance-processing procedure included in this sequence. Prior to calling KENO V.a, CSAS25 accesses BONAMI to perform resonance self-shielding for nuclides with Bondarenko factors and NITAWL-II to process nuclides with resonance parameter data via the Nordheim Integral Treatment
The MGPRAKTINETs computer code for the BESM-6 computer intended for calculation of zone average trmal neutron group fluxes and functionals is described. The neutron spatial-energy distribution in a multizone cyllindrically-symmetric reactor cell is calculated by the operator splitting method. For the solution of the spatial part of the problem the method of surface pseudosources (Gsub(N)-approximation) in approximation of plane derivatives from the energy neutron current is employed. The energy part of the problem is solved in a multigroup approximation. Computer code efficiency has been demonstrated by calculation of two-zone cells with internal and external sources of the cell with on additional absorber and RBMK cell with reduction of the latter to cylindrical geometry. It is shown that the approximation of plane derivatives of neutron energy current allows calculating reactor cell characteristics with a sufficient for design calculations accuracy
Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.
Hua Cai
Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.
MAZE, Input Generator for Program DYNA2D and NIKE2D
Description of program or function: MAZE is an interactive input generator for two-dimensional finite element codes. MAZE has three phases. In the first phase, lines and parts are defined. The first phase is terminated by the 'ASSM' or 'PASSM' command which merges all parts. In the second phase, boundary conditions may be specified, slide-lines may be defined, parts may be merged to eliminate nodes along common interfaces, boundary nodes may be moved for graded zoning, the mesh may be smoothed, and load curves may be defined. The second phase is terminated by the 'WBCD' command which causes MAZE to write the output file as soon as the 'T' terminate command is typed. In the third phase, material properties may be defined. Commands that apply to the first phase may not be used in the second or third; likewise, commands that apply in the second may not be used in the first and third, or commands that apply in the third in the first and second. Nine commands - TV, Z, GSET, PLOTS, GRID, NOGRID, FRAME, NOFRAME, and RJET are available in all phases. Comments may be added anywhere in the input stream by prefacing the comment with 'C'. Any DYNA2D or NIKE2D material and equation-of- state model may be defined via the MAT and EOS commands respectively. Maze may be terminated after phase two; it is not necessary to define the materials
Multigroup Albedo Method applied to coupled neutron-gamma radiations shielding
Shielding calculations for neutron-gamma radiation are usually done by using the full Theory of Transport or the Monte Carlo Techniques. After some works based on the Albedo Method, the shielding calculations for neutron-gamma radiation have a reliable tool with great didactical value which shows its clarity and simplicity for the resolution of cases that involve neutrons and photon shielding in nonmultiplying media. The excellent results of these works have motivated the elaboration and the development of this study that will be presented in this dissertation. The balance of a neutronic current entering a shield of two layers considering the coupling neutron-gamma will be determined by the Albedo Method. The shield will be composed of a layer of iron and another one of manganese with 10 cm of thickness each. The arrays of the materials coefficients will be obtained from the ANISN code. ANISN is a one dimensional deterministic code that is based on transport equation. The final results obtained by the Albedo Method will be compared with the ANISN results for an order of angular quadrature S2. The angular quadrature S2 admits that the radiation has two routes in the same direction what better describes the Albedo Method behavior. The results obtained by using the Albedo Method show an excellent agreement with the values predicted by the adopted deterministic code ANISN. Due to the excellent results, the multigroup Albedo Method should be applied to the shielding calculations with multiple layers. In conclusion the multigroup Albedo Method has the great ability in solving shielding problems concerning to the Nuclear Engineering. (author)
ZZ AMZ, 70-Group 40 Isotope Multigroup Library for Fast Reactor Calculation
1 - Description of program or function: format: EXPANDA; number of groups: 70-group library of multigroup constants; nuclides: H-1, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-12, O-16, N-23, Mg, Al-27, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn-55, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Zr, Nb-93, Mo, In-115, Sn, Pb, Th-232, Pa-233, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, and lumped fission products of U-233, U-235, Pu-239. origin: ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V; weighting spectrum: Fission products inventories for BBR reactor at 360 and 600 days of irradiation were calculated and used as weighting function. AMZ is a 70-group library of multigroup constants for the fast reactor nuclear design code EXPANDA. Data is stored for three temperatures (300 K, 900 K, 2100 K) and for seven background cross sections. The following isotopes are available: H1, Be9, B10, B11, C12, O16, N23, Mg, Al27, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn55, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Zr, Nb93, Mo, In115, Sn, Pb, Th232, Pa233, U233, U234, U235, U236, U238, Pu238, Pu239, Pu240, Pu241, Pu242, Am241, and lumped fission products of U233, U235, Pu239. 2 - Method of solution: Nuclear cross sections, transfer matrices, and self-shielding factors were generated from ENDF/B-IV data using the codes NJOY (PSR-0171) and RGENDF
The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. However, as presently formulated, it is both restricted to orthogonal geometries and susceptible to producing ray effects. In this work, a finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. To facilitate its application to nonorthogonal planar geometries, the formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included in the formulation by employing discrete ordinates like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to substantially reduce ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal type lattice. A small high leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation
XNWLUP, Graphical user interface to plot WIMS-D library multigroup cross sections
1 - Description of program or function: XnWlup is a computer program with user-friendly graphical interface to help the users of WIMS-D library to enable quick visualisation of the plots of the energy dependence of the multigroup cross sections of any nuclide of interest. This software enables the user to generate and view the histogram of 69 multi-group cross sections as a function of neutron energy under Microsoft Windows environment. This software is designed using Microsoft Visual C++ and Microsoft Foundation Classes Library. IAEA1395/05: New features of version 3.0: - Plotting absorption and fission cross sections of resonant nuclide after applying the self-shielding cross section. - Plotting the data of Resonant Integral table, as a function of dilution cross section for a selected temperature and for a given energy group. - Plotting the data of Resonant Integral table, as a function of temperature for a selected background dilution cross section and for a given energy group. - Clearing all the graphs except one graph from the display screen is easily done by using a tool bar button. - Displaying the coordinate of the cursor point with appropriate units. 2 - Methods: XnWlup helps to obtain histogram plots of the values of cross section data of an element/isotope available as 69-group WIMS-D library as a function of energy bins. The software XnWlup is developed with this graphical user interface in order to help those users who frequently refer to the WIMS-D library cross section data of neutron-nuclear reactions. The software also helps to produce handbook of WIMS-D cross sections
Surface Approximation Using the 2D FFENN Architecture
Panagopoulos S
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A new two-dimensional feed-forward functionally expanded neural network (2D FFENN used to produce surface models in two dimensions is presented. New nonlinear multilevel surface basis functions are proposed for the network's functional expansion. A network optimization technique based on an iterative function selection strategy is also described. Comparative simulation results for surface mappings generated by the 2D FFENN, multilevel 2D FFENN, multilayered perceptron (MLP, and radial basis function (RBF architectures are presented.
Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding
Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino; Zamarin, Marco; Ukhanova, Ann
2010-01-01
This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square const...
Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding
Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino;
2010-01-01
This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... of the Markov random field defined by the 2-D constraint is estimated to be (upper bounded by) 0.8570 bits/symbol using the iterative technique of Belief Propagation on 2 £ 2 finite lattices. Based on combinatorial bounding techniques the maximum entropy for the constraint was determined to be 0.848....
Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung
Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth
Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.
Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals
Bampoulis, Pantelis; Siekman, Martin H.; Kooij, E. Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene
2015-07-01
The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 °C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and consequent transport of heat and molecules are found to be key ingredients for understanding the evolution of the snow (ice) flakes. We conclude that not the local availability of water molecules (DLA), but rather them having the locally required orientation is the key factor for incorporation into the 2D ice nanocrystal. In combination with the transport of latent heat, we attribute the evolution of fractal 2D ice nanocrystals to local temperature dependent rotation limited aggregation. The ice growth occurs under extreme supersaturation, i.e., the conditions closely resemble the natural ones for the growth of complex 2D snow (ice) flakes and we consider our findings crucial for solving the "perennial" snow (ice) flake enigma.
2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure
Sezen S
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.
Lozano Montero, Juan Andrés; Aragonés Beltrán, José María; García Herranz, Nuria
2009-01-01
More accurate modelling of physical phenomena involved in present and future nuclear reactors requires a multi-scale and multi-physics approach. This challenge can be accomplished by the coupling of best-estimate core-physics, thermal-hydraulics and multi-physics solvers. In order to make viable that coupling, the current trends in reactor simulations are along the development of a new generation of tools based on user-friendly, modular, easily linkable, faster and more accurate codes to be i...
Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong
2014-09-01
We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.
Upscaling diffusion waves in porous media
Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; Álvarez Ramírez, José; Ochoa-Tapia, J. Alberto
2016-04-01
The aim of this work is to derive the effective-medium equations and to estimate the related effective diffusivities for diffusion waves in porous media. Effective diffusivities are estimated within the framework of the volume averaging method, where they are obtained from the solution of the associated closure problems in 2D and 3D periodic unit cells. The results showed that the transport of diffusion waves are governed by the diffusion and co-diffusion mechanisms of harmonic waves. In addition, numerical results showed that the effective diffusivities increase with frequency, while the effective co-diffusivities display a resonance-like behavior. Our results also indicate that geometry plays a more significant effect over the predictions of the co-diffusion coefficient at moderate frequencies and it mainly influences the predictions of the direct diffusivity at low frequencies (i . e .,ω∗ ≪ 1).
Development of neutral transport lattice code DENT-2D and benchmark calculation
We developed new transport lattice code called DENT-2D (Deterministic Neutral Particle Transport Code in 2-D imensional Space)primarily to generate few- group constants for the reactor physics analysis diffusion codes. This code is designed to be coupled with KAERI reactor analysis nodal code, MASTER [1] ,to complete the design system package. CASMO-3 and HELIOS have been used in generating the few- group constant for MASTER. Currently DENT-2D includes only neutron particle transport calculation in 2-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The characteristics method is adopted for the spatial discretization, which is advantageous for the treatment of the complicated geometry structure and the highly anisotropic scattering. The subgroup method is used for the resonance treatment. B1 approximation has been used to obtain the criticality spectrum considering the leakage effect in the real core situation. The exponential matrix method has been used for the depletion calculation. The results of benchmark calculations show that the prediction capability of DENT-2D is comparable to the other lattice codes such as HELIOS and CASMO-3
Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W.; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W.; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M.; Wendel, Hans-Guido
2015-01-01
The lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center (GC) involution, impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination (CSR). Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects H3K4 methylation and expression of a specific set of genes including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor, and B cell receptor pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3, and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell activating pathways. PMID:26366710
Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes
Cruz Muñoz, José Luis; Navarro-Salas, José; Navarro Navarro, Miguel; Talavera, C. F.
1997-01-01
We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is suddenly switched off. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model. © Elsevier Science B.V
Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays
Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby
2003-01-01
We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....
2D gravity, random surfaces and all that
I review the recent progress in 2d gravity and discuss the new numerical simulations for 2d gravity and for random surfaces in d>2. The random surface theories of interest in d>2 have extrinsic curvature terms, and for a finite value of the extrinsic curvature coupling there seems to be a second order phase transition where the string tension scales. (orig.)
Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics
Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2016-06-01
The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.
This paper presents the quantification of resonance interference effect for multi-group effective cross-section in lattice physics calculation. In the resonance self-shielding method based on the equivalence theory, the resonance interference effect among multiple nuclides cannot be treated directly to the multi-group effective cross-section. The continuous energy or the ultra-fine-group treatment can directly consider the effect, but the application to the fuel assembly geometry is not realistic with practical computation time. In the present study, the resonance interference effect to the multi-group effective cross-section is simply quantified by the resonance interference factor (RIF) in order to confirm the benefit for considering the effect. The RIF is generated for the typical pin-cell geometry of water moderated system. The multi-group effective cross-sections with and without RIFs are compared with the continuous energy Monte-Carlo result. As a result, the significant impact for considering the resonance interference effect is confirmed to the limited nuclide, reaction type and energy group. Fortunately, these have small effect on k-infinity because the resonance interference effect is mainly induced by the wide resonances of 238U to the other minor nuclides (e.g., 235U, 239Pu) in the limited resonance energy ranges. The results also show that the effect is small to the absorption cross-section of 238U, which is the dominant resonance nuclide in the fuel. The quantification results in the present study indicate a useful material to investigate the more advanced resonance treatment for the next generation lattice physics code. (author)
A 70-group, 37-isotope library of multigroup constants for fast reactor nuclear design calculations is described. Nuclear cross sections, transfer matrices, and self-shielding factors were generated with NJOY code and an auxiliary program RGENDF using evaluated data from ENDF/B-IV. The output is being issued in a format suitable for EXPANDA code. Comparisons with JFS-2 library, as well as, test resuls for 14 CSEWG benchmark critical assemblies are presented. (Author)
Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow
In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ∼ 1
Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow
Malhotra, Chetan P. [TCS Innovation Labs - TRDDC, 54 Hadapsar Industrial Estate, Pune 411013 (India); Mahajan, Roop L. [ICTAS, College of Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, VA 24061 (United States)
2014-12-09
In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ∼ 1.
DYNA-2D, 2-D Hydrodynamic Finite Elements Method Program with Interactive Rezoning
1 - Description of program or function: DYNA2D is an explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding with friction along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning with no need for transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic-plastic, thermo- elastic-plastic, soil and crushable foam, linear visco-elastic, rubber, isotropic elastic-plastic, and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The latter two models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 60,000 elements (Cray 1), 5,000 elements (CDC7600)
Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng
2016-08-01
Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples. PMID:27378648
SNAP-3D: a three-dimensional neutron diffusion code
A preliminary report is presented describing the data requirements of a one- two- or three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP-3D. This code is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but it can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffuse approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. It is assumed the reader is familiar with the older, two-dimensional code SNAP and can refer to the report [TRG-Report-1990], describing it. The present report concentrates on the enhancements to SNAP that have been made to produce the three-dimensional version, SNAP-3D, and is intended to act a a guide on data preparation until a single, comprehensive report can be published. (author)
2D vs. 3D mammography observer study
Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent
2011-03-01
Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.
2D and 3D numerical models on compositionally buoyant diapirs in the mantle wedge
Hasenclever, Jörg; Morgan, Jason Phipps; Hort, Matthias; Rüpke, Lars H.
2011-11-01
We present 2D and 3D numerical model calculations that focus on the physics of compositionally buoyant diapirs rising within a mantle wedge corner flow. Compositional buoyancy is assumed to arise from slab dehydration during which water-rich volatiles enter the mantle wedge and form a wet, less dense boundary layer on top of the slab. Slab dehydration is prescribed to occur in the 80-180 km deep slab interval, and the water transport is treated as a diffusion-like process. In this study, the mantle's rheology is modeled as being isoviscous for the benefit of easier-to-interpret feedbacks between water migration and buoyant viscous flow of the mantle. We use a simple subduction geometry that does not change during the numerical calculation. In a large set of 2D calculations we have identified that five different flow regimes can form, in which the position, number, and formation time of the diapirs vary as a function of four parameters: subduction angle, subduction rate, water diffusivity (mobility), and mantle viscosity. Using the same numerical method and numerical resolution we also conducted a suite of 3D calculations for 16 selected parameter combinations. Comparing the 2D and 3D results for the same model parameters reveals that the 2D models can only give limited insights into the inherently 3D problem of mantle wedge diapirism. While often correctly predicting the position and onset time of the first diapir(s), the 2D models fail to capture the dynamics of diapir ascent as well as the formation of secondary diapirs that result from boundary layer perturbations caused by previous diapirs. Of greatest importance for physically correct results is the numerical resolution in the region where diapirs nucleate, which must be high enough to accurately capture the growth of the thin wet boundary layer on top of the slab and, subsequently, the formation, morphology, and ascent of diapirs. Here 2D models can be very useful to quantify the required resolution, which we
The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations
Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J E
2016-01-01
The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) n...
