WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2-d flux synthesis

  1. VSOP, Neutron Spectra, 2-D Flux Synthesis, Fuel Management, Thermohydraulics Calculation

    flux for 1515 compositions in 2-D cases, r-z (9999 compositions in 3-D cases, x-y-z). The burnup scheme has been developed from the FEVER code. The build-up history of up to 49 fission product nuclides in the compositions is followed explicitly. The diffusion part of the program system can be repeated at many short burnup time steps, and the spectrum module can be repeated at larger time steps, when some significant change in the spectrum is expected. The fuel management and cost module performs the fuel shuffling and general evaluations of the reactor and fuel element life history. The fuel management simulates the currently known shuffling and out of pile routes for various reactors. It has further been extended to include the typical features of the pebble bed reactor such as burnup dependent optional reloading of elements, separated treatment of different fuel streams, and recycling in new fuel element types according to a consistent mass balance and timing. Optionally, several different types of data files can be set up with characteristic data of the reactor life. These are used for more detailed investigations and display programs. The restart option allows the study of special phases of the reactor life, e.g. changes of the fueling scheme, of the burnup, of the power output, of the coolant temperature, and of the corresponding reactivity effects. The fuel cycle cost data set is made for the present worth KPD code. Two-dimensional thermal hydraulics studies for operating and emergency conditions can be performed with the THERMIX code. The averaged temperatures of the different spectrum zones in the core are returned from the thermal hydraulics to the subsequent step of the reactor history. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: In epithermal energy range the cell spectrum calculation is missing. If needed, it must be simulated by disadvantage factors being obtained in other codes. Further, dynamic common must be defined for the commons VARDIM, COCI

  2. Synthesis of 2D materials in arc plasmas

    In this article we review recent efforts focused on synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) materials in an arc-plasma based process with particular focus on graphene. We present state-of-the-art experimental data on various attempts to employ the arc plasma technique for the graphene synthesis and consider growth mechanisms including precipitation, surface-catalyzed processes and a substrate-independent approach. The potential of arc synthesis for the growth of other types of 2D materials and future prospects are discussed. (review article)

  3. Evaluation of flux synthesis algorithms

    The flux synthesis algorithm which is the best fit to the numerical solution of the multigroup diffusion equations, was determined. Three different types of synthesis were studied: 1) discontinuous synthesis 2) continuous synthesis 3) pseudo-continuous synthesis. A matrix and a differential formulation were developed for the first two types of synthesis. For pseudo-continuous synthesis only the matrix formulation was used. Some tests were performed and the results allowed us to establish the following order of efficiency for the algorithms: 1) continuous synthesis (matrix formulation) 2) continuous synthesis (differential formulation) 3) pseudo-continuous synthesis 4) discontinuous synthesis (matrix formulation) 5) discontinuous synthesis (differential formulation). (Author)

  4. A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Turley, W.D. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations)

    1991-07-01

    This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A SUBARRAY-SYNTHESIS BASED 2D DOA ESTIMATION METHOD

    Xu Wenlong; Jiang Wei; Li Zengfu; Shang Yong; Xiang Haige

    2006-01-01

    In some satellite communications, we need to perform Direction Of Arrival (DOA) angle estimation under the restriction that the number of receivers is less than that of the array elements in an array antenna.To solve the conundrum, a method named subarray-synthesis-based Two-Dimensional DOA (2D DOA) angle estimation is proposed. In the method, firstly, the array antenna is divided into a series of subarray antennas based on the total number of receivers; secondly, the subarray antennas' output covariance matrices are estimated; thirdly, an equivalent covariance matrix is synthesized based on the subarray output covariance matrices; then 2D DOA estimation is performed. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the estimation method is effective.

  6. A Module for Radiation Hydrodynamic Calculations With ZEUS-2D Using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    Turner, N J

    2001-01-01

    A module for the ZEUS-2D code is described which may be used to solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order unity in v/c, in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. In this approximation, the tensor Eddington factor f which closes the radiation moment equations is chosen to be an empirical function of radiation energy density. This is easier to implement and faster than full-transport techniques, in which f is computed by solving the transfer equation. However, FLD is less accurate when the flux has a component perpendicular to the gradient in radiation energy density, and in optically thin regions when the radiation field depends strongly on angle. The material component of the fluid is here assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy equations are operator-split, with transport terms, radiation diffusion term, and other source terms evolved separately. Transport terms are applied using the same consistent transport algorithm as in ZEUS-2D. The radiation diffusion term is...

  7. Photorealistic image synthesis and camera validation from 2D images

    Santos Ferrer, Juan C.; González Chévere, David; Manian, Vidya

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene reconstruction technique using the Unity 3D game engine. The method presented here allow us to reconstruct the shape of simple objects and more complex ones from multiple 2D images, including infrared and digital images from indoor scenes and only digital images from outdoor scenes and then add the reconstructed object to the simulated scene created in Unity 3D, these scenes are then validated with real world scenes. The method used different cameras settings and explores different properties in the reconstructions of the scenes including light, color, texture, shapes and different views. To achieve the highest possible resolution, it was necessary the extraction of partial textures from visible surfaces. To recover the 3D shapes and the depth of simple objects that can be represented by the geometric bodies, there geometric characteristics were used. To estimate the depth of more complex objects the triangulation method was used, for this the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters were calculated using geometric camera calibration. To implement the methods mentioned above the Matlab tool was used. The technique presented here also let's us to simulate small simple videos, by reconstructing a sequence of multiple scenes of the video separated by small margins of time. To measure the quality of the reconstructed images and video scenes the Fast Low Band Model (FLBM) metric from the Video Quality Measurement (VQM) software was used. Low bandwidth perception based features include edges and motion.

  8. LWR fuel reactivity depletion verification using 2D full-core MOC and flux map data

    Experimental quantification of PWR fuel reactivity (k-infinity) burnup decrement biases and uncertainties using in-core flux map data from operating power reactors has previously been conducted employing analytical methods to systematically determine experimental fuel reactivities that best match measured fission rate distributions. This optimal core reactivity distribution that best matches the measured fission rate distribution is assumed to be associated with the true fuel reactivity distribution. Some parties have questioned whether fortuitous cancellation of errors between various approximations inherent in the 3D nodal diffusion core analysis models might have caused reactivity decrement biases and uncertainties to be unrealistically small. In this study, the BEAVRS benchmark is modeled with both 2D, full-core, multi-group transport calculations and 2-group nodal diffusion calculations. The calculated in-core detector U-235 fission rates are compared with measured fission rates supplied in the benchmark. The same analytical methods previously mentioned are again used to obtain fuel reactivity biases and uncertainties. Results demonstrate that fuel batch reactivities inferred from flux map data using full-core transport calculations are nearly identical to those inferred using nodal diffusion calculations. Consequently, nodal methods do not contribute significantly to reactivity decrement biases in the BEAVRS cores. It is recommended that fuel reactivity biases and uncertainties inferred from 3D nodal diffusion calculations remain valid. (author)

  9. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna. PMID:19880733

  10. Computation of neutron fluxes in clusters of fuel pins arranged in hexagonal assemblies (2D and 3D)

    For computations of fluxes, we have used Carvik's method of collision probabilities. This method requires tracking algorithms. An algorithm to compute tracks (in 2D and 3D) has been developed for seven hexagonal geometries with cluster of fuel pins. This has been implemented in the NXT module of the code DRAGON. The flux distribution in cluster of pins has been computed by using this code. For testing the results, they are compared when possible with the EXCELT module of the code DRAGON. Tracks are plotted in the NXT module by using MATLAB, these plots are also presented here. Results are presented with increasing number of lines to show the convergence of these results. We have numerically computed volumes, surface areas and the percentage errors in these computations. These results show that 2D results converge faster than 3D results. The accuracy on the computation of fluxes up to second decimal is achieved with fewer lines. (authors)

  11. Reconstruction of the incident flux shape on the plasma-facing components of JET tokamak: 2D linear approach; Reconstruction de la forme du flux incident sur les composants face au plasma du tokamak JET: approche 2D lineaire

    Gardarein, J.L.; Corre, Y.; Reichle, R. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rigollet, F.; Le Niliot, Ch. [Universite de Provence (IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595), 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, a deconvolution of the temperatures measured with thermocouples fitted inside the plasma-facing components of a controlled fusion machine is performed. A 2D pulse response is used which is obtained by the thermal quadrupole method. The shape and intensity of the plasma flux deposited at the surface of the component is calculated and some experimental results are presented. (J.S.)

  12. A primary reduced TCA flux governs substrate oxidation in T2D skeletal muscle

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    , rendering it difficult to determine the contribution of heritable factors to the alteration in oxidative metabolism. Cultured human myotubes offer a unique model to distinguish between primary and environmental factors in the etiology of insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to summarise our...... studies on substrate oxidation in human myotubes established from lean, obese and T2D subjects, especially focusing on whether the increased respiratory quotient seen in T2D subjects is based on primary traits and whether changes in substrate oxidation may have a common explanation. Obtained results add...

  13. Reconstruction of the incident flux shape on the plasma-facing components of JET tokamak: 2D linear approach

    In this work, a deconvolution of the temperatures measured with thermocouples fitted inside the plasma-facing components of a controlled fusion machine is performed. A 2D pulse response is used which is obtained by the thermal quadrupole method. The shape and intensity of the plasma flux deposited at the surface of the component is calculated and some experimental results are presented. (J.S.)

  14. Evaluation of microlithographic performance of `deep UV’ resists: Synthesis, and 2D NMR studies on alternating `high ortho’ novolak resins

    Maneesh Sharma; Anant A Naik; P Raghunathan; S V Eswaran

    2012-03-01

    Lithographic evaluation of a `deep UV’ negative photoresist is discussed along with the synthesis of an alternating `high-ortho’ novolak resin. 2-D NMR studies (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC) on this resin are also discussed.

  15. Condensing momentum modes in 2-d 0A string theory with flux

    We use a combination of conformal perturbation theory techniques and matrix model results to study the effects of perturbing by momentum modes two dimensional type 0A strings with non-vanishing Ramond-Ramond (RR) flux. In the limit of large RR flux (equivalently, μ = 0) we find an explicit analytic form of the genus zero partition function in terms of the RR flux q and the momentum modes coupling constant α. The analyticity of the partition function enables us to go beyond the perturbative regime and, for α >> q, obtain the partition function in a background corresponding to the momentum modes condensation. For momenta such that 0 < p < 2 we find no obstruction to condensing the momentum modes in the phase diagram of the partition function

  16. A combined sensor for simultaneous high resolution 2-D imaging of oxygen and trace metals fluxes

    Stahl, Henrik; Warnken, Kent W.; Sochaczewski, Lukasz;

    2012-01-01

    (0.2 mu m) chelating resin and records the locally induced trace metal flux during the deployment, whereas the planar optode resolves the O-2 dynamic in near real time at the same location in the sediment. Despite its ultrathin composition, the DGT layer has high carrying capacity for trace metals...

  17. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  18. Facial Sketch Synthesis Using 2D Direct Combined Model-Based Face-Specific Markov Network.

    Tu, Ching-Ting; Chan, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Chung

    2016-08-01

    A facial sketch synthesis system is proposed, featuring a 2D direct combined model (2DDCM)-based face-specific Markov network. In contrast to the existing facial sketch synthesis systems, the proposed scheme aims to synthesize sketches, which reproduce the unique drawing style of a particular artist, where this drawing style is learned from a data set consisting of a large number of image/sketch pairwise training samples. The synthesis system comprises three modules, namely, a global module, a local module, and an enhancement module. The global module applies a 2DDCM approach to synthesize the global facial geometry and texture of the input image. The detailed texture is then added to the synthesized sketch in a local patch-based manner using a parametric 2DDCM model and a non-parametric Markov random field (MRF) network. Notably, the MRF approach gives the synthesized results an appearance more consistent with the drawing style of the training samples, while the 2DDCM approach enables the synthesis of outcomes with a more derivative style. As a result, the similarity between the synthesized sketches and the input images is greatly improved. Finally, a post-processing operation is performed to enhance the shadowed regions of the synthesized image by adding strong lines or curves to emphasize the lighting conditions. The experimental results confirm that the synthesized facial images are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the input images as well as the ground-truth sketches provided by the same artist. The representing power of the proposed framework is demonstrated by synthesizing facial sketches from input images with a wide variety of facial poses, lighting conditions, and races even when such images are not included in the training data set. Moreover, the practical applicability of the proposed framework is demonstrated by means of automatic facial recognition tests. PMID:27244737

  19. Theoretical benchmarking of laser-accelerated ion fluxes by 2D-PIC simulations

    Mackenroth, Felix; Marklund, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    There currently exists a number of different schemes for laser based ion acceleration in the literature. Some of these schemes are also partly overlapping, making a clear distinction between the schemes difficult in certain parameter regimes. Here, we provide a systematic numerical comparison between the following schemes and their analytical models: light-sail acceleration, Coulomb explosions, hole boring acceleration, and target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). We study realistic laser parameters and various different target designs, each optimized for one of the acceleration schemes, respectively. As a means of comparing the schemes, we compute the ion current density generated at different laser powers, using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, and benchmark the particular analytical models for the corresponding schemes against the numerical results. Finally, we discuss the consequences for attaining high fluxes through the studied laser ion-acceleration schemes.