Materials for Flexible, Stretchable Electronics: Graphene and 2D Materials
Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Kyoungjun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee
2015-07-01
Recently, 2D materials have been intensively studied as emerging materials for future electronics, including flexible electronics, photonics, and electrochemical energy storage devices. Among representative 2D materials (such as graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides) that exhibit extraordinary properties, graphene stands out in the flexible electronics field due to its combination of high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and environmental stability. This review covers the synthesis, transfer, and characterization methods of graphene and 2D materials and graphene's application to flexible devices as well as comparison with other competing materials.
Introduction to game physics with Box2D
Parberry, Ian
2013-01-01
Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro
Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses
Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Bosca, Ryan [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); O’Daniel, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)
2014-02-15
Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must
Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments
Luiz H. K. Queiroz Júnior
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively.
Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments
Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation
2013-09-01
Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)
Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models
SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun
2007-01-01
The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.
2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)
Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)
2010-10-15
The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.
A new method for the calculation of diffusion coefficients with Monte Carlo
This paper presents a new Monte Carlo-based method for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. One distinctive feature of this method is that it does not resort to the computation of transport cross sections directly, although their functional form is retained. Instead, a special type of tally derived from a deterministic estimate of Fick's Law is used for tallying the total cross section, which is then combined with a set of other standard Monte Carlo tallies. Some properties of this method are presented by means of numerical examples for a multi-group 1-D implementation. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in general good agreement with values obtained by other methods. (author)
On the Extension of the Analytic Nodal Diffusion Solver ANDES to Sodium Fast Reactors
Ochoa Valero, Raquel; Herrero Carrascosa, José Javier; García Herranz, Nuria
2011-01-01
Within the framework of the Collaborative Project for a European Sodium Fast Reactor, the reactor physics group at UPM is working on the extension of its in-house multi-scale advanced deterministic code COBAYA3 to Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). COBAYA3 is a 3D multigroup neutron kinetics diffusion code that can be used either as a pin-by-pin code or as a stand-alone nodal code by using the analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES. It is coupled with thermalhydraulics codes such as COB...
A New Method for the Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients with Monte Carlo
Dorval, Eric
2014-06-01
This paper presents a new Monte Carlo-based method for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. One distinctive feature of this method is that it does not resort to the computation of transport cross sections directly, although their functional form is retained. Instead, a special type of tally derived from a deterministic estimate of Fick's Law is used for tallying the total cross section, which is then combined with a set of other standard Monte Carlo tallies. Some properties of this method are presented by means of numerical examples for a multi-group 1-D implementation. Calculated diffusion coefficients are in general good agreement with values obtained by other methods.
SALE-2D, 2-D Fluid Flow, Navier Stokes Equation Using Lagrangian or Eulerian Method
1 - Description of problem or function: SALE2D calculates two- dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program. 2 - Method of solution: The basic hydrodynamic part of each cycle of SALE is divided into three phases. Phase 1 is a typical explicit Lagrangian calculation in which the velocity field is updated by the effects of all forces. Phase 2 is a Newton-Raphson iteration that provides time-advanced pressures and velocities. It is used for calculations in the low-speed and even completely incompressible regimes. Phase 3 performs all the advective flux calculations. It is required for runs that are Eulerian or contain some other form of mesh rezoning. A powerful feature of SALE is the ease with which different phases can be combined to suit the requirements of individual problems
Importance of Overpressure in 2D Gas Hydrate Modeling
Hauschildt, J.; Unnithan, V.
2005-12-01
Numerical models for sub-seafloor gas hydrate formation [1],[2],[3] which describe the driving fluid transport processes only in the vertical direction, restrict the computationally expensive problem to one dimension. This assumption is only valid in regions where permeable sediments induce no overpressure and where there is little lateral variation of physical properties and boundary conditions. Local accumulations of gas hydrates or authigenic carbonates can significantly reduce the porosity and permeability. In combination with topographic and structural features, subtle but important deviations from the 1D model are considered to occur. This poster shows results obtained from a 2D finite difference model developed for describing the evolution of the gas hydrate zone in structurally complex areas. The discretisation of the terms governing the thermodynamic and transport processes is implemented explicitely in time for the advection and diffusion processes, but implicitely for phase transitions. Although the time scales for transport and phase transitions can differ by several orders of magnitude, this scheme allows for an efficient computation for model runs both over the system's equilibration period in the order of 107 yr or to resolve the effects of sea-level changes within 103 yr. A sensitivity analysis confines the parameter space relevant for hydrate formation influenced by lateral fluid flow, and results for the predicted deviations from a multi-1D model for high gas hydrate fractions and fluid flow rates are presented. References [1] M.K. Davie and B.A. Buffett. Sources of methane for marine gas hydrate: inferences from a comparison of observations and numerical models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 206:51-63, 2003. [2] W. Xu and C. Ruppell. Predicting the occurrence, distribution, and evolution of methane hydrate in porous marine sediments. Journal of Geohphysical Research, (B3):5081-5095, 1999. [3] J.B. Klauda and S.I. Sandler. Predictions of
2015-01-01
Diffusion Fundamentals is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary open-access online journal published as a part of the website Diffusion-Fundamentals.org. It publishes original research articles in the field of diffusion and transport. Main research areas include theory, experiments applications, methods and diffusion-like phenomena. The readers of Diffusion Fundamentals are academic or industrial scientists in all research disciplines. The journal aims at providing a broad forum for their c...
Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Gasse, J.-C.; Bögel, R.; Wagner, R.; Frahm, R.
2016-05-01
XAFS-experiments in transmission and reflection modes have been performed using a Pilatus 100K pixel detector. Transmission mode XAFS spectra from a Co metal foil and Co3O4 were recorded to evaluate the data quality offered by this 2D-detector. Furthermore, the pixel detector was also used to measure reflection mode grazing incidence EXAFS data. Using different regions of interest in the collected scattering patterns, we will show that the diffuse scattering can be separated for the different contributing surfaces and interfaces, allowing simultaneous investigations of surfaces and buried interfaces within multi-layered samples.
Development of a new two-dimensional Cartesian geometry nodal multigroup discrete-ordinates method
Pevey, R.E.
1982-07-01
The purpose of this work is the development and testing of a new family of methods for calculating the spatial dependence of the neutron density in nuclear systems described in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The energy and angular dependence of the neutron density is approximated using the multigroup and discrete ordinates techniques, respectively. The resulting FORTRAN computer code is designed to handle an arbitrary number of spatial, energy, and angle subdivisions. Any degree of scattering anisotropy can be handled by the code for either external source or fission systems. The basic approach is to (1) approximate the spatial variation of the neutron source across each spatial subdivision as an expansion in terms of a user-supplied set of exponential basis functions; (2) solve analytically for the resulting neutron density inside each region; and (3) approximate this density in the basis function space in order to calculate the next iteration flux-dependent source terms. In the general case the calculation is iterative due to neutron sources which depend on the neutron density itself, such as scattering interactions.