  20. Synthesis and structure of high-quality films of copper polyphthalocyanine – 2D conductive polymer

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 2D polymers show a big promise for science and technology. • We develop a new procedure for the direct synthesis of copper polyphthalocyanine. • We obtain reliable experimental data on the CuPPC structure. • With the support of quantum chemical calculations we describe electronic structure of CuPPC. - Abstract: Copper polyphthalocyanine (CuPPC), a 2D conjugated polymer, is a promising material for electronics and photovoltaics, but its applications were hindered by a poor processability. We propose an experimental approach, by which thin films of CuPPC, can be directly synthesized in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) set-up at mild temperature (420 °C). High polymerization degree and high crystallinity of the films were confirmed by TEM, FTIR and UV–vis studies. From XRD and TEM electron diffraction, we conclude that the polymer has AA layer stacking with the inter-layer distance of 0.32 nm. The assignment of X-ray and TEM diffraction patterns was based on quantum-chemical calculations. Based on the latter, we also discuss electronic structure and conclude that CuPPC is rather a semi-metal than semi-conductor

  1. The effect of temperature in flux-assisted synthesis of SnNb2O6

    Noureldine, D.; Takanabe, K.

    2014-10-01

    A flux-assisted method was used to synthesize SnNb2O6 as a visible-light-responsive metal oxide photocatalyst. The role of synthesis temperature was investigated in detail using different reaction temperatures (300, 500, 600, 800, 1000 °C). The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The synthesis with SnCl2 as a flux led to tin niobate particles in the platelet morphology with smooth surfaces. The synthesized crystal showed 2D anisotropic growth along the (600) plane as the flux ratio increased. The particles synthesized with a high reactant to flux ratio (1:10 or higher) exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution from an aqueous methanol solution under visible radiation (λ > 420 nm).

  2. The effect of temperature in flux-assisted synthesis of SnNb2O6

    Noureldine, D.

    2014-10-03

    A flux-assisted method was used to synthesize SnNb2O6 as a visible-light-responsive metal oxide photocatalyst. The role of synthesis temperature was investigated in detail using different reaction temperatures (300, 500, 600, 800, 1000 °C). The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The synthesis with SnCl2 as a flux led to tin niobate particles in the platelet morphology with smooth surfaces. The synthesized crystal showed 2D anisotropic growth along the (600) plane as the flux ratio increased. The particles synthesized with a high reactant to flux ratio (1:10 or higher) exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution from an aqueous methanol solution under visible radiation (λ > 420 nm). © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. 2D aperture synthesis for Lamb wave imaging using co-arrays

    Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2014-03-01

    2D ultrasonic arrays in Lamb wave based SHM systems can operate in the phased array (PA) or synthetic focusing (SF) mode. In the real-time PA approach, multiple electronically delayed signals excite transmitting elements to form the desired wave-front, whereas receiving elements are used to sense scattered waves. Due to that, the PA mode requires multi channeled hardware and multiple excitations at numerous azimuths to scan the inspected region of interest. To the contrary, the SF mode, assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing of the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the SF technique, a single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Performance of a 2D imaging array depends on many parameters, such as, its topology, number of its transducers and their spacing in terms of wavelength as well as the type of weighting function (apodization). Moreover, it is possible to use sparse arrays, which means that not all array elements are used for transmitting and/ or receiving. In this paper the co-array concept is applied to facilitate the synthesis process of an array's aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum co-array is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual elements' locations in the sub-arrays used for imaging. The coarray framework will be presented here using two different array topologies, aID uniform linear array and a cross-shaped array that will result in a square coarray. The approach will be discussed in terms of array patterns and beam patterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both, theoretical and experimental results will be given.

  4. An iterative method for evaluation of flux distribution in 1D and 2D geometries using superposition of contributions from sources and sinks

    Neutron Flux distribution in nuclear reactors is very important and is normally calculated by solving numerically the neutron diffusion equations. Source and sink method provides an alternate approach for analyzing neutron flux distribution using contributions from sources which is positive and sinks which is negative. The paper studies an iterative procedure for neutron flux distribution in simple uniform 1D and 2D multiplying geometries using point and line kernel formulas in an infinite medium. Core geometry is divided in equal nodes and superposition of source contribution from the nodes is calculated at the each point. The source contribution is recalculated with new flux profile and procedure is repeated iteratively till a pre-set convergence criterion is achieved for the final flux distribution. It is found that for a simple 1D geometry, the final flux distribution matches very well with theoretical cosine distribution and for the 2D geometry simulating circular cross-section of a cylindrical reactor, the flux distribution is not as good and shows some dispersion due to convergence problems. However, the maximum to average flux attains a value close that expected for the J0 Bessel distribution. A method for extension of the method to absorbing sink nodes like absorber rods and calculation of the reactivity of the system is also presented. (author)

  5. Modelling the Process of Induction Heating in Volume of a Bar Strip Using Flux 2D Software, coupled with Minitab Experimental Design Software

    CODREAN Marius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this optimization is the identification of optimal parameters for processing the workpiece (the OLC45 steel bar, using inductive heating in volume. Flux 9.3.2 software, in 2D plan, has been employed in order to perform numerical simulations, while Minitab software has been used to determine optimal parameters.

  6. Multilevel power distribution synthesis for a movable flux mapping system

    A Computer Software package has been developed to support the synthesis of the 3-dimensional power distribution from detector signals from a movable flux mapping system. The power distribution synthesis is based on methodology developed for fixed incore detectors. The full core solution effectively couples all assemblies in the core whether they are instrumented or not. The solution is not subject to approximations for the treatment of assemblies where a measurement cannot be made and provides an accurate representation of axial variations which may be induced by axial blankets, burnable absorber cut back regions and axially zoned flux suppression rods

  7. Design and synthesis of novel tamoxifen analogues that avoid CYP2D6 metabolism.

    Ahmed, Nermin S; Elghazawy, Nehal H; ElHady, Ahmed K; Engel, Matthias; Hartmann, Rolf W; Abadi, Ashraf H

    2016-04-13

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a widely used drug in the prophylaxis and treatment of breast cancer. TAM is metabolized to the more active 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-TAM) and endoxifen by cytochrome P450 (CYP) mainly CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Due to the genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 genes, high variation in the clinical outcomes of TAM treatment is observed among women of different populations. To address this issue, novel TAM analogues with possible altered activation pathways were synthesized. These analogues were tested for their antiproliferative action on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines as well as their binding affinity for estrogen receptor (ER) ER-α and ER-β receptors. These entire novel compounds showed better antiproliferative activity than did TAM on the MCF-7 cells. Moreover, compound 10 exhibited a half maximal growth inhibition (GI50) that was 1000 times more potent than that of TAM (GI50 < 0.005 μM vs 1.58 μM, respectively). Along with a broad spectrum activity on various cancer cell lines, all the TAM analogues showed considerable activity on the ER-negative breast cancer cell line. For further study, compound 10 was incubated in human liver microsomes (HLM), human hepatocytes (hHEP) and CYP2D6 supersomes. The active hydroxyl metabolite was detected after incubation in HLM and hHEP, implicating the involvement of other enzymes in its metabolism. These results prove that this novel series of TAM analogues might provide improved clinical outcomes for poor 2D6 metabolizers. PMID:26896706

  8. Comparison of neutron fluxes obtained by 2-D and 3-D geometry with different shielding libraries in biological shield of the TRIGA MARK II reactor

    Neutron fluxes in different spatial locations in biological shield are obtained with TORT code (TORT-Three Dimensional Oak Ridge Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code). Libraries used with TORT code were BUGLE-96 library (coupled library with 47 neutron groups and 20 gamma groups) and VITAMIN-B6 library (coupled library with 199 neutron groups and 42 gamma groups). BUGLE-96 library is derived from VITAMIN-B6 library. 2-D and 3-D models for homogeneous type of problem (without inserted beam port 4) and problem with asymmetry (non-homogeneous problem; inserted beam port 4, filled with different materials) were of interest for neutron flux calculation. The main purpose is to verify the possibility for using 2-D approximation model instead of large 3-D model in some calculations. Another purpose of this paper was to compare neutron spectral constants obtained from neutron fluxes (3-D model) determined with smaller BUGLE-96 library with new constants obtained from fluxes calculated with bigger VITAMIN-B6 library. These neutron spectral constants are used in isotopic calculation with SCALE code package (ORIGEN-S). In past only neutron spectral constants determined by neutron fluxes from BUGLE-96 library were used. Experimental results used for isotopic composition comparison are available from irradiation experiment with selected type of concrete and other materials in beam port 4 (irradiation channel 4) in TRIGA Mark II reactor. These experimental results were used as a benchmark in this paper. (author)

  9. Synthesis, Cytotoxic Activity and 2D-QSAR Study of Some Imidazoquinazoline Derivatives

    Hanan Georgey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 4-substituted amino-7,8-dimethoxy-1-phenylimidazo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H-one derivatives was designed, synthesized and tested for their antitumor activity against a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF7. Compound 5a was found to be the most active derivative. Physico-chemical parameters were also determined and revealed that most of the compounds obeyed the “rule of five” properties with good absorption percentages. 2D-QSAR studies revealed a well predictive and statistically significant and cross validated QSAR model that helps to explore some expectedly potent compounds.

  10. Flux-assisted synthesis of SnNb2O6 for tuning photocatalytic properties

    Noureldine, Dalal

    2014-01-01

    A flux-assisted method was used to synthesize SnNb2O6 as a visible-light-responsive metal oxide photocatalyst. The role of flux was investigated in detail using different flux to reactant molar ratios (1 : 1, 3 : 1, 6 : 1, 10 : 1, and 14 : 1) and different reaction temperatures (300, 500, and 600 °C). The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET), and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Flux-assisted synthesis led to tin niobate particles of platelet morphology with smooth surfaces. The synthesized crystal showed a 2D anisotropic growth along the (600) plane as the flux ratio increased. The particles synthesized with a high reactant to flux ratio (1 : 10 or higher) exhibited slightly improved photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution from an aqueous methanol solution under visible radiation (λ > 420 nm). The photo-deposition of platinum and PbO2 was examined to gain a better understanding of electrons and hole migration pathways in these layered materials. The HR-STEM observation revealed that no preferential deposition of these nanoparticles was observed depending on the surface facets of SnNb 2O6. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  11. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a New 2D Coordination Polymer [Cu(pzta)2]n

    HU,Xin; LIU,Cong; WANG,Yongjiang; GUO,Jixi

    2009-01-01

    A new copper(Ⅱ)tetrazolate coordination polymer[Cu(pzta)2]n (1)(pzta=5-pyrazinyltetrazolate)was prepared from the hydrothermal reaction of Cu(OAc)2,·H2O with NaN3 and pyrazinecarbonitrile(pzCN)in the presence of ethanol,and characterized by elemental analysis,IR,TGA and X-ray crystallography.The X-ray diffraction analysis of 1 shows that the compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P2(1)/c and Cu(Ⅱ)ion center is six-coordinated by four different pzta ligands.The complex 1 features a 2D tetrazole coordination polymer.The thermal analysis of 1 shows that the decomposition of the complex OCCURS in two regions.

  12. Comparison of 2-D DORT synthesis with 3-D TORT in the calculation of excore detector response

    The method of Dynamic Rod Worth Measurement (DRWM) requires the three dimensional mesh-wise weighting factors to the excore detector in evaluating its response. Three-dimensional mesh-wise weighting factors are used to obtain the excore detector response by multiplying them by the fission neutron density from the transient calculation due to the rod position change. These factors can be obtained from the solution of three-dimensional adjoint transport equation. DORT, two-dimensional SN transport code, synthesis method and TORT, three-dimensional SN transport code can be used for the adjoint flux. Since TORT requires very time consuming calculation, we showed if DORT synthesis method could replace TORT as a standard procedure in the DRWM. We applied the weighting factors from two methods to YGN-3 cycle-6 Bank-5. We showed that there was well agreement between two methods in the excore detector response ratios

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Behavior of 2d Hybrid Coordination Polymer

    Fan, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lin; Shi, Weidong; Chen, Fuxiao; Bai, Hongye; Song, Shuyan; Yan, Yongsheng

    2013-06-01

    A novel metal-organic coordination polymer [Cu(phen)(L)0.5(H2O)]n (H4L = (N,N‧-5,5‧-bis(isophthalic acid)-p-xylylenediamine, and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystallographic data show that the title compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 10.682(2), b = 15.682(3), c = 11.909(2) Å, β = 91.39(3)°, V = 1994.3(7) Å3, C24H17CuN3O5, Mr = 490.95, Dc = 1.635 g/cm3, F(000) = 1004, Z = 4, μ(MoKα) = 1.141 mm-1, the final R = 0.0418 and wR = 0.0983 for 3578 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). The structural analyses reveal that the title compound exhibits shows a 2D layer structure, which are further linked by hydrogen bonding interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular network. In addition, the thermal stability and electrochemical behavior of title compound has been studied. CCDC: 900413.

  14. Gender and ethnicity specific generic elastic models from a single 2D image for novel 2D pose face synthesis and recognition.

    Heo, Jingu; Savvides, Marios

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for generating a realistic 3D human face from a single 2D face image for the purpose of synthesizing new 2D face images at arbitrary poses using gender and ethnicity specific models. We employ the Generic Elastic Model (GEM) approach, which elastically deforms a generic 3D depth-map based on the sparse observations of an input face image in order to estimate the depth of the face image. Particularly, we show that Gender and Ethnicity specific GEMs (GE-GEMs) can approximate the 3D shape of the input face image more accurately, achieving a better generalization of 3D face modeling and reconstruction compared to the original GEM approach. We qualitatively validate our method using publicly available databases by showing each reconstructed 3D shape generated from a single image and new synthesized poses of the same person at arbitrary angles. For quantitative comparisons, we compare our synthesized results against 3D scanned data and also perform face recognition using synthesized images generated from a single enrollment frontal image. We obtain promising results for handling pose and expression changes based on the proposed method. PMID:22201062

  15. Flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement on the 2-D slice for boric acid and TSP solution

    The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slice test section. The radius of the curvature and the channel area of the test section were 0.15 m and 0.03 mx0.03 m, respectively. The objectives are to assess the effects of additives (TSP, boric acid) and heated material (SA508) in inclination angle 90° and to investigate flow boiling CHF enhancement resulting from various working fluids of 5000 ppm tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4∙12H2O) solution, 4000 ppm boric acid solution and mixture solution of TSP and boric acid. Boric acid solution didn't show CHF enhancement and TSP and mixture solution showed CHF enhancement (20~34%). (author)

  16. A coupled 2$\\times$2D Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo model. I. Surface magnetic flux evolution

    Lemerle, Alexandre; Carignan-Dugas, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The need for reliable predictions of the solar activity cycle motivates the development of dynamo models incorporating a representation of surface processes sufficiently detailed to allow assimilation of magnetographic data. In this series of papers we present one such dynamo model, and document its behavior and properties. This first paper focuses on one of the model's key components, namely surface magnetic flux evolution. Using a genetic algorithm, we obtain best-fit parameters of the transport model by least-squares minimization of the differences between the associated synthetic synoptic magnetogram and real magnetographic data for activity cycle 21. Our fitting procedure also returns Monte Carlo-like error estimates. We show that the range of acceptable surface meridional flow profiles is in good agreement with Doppler measurements, even though the latter are not used in the fitting process. Using a synthetic database of bipolar magnetic region (BMR) emergences reproducing the statistical properties of ...

  17. Inverse Estimation of Time-varied Heat Flux and Temperature on 2-D GunBarrel using Input Estimation Method with Finite-element Scheme

    Tsung-Chien Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When a gun fires, a large amount of heat flux is triggered by the propellant gas acting onthe gun barrel inner wall, leading to the rise of temperature, which will cause serious destruction.In this paper, an inverse method based on the input-estimation method including the finiteinverse heat conduction problem (IHCP element scheme to inverse estimate the unknown heatflux on the 2-D gun barrel has been presented. The use of the online accuracy to inverselyestimate the unknown heat flux on the chamber has been made using 7.62 mm gun barrel outerwall temperature measurement data. Using simulation uniform and non-uniform heat flux q(z,tcases involves a gun barrel inner wall that varies with time t and the axial z-location with convectionsituation in the outer surface. Computational results show that the proposed method exhibitsa good estimation performance and highly facilitates practical implementation.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(1, pp.57-76, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1623

  18. Volcanic SO2 and SiF4 visualization using 2-D thermal emission spectroscopy – Part 2: Wind propagation and emission fluxes

    R. Harig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The technique for measuring two-dimensional (2-D plumes of volcanic gases with thermal emission spectroscopy was described in Part 1 by Stremme et al. (2012. In that paper the instrumental aspects as well as retrieval strategies for obtaining the slant column images of SO2 and SiF4, as well as animations of particular events observed at the Popocatépetl volcano, were presented. This work focuses on the procedures for determining the propagation speed of the gases and estimating an emission flux from the given image sequences. A 2-D column density distribution of a volcanic gas, available as time-consecutive frames, provides information of a wind-field and the average velocity at which the volcanic plume is propagating. The presented reconstruction method solves the equation of continuity as an ill-posed problem using mainly a Tikhonov-like regularization. It is observed from the available data sets that if the main direction of propagation is perpendicular to the line-of-sight, the algorithm works well for SO2 which has the strongest signals, and also for SiF4 in some favourable cases. Due to the similarity of the algorithm used here with the reconstruction methods used for profile retrievals based on optimal estimation theory, diagnostic tools like the averaging kernels can be calculated analogously and the information can be quantified as degrees of freedom. Thus, it is shown that the combination of wind-field and column distribution of the gas plume can provide the emission flux of the volcano both during day and night.

  19. Kinetically Relevant Steps and H2/D2 Isotope Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Fe and Co Catalysts

    Ojeda, Manuel; Li, Anwu; Nabar, Rahul P.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Iglesia, Enrique

    2010-11-25

    H2/D2 isotope effects on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) rate and selectivity are examined here by combining measured values on Fe and Co at conditions leading to high C5+ yields with theoretical estimates on model Fe(110) and Co(0001) surfaces with high coverages of chemisorbed CO (CO*). Inverse isotope effects (rH/rD < 1) are observed on Co and Fe catalysts as a result of compensating thermodynamic (H2 dissociation to H*; H* addition to CO* species to form HCO*) and kinetic (H* reaction with HCO*) isotope effects. These isotopic effects and their rigorous mechanistic interpretation confirm the prevalence of H-assisted CO dissociation routes on both Fe and Co catalysts, instead of unassisted pathways that would lead to similar rates with H2 and D2 reactants. The small contributions from unassisted pathways to CO conversion rates on Fe are indeed independent of the dihydrogen isotope, as is also the case for the rates of primary reactions that form CO2 as the sole oxygen rejection route in unassisted CO dissociation paths. Isotopic effects on the selectivity to C5+ and CH4 products are small, and D2 leads to a more paraffinic product than does H2, apparently because it leads to preference for chain termination via hydrogen addition over abstraction. These results are consistent with FTS pathways limited by H-assisted CO dissociation on both Fe and Co and illustrate the importance of thermodynamic contributions to inverse isotope effects for reactions involving quasi-equilibrated H2 dissociation and the subsequent addition of H* in hydrogenation catalysis, as illustrated here by theory and experiment for the specific case of CO hydrogenation.

  20. Heteroarylether 1,3-diarylureas in the thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine series as VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors : synthesis, docking studies, enzymatic and cellular assays

    Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Peixoto, Daniela; Soares, Pedro; Abreu, Rui M. V.; Froufe, Hugo J. C.; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Costa, Raquel; Soares, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    A number of thienopyrimidines derivatives have shown potent YEGFR2 (Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor Receptor2) inhibition activity [ 1]. YEGF is a surrogate marker of angiogenesis that activates VEGFR2 in endothelial cells. VEGF induces proliferation, migration and anastomosis of these cells. Here we present the synthesis of new l-aryl-3-[4-(thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yloxy)phenyl]ureas, by reaction of 4-aminophenol with 4-chlorothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine giving compound 1, which wa...

  1. Synthesis of a derivative of α-D-Glcp(1->2-D-Galf suitable for further glycosylation and of α-D-Glcp(1->2-D-Gal, a disaccharide fragment obtained from varianose

    Carla Marino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of galactofuranoyl units in infectious microorganisms has prompted the study of the metabolic pathways involved in their incorporation in glycans. Although much progress has been made with respect to the biosynthesis of β-D-Galf-containing glycoconjugates, the mechanisms by which α-D-Galf units are incorporated remain unclear. Penicillium varians is a non-pathogenic fungus that produces varianose, a polysaccharide containing both α- and β-D-Galf units, which can be used as a model for biosynthetic studies on α-D-Galf incorporation. Synthetic oligosaccharide fragments related to varianose are useful as potential substrates or standards for characterization of the α-galactofuranosyl transferases. In this paper we report a straightforward procedure for the synthesis of α-D-Glcp(1→2-D-Gal (1 and the use of this compound to monitor the natural disaccharide released from varianose by mild acid degradation. The synthesis, performed by the glycosylaldonolactone approach, involved a glucosylgalactofuranose derivative, suitable for the synthesis of higher oligosaccharides with an internal D-Galf.

  2. Production of high energy and low flux protons using 2D(3He,p)4He for space detector calibrations

    Wang, Y. Q.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Tesmer, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    In this report, we want to demonstrate that besides the conventional use for elemental analysis and depth profiling by ion beam analysis (IBA), particles generated through ion-solid interactions in IBA may find other novel and important applications. Specifically, we use Rutherford backscattered and nuclear reaction produced high energy proton particles to calibrate an energetic particle subsystem (called ZEP) of the Space and Atmospheric Burst Reporting System (SABRS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To simulate low radiation flux in the space, we have devised an experiment that uses an ultrathin (∼51.8 nm) self-support gold foil to scatter a proton beam from a 3 MV Tandem accelerator into the ZEP subsystem. Direct backscattering from the thin gold foil produces proton particles with tunable energies of 0.2-6.0 MeV and desired counting rates of <10 kHz. To extend the proton particle energy beyond the Tandem's limit of 6 MeV, a high Q-value nuclear reaction, 2D + 3He → p + 4He + 18.352 MeV, was used. This reaction allows us to obtain as high as 25.6 MeV proton particles on our 3 MV tandem accelerator, more than 4 times as high as the accelerator's maximum proton beam energy, and has greatly extended our proton energy range for this calibration activity. Preliminary ZEP subsystem calibration results are presented.

  3. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land-atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of

  4. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    G. Wohlfahrt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model, and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on the production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, and stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem-level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; they are however neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow taking full

  5. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  6. Spectral synthesis provides 2-D videos on a 1-D screen with 360{\\deg}-visibility and mirror-immunity

    Grusche, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-light-modulator (SLM)-based tunable sources have complex setups. A simpler setup, comprising an SLM-projector and a dispersive element, synthesizes light as effectively, based on a Superposition of Newtonian Spectra (SNS). As a generalization of SNS, two-dimensional (2-D) grayscale videos are spectrally encoded on a one-dimensional (1-D), translucent screen, and viewed through another dispersive element. This Projected-Image Circumlineascopy (PICS) produces semitransparent, rainbow-coloured, virtual 2-D videos that face every viewer anywhere around the 1-D screen. They are invariant under reflection of the 1-D screen in mirrors parallel to it. SNS bandwidth and PICS image geometry are calculated using geometric optics and Dispersion Diagrams.

  7. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character

    Zhang, Ming-Dao, E-mail: matchlessjimmy@163.com; Zhuang, Qi-Fan; Xu, Jing; Cao, Hui, E-mail: yccaoh@hotmail.com [Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Atmospheric Environment & Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    The title complex, ([Co(BPPA)(5-OH-bdc)] · (H{sub 2}O)){sub n} was prepared under hydrothermal conditions based on two ligands, namely, bis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine (BPPA) and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (5-OH-H{sub 2}bdc). 5-OH-bdc{sup 2–} anions coordinated to Co atoms to give layers in crystal. BPPA ligands coordinate to Co atoms and thread into the adjacent layers. There are hydrogen bonds between adjacent layers, giving rise to a 2D → 3D framework.