MENDF71x. Multigroup Neutron Cross Section Data Tables Based upon ENDF/B-VII.1
A new multi-group neutron cross section library has been released along with the release of NDI version 2.0.20. The library is named MENDF71x and is based upon the evaluations released in ENDF/B-VII.1 which was made publicly available in December 2011. ENDF/B-VII.1 consists of 423 evaluations of which ten are excited states evaluations and 413 are ground state evaluations. MENDF71x was created by processing the 423 evaluations into 618-group, downscatter only NDI data tables. The ENDF/B evaluation files were processed using NJOY version 99.393 with the exception of 35Cl and 233U. Those two isotopes had unique properties that required that we process the evaluation using NJOY version 2012. The MENDF71x library was only processed to room temperature, i.e., 293.6 K. In the future, we plan on producing a multi-temperature library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and compatible with MENDF71x.
MENDF71x. Multigroup Neutron Cross Section Data Tables Based upon ENDF/B-VII.1
Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gardiner, Steven J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lee, Mary Beth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-12-17
A new multi-group neutron cross section library has been released along with the release of NDI version 2.0.20. The library is named MENDF71x and is based upon the evaluations released in ENDF/B-VII.1 which was made publicly available in December 2011. ENDF/B-VII.1 consists of 423 evaluations of which ten are excited states evaluations and 413 are ground state evaluations. MENDF71x was created by processing the 423 evaluations into 618-group, downscatter only NDI data tables. The ENDF/B evaluation files were processed using NJOY version 99.393 with the exception of ^{35}Cl and ^{233}U. Those two isotopes had unique properties that required that we process the evaluation using NJOY version 2012. The MENDF71x library was only processed to room temperature, i.e., 293.6 K. In the future, we plan on producing a multi-temperature library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and compatible with MENDF71x.
Definition and analysis of heavy water reactor benchmarks for testing new multigroup libraries
A set of heavy water reactor benchmarks has been selected for testing new WIMS-D libraries. The libraries were constricted using data from ENDF/B-VI, Release 7, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2.2 evaluated nuclear data files. The benchmarks cover a wide variety of reactor types and conditions, from fresh fuel to high burnup, and for natural and enriched uranium and Th-U fuels. The main parameters compared are the effective multiplication factor and other integral parameters, and isotopic composition of actinides on burnup cases. Besides, further investigations related with energy spectra used for preparation of WIMS-D libraries when applied on HWTR reactor calculations are included. Mostly of the benchmarks show a good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated values for all libraries. One exception is Th232 benchmark, were it is found that a library with JEND-3.2 Th232 data produces better results than ENDF/B-VI, R.7 and JEF-2.2 Th232 data. Results are slightly improved when HWTR spectra are used for weighting function to prepare the multi-group cross sections. This work is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Coordinated Research Project on 'Final Stage of WIMS-D Library Update Project'. (author)
A novel hybrid weighting scheme for multi-group cross section collapsing
Multi-group cross section library generation plays an important role in deterministic transport simulations. In this paper, a new fine-group to broad-group cross section collapsing method is introduced. Rather than a traditional flux weighting, the new method uses a hybrid weighing scheme to collapse the scattering cross section matrix. Based upon a matrix analysis approach, we generalize different weighting schemes and derive the new hybrid weighting scheme, which mathematically shows that it is rational for the scattering cross section to be weighted by the (1) forward fluxes of the incoming/in-bound neutron groups and (2) the adjoint functions of the outgoing/out-bound neutron energy groups. This approach also makes physical sense, since it conserves the “importance flow” of particles through scattering while collapsing cross sections. To conserve the reaction rates at the same time, we re-normalize the hybrid weighted scattering cross section to the original library total scattering reaction rate. We demonstrate that the hybrid weighting scheme is more accurate, especially for the detector response simulation problem in a Dual-Range Coincidence Counter (DRCC) 3-D SN transport model. (author)
Krylov sub-space methods for K-eigenvalue problem in 3-D multigroup neutron transport
The K-eigenvalue problem in nuclear reactor physics is often formulated in the framework of Neutron Transport Theory. The fundamental mode solution of this problem is usually obtained by the Power Iteration method. The present report is concerned with the use of a Krylov Sub-Space method. called ORTHOMIN, to obtain a more efficient solution of the K-eigenvalue problem. A matrix-free approach is proposed which can be easily implemented by using a transport code which can perform fixed source calculations. The Power Iteration and ORTHOMIN schemes are compared for two realistic 3-D multi-group cases: an LWR benchmark and the AHWR Critical Facility. The within-group iterations over self-scattering source are required in the solution of K-eigenvalue problem. They are also accelerated using another Krylov method called Conjugate Gradient method. In this work, the discretisation of Transport Equation is based on fmite-differencing and Sn-method and isotropic scattering is considered. (author)
Sanjukta Pookulangara
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This study examined channel-migration behavior using a decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior with crossover effects in brick-and-mortar stores and the Internet. An online survey was administered at four research sites (N = 547 and factor analysis and structural equation modeling, with multigroup analysis, were utilized for data analysis. Hedonic beliefs did not influence either of the channels, whereas, utilitarian beliefs were significant predictors in both brick-and-mortar stores and the Internet. Additionally, normative beliefs did not influence subjective norms in either of the channels, while self-efficacy influenced perceived behavioral control (PBC in both the channels. Attitude and subjective norms influenced channel-migration intentions for both channels; whereas, PBC was a significant predictor of channel-migration intentions on the Internet only. The crossover effects of normative beliefs and subjective norms on attitude was significant for the Internet. The crossover effects for subjective norms and PBC on attitude was significant for brick-and-mortar stores. Attitude toward channel migration from the Internet to brick-and-mortar stores yielded a negative influence.
Stability analysis of multi-group deterministic and stochastic epidemic models with vaccination rate
We discuss in this paper a deterministic multi-group MSIR epidemic model with a vaccination rate, the basic reproduction number ℛ0, a key parameter in epidemiology, is a threshold which determines the persistence or extinction of the disease. By using Lyapunov function techniques, we show if ℛ0 is greater than 1 and the deterministic model obeys some conditions, then the disease will prevail, the infective persists and the endemic state is asymptotically stable in a feasible region. If ℛ0 is less than or equal to 1, then the infective disappear so the disease dies out. In addition, stochastic noises around the endemic equilibrium will be added to the deterministic MSIR model in order that the deterministic model is extended to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations. In the stochastic version, we carry out a detailed analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic model. In addition, regarding the value of ℛ0, when the stochastic system obeys some conditions and ℛ0 is greater than 1, we deduce the stochastic system is stochastically asymptotically stable. Finally, the deterministic and stochastic model dynamics are illustrated through computer simulations. (general)
Development of a new two-dimensional Cartesian geometry nodal multigroup discrete-ordinates method
The purpose of this work is the development and testing of a new family of methods for calculating the spatial dependence of the neutron density in nuclear systems described in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The energy and angular dependence of the neutron density is approximated using the multigroup and discrete ordinates techniques, respectively. The resulting FORTRAN computer code is designed to handle an arbitrary number of spatial, energy, and angle subdivisions. Any degree of scattering anisotropy can be handled by the code for either external source or fission systems. The basic approach is to (1) approximate the spatial variation of the neutron source across each spatial subdivision as an expansion in terms of a user-supplied set of exponential basis functions; (2) solve analytically for the resulting neutron density inside each region; and (3) approximate this density in the basis function space in order to calculate the next iteration flux-dependent source terms. In the general case the calculation is iterative due to neutron sources which depend on the neutron density itself, such as scattering interactions
JSD1000: multi-group cross section sets for shielding materials
A multi-group cross section library for shielding safety analysis has been produced by using ENDF/B-IV. The library consists of ultra-fine group cross sections, fine-group cross sections, secondary gamma-ray production cross sections and effective macroscopic cross sections for typical shielding materials. Temperature dependent data at 300, 560 and 900 K have been also provided. Angular distributions of the group to group transfer cross section are defined by a new method of ''Direct Angular Representation'' (DAR) instead of the method of finite Legendre expansion. The library designated JSD1000 are stored in a direct access data base named DATA-POOL and data manipulations are available by using the DATA-POOL access package. The 3824 neutron group data of the ultra-fine group cross sections and the 100 neutron, 20 photon group cross sections are applicable to shielding safety analyses of nuclear facilities. This report provides detailed specifications and the access method for the JSD1000 library. (author)
Development of a 3D multigroup program for Dancoff factor calculation in pebble bed reactors
Highlights: • Development of a 3D Monte Carlo based code for pebble bed reactors. • Dancoff sensitivity to clad, moderator and fuel cross sections is considered. • Sensitivity of Dancoff to number of energy groups is considered. • Sensitivity of Dancoff to number of fuel and their arrangement is considered. • Excellent agreements vs. MCNP code. - Abstract: The evaluation of multigroup constants in reactor calculations depends on several parameters. One of these parameters is the Dancoff factor which is used for calculating the resonance integral and flux depression in the resonance region in heterogeneous systems. In the current paper, a computer program (MCDAN-3D) is developed for calculating three dimensional black and gray Dancoff coefficients, based on Monte Carlo, escape probability and neutron free flight methods. The developed program is capable to calculate the Dancoff factor for an arbitrary arrangement of fuel and moderator pebbles. Moreover this program can simulate fuels with homogeneous and heterogeneous compositions. It might generate the position of Triso particles in fuel pebbles randomly as well. It could calculate the black and gray Dancoff coefficients since fuel region might have different cross sections. Finally, the effects of clad and moderator are considered and the sensitivity of Dancoff factor with fuels arrangement variation, number of TRISO particles and neutron energy has been studied
2-D Model for the Description of Thermal Diffusion Cloud Chambers: Description and First Results
Stratmann, F.; Wilck, M.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří
2001-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 47 (2001), s. 11641-11648. ISSN 1089-5647 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/97/1198 Grant ostatní: NSF-NATO(XX) DGE-98-04534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : pressure * backround gases * condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.379, year: 2001
Bernstein dual-Petrov-Galerkin method: application to 2D time fractional diffusion equation
Jani, Mostafa; Babolian, Esmail
2016-01-01
In this paper, we develop a dual-Petrov-Galerkin method using Bernstein polynomials. The method is then implemented for the numerical simulation of the two-dimensional subdiffusion equation. The method is based on a finite difference discretization in time and a spectral method in space utilizing a suitable compact combinations of dual Bernstein basis as the test functions and the Bernstein polynomials as the trial ones. We derive the exact sparse operational matrix of differentiation for the dual Bernstein basis which provides a matrix-based approach for spatial discretization of the problem. It is also shown that the proposed method leads to banded linear systems. Finally some numerical examples are provided to show the efficiency and accuracy of the method.
Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model
Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2009-05-18
The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.
Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic
Jian-Hua Li
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.
Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing
Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar
2015-08-01
Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.
Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D
Gogotsi, Yury
2015-11-01
The unique properties of 2D materials, such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides, have been attracting much attention in the past decade. Now, metallically conductive and even superconducting transition metal carbides are entering the game.
2d quantum gravity and black hole formation
The quantum integral of generic 2d quantum gravity can be performed exactly. The equivalence of dilaton theories to 2d theories with torsion and the use of a light cone gauge are crucial. Scalar matter can be treated perturbatively. A generalization of the Polyakov action emerges. For scattering of scalars in a flat background already in the tree approximation for the first time the intermediate formation of a black hole is observed in an ab initio quantum gravity computation
Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution
Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.
2006-01-01
We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive and ...... this form of factorization. The developed algorithms have been used for source separation and music transcription....
Excitation of 2D plasmons in Cs/W(110)
Benemanskaya, G V; Frank-Kamenetskaya, G E
2001-01-01
One studied the evolution of surface photoemission spectra for Cs/W(110) system at metastable Cs coatings exceeding monolayer. One showed possibility to observe 2D plasmons by means of threshold photoemission spectroscopy. One detected three photoemission peaks characterized by complicated behavior depending on Cd adsorption dose. The nature of peaks may be related to plasmon photoinduced excitation in quasi-2D Cs clusters, surface Cs plasmon and interface Cs-W plasmon
QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity
Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov;
2009-01-01
activity relationship (QSAR) modelling systems. They cross validated (leave-groups-out) with concordances of 71%, 81% and 82%, respectively. Discrete organic European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) chemicals were screened to predict an approximate percentage of CYP 2D6...... substrates. These chemicals are potentially present in the environment. The biological importance of the CYP 2D6 and the use of the software mentioned above were discussed....
The Branching of Graphs in 2-d Quantum Gravity
Harris, M. G.
1996-01-01
The branching ratio is calculated for three different models of 2d gravity, using dynamical planar phi-cubed graphs. These models are pure gravity, the D=-2 Gaussian model coupled to gravity and the single spin Ising model coupled to gravity. The ratio gives a measure of how branched the graphs dominating the partition function are. Hence it can be used to estimate the location of the branched polymer phase for the multiple Ising model coupled to 2d gravity.
Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic
Jian-Hua Li; Yi-Wen Wang; Yi Chen; Meng Zhang
2013-01-01
Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations) are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements). Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcode...
The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity
Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.
2006-01-01
Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a (generalized) Lorentzian spacetime. This motivates a map between the parameter spaces of the two theories, under which their propagators get identified. In two dimensions, Lorentzian quantum gravity ca...
Full text: The principal nuclear design tools available to the shielding designer include diffusion approximation, transport theory, and Monte Carlo techniques. Full transport theory or Monte Carlo methods are routinely used for shielding analyses, where penetration investigations are more sensitive to directional aspects. However, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the coupled neutron-gamma Albedo method particularly as applied to problems of shielding analysis. The multigroup Albedo method is applied to coupled neutron-gamma radiations considering 'n' neutron energy groups and 'g' gamma energy groups to estimate the probabilities of transmission through, absorption in, and reflection from shieldings composed by multiple material layers, 'm' slabs, in which no fission occurs. In this study, these energy groups were selected in order to minimize upscattering effects of the radiation from lower energy groups to higher energy groups. However, neutrons of all energies are assumed to generate gammas of all energies. The reflection coefficient or Albedo is defined as the current of the reflected radiation divided by the incident radiation current. The absorption coefficient is defined as the rate at which radiation is lost by absorption per second divided by the amount of incident radiation per second. The transmission coefficient is defined as the current of the transmitted radiation divided by the incident radiation current. The interaction probabilities can be arranged in matrix form where the rows indicate the energy group of the incident radiation and the columns indicate the energy group of the radiation after interaction. Thus, each material has 3 sets of distinct matrices, for the interactions neutron-neutron (N-N), neutron-gamma (N-G) and gamma-gamma (G-G). Each set is composed by 3 matrices, giving a total of 9 matrices per material. The first matrix set is for scattering/downscattering of neutrons (N-N); the next set is for scattering/downscattering of
Sparse Non-negative Tensor 2D Deconvolution (SNTF2D) for multi channel time-frequency analysis
Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.
2006-01-01
We recently introduced two algorithms for sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (SNMF2D) that are useful for single channel source separation and music transcription. We here extend this approach to the analysis of the log-frequency spectrograms of a multichannel recording. The model...... algorithms are demonstrated to successfully identify the components of both artificially generated as well as real stereo music....