  8. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character

    The title complex, ([Co(BPPA)(5-OH-bdc)] · (H2O))n was prepared under hydrothermal conditions based on two ligands, namely, bis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine (BPPA) and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (5-OH-H2bdc). 5-OH-bdc2– anions coordinated to Co atoms to give layers in crystal. BPPA ligands coordinate to Co atoms and thread into the adjacent layers. There are hydrogen bonds between adjacent layers, giving rise to a 2D → 3D framework

  9. Synthesis, Structure and Luminescence of a Novel 2D Cadmium Coordination Polymer with a Ligand Generated in situ

    HUANG Xi-He; SHENG Tian-Lu; XIANG Sheng-Chang; FU Rui-Biao; HU Sheng-Min; LI Ya-Min; WU Xin-Tao

    2007-01-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of 1,2-dicyanobenzene with NaN3 in the presence of Cd(NO3)2 affords a novel 2D cadmium tetrazolyl-benzoate, {Cd(tzbz)(H2O)}n (H2tzbz is 2-(5-tetrazolyl)-benzoate). The tzbz ligand is generated in situ through the [2+3] Sharpless cycloaddition reaction and hydrolyzation. Its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The crystal crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca with a = 9.6659(19), b = 7.6366(15), c = 25.964(5)(A), V= 1916.5(7) (A)3, Z= 8, Mr = 318.57, Dc =2.208 g/cm3, F(000) = 1232 and μ = 2.276 mm-1. The Cd(Ⅱ) atom is coordinated by four tzbz ligands and one water molecule to form a severely distorted pentangle bipyramid. While each tzbz ligand connects to four Cd(Ⅱl) atoms in aμ4-ηl, η2, η1, ηl, η1 coordination mode to construct a 2D architecture of the title complex. Additionally, the title complex exhibits strong fluorescence at room temperature in the solid state.

  10. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP

    Lim Mi Joung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  11. Synthesis of 1D, 2D, and 3D ZnO Polycrystalline Nanostructures Using the Sol-Gel Method

    Yung-Kuan Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed various polyol solvents to synthesize zinc oxide polycrystalline nanostructures in the form of fibers (1D, rhombic flakes (2D, and spheres (3D. The synthetic process primarily involved the use of zinc acetate dihydrate in polyol solutions, which were used to derive precursors of zinc alkoxides. Following hydrolysis at 160°C, the zinc alkoxide particles self-assembled into polycrystalline nanostructures with different morphologies. Following calcination at 500°C for 1 h, polycrystalline ZnO with good crystallinity was obtained. FE-SEM explored variations in surface morphology; XRD was used to analyze the crystalline structures and crystallinity of the products, which were confirmed as ZnO wurtzite structures. FE-TEM verified that the ZnO nanostructures were polycrystalline. Furthermore, we employed TGA/DSC to observe the phase transition. According to the results of property analyses, we proposed models of the relevant formation mechanisms. Finally, various ZnO structures were applied in the degradation of methylene blue to compare their photocatalytic efficiency.

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel 2D Coordination Polymer [Cu3(mal)2(di-2-pyridlyktone)2

    ZHANG Mei-Li; WU Ya-Pan; WANG Ji-Jiang; REN Yi-Xia; CHEN Xiao-Li

    2011-01-01

    A novel coordination polymer of CuⅡ with flexible ligands, namely, [Cu3(mal)2(di2-pyridlyktone)2] (1, H2mal = maleie acid), was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The structure indicates that the complex crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 10.268(2), b =17.737(3), c = 8.038(1) (A), β = 98.275(2)°, V = 1448.6(4) (A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.883 Mg·m-3, μ = 2.260 mm-1, F(000) = 826, and the final R = 0.0321 and wR = 0.0820. In 1, three CuⅡ centers (Cu(1),Cu(2), Cu(1A)) are bridged by two uncommonμ3-bridging H2mal ligands, furnishing a centrosymmetric trimetallic unit. Via further Cu-Ocoo coordination interactions, extention of these trimetallic units in two directions gives rise to an infinite corrugated 2D layer. In addition, thermal stability and electrochemistry of 1 were studied.

  13. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what

  14. Evaluation of various LandFlux evapotranspiration algorithms using the LandFlux-EVAL synthesis benchmark products and observational data

    Michel, Dominik; Hirschi, Martin; Jimenez, Carlos; McCabe, Mathew; Miralles, Diego; Wood, Eric; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Research on climate variations and the development of predictive capabilities largely rely on globally available reference data series of the different components of the energy and water cycles. Several efforts aimed at producing large-scale and long-term reference data sets of these components, e.g. based on in situ observations and remote sensing, in order to allow for diagnostic analyses of the drivers of temporal variations in the climate system. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the energy and water cycle, which can not be monitored directly on a global scale by remote sensing techniques. In recent years, several global multi-year ET data sets have been derived from remote sensing-based estimates, observation-driven land surface model simulations or atmospheric reanalyses. The LandFlux-EVAL initiative presented an ensemble-evaluation of these data sets over the time periods 1989-1995 and 1989-2005 (Mueller et al. 2013). Currently, a multi-decadal global reference heat flux data set for ET at the land surface is being developed within the LandFlux initiative of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). This LandFlux v0 ET data set comprises four ET algorithms forced with a common radiation and surface meteorology. In order to estimate the agreement of this LandFlux v0 ET data with existing data sets, it is compared to the recently available LandFlux-EVAL synthesis benchmark product. Additional evaluation of the LandFlux v0 ET data set is based on a comparison to in situ observations of a weighing lysimeter from the hydrological research site Rietholzbach in Switzerland. These analyses serve as a test bed for similar evaluation procedures that are envisaged for ESA's WACMOS-ET initiative (http://wacmoset.estellus.eu). Reference: Mueller, B., Hirschi, M., Jimenez, C., Ciais, P., Dirmeyer, P. A., Dolman, A. J., Fisher, J. B., Jung, M., Ludwig, F., Maignan, F., Miralles, D. G., McCabe, M. F., Reichstein, M., Sheffield, J., Wang, K

  15. Facile synthesis of 2D CuO nanoleaves for the catalytic elimination of hazardous and toxic dyes from aqueous phase: a sustainable approach.

    Bhattacharjee, Archita; Begum, Shamima; Neog, Kashmiri; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    This article reports for the first time a facile, green synthesis of 2D CuO nanoleaves (NLs) using the amino acid, namely aspartic acid, and NaOH by a microwave heating method. The amino acid acts as a complexing/capping agent in the synthesis of CuO NLs. This method resulted in the formation of self-assembled 2D CuO NLs with an average length and width of ~300-400 and ~50-82 nm, respectively. The as-synthesized 2D CuO NLs were built up from the primary CuO nanoparticles by oriented attachment growth mechanism. The CuO NLs were characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The optical properties were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy. For the first time, rose bengal and eosin Y dyes were degraded photochemically by solar irradiation using CuO NLs as a photocatalyst. The synthesized CuO NLs act as an efficient photocatalyst in the degradation of rose bengal and eosin Y dye under direct sunlight. The degradation of both the dyes, namely rose bengal and eosin Y, took place within 120 and 45 min, respectively, using CuO NLs as a photocatalyst, whereas commercial CuO, SnO2 quantum dots (QDs), and commercial SnO2 took more than 120 and 45 min for the degradation of rose bengal and eosin Y, respectively. The synthesized CuO NLs showed a superior photocatalytic activity as compared to that of commercial CuO, SnO2 QDs, and commercial SnO2. The reusability of the CuO NLs as a photocatalyst in the degradation of dyes was investigated, and it was evident that the catalytic efficiency decreases to a small extent (5-6 %) after the fifth cycle of operation. PMID:26939688

  16. "Stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework: Design, synthesis and selective sorption towards uranium at high acidic condition.

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Bo; Bai, Chiyao; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Rui; Zhang, Meicheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2016-08-15

    So far, only five primary elements (C, H, O, N and B) and two types of spatial configuration (C2-C4, C6 and Td) are reported to build the monomers for synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which have partially limited the route selection for accessing COFs with new topological structure and novel properties. Here, we reported the design and synthesis of a new "stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework (MPCOF) by using hexachorocyclotriphosphazene (a P-containing monomer in a C3-like spatial configuration) and p-phenylenediamine (a linker). The as-synthesized MPCOF shows high crystallinity, relatively high heat and acid stability and distinctive super-microporous structure with narrow pore-size distributions ranging from 1.0-2.1nm. The results of batch sorption experiments with a multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations show that in the pH range of 1-2.5, MPCOF exhibits excellent separation efficiency for uranium with adsorption capacity more than 71mg/g and selectivity up to record-breaking 92%, and furthermore, an unreported sorption capacity (>50mg/g) and selectivity (>60%) were obtained under strong acidic condition (1M HNO3). Studies on sorption mechanism indicate that the uranium separation by MPCOF in acidic solution is realized mainly through both intra-particle diffusion and size-sieving effect. PMID:27107239

  17. Volcanic SO2 and SiF4 visualization using 2-D thermal emission spectroscopy – Part 2: Wind propagation and emission fluxes

    Harig, R.; Grutter, M.; Stremme, W.; Krueger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The technique for measuring two-dimensional (2-D) plumes of volcanic gases with thermal emission spectroscopy was described in Part 1 by Stremme et al. (2012). In that paper the instrumental aspects as well as retrieval strategies for obtaining the slant column images of SO2 and SiF4, as well as animations of particular events observed at the Popocatépetl volcano, were presented. This work focuses on the procedures for determining the propagation speed of the gases and estimating an emis...

  18. The 2-oxoglutarate supply exerts significant control on the lysine synthesis flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Quezada, Héctor; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Rumjanek, Franklin D; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2013-11-01

    To determine the extent to which the supply of the precursor 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) controls the synthesis of lysine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing exponentially in high glucose, top-down elasticity analysis was used. Three groups of reactions linked by 2-OG were defined. The 2-OG supply group comprised all metabolic steps leading to its formation, and the two 2-OG consumer groups comprised the enzymes and transporters involved in 2-OG transformation into lysine and glutamate and their further utilization for protein synthesis and storage. Various 2-OG steady-state concentrations that produced different fluxes to lysine and glutamate were attained using yeast mutants with increasing activities of Krebs cycle enzymes and decreased activities of Lys synthesis enzymes. The elasticity coefficients of the three enzyme groups were determined from the dependence of the amino acid fluxes on the 2-OG concentration. The respective degrees of control on the flux towards lysine (flux control coefficients) were determined from their elasticities, and were 1.1, 0.41 and -0.52 for the 2-OG producer group and the Lys and Glu branches, respectively. Thus, the predominant control exerted by the 2-OG supply on the rate of lysine synthesis suggests that over-expression of 2-OG producer enzymes may be a highly effective strategy to enhance Lys production. PMID:24034837

  19. Synthesis of tailored 2D SiC f/SiC ceramic matrix composites with BN/C interphase through ICVI

    Udayakumar, A.; Raole, P. M.; Balasubramanian, M.

    2011-10-01

    Synthesis of 2D SiC f /SiC composites for applications in fusion reactors is a challenging task due to the stringent specification requirements on various mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties, chemical compatibility (with Pb-Li), oxidation resistance and irradiation resistance. Three types of SiC f/SiC composites with C interface and BN interface, with and without intermediate heat treatment are prepared through isothermal and isobaric chemical vapor infiltration process. Dense SiC seal coat applied to the composites has improved their oxidation resistance. The tensile, flexural and fracture toughness values of composite with BN interface were found to be improved by stabilizing the BN interface through thermal treatment. The electrical and thermal conductivity values obtained for composites with C interface are in the range of 10-29 S/m and 2.5-3.25 W/mK for the temperature range 500-900 °C as required for fusion reactor applications.

  20. Synthesis of nitrogen pools and fluxes from European forest ecosystem

    Dise, N.B.; Matzner, E.; Gundersen, P. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-07-01

    To investigate which ecosystem parameters determine the risk and magnitude of nitrate leaching the authors compiled data from published and unpublished sources on dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN:NO{sub 3}{sup -} + NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in throughfall, DIN leaching loss in runoff or seepage water, and other, and other ecosystem characteristics from 139 European forests. Not all data were available for all sites: 126 sites had at least one year`s data on DIN inputs and DIN leaching loss; 45-50 sites had some data on soil chemistry and/or vegetation pools of N. DIN inputs in throughfall range between {lt}1 and about 70 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and the losses with seepage or runoff range between {lt} 1 and 50 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Retention of N within the ecosystem increases with increasing DIN deposition and increasing proportion of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in deposition. The amount of N in needles and litterfall shows a significant linear relationship with throughfall deposition of DIN, whereas the C:N ratio of the organic (OH) horizon is uncorrelated to the level of throughfall-DIN flux. About 50% of the variability in DIN leaching loss can be explained by the flux of DIN in throughfall. Alternatively, about 60% of the variability in DIN leaching loss can be explained in a two-variable multiple regression combining the C:N ratio of the organic soil and the pH of the mineral soil. The survey data suggest that leaching of DIN from forest ecosystems in Europe is related in part to current DIN deposition and in part to the longer-term internal ecosystems N status as reflected in the chemistry of the humus and acidification status of the soil. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. 1-Aryl-3-[4-(thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yloxy)phenyl]ureas as VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors: synthesis, docking studies, enzymatic and cellular assays

    Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Peixoto, Daniela; Soares, Pedro; Abreu, Rui M. V.; Froufe, Hugo J. C.; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Costa, Raquel; Soares, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    A number of thienopyrimidines derivatives have shown potent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibition activity. Here, we present the synthesis of new 1-aryl-3-[4-(thieno[3,2-d) pyrimidin-4-yloxy)phenyl]ureas by promoting t he regioselective attack of the hydroxy group of the 4-aminophenol in the chlorine nucleophilic displacement on two 4-chlorinated thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines, obtaining compounds la and 1b which were reacted with arylisocyanates to give t he corre...

  2. Emulsion droplets as a dynamic interface for the direct and large-scale synthesis of ultrathin free-standing mesoporous silica films as well as 2D polymeric and carbon nanomaterials

    Li, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Ji, Jingwei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Chen; Yin, Xianpeng; Wang, Hui; Lan, Yue; Gao, Ning; Li, Guangtao

    2016-01-01

    The efficient synthesis of free-standing mesostructured two-dimensional (2D) nanofilms with high-yield as well as good control of composite, mesophase structure, orientation of the pore channel and thickness represents a big challenge. In this work, it was serendipitously found that microemulsion droplets of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) could serve as a novel dynamic interface for continuous growth of nanofilms. Based on this finding, a general, efficient strategy for the direct and large-scale synthesis of free-standing mesoporous silica films (FSMSFs) was developed. Remarkably, with the careful control of the synthesis conditions, the FSMSFs with high-yield as well as good control of composite, mesophase structure, orientation of the pore channel and thickness could be efficiently achievable. More importantly, by using polymerizable surfactants the preorganized monomers in the nanochannels of the resultant silica films could be further converted into 2D polymers and carbon nanomaterials as well as metal particle-decorated forms, as exemplified by using pyrrole-terminated surfactants, demonstrating a powerful method to create 2D inorganic, organic or hybrid functional nanomaterials.The efficient synthesis of free-standing mesostructured two-dimensional (2D) nanofilms with high-yield as well as good control of composite, mesophase structure, orientation of the pore channel and thickness represents a big challenge. In this work, it was serendipitously found that microemulsion droplets of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) could serve as a novel dynamic interface for continuous growth of nanofilms. Based on this finding, a general, efficient strategy for the direct and large-scale synthesis of free-standing mesoporous silica films (FSMSFs) was developed. Remarkably, with the careful control of the synthesis conditions, the FSMSFs with high-yield as well as good control of composite, mesophase structure, orientation of the pore channel and thickness could be efficiently

  3. Automatic Single-Flux-Quantum (SFQ) Logic Synthesis Method for Top-Down Circuit Design

    Single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuits provide faster operations with lower power consumption, using Josephson junctions as the switching devices. In the top-down flow of SFQ circuit design, we have already developed a place-and-route tool that covers backend circuit design. In this paper, we present an automatic SFQ logic synthesis method that covers front-end circuit design. The logic synthesis is a process that generates a gate-level logic circuit from a functional specification written in hardware description languages. In our SFQ synthesis method, after we generate an intermediate circuit with the help of a synthesis tool for semiconductor circuits, we convert it into a gate-level pipelined SFQ circuit. To do this, an automatic synthesis tool was implemented. To evaluate the effectiveness of the method and the tool, we synthesized arithmetic and logic units (ALUs). It took only two and half minutes to synthesize a 64-bit-width ALU that consisted of about 18, 000 gates

  4. Emulsion droplets as a dynamic interface for the direct and large-scale synthesis of ultrathin free-standing mesoporous silica films as well as 2D polymeric and carbon nanomaterials.

    Li, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Ji, Jingwei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Chen; Yin, Xianpeng; Wang, Hui; Lan, Yue; Gao, Ning; Li, Guangtao

    2016-01-28

    The efficient synthesis of free-standing mesostructured two-dimensional (2D) nanofilms with high-yield as well as good control of composite, mesophase structure, orientation of the pore channel and thickness represents a big challenge. In this work, it was serendipitously found that microemulsion droplets of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) could serve as a novel dynamic interface for continuous growth of nanofilms. Based on this finding, a general, efficient strategy for the direct and large-scale synthesis of free-standing mesoporous silica films (FSMSFs) was developed. Remarkably, with the careful control of the synthesis conditions, the FSMSFs with high-yield as well as good control of composite, mesophase structure, orientation of the pore channel and thickness could be efficiently achievable. More importantly, by using polymerizable surfactants the preorganized monomers in the nanochannels of the resultant silica films could be further converted into 2D polymers and carbon nanomaterials as well as metal particle-decorated forms, as exemplified by using pyrrole-terminated surfactants, demonstrating a powerful method to create 2D inorganic, organic or hybrid functional nanomaterials. PMID:26785674

  5. SYN3D: a single-channel, spatial flux synthesis code for diffusion theory calculations

    Adams, C. H.

    1976-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for SYN3D, a computer code which uses single-channel, spatial flux synthesis to calculate approximate solutions to two- and three-dimensional, finite-difference, multigroup neutron diffusion theory equations. SYN3D is designed to run in conjunction with any one of several one- and two-dimensional, finite-difference codes (required to generate the synthesis expansion functions) currently being used in the fast reactor community. The report describes the theory and equations, the use of the code, and the implementation on the IBM 370/195 and CDC 7600 of the version of SYN3D available through the Argonne Code Center.

  6. Synthesis of MoS2/g-C3N4 nanosheets as 2D heterojunction photocatalysts with enhanced visible light activity

    Li, Juan; Liu, Enzhou; Ma, Yongning; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wan, Jun; Sun, Lin; Fan, Jun

    2016-02-01

    g-C3N4 nanosheets coupled with MoS2 nanosheets as 2D heteroconjuction were prepared via a facile impregnation and calcination method. The structure characterization clearly indicated that MoS2 nanosheets were successfully horizontal loaded on g-C3N4 nanosheets. The investigation indicated that the formation of 2D heterojunction between the g-C3N4 nanosheets and MoS2 nanosheets promoted the charge transfer and enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the measurement of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange revealed that the as-prepared 2D MoS2/g-C3N4 heterojunction exhibited the significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and considerable stability under visible light irradiation. The 2D MoS2/g-C3N4 heterojunction prepared with 3 wt% of MoS2 exhibited the optimal photodegradable efficiency. The present work shows that the formation of 2D heterojunction should be a good strategy to design efficient photocatalysts.

  7. An experimental evaluation of the instrumented flux synthesis method for the real-time estimation of reactivity. Final report

    One method of determining the flux density is flux synthesis which approximates the flux in the core by linear combinations of precomputed shape functions. In traditional flux synthesis, the unknown mixing coefficients are determined using a weighted residual method of solving the diffusion equation. In the instrumented synthesis method, the mixing coefficients are determined using count rates from neutron detectors in the core. In this way the mixing coefficients are linked to conditions in the reactor. Using the synthesized flux, kinetics parameters, notably reactivity, can be calculated in real time. An experimental evaluation has been performed in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor, MITR-II. Detector measurements have been collected using fission chambers placed at the periphery of the core. The reactor was put into a number of various conditions, both static and transient, and data were collected using a digital acquisition system for later combination with shape functions. Transients included increasing power, decreasing power, and a reactor scram. The shape functions were generated using Version 3.0 of the QUARTZ code, a quadratic nodal diffusion theory code in triangular-Z geometry. Supernodal analysis algorithms have been added to the original program, along with subroutines to guarantee diagonal dominance of the leakage matrix in the finite difference or quadratic current approximations in the coarse mesh. The agreement between coarse mesh and fine mesh in all cases is excellent, with finite difference coarse mesh solutions generally slightly better. The synthesis method has been shown to accurately reflect the changes from an initial condition by combining representative flux shapes. It can be concluded that, with proper calibration of the measurement system and inclusion of representative flux shapes, the instrumented synthesis method will properly predict the flux in the core under a number of conditions

  8. Synthesis and characterization of three 2D Cd (II) coordination polymers built with terphenyl-2, 2‧, 4, 4‧-tetracarboxylate and flexible bis(imidazole)

    Wang, Ji-Jiang; Tang, Long; Zhang, Mei-Li; Gao, Lou-Jun; Ren, Yi-Xia; Hou, Xiang-Yang; Fu, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Three new CdII coordination polymers, namely, {[Cd2 (L) (1, 2-bix)2(H2O)2]ṡ2H2O}n(1), [Cd2 (L) (1, 3-bix)2]n (2), and {[Cd (H2L) (1, 4-bix) (H2O)2]ṡ2H2O}n (3) [H4L = terphenyl-2, 2‧, 4, 4‧-tetracarboxylic acid, 1, n-bix = 1, n-bis(imidazol-l-ylmethyl) benzene (n = 2, 3, 4)], have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, thermogravimetric analysis, and fluorescent analysis. Complex 1 is a 2D wavelike network structure incorporating the dinuclear Cd2 (1, 2-bix)2 units, whereas complex 2 possesses a 2D stair-like network structure consisting of the dinuclear Cd2O2 units. Complex 3 features a 2D puckered network constructed by 1D [Cd (H2L)]n and 1D [Cd (1, 4-bix)]n chains. The results show that the structural diversity of the polymers is mainly attributed to the usage of diverse ancillary bis (imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzene isomers ligands. The thermal stabilities and photoluminescence behaviors were also investigated.

  9. Construction of a 2D Co(II) Coordination Polymer with (4,4)-Connected Topology: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Surface Photo-electric Property

    Li, Jiaming [Qinzhou Univ., Qinzhou (China)

    2014-04-15

    A 2D grid-like (4, 4)-connected topology coordination polymer, [Co(BTA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}, where HBTA = 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)acetic acid, has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that displays octahedral metal centers with secondary building units (SBUs) [Co(BTA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] bridged by the BTA. ligands. In the crystal, the 2D supramolecular architecture is further supported by O-H···O, O-H···N, C-H···O hydrogen bonds and π··π stacking interactions. The SPS of polymer 1 indicates that there are positive response bands in the range of 300.600 nm showing photo-electric conversion properties. There are good relationships between SPS and UV-Vis spectra.

  10. Construction of a 2D Co(II) Coordination Polymer with (4,4)-Connected Topology: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Surface Photo-electric Property

    A 2D grid-like (4, 4)-connected topology coordination polymer, [Co(BTA)2(H2O)2]n, where HBTA = 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)acetic acid, has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that displays octahedral metal centers with secondary building units (SBUs) [Co(BTA)2(H2O)2] bridged by the BTA. ligands. In the crystal, the 2D supramolecular architecture is further supported by O-H···O, O-H···N, C-H···O hydrogen bonds and π··π stacking interactions. The SPS of polymer 1 indicates that there are positive response bands in the range of 300.600 nm showing photo-electric conversion properties. There are good relationships between SPS and UV-Vis spectra

  11. Synthesis and characterization RMN 1D and 2D of the oxygenated derivatives of the 1-phenyl-3-methyl-2-pyrazoline-5-ona and their ligand potential capacity

    In this work the result of the synthesis of the 1-phenyl- 3-methyl-2-pyrazoline-5-hydroxy-4-butoxicarbonilene (Pir-C4) is presented and the products are characterized, using the microanalysis, the infrared spectroscopy, the spectroscopy NMR of H1 and C13 and the NMR in two dimensions (COSY and HMBC) in order to determine their structures. In addition, the ligand potential capacity of these products are studied to produce coordination compounds with the uranyl (UO22+). (author)

  12. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel 2,6-disubstituted-4-morpholinothieno[3,2-d]pydmidines as potent anti-tumor agents

    Wu Fu Zhu; Xin Zhai; Sai Li; Yun Yun Cao; Ping Gong; Ya Jing Liu

    2012-01-01

    A series of 2,6-disubstituted-4-morpholinothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and their cytotoxic activity against H460,HT-29,MDA-MB-231,U87MG and H1975 cancer cell lines were evaluated in vitro.Most of the target compounds exhibited moderate to excellent activity to the tested cell lines.The most promising compound 23 (0.84 μmol/L,0.23μmol/L,2.52 μmol/L,1.80 μmol/L) was 1.0,2.9,29.3 and 4.3 times more active than GDC-0941 (0.87 μmol/L,0.66 μmol/L,73.8 μmol/L,7.77 μmol/L) against H460,HT-29,MDA-MB-231 and U87MG cell lines,respectively.