Development of ultra-fast 2D ion Doppler tomography using image intensified CMOS fast camera
Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Yamanaka, Haruki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; TS-group Team
2015-11-01
The world fastest novel time-resolved 2D ion Doppler tomography diagnostics has been developed using fast camera with high-speed gated image intensifier (frame rate: 200kfps. phosphor decay time: ~ 1 μ s). Time evolution of line-integrated spectra are diffracted from a f=1m, F/8.3 and g=2400L/mm Czerny-Turner polychromator, whose output is intensified and recorded to a high-speed camera with spectral resolution of ~0.005nm/pixel. The system can accommodate up to 36 (9 ×4) spatial points recorded at 5 μs time resolution, tomographic reconstruction is applied for the line-integrated spectra, time-resolved (5 μs/frame) local 2D ion temperature measurement has been achieved without any assumption of shot repeatability. Ion heating during intermittent reconnection event which tends to happen during high guide field merging tokamak was measured around diffusion region in UTST. The measured 2D profile shows ion heating inside the acceleration channel of reconnection outflow jet, stagnation point and downstream region where reconnected field forms thick closed flux surface as in MAST. Achieved maximum ion temperature increases as a function of Brec2 and shows good fit with MAST experiment, demonstrating promising CS-less startup scenario for spherical tokamak. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H05750 and 15K20921.
Latent heat induced rotation limited aggregation in 2D ice nanocrystals
Bampoulis, Pantelis; Kooij, E Stefan; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Poelsema, Bene
2016-01-01
The basic science responsible for the fascinating shapes of ice crystals and snowflakes is still not understood. Insufficient knowledge of the interaction potentials and the lack of relevant experimental access to the growth process are to blame for this failure. Here, we study the growth of fractal nanostructures in a two-dimensional (2D) system, intercalated between mica and graphene. Based on our Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) data we provide compelling evidence that these fractals are 2D ice. They grow while they are in material contact with the atmosphere at 20 $^{\\circ}$C and without significant thermal contact to the ambient. The growth is studied in-situ, in real time and space at the nanoscale. We find that the growing 2D ice nanocrystals assume a fractal shape, which is conventionally attributed to Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA). However, DLA requires a low mass density mother phase, in contrast to the actual currently present high mass density mother phase. Latent heat effects and conse...
An effective depression filling algorithm for DEM-based 2-D surface flow modelling
D. Zhu
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The surface runoff process in fluvial/pluvial flood modelling is often simulated employing a two-dimensional (2-D diffusive wave approximation described by grid based digital elevation models (DEMs. However, this approach may cause potential problems when using the 2-D surface flow model which exchanges flows through adjacent cells, with conventional sink removal algorithms which also allow for flow exchange along diagonal directions, due to the existence of artificial depression in DEMs. In this paper, we propose an effective method for filling artificial depressions in DEM so that the problem can be addressed. We firstly analyse two types of depressions in DEMs and demonstrate the issues caused by the current depression filling algorithms using the surface flow simulations from the MIKE SHE model built for a medium-sized basin in Southeast England. The proposed depression-filling algorithm for 2-D overland flow modelling is applied and evaluated by comparing the simulated flows at the outlet of the catchment represented by DEMs at various resolutions (50 m, 100 m and 200 m. The results suggest that the existence of depressions in DEMs can substantially influence the overland flow estimation and the new depression filling algorithm is shown to be effective in tackling this issue based upon the comparison of simulations for sink-dominated and sink-free DEMs, especially in the areas with relatively flat topography.
In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.
Sun, Boqin
2007-05-01
In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778
2D-patterning of self-assembled silver nanoisland films.
Chervinskii, Semen; Reduto, Igor; Kamenskii, Alexander; Mukhin, Ivan S; Lipovskii, Andrey A
2016-04-12
The paper is dedicated to the recently developed by the authors technique of silver nanoisland growth, allowing self-arrangement of 2D-patterns of nanoislands. The technique employs silver out-diffusion from ion-exchanged glass in the course of annealing in hydrogen. To modify the silver ion distribution in the exchanged soda-lime glass we included the thermal poling of the ion-exchanged glass with a profiled electrode as an intermediate stage of the process. The resulting consequence consists of three steps: (i) during the ion exchange of the glass in the AgxNa1-xNO3 (x = 0.01-0.15) melt we enrich the subsurface layer of the glass with silver ions; (ii) under the thermal poling, the electric field displaces these ions deeper into the glass under the 2D profiled anodic electrode, the displacement is smaller under the hollows in the electrode where the intensity of the field is minimal; (iii) annealing in a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen results in silver out-diffusion only in the regions corresponding to the electrode hollows, as a result silver forms nanoislands following the shape of the electrode. Varying the electrode and mode of processing allows governing the nanoisland size distribution and self-arrangement of the isolated single nanoislands, pairs, triples or groups of several nanoislands-so-called plasmonic molecules. PMID:26765367
WESSELINGH, JA
1993-01-01
In this paper I first briefly look at diffusion in several controlled release devices. I have found that these exploit complicated diffusional mechanisms. These cannot be understood using the conventional description of diffusion. So, a general theory of multicomponent diffusion which can describe t
Fukuyama, Hidenao
Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.
APPLE, Plot of 1-D Multigroup Neutron Flux and Gamma Flux and Reaction Rates from ANISN
A - Description of problem or function: The APPLE-2 code has the following functions: (1) It plots multi-group energy spectra of neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes calculated by ANISN, DOT-3.5, and MORSE. (2) It gives an overview plot of multi-group neutron fluxes calculated by ANISN and DOT-3.5. The scalar neutron flux phi(r,E) is plotted with the spatial parameter r linear along the Y-axis, logE along the X-axis and log phi(r,E) in the Z direction. (3) It calculates the spatial distribution and region volume integrated values of reaction rates using the scalar flux calculated with ANISN and DOT-3.5. (4) Reaction rate distribution along the R or Z direction may be plotted. (5) An overview plot of reaction rates or scalar fluxes summed over specified groups may be plotted. R(ri,zi) or phi(ri,zi) is plotted with spatial parameters r and z along the X- and Y-axes in an orthogonal coordinate system. (6) Angular flux calculated by ANISN is rearranged and a shell source at any specified spatial mesh point may be punched out in FIDO format. The shell source obtained may be employed in solving deep penetration problems with ANISN, when the entire reactor system is divided into two or more parts and the neutron fluxes in two adjoining parts are connected by using the shell source. B - Method of solution: (a) The input data specification is made as simple as possible by making use of the input data required in the radiation transport code. For example, geometry related data in ANISN and DOT are transmitted to APPLE-2 along with scalar flux data so as to reduce duplicity and errors in reproducing these data. (b) Most the input data follow the free form FIDO format developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and used in the ANISN code. Furthermore, the mixture specifying method used in ANISN is also employed by APPLE-2. (c) Libraries for some standard response functions required in fusion reactor design have been prepared and are made available to users of the 42-group neutron
MORSE-EMP, Monte-Carlo Neutron and Gamma Multigroup Transport with Array Geometry, for PC
A - Description of program or function: MORSE-CGA was developed to add the capability of modeling rectangular lattices for nuclear reactor cores or for multi-partitioned structures. It thus enhances the capability of the MORSE code system. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. It has been designed as a tool for solving most shielding problems. Through the use of multigroup cross sections, the solution of neutron, gamma-ray, or coupled neutron-gamma-ray problems may be obtained in either the forward or adjoint mode. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. Isotropic or anisotropic scattering up to a P16 expansion of the angular distribution is allowed. B - Method of solution: Monte Carlo methods are used to solve the forward and the adjoint transport equations. Quantities of interest are then obtained by summing the contributions over all collisions, and frequently over most of phase space. Standard multigroup cross sections, such as those used in discrete ordinates codes, may be used as input; either CCC-254/ANISN, CCC-42/DTF-IV, or CCC-89/DOT cross section formats are acceptable. Anisotropic scattering is treated for each group-to-group transfer by utilizing a generalized Gaussian quadrature technique. The Morse code is organised into functional modules with simplified interfaces such that new modules may be incorporated with reasonable ease. The modules are (1) random walk, (2) cross section, (3) geometry, (4) analysis, and (5) diagnostic. The MARS module allows the efficient modeling of complex lattice geometries. Computer memory requirements are minimized because fewer body specifications are needed and nesting and repetition of arrays is allowed. While the basic MORSE code assumes the analysis module is user-written, a general analysis package, SAMBO is included. SAMBO handles some
The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations
Daniel, F; Punanova, A; Harju, J; Faure, A; Roueff, E; Sipilä, O; Caselli, P; Güsten, R; Pon, A; Pineda, J E
2016-01-01
The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH$_2$D. We present 30m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines, as well as APEX o/p-NH$_2$D observations of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting due to the $^{14}$N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ and 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines, the latter being larger by a factor of $\\sim$1.6$\\pm0.3$. Such a large difference is...