  13. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 2 D/F WASTE LINE REMOVAL, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities removal Phase 2; the D/F Waste Line removal at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Survey Group (BSG) has completed removal and performed the final status survey (FSS) of the D/F Waste Line that provided the conduit for pumping waste from Building 750 to Building 801. Sample results have been submitted as required to demonstrate that the cleanup goals of 15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years have been met. Four rounds of sampling, from pre-excavation to final status survey (FSS), were performed as specified in the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) (BNL 2010a). It is the policy of the US Departmental of Energy (DOE) to perform independent verifications of decontamination and decomissioning activities conducted at DOE facilities. ORISE has been designated as the organization responsible for this task at the HFBR. ORISE together with DOE determined that a Type A verification of the D/F Waste Line was appropriate based on its method of construction and upon the minimal potential for residual radioactivity in the area. The removal of underground utilities is being performed in three stages in the process to decommission the HFBR facility and support structures. Phase 2 of this project included the grouting and removal of 1100 feet of 2-inch pipe and 640 feet of 4-inch pipe that served as the D/F Waste Line. Based on the pre-excavation sample results of the soil overburden, the potential for contamination of the soil surrounding the pipe is minimal (BNL 2010a). ORISE reviewed the BNL FSP and identified comments for consideration (ORISE 2010). BNL prepared a revised FSP that addressed each ORISE comment adequately (BNL 2010a). ORISE referred to the revised Phase 2 D/F Waste Line removal FSP FSS data to conduct the Type A verification and determine whether the intent odf

  14. Large-Scale Synthesis of a Uniform Film of Bilayer MoS2 on Graphene for 2D Heterostructure Phototransistors.

    Chen, Chuanmeng; Feng, Zhihong; Feng, Yiyu; Yue, Yuchen; Qin, Chengqun; Zhang, Daihua; Feng, Wei

    2016-07-27

    The large-scale synthesis of atomically thin, layered MoS2/graphene heterostructures is of great interest in optoelectronic devices because of their unique properties. Herein, we present a scalable synthesis method to prepare centimeter-scale, continuous, and uniform films of bilayer MoS2 using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. This growth process was utilized to assemble a heterostructure by growing large-scale uniform films of bilayer MoS2 on graphene (G-MoS2/graphene). Atomic force microscopy, Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscopy characterization demonstrated that the large-scale bilayer MoS2 film on graphene exhibited good thickness uniformity and a polycrystalline nature. A centimeter-scale phototransistor prepared using the G-MoS2/graphene heterostructure exhibited a high responsivity of 32 mA/W with good cycling stability; this value is 1 order of magnitude higher than that of transferred MoS2 on graphene (2.5 mA/W). This feature results from efficient charge transfer at the interface enabled by intimate contact between the grown bilayer MoS2 (G-MoS2) and graphene. The ability to integrate multilayer materials into atomically thin heterostructures paves the way for fabricating multifunctional devices by controlling their layer structure. PMID:27381011

  15. 2D solar modeling

    Ventura, P; Li, L; Sofia, S; Basu, S; Demarque, P

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the cyclic variation of the total solar irradiance is one of the most challenging targets of modern astrophysics. These studies prove to be essential also for a more climatologic issue, associated to the global warming. Any attempt to determine the solar components of this phenomenon must include the effects of the magnetic field, whose strength and shape in the solar interior are far from being completely known. Modelling the presence and the effects of a magnetic field requires a 2D approach, since the assumption of radial symmetry is too limiting for this topic. We present the structure of a 2D evolution code that was purposely designed for this scope; rotation, magnetic field and turbulence can be taken into account. Some preliminary results are presented and commented.

  16. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  17. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as HIV-1 Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors with Significantly Improved Drug Resistance Profiles.

    Kang, Dongwei; Fang, Zengjun; Li, Zhenyu; Huang, Boshi; Zhang, Heng; Lu, Xueyi; Xu, Haoran; Zhou, Zhongxia; Ding, Xiao; Daelemans, Dirk; De Clercq, Erik; Pannecouque, Christophe; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-09-01

    We designed and synthesized a series of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with a piperidine-substituted thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine scaffold, employing a strategy of structure-based molecular hybridization and substituent decorating. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad-spectrum activity with low (single-digit) nanomolar EC50 values toward a panel of wild-type (WT), single-mutant, and double-mutant HIV-1 strains. Compound 27 was the most potent; compared with ETV, its antiviral efficacy was 3-fold greater against WT, 5-7-fold greater against Y181C, Y188L, E138K, and F227L+V106A, and nearly equipotent against L100I and K103N, though somewhat weaker against K103N+Y181C. Importantly, 27 has lower cytotoxicity (CC50 > 227 μM) and a huge selectivity index (SI) value (ratio of CC50/EC50) of >159101. 27 also showed favorable, drug-like pharmacokinetic and safety properties in rats in vivo. Molecular docking studies and the structure-activity relationships provide important clues for further molecular elaboration. PMID:27541578

  18. A Self-Limiting Electro-Ablation Technique for the Top-Down Synthesis of Large-Area Monolayer Flakes of 2D Materials

    Das, Saptarshi; Bera, Mrinal K.; Tong, Sheng; Narayanan, Badri; Kamath, Ganesh; Mane, Anil; Paulikas, Arvydas P.; Antonio, Mark R.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Roelofs, Andreas K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of an electrochemical process that converts two dimensional layered materials of arbitrary thicknesses into monolayers. The lateral dimensions of the monolayers obtained by the process within a few seconds time at room temperature were as large as 0.5 mm. The temporal and spatial dynamics of this physical phenomenon, studied on MoS2 flakes using ex-situ AFM imaging, Raman mapping, and photoluminescence measurements trace the origin of monolayer formation to a substrate-assisted self-limiting electrochemical ablation process. Electronic structure and atomistic calculations point to the interplay between three essential factors in the process: (1) strong covalent interaction of monolayer MoS2 with the substrate; (2) electric-field induced differences in Gibbs free energy of exfoliation; (3) dispersion of MoS2 in aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. This process was successful in obtaining monolayers of other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, like WS2 and MoTe2 as well. PMID:27323877

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Copper(II 2D Coordination Polymers from a Fluorinated Flexible Ligand with Remarkable Clathration Ability

    Kayoko Kasai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D grid coordination polymers were prepared by the reaction of 1,4-bis(4-pyridylmethyltetrafluorobenzene (bpf with Cu(NO32 in the presence of aromatic compounds. Crystal structures of {[Cu(bpf2(NO32]·(biphenyl2}n (1, {[Cu(bpf2(NO32]·(m-C6H4(OMe22}n (2, {[Cu(bpf2(NO32]·PhtBu}n (3 and {[Cu(bpf2(NO3(H2O]NO3·(bpf0.5}n (4 were determined. The grid networks were held together by C–H···O and C–H···F hydrogen bonds via the NO3− anions and the tetrafluorophenylene rings of bpf, respectively. Biphenyl, m-dimethoxybenzene, t-butylbenzene, and bpf molecules were clathrated in cyclic cavities of the grid networks through arene-perfluoroarene interactions. These coordination networks have remarkable clathration ability for aromatic compounds.

  20. Synthesis, 2D NMR, electrochemistry and luminescence of ruthenium (II) complexes with 2,2-bipyridine and 5-(ω-bromoalkylamido)-1, 10-phenanthroline

    The efficient synthesis of 5-(5-bromovaleramido)-1, 10-phenanthroline, 5-(6-bromohexanamido)-1,10-phenanthroline, and 5-(11-bromoundecanamido)-1, 10-phenanthroline are described, which reacted with cis-Ru(bpy)2Cl2.2H2O and sodium hexafluorophosphate to form Ru(bpy)2[phen-NHCO(CH2)nBr](PF6)2 (n=4, 5 or 10; phen=1,10-phenanthroline). The intricate 1H NMR spectra at low field of these complexes were completely assigned in virtue of 1H-1H COSY technique. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study electrochemical behaviours of these complexes, and their luminescent properties were investigated with fluorescent spectra. (author)

  1. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Two Novel 2D Zinc(II) Coordination Polymers based on Fluconazole and Benzene Carboxylic Acid

    Pan, Ganghong; Tang, Jingniu; Xu, Wenjia; Liang, Peng; Huang, Zhongjing [Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning (China)

    2013-12-15

    The design and synthesis of coordination polymers have aroused great interest owing to their intriguing aesthetic structures and potential applications in nonlinear optics, gas storage, ion exchange, luminescence, magnetism and catalysis. Self-assembly of bridging organic ligands (connectors) and multi-connected metal ions can give rise to various types of interesting coordination polymers. Since metal ion Zn(II) with d{sup 10} electronic configuration permits a variety of coordination numbers and geometries which are not dependent on ligand field stabilization but on ligand size and charge, it is well suited for the construction of various coordination polymers. Its borderline hardness allows the coordination of N, O and S donor atoms.

  2. A bottom-up perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of global eddy covariance flux measurements

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Amelynck, Crist; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, Almut; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen; Hansel, Armin; Heinesch, Bernhard; Holst, Thomas; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Karl, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Schade, Gunnar; Schoon, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) is, after methane, the second most abundant VOC in the troposphere and globally represents nearly 20% of the total biospheric VOC emissions. With typical concentrations of 1-10 ppb in the continental boundary layer, methanol plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, which needs to be evaluated in the light of ongoing changes in land use and climate. Previous global methanol budgets have approached the net land flux by summing up the various emission terms (namely primary biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, plant decay and biomass burning) and by subtracting dry and wet deposition, resulting in a net land flux in the range of 75-245 Tg y-1. The data underlying these budget calculations largely stem from small-scale leaf gas exchange measurements and while recently column-integrated remotely sensed methanol concentrations have become available for constraining budget calculations, there have been few attempts to contrast model calculations with direct net ecosystem-scale methanol flux measurements. Here we use eddy covariance methanol flux measurements from 8 sites in Europe and North America to study the magnitude of and controls on the diurnal and seasonal variability in the net ecosystem methanol flux. In correspondence with leaf-level literature, our data show that methanol emission and its strong environmental and biotic control (by temperature and stomatal conductance) prevailed at the more productive (agricultural) sites and at a perturbed forest site. In contrast, at more natural, less productive sites substantial deposition of methanol occurred, in particular during periods of surface wetness. These deposition processes are poorly represented by currently available temperature/light and/or production-driven modelling algorithms. A new framework for modelling the bi-directional land-atmosphere methanol exchange is proposed which accounts for the production of methanol in leaves, the regulation of leaf methanol emission by stomatal

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a new metal organic framework structure with a 2D porous system: (H 2NEt 2) 2[Zn 3(BDC) 4]ṡ3DEF

    Biemmi, Enrica; Bein, Thomas; Stock, Norbert

    2006-03-01

    A new open-framework zinc terephthalate (H 2NEt 2) 2[Zn 3(BDC) 4]ṡ3DEF (BDC = 1,4-benzendicarboxylate, DEF=N,N-diethylformamide) was obtained under slightly acidic condition by reacting 1,4-benzendicarboxylic acid (H 2BDC) with ZnO in a DEF solution. The structure was obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction and consists of trimetallic zinc building units, that are interconnected by eight BDC units each (crystal data: monoclinic, C2/c, a=3337.24(5), b=983.17(2), c=1819.67(2) pm, β=92.455(1, V=5965.0(2)×10 pm, Z=4, R=0.0395, wR=0.0843 for 4533 reflections I>2σ(I)). Six BDC ions together with the trimetallic zinc units form a two-dimensional (3,6)-net while the other two BDC unit pillar these layers. Thus a three-dimensional anionic framework with a 2D pore system is formed. The pore space is occupied by solvent molecules (DEF) and diethylammonium ions, produced by in situ hydrolysis of DEF. These are interconnected as well as connected to the framework by hydrogen-bonds. The TG investigation in combination with powder X-ray diffraction and vibrational-spectroscopy show a two-step loss of the pore filling molecules as well as one H 2BDC molecule leading to crystalline phases which are stable up to 250 and 400 °C, respectively. In addition, 13C MAS-NMR data of the title compound is presented.

  4. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: Flux variability analysis in relation to 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior 13C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH4+ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO2 efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the 13C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  5. Facile in situ synthesis of 2D porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25(N) heterojunction with enhanced quantum effect for efficient photocatalytic application

    Ding, Mingye [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwnjut@hotmail.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Zhou, Yingjie [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Lu, Chunhua; Ni, Yaru; Xu, Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • N doped P25 is efficient in synthesizing g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with enhanced quantum effect. • The few-layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has a two-dimensional and porous structure. • The few-layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is superior to the bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for photocatalysis. • Efficient heterojunction is in situ formed between g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and N doped P25. • The mass ratio of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} to N doped P25 affects the photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The major challenge of employing photocatalysis for environment protection is to develop high efficient, low cost, and stable semiconductor photocatalysts. In the present study, an in situ annealing strategy is employed for large scale synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) porous graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and efficient g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25(N) (N doped P25) heterojunction with enhanced quantum effect. The P25 not only serves as the template for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} polymerization, but is also modified by the N species to enhance the visible light absorption. Compared to the normal bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the 2D porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with enhanced quantum effect is found to be more efficient in improving the specific surface area and the electron–hole pair’s separation, even its light absorption edge is blue-shifted. Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol indicates the 2D g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25(N) are very efficient and stable under the xenon lamp irradiation. It is also found that the original mass ratio of urea, which is the precursor for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} synthesis and P25 modification, to P25 also plays a significant effect on the photocatalytic activity. The optimized photocatalyst (mass ratio of P25 to urea is 1:8) can decompose total RhB aqueous solution (10 mg/L, 100 ml) in 25 min. Based on systematic characterizations and discussions, a possible photocatalytic mechanism for the excellent photocatalytic

  6. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    van den Broek, N M A; Ciapaite, J; Nicolay, K; Prompers, J J

    2010-11-01

    (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of mitochondrial dysfunction with the aim of establishing the most appropriate method for the assessment of in vivo muscle mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction was induced in adult Wistar rats by daily subcutaneous injections with the complex I inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for 2 wk. In vivo (31)P MRS measurements were supplemented by in vitro measurements of oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria. Two weeks of DPI treatment induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by a 20% lower maximal ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria from DPI-treated rats oxidizing pyruvate plus malate. This was paralleled by a 46% decrease in in vivo oxidative capacity, determined from postexercise PCr recovery. Interestingly, no significant difference in resting, ST-based ATP synthesis flux was observed between DPI-treated rats and controls. These results show that PCr recovery after exercise has a more direct relationship with skeletal muscle mitochondrial function than the ATP synthesis flux measured with (31)P ST MRS in the resting state. PMID:20668212

  7. Metabolic network reconstruction and flux variability analysis of storage synthesis in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational simulation of large-scale biochemical networks can be used to analyze and predict the metabolic behavior of an organism, such as a developing seed. Based on the biochemical literature, pathways databases and decision rules defining reaction directionality we reconstructed bna572, a stoichiometric metabolic network model representing Brassica napus seed storage metabolism. In the highly compartmentalized network about 25% of the 572 reactions are transport reactions interconnecting nine subcellular compartments and the environment. According to known physiological capabilities of developing B. napus embryos, four nutritional conditions were defined to simulate heterotrophy or photoheterotrophy, each in combination with the availability of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate) or amino acids as nitrogen sources. Based on mathematical linear optimization the optimal solution space was comprehensively explored by flux variability analysis, thereby identifying for each reaction the range of flux values allowable under optimality. The range and variability of flux values was then categorized into flux variability types. Across the four nutritional conditions, approximately 13% of the reactions have variable flux values and 10-11% are substitutable (can be inactive), both indicating metabolic redundancy given, for example, by isoenzymes, subcellular compartmentalization or the presence of alternative pathways. About one-third of the reactions are never used and are associated with pathways that are suboptimal for storage synthesis. Fifty-seven reactions change flux variability type among the different nutritional conditions, indicating their function in metabolic adjustments. This predictive modeling framework allows analysis and quantitative exploration of storage metabolism of a developing B. napus oilseed.

  8. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  9. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  10. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, optical properties and DFT studies of a new 2D layered iodide bridged Pb(II) coordination polymer with 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine

    The synthesis of two dimensional (2D) coordination polymer [Pb2(µ-I)2(µ-dpp-N,N,N,N)(µ-dpp-N,N)I2]n (dpp=2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) is reported. As determined by X-ray diffraction of a twinned crystal, the dpp ligand simultaneously adopts a bis–bidentate and bis–monodentate coordination mode in the crystal structure of compound. The electronic band structure along with density of states (DOS) calculated by the DFT method indicates that the compound is an indirect band gap semiconductor. According to the DFT calculations, the observed emission of the compound at 600 nm in solid phase could be attributed to arise from an excited LLCT state (dpp-π⁎ [C-2p and N-2p states, CBs] to I-6p state [VBs]). The linear optical properties of the compound are also calculated by DFT method. The structure of the compound in solution phase is discussed based on the measured 1H NMR and fluorescence spectra in DMSO. TGA studies indicate that the compound is thermally stable up to 210 °C. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure and emission spectra of [Pb2(µ-I)2(µ-dpp-N,N,N,N)(µ-dpp-N,N)I2]n is presented. The electronic band structure and linear optical properties of the compound are calculated by the DFT method. - Highlights: • Two dimensional [Pb2(µ-I)2(µ-dpp-N,N,N,N)(µ-dpp-N,N)I2]n has been prepared. • The structure of the compound is determined by XRD of a twinned crystal. • DFT calculations indicate that the compound is an indirect band gap semiconductor. • As shown by DFT calculations, the emission band of the compound is LLCT. • Solution phase structure of compound is explored by 1H NMR and emission spectra

  11. A new limit on the Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic-Ray flux with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    ter Veen, S; Falcke, H; James, C W; Mevius, M; Scholten, O; Singh, K; Stappers, B; de Vries, K D

    2010-01-01

    A particle cascade (shower) in a dielectric, for example as initiated by an ultra-high energy cosmic ray, will have an excess of electrons which will emit coherent \\v{C}erenkov radiation, known as the Askaryan effect. In this work we study the case in which such a particle shower occurs in a medium just below its surface. We show, for the first time, that the radiation transmitted through the surface is independent of the depth of the shower below the surface when observed from far away, apart from trivial absorption effects. As a direct application we use the recent results of the NuMoon project, where a limit on the neutrino flux for energies above $10^{22}$\\,eV was set using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope by measuring pulsed radio emission from the Moon, to set a limit on the flux of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  12. Exploring lysine riboswitch for metabolic flux control and improvement of L-lysine synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Zhou, Li-Bang; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-06-19

    Riboswitch, a regulatory part of an mRNA molecule that can specifically bind a metabolite and regulate gene expression, is attractive for engineering biological systems, especially for the control of metabolic fluxes in industrial microorganisms. Here, we demonstrate the use of lysine riboswitch and intracellular l-lysine as a signal to control the competing but essential metabolic by-pathways of lysine biosynthesis. To this end, we first examined the natural lysine riboswitches of Eschericia coli (ECRS) and Bacillus subtilis (BSRS) to control the expression of citrate synthase (gltA) and thus the metabolic flux in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in E. coli. ECRS and BSRS were then successfully used to control the gltA gene and TCA cycle activity in a lysine producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum LP917, respectively. Compared with the strain LP917, the growth of both lysine riboswitch-gltA mutants was slower, suggesting a reduced TCA cycle activity. The lysine production was 63% higher in the mutant ECRS-gltA and 38% higher in the mutant BSRS-gltA, indicating a higher metabolic flux into the lysine synthesis pathway. This is the first report on using an amino acid riboswitch for improvement of lysine biosynthesis. The lysine riboswitches can be easily adapted to dynamically control other essential but competing metabolic pathways or even be engineered as an "on-switch" to enhance the metabolic fluxes of desired metabolic pathways. PMID:25575181

  13. Finite-Element Model-Based Design Synthesis of Axial Flux PMBLDC Motors

    Fasil, Muhammed; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech;

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses design synthesis of a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) machine using a finite element (FE) model. This work differentiates itself from the past studies by following a synthesis approach, in which many designs that satisfy performance criteria are considered instead of a...... unique solution. The designer can later select a design, based on comparing parameters of the designs, which are critical to the application that the motor will be used. The presented approach makes it easier to define constraints for a design synthesis problem. A detailed description of the setting up...... program is demonstrated by designing a segmented axial torus PMBLDC motor for an electric two-wheeler....

  14. FEM-2D, 2-D MultiGroup Diffusion in X-Y Geometry

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: FEM-2D solves the two-dimensional diffusion equation in x-y geometry. This is done by the finite elements method. 2 - Method of solution: FEM-2D uses triangular elements with first and second order Lagrange approximations. The systems equations are formulated in multigroup form and solved by Cholesky procedure which operates only on nonzero elements. Various acceleration techniques are available for the outer iteration. Fluxes along various lines and rates in arbitrary zones may be output. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The code uses variable dimensioning. Thus, the problem size is restricted by the largest array which usually is the systems matrix. Fluxes of all groups are kept in memory. This might become another restrictive data set for a large number of groups. The validity of the results is restricted by the approximations used. FEM-2D requires a finite element net which allows the approximation of fluxes by at most parabolas. The node distribution should be more dense in areas of heavy flux changes (near absorbers or the reflector)

  15. Synthesis of observed air–sea CO2 exchange fluxes in the river-dominated East China Sea and improved estimates of annual and seasonal net mean fluxes

    C.-M. Tseng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Limited observations exist for reliable assessment of annual CO2 uptake that takes into consideration the strong seasonal variation in the river-dominated East China Sea (ECS. Here we explore seasonally representative CO2 uptakes by the whole East China Sea derived from observations over a 14 yr period. We firstly identified the biological sequestration of CO2 taking place in the highly productive, nutrient-enriched Changjiang river plume, dictated by the Changjiang river discharge in warm seasons. We have therefore established an empirical algorithm as a function of sea surface temperature (SST and Changjiang river discharge (CRD for predicting sea surface pCO2. Synthesis based on both observation and model show that the annually averaged CO2 uptake from atmosphere during 1998–2011 was constrained to about 1.9 mol C m–2 yr–1. This assessment of annual CO2 uptake is more reliable and representative, compared to previous estimates, in terms of temporal and spatial coverage. Additionally, the CO2 time-series, exhibiting distinct seasonal pattern, gives mean fluxes of −3.0, −1.0, −0.9 and −2.5 mol C m–2 yr–1 in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively, and also reveals apparent inter-annual variations. The flux seasonality shows a strong sink in spring and a weak source in late summer-early fall. The weak sink status during warm periods in summer-fall is fairly sensitive to changes of pCO2 and may easily shift from a sink to a source altered by environmental changes under climate change and anthropogenic forcing.

  16. Metabolic pathway analysis of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Effect of oxygen availability on ethanol synthesis and flux distributions

    Unrean, Pornkamol [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Biochemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Research and Development Unit; National Center for Genetik Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Pathumtani (Thailand); Nguyen, Nhung H.A. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Biochemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Research and Development Unit

    2012-06-15

    Elementary mode analysis (EMA) identifies all possible metabolic states of the cell metabolic network. Investigation of these states can provide a detailed insight into the underlying metabolism in the cell. In this study, the flux states of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis metabolism were examined. It was shown that increasing oxygen levels led to a decrease of ethanol synthesis. This trend was confirmed by experimental evaluation of S. stipitis in glucose-xylose fermentation. The oxygen transfer rate for an optimal ethanol production was 1.8 mmol/l/h, which gave the ethanol yield of 0.40 g/g and the ethanol productivity of 0.25 g/l/h. For a better understanding of the cell's regulatory mechanism in response to oxygenation levels, EMA was used to examine metabolic flux patterns under different oxygen levels. Up- and downregulation of enzymes in the network during the change of culturing condition from oxygen limitation to oxygen sufficiency were identified. The results indicated the flexibility of S. stipitis metabolism to cope with oxygen availability. In addition, relevant genetic targets towards improved ethanol-producing strains under all oxygenation levels were identified. These targeted genes limited the metabolic functionality of the cell to function according to the most efficient ethanol synthesis pathways. The presented approach is promising and can contribute to the development of culture optimization and strain engineers for improved lignocellulosic ethanol production by S. stipitis. (orig.)