Failure Mechanism of True 2D Granular Flows
Nguyen, Cuong T; Fukagawa, R
2015-01-01
Most previous experimental investigations of two-dimensional (2D) granular column collapses have been conducted using three-dimensional (3D) granular materials in narrow horizontal channels (i.e., quasi-2D condition). Our recent research on 2D granular column collapses by using 2D granular materials (i.e., aluminum rods) has revealed results that differ markedly from those reported in the literature. We assume a 2D column with an initial height of h0 and initial width of d0, a defined as their ratio (a =h0/d0), a final height of h , and maximum run-out distance of d . The experimental data suggest that for the low a regime (a 0.65), the ratio of a to (d-d0)/d0, h0/h , or d/d0 is expressed by power-law relations. In particular, the following power-function ratios (h0/h=1.42a^2/3 and d/d0=4.30a^0.72) are proposed for every a >0.65. In contrast, the ratio (d-d0)/d0=3.25a^0.96 only holds for 0.651.5. In addition, the influence of ground contact surfaces (hard or soft beds) on the final run-out distance and destru...
Ultrafast 2D NMR: An Emerging Tool in Analytical Spectroscopy
Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio
2014-06-01
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry—from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications.
KOREAN MOBILE OPERATORS' VALUE MAP FOR LTE D2D
Taisiya Kim
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Managing the wireless data traffic is a main concern for mobile network operators in Information of Things (IoT environment. Long Term Evolution Device to Device (LTE D2D is regarding as a solution for the spectrum problem. It will bring an impact on providers and the whole mobile environment. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the role of key players, who share spectrum with mobile operators, and to present the value map of relationship among Korean mobile operators and other key players in LTE D2D discovery (commercial channel, as complicated relationships of key players are expected. Then, this study suggests scenario for ‘Targeted Advertising’ service of LTE D2D. LTE D2D is early discussion stage and scenario has limitation of specific business model. However, results of this study are significant for the present stage and provide implications for future researches on strategies for LTE D2D environment.
Theoretical transition probabilities between the lowest 2S, 2P and 2D states of Na, K, Rb and Cs
Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Partridge, H.
1985-01-01
Theoretical transition probabilities between the lowest 2S, 2P and 2D states of the alkali atoms Na through Cs have been computed using near Hartree-Fock quality Slater basis sets. The important core-valence correlation effects are incorporated explicitly by a configuration-interaction procedure. For Cs, the calculations were repeated using a Gaussian basis set so that relativistic effects could be incorporated through an effective core potential procedure. The best calculated electric quadrupole Einstein coefficients are Na(196.3/s), K(103.6/s), Rb(72.4/s) and Cs(19.7/s). Core-valence effects become increasingly important down the column, and reduce the quadrupole transition strengths to about the same degree as for the 2P-2S and 2D-2P dipole-allowed transitions. Relativistic effects increase the quadrupole moment of Cs, but less so than in Ba, presumably because the alkali 2D states are more diffuse.
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO
PUFF-III: A Code for Processing ENDF Uncertainty Data Into Multigroup Covariance Matrices
PUFF-III is an extension of the previous PUFF-II code that was developed in the 1970s and early 1980s. The PUFF codes process the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) covariance data and generate multigroup covariance matrices on a user-specified energy grid structure. Unlike its predecessor, PUFF-III can process the new ENDF/B-VI data formats. In particular, PUFF-III has the capability to process the spontaneous fission covariances for fission neutron multiplicity. With regard to the covariance data in File 33 of the ENDF system, PUFF-III has the capability to process short-range variance formats, as well as the lumped reaction covariance data formats that were introduced in ENDF/B-V. In addition to the new ENDF formats, a new directory feature is now available that allows the user to obtain a detailed directory of the uncertainty information in the data files without visually inspecting the ENDF data. Following the correlation matrix calculation, PUFF-III also evaluates the eigenvalues of each correlation matrix and tests each matrix for positive definiteness. Additional new features are discussed in the manual. PUFF-III has been developed for implementation in the AMPX code system, and several modifications were incorporated to improve memory allocation tasks and input/output operations. Consequently, the resulting code has a structure that is similar to other modules in the AMPX code system. With the release of PUFF-III, a new and improved covariance processing code is available to process ENDF covariance formats through Version VI
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang
2012-10-01
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
Zhu Zhen-Tao; Zhou Jing; Li Ping; Chen Xing-Guang
2012-01-01
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces:(i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness.Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes,i.e.,a deadlock regime,a convergence regime,and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics.The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to.In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network,both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord,instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p.125 Fig.5),project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations,which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests,nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO.The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO.It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.
PUFF-III: A Code for Processing ENDF Uncertainty Data Into Multigroup Covariance Matrices
Dunn, M.E.
2000-06-01
PUFF-III is an extension of the previous PUFF-II code that was developed in the 1970s and early 1980s. The PUFF codes process the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) covariance data and generate multigroup covariance matrices on a user-specified energy grid structure. Unlike its predecessor, PUFF-III can process the new ENDF/B-VI data formats. In particular, PUFF-III has the capability to process the spontaneous fission covariances for fission neutron multiplicity. With regard to the covariance data in File 33 of the ENDF system, PUFF-III has the capability to process short-range variance formats, as well as the lumped reaction covariance data formats that were introduced in ENDF/B-V. In addition to the new ENDF formats, a new directory feature is now available that allows the user to obtain a detailed directory of the uncertainty information in the data files without visually inspecting the ENDF data. Following the correlation matrix calculation, PUFF-III also evaluates the eigenvalues of each correlation matrix and tests each matrix for positive definiteness. Additional new features are discussed in the manual. PUFF-III has been developed for implementation in the AMPX code system, and several modifications were incorporated to improve memory allocation tasks and input/output operations. Consequently, the resulting code has a structure that is similar to other modules in the AMPX code system. With the release of PUFF-III, a new and improved covariance processing code is available to process ENDF covariance formats through Version VI.
PACER-IBM: A two dimensional Monte Carlo multigroup program for the IBM personal computer
PACER-IBM is a Monte Carlo computer program written in BASIC at Bettis for the IBM personal computer. This program is capable of solving simple two dimensional neutron transport problems in X - Y geometry. The space - energy neutron flux distribution over the energy range of 10 MeV to 0 eV is calculated using fixed source starts within the source regions of the solution geometry. PACER-IBM accesses multigroup cross sections which have been prepared using the CDC-7600 program RCPL1, a program to prepare neutron and photon cross section libraries for RCP01, and down loaded from the CDC-7600. Neutron behavior in the PC program is simulated by a random walk, a process that is identical to that used in the CDC-7600 Monte Carlo program PACER. A neutron's location in phase space, i.e.., its position, direction, and energy is selected randomly and the neutron is tracked through the solution geometry (in free flight) until a collision occurs. In the collision analysis new neutron direction and energy are selected randomly based upon probabilities determined from basic neutron cross section data. The tracking process and the collision analysis is continued until a termination event, such as absorption, leakage, or slowing down below a specified energy, occurs. The set of calculations for one neutron from source to termination is called a neutron history. A large number of histories is processed to estimate the space-energy neutron flux. Comparisons of results with CDC-7600 PACER solutions are favorable for several two dimensional test problems. 2 refs
2D materials for photon conversion and nanophotonics
Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.
2015-09-01
The field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has the potential to enable unique applications across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. While 2D-layered materials hold promise for next-generation photon-conversion intrinsic limitations and challenges exist that shall be overcome. Here we discuss the intrinsic limitations as well as application opportunities of this new class of materials, and is sponsored by the NSF program Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program, which links to the President's Materials Genome Initiative. We present general material-related details for photon conversion, and show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling MoS2/graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for solar absorption up to 90%.
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-09-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.
Design and Realization of Dynamic Obstacle on URWPSSim2D
Xiao Chen
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Simulation system is charged with the strategy validation and dual team meets, and as the 2-dimensional simulation platform for underwater robotic fish game, URWPGSim2D is the assigned platform for Chinese underwater robot contest and Robot cup underwater program. By now on URWPGSim2D, there is only static obstacles，thus short of changeableness. In order to improve the changeableness and innovation of robotic fish contest, to extend the space for the programming of contest strategy, and to increase the interest, this paper study the design of dynamic obstacles on URWPGSim2D, and design and implement two kinds of dynamic obstacles, which are the evadible dynamic obstacle and the forcing dribbling obstacle.
CYP2D6 genotype determination in the Danish population
Brøsen, K; Nielsen, P N; Brusgaard, K;
1994-01-01
CYP2D6 genotyping was carried out by XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and polymerase chain reaction in 168 healthy Danish volunteers, 77 extensive metabolizers (EM) and 91 poor metabolizers (PM) of sparteine. All EM were genotyped correctly as heterozygous or homozygous for.......11-9.10). The median difference was 0.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.16). CYP2D6 phenotyping is a promising tool in tailoring the individual dose of tricyclic antidepressants, some neuroleplics and some antiarrhythmics. However if the genotype test could be improved with regard to both sensitivity in PM...... and the ability to predict CYP2D6 activity in EM then it would be of even greater clinical value in therapeutic drug monitoring. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-null...
Statistical mechanics on a 2D-random surface
Various geometrical models first defined in the Euclidean plane or on a regular lattice have been briefly reviewed, including self-avoiding walks, random walk intersections, percolation and Ising clusters. These systems embody infinite sets of field operators defined in a natural way from the (fractal) geometry of these fluctuating critical systems. Their scaling behavior can be linked to that of associated conformal field theories. These systems can also all be redefined on a random lattice or surface, instead of on a regular 2D lattice. They are then coupled to ''quantum gravity'', and live on the ''world-sheet''. The fact that all their new exponents on a random surface can then be related to those in the usual 2D-plane, although now well known in string theory, is worth publicizing in this Physics in 2D conference. We illustrate it by some exact solutions in the case of polymers and branched polymers (animals) on a random fluid surface. (author)
Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects
Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad
2014-11-01
We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.
S-duality and 2d Topological QFT
Gadde, Abhijit; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S
2009-01-01
We study the superconformal index for the class of N=2 4d superconformal field theories recently introduced by Gaiotto. These theories are defined by compactifying the (2,0) 6d theory on a Riemann surface with punctures. We interpret the index of the 4d theory associated to an n-punctured Riemann surface as the n-point correlation function of a 2d topological QFT living on the surface. Invariance of the index under generalized S-duality transformations (the mapping class group of the Riemann surface) translates into associativity of the operator algebra of the 2d TQFT. In the A_1 case, for which the 4d SCFTs have a Lagrangian realization, the structure constants and metric of the 2d TQFT can be calculated explicitly in terms of elliptic gamma functions. Associativity then holds thanks to a remarkable symmetry of an elliptic hypergeometric beta integral, proved very recently by van de Bult.
2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits
Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.
2016-01-01
Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.
Axial transport solvers for the 2D/1D scheme in MPACT
The MPACT code being developed collaboratively at the University of Michigan (UM) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides users with a variety of deterministic methods for solving the 2D and 3D Boltzmann transport equation. One of these methods, the 2D/1D technique, decomposes 3D problems into a 1D axial stack of 2D radial planes. In this scheme, the 2D planes are typically solved using a method such as the Method of Characteristics (MOC) to preserve the geometric heterogeneity in the radial direction. These planes are incorporated into a 1D axial solver, which can use a variety of methods. This work demonstrates the use of the traditional nodal methods for solving the 1D axial problem (finite difference, NEM, SANM, SP3), but also introduces a discrete ordinates (Sn) solver which uses up to cubic Legendre expansion spatially and can also incorporate higher order angular distributions of the radial transverse leakage. Several test cases are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the solvers for various axial sizes. The first three are the 3D-C5G7 extension benchmark cases. The fourth case is a single quarter assembly benchmark problem with explicit nozzle, plenum, and core plate modelling known as AMA Problem 3. The final case is a quarter core benchmark problem that is an extension of the quarter assembly problem known as AMA Problem 5. In general, the diffusion-based axial solvers perform very well, though higher-order solvers provide some benefit in more difficult problems, particularly rodded cases. (author)
Lena Nusser
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on measurement invariance of the assessment of educationally relevant constructs via written questionnaires for students at special schools and at low track schools attending 5th grade. To examine optimal conditions of administration for students with special educational needs in the area of learning an experimental design was implemented. If accommodated questionnaires, different school enrollments as well as competence differences allow equivalent assessment of reading motivation and academic self-concepts will be investigated with multi-group comparison of confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicate that comparisons between groups of students at special schools and low track schools are meaningful for certain constructs.
It is well known that the temperature and background dependent neutron cross-sections are conventionally represented, in a problem-independent multigroup cross-section set, by specifying, for each group and reaction, the unshielded cross-section along with a set of self-shielding factors for various background cross-sections and temperatures. Usually the unshielded group cross-section is assumed to be independent of temperature. The observation presented in this paper, with examples, shows that the unshielded cross-section could significantly depend on temperature, depending on the group boundaries. (author)
MUDE is a nuclear code written in FORTRAN II for IBM 7090-7094. It resolves a system of difference equations approximating to the one-dimensional multigroup neutron scattering problem. More precisely, this code makes it possible to: 1. Calculate the critical condition of a reactor (keff, critical radius, critical composition) and the corresponding fluxes; 2. Calculate the associated fluxes and various subsidiary results; 3. Carry out perturbation calculations; 4. Study the propagation of fluxes at a distance; 5. Estimate the relative contributions of the cross sections (macroscopic or microscopic); 6. Study the changes with time of the composition of the reactor. (authors)
CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail
Roueff, Evelyne; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lis, Dariusz C.; Wootten, Alwyn; Marcelino, Nuria; Cernicharo, Jose; Tercero, Belen
2013-10-01
CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of Kelvin, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+, and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.
CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail
Roueff, E; Lis, D C; Wootten, A; Marcelino, N; cernicharo, J; Tercero, B
2013-01-01
CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of K, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+ and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils
Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control
Pellenard, Bertrand
2011-12-01
We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.