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc(II)-phosphonate coordination polymers with different dimensionality (0D, 2D, 3D) and dimensionality change in the solid phase (0D→3D) induced by temperature

    Three new zinc(II) coordination polymers, [Zn(HO3PCH2CH2COO)(C12H8N2)(H2O)] (1), [Zn3(O3PCH2CH2COO)2(C12H8N2)](H2O)3.40 (2) and [Zn5(HO3PCH2CH2COO)2(O3PCH2CH2COO)2(C12H8N2)4](H2O)0.32 (3), with different structural dimensionality (0D, 2D and 3D, respectively) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P21/c) forming discrete dimeric units bonded through H-bonds, while compounds 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic (P−1) and the monoclinic (C2/c) systems, respectively. Compound 3, showing three different coordination numbers (4, 5 and 6) for the zinc atoms, has also been obtained by thermal treatment of 1 (probed by high-temperature XRPD experiments). The crystalline features of these compounds, related to the coordination environments for the zinc atoms in each structure, provoke the increase of the relative fluorescence for 2 and 3, compared to the free phenanthroline. Thermal analysis (TG and DSC) and XPS studies have been also carried out for all compounds. - Graphical abstract: Three new coordination compounds of zinc with 2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid (H2PPA) and phenanthroline have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The crystalline structure depends on the different coordination environments of the zinc atoms (see two comparative Zn6-moieties). The influence of the different coordination modes of H2PPA with the central atom in all structures have been studied, being found new coordination modes for this ligand. Several compounds show a significant increase in relative fluorescence with respect to the free phenanthroline. - Highlights: • Compounds have been obtained modifying the reaction time and the rate of reagents. • Dimensionality and crystalline structure is a function of the zinc environments. • New coordination modes for 2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid are reported. • 3D-compound presents three different

  18. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, optical properties and DFT studies of a new 2D layered iodide bridged Pb(II) coordination polymer with 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine

    Saghatforoush, Lotfali, E-mail: saghatforoush@gmail.com; Bakhtiari, Akbar; Gheleji, Hojjat

    2015-01-15

    The synthesis of two dimensional (2D) coordination polymer [Pb{sub 2}(µ-I){sub 2}(µ-dpp-N,N,N,N)(µ-dpp-N,N)I{sub 2}]{sub n} (dpp=2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) is reported. As determined by X-ray diffraction of a twinned crystal, the dpp ligand simultaneously adopts a bis–bidentate and bis–monodentate coordination mode in the crystal structure of compound. The electronic band structure along with density of states (DOS) calculated by the DFT method indicates that the compound is an indirect band gap semiconductor. According to the DFT calculations, the observed emission of the compound at 600 nm in solid phase could be attributed to arise from an excited LLCT state (dpp-π{sup ⁎} [C-2p and N-2p states, CBs] to I-6p state [VBs]). The linear optical properties of the compound are also calculated by DFT method. The structure of the compound in solution phase is discussed based on the measured {sup 1}H NMR and fluorescence spectra in DMSO. TGA studies indicate that the compound is thermally stable up to 210 °C. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure and emission spectra of [Pb{sub 2}(µ-I){sub 2}(µ-dpp-N,N,N,N)(µ-dpp-N,N)I{sub 2}]{sub n} is presented. The electronic band structure and linear optical properties of the compound are calculated by the DFT method. - Highlights: • Two dimensional [Pb{sub 2}(µ-I){sub 2}(µ-dpp-N,N,N,N)(µ-dpp-N,N)I{sub 2}]{sub n} has been prepared. • The structure of the compound is determined by XRD of a twinned crystal. • DFT calculations indicate that the compound is an indirect band gap semiconductor. • As shown by DFT calculations, the emission band of the compound is LLCT. • Solution phase structure of compound is explored by {sup 1}H NMR and emission spectra.

  19. Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory

    This report the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity I: path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity II: canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology I: method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology II: loops on the lattice; matrix model technology III: free fermions from the lattice; loops and states in matrix model quantum gravity; loops and states in the C=1 matrix model; 6V model fermi sea dynamics and collective field theory; and string scattering in two spacetime dimensions

  20. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-data set synthesis

    Mueller, B.; Hirschi, M; Jimenez, C; Ciais, P; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Dolman, A. J.; J. B. Fisher; Jung, M.; F. Ludwig; F. Maignan; Miralles, D.G.; M. F. McCabe; Reichstein, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wang, K

    2013-01-01

    Land evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are available from several global data sets. Here, monthly global land ET synthesis products, merged from these individual data sets over the time periods 1989–1995 (7 yr) and 1989–2005 (17 yr), are presented. The merged synthesis products over the shorter period are based on a total of 40 distinct data sets while those over the longer period are based on a total of 14 data sets. In the individual data sets, ET is derived from satellite and/or in situ ob...

  1. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-dataset synthesis

    Mueller, B.; Hirschi, M; Jimenez, C; Ciais, P; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Dolman, A. J.; J. B. Fisher; Jung, M.; F. Ludwig; F. Maignan; Miralles, D.; M. F. McCabe; Reichstein, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wang, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Land evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are available from several global datasets. Here, monthly global land ET synthesis products, merged from these individual datasets over the time periods 1989–1995 (7 yr) and 1989–2005 (17 yr), are presented. The merged synthesis products over the shorter period are based on a total of 40 distinct datasets while those over the longer period are based on a total of 14 datasets. In the individual datasets, ET is derived from satellite and/or in-situ ...

  2. 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikat

    Smolander, Aku

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan erilaisia 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoita. Aluksi luodaan yleiskatsaus animoinnin historiaan ja tekniikoihin piirtämisestä mallintamiseen. Alkukatsauksen jälkeen tutkitaan 2D-hahmon suunnittelua ja liikkeitä koskevia sääntöjä. Hahmoanimaation liikkeissä huomionarvoisia asioita ovat muun muassa ajastus, liioittelu, ennakointi ja painovoima. Seuraavaksi perehdytään itse 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoihin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, tutkia ja vertailla ...

  3. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-dataset synthesis

    B. Mueller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land evapotranspiration (ET estimates are available from several global datasets. Here, monthly global land ET synthesis products, merged from these individual datasets over the time periods 1989–1995 (7 yr and 1989–2005 (17 yr, are presented. The merged synthesis products over the shorter period are based on a total of 40 distinct datasets while those over the longer period are based on a total of 14 datasets. In the individual datasets, ET is derived from satellite and/or in-situ observations (diagnostic datasets or calculated via land-surface models (LSMs driven with observations-based forcing and atmospheric reanalyses. Statistics for four merged synthesis products are provided, one including all datasets and three including only datasets from one category each (diagnostic, LSMs, and reanalyses. The multi-annual variations of ET in the merged synthesis products display realistic responses. They are also consistent with previous findings of a global increase in ET between 1989 and 1997 (1.15 mm yr−2 in our merged product followed by a decrease in this trend (−1.40 mm yr−2, although these trends are relatively small compared to the uncertainty of absolute ET values. The global mean ET from the merged synthesis products (based on all datasets is 1.35 mm per day for both the 1989–1995 and 1989–2005 products, which is relatively low compared to previously published estimates. We estimate global runoff (precipitation minus ET to 34 406 km3 per year for a total land area of 130 922 km2. Precipitation, being an important driving factor and input to most simulated ET datasets, presents uncertainties between single datasets as large as those in the ET estimates. In order to reduce uncertainties in current ET products, improving the accuracy of the input variables, especially precipitation, as well as the parameterizations of ET are crucial.

  4. Low temperature synthesis of Ba1–SrSnO3 ( = 0–1) from molten alkali hydroxide flux

    B Ramdas; R Vijayaraghavan

    2010-02-01

    Perovskite structured stannates (Ba1–SrSnO3, = 0.0–1.0) powders have been synthesized for the first time by molten salt synthesis (MSS) method using KOH as the flux at lower temperature (400°C) compared to other methods. The phase formation was confirmed by FT–IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. XRD patterns reveal the formation of single phasic products for parent and substituted products with good crystallinity throughout the range ( = 0.0–1.0). The morphology of the particles of BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 is spherical and rod shaped, respectively. Effect of soaking periods on the grain growth is observed clearly in SrSnO3. Ba0.5Sr0.5SnO3 (BSS5) crystallizes in flake like morphology.

  5. A new formulation of the pseudocontinuous synthesis algorithm applied to the calculation of neutronic flux in PWR reactors

    A new formulation of the pseudocontinuous synthesis algorithm is applied to solve the static three dimensional two-group diffusion equations. The new method avoids ambiguities regarding interface conditions, which are inherent to the differential formulation, by resorting to the finite difference version of the differential equations involved. A considerable number of input/output options, possible core configurations and control rod positioning are implemented resulting in a very flexible as well as economical code to compute 3D fluxes, power density and reactivities of PWR reactors with partial inserted control rods. The performance of this new code is checked against the IAEA 3D Benchmark problem and results show that SINT3D yields comparable accuracy with much less computing time and memory required than in conventional 3D finite differerence codes. (Author)

  6. Materials for Flexible, Stretchable Electronics: Graphene and 2D Materials

    Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Kyoungjun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-07-01

    Recently, 2D materials have been intensively studied as emerging materials for future electronics, including flexible electronics, photonics, and electrochemical energy storage devices. Among representative 2D materials (such as graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides) that exhibit extraordinary properties, graphene stands out in the flexible electronics field due to its combination of high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and environmental stability. This review covers the synthesis, transfer, and characterization methods of graphene and 2D materials and graphene's application to flexible devices as well as comparison with other competing materials.

  7. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-data set synthesis

    Mueller, B.

    2013-10-01

    Land evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are available from several global data sets.Here, Monthly Global Land et Synthesis Products, Merged from These Individual Data Sets over the Time Periods 1989-1995 (7 Yr) and 1989-2005 (17 Yr), Are Presented. the Merged Synthesis Products over the Shorter Period Are Based on A Total of 40 Distinct Data Sets while Those over the Longer Period Are Based on A Total of 14 Data Sets. in the Individual Data Sets, et Is Derived from Satellite And/or in Situ Observations (Diagnostic Data Sets) or Calculated Via Land-surface Models (LSMs) Driven with Observations-based Forcing or Output from Atmospheric Reanalyses. Statistics for Four Merged Synthesis Products Are Provided, One Including All Data Sets and Three Including only Data Sets from One Category Each (Diagnostic, LSMs, and Reanalyses). the Multi-annual Variations of et in the Merged Synthesis Products Display Realistic Responses. They Are Also Consistent with Previous Findings of A Global Increase in et between 1989 and 1997 (0.13 Mm yr-2 in Our Merged Product) Followed by A Significant Decrease in This Trend (-0.18 Mm yr-2), although These Trends Are Relatively Small Compared to the Uncertainty of Absolute et Values. the Global Mean et from the Merged Synthesis Products (Based on All Data Sets) Is 493 Mm yr-1 (1.35 Mm d-1) for Both the 1989-1995 and 1989-2005 Products, Which Is Relatively Low Compared to Previously Published Estimates. We Estimate Global Runoff (Precipitation Minus ET) to 263 Mm yr -1 (34 406 km3 yr-1) for A Total Land Area of 130 922 000 km2. Precipitation, Being An Important Driving Factor and Input to Most Simulated et Data Sets, Presents Uncertainties between Single Data Sets As Large As Those in the et Estimates. in Order to Reduce Uncertainties in Current et Products, Improving the Accuracy of the Input Variables, Especially Precipitation, As Well As the Parameterizations of ET, Are Crucial. 2013 Author(s).

  8. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi-data set synthesis

    B. Mueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Land evapotranspiration (ET estimates are available from several global data sets. Here, monthly global land ET synthesis products, merged from these individual data sets over the time periods 1989–1995 (7 yr and 1989–2005 (17 yr, are presented. The merged synthesis products over the shorter period are based on a total of 40 distinct data sets while those over the longer period are based on a total of 14 data sets. In the individual data sets, ET is derived from satellite and/or in situ observations (diagnostic data sets or calculated via land-surface models (LSMs driven with observations-based forcing or output from atmospheric reanalyses. Statistics for four merged synthesis products are provided, one including all data sets and three including only data sets from one category each (diagnostic, LSMs, and reanalyses. The multi-annual variations of ET in the merged synthesis products display realistic responses. They are also consistent with previous findings of a global increase in ET between 1989 and 1997 (0.13 mm yr−2 in our merged product followed by a significant decrease in this trend (−0.18 mm yr−2, although these trends are relatively small compared to the uncertainty of absolute ET values. The global mean ET from the merged synthesis products (based on all data sets is 493 mm yr−1 (1.35 mm d−1 for both the 1989–1995 and 1989–2005 products, which is relatively low compared to previously published estimates. We estimate global runoff (precipitation minus ET to 263 mm yr−1 (34 406 km3 yr−1 for a total land area of 130 922 000 km2. Precipitation, being an important driving factor and input to most simulated ET data sets, presents uncertainties between single data sets as large as those in the ET estimates. In order to reduce uncertainties in current ET products, improving the accuracy of the input variables, especially precipitation, as well as the parameterizations of ET, are crucial.

  9. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis.

    Rato, L; Alves, M G; Dias, T R; Cavaco, J E; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  10. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    L. Rato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters.

  11. Consistent climate-driven spatial patterns of terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes in the northern hemisphere: a theoretical framework and synthesis of empirical evidence

    Yu, G.; Niu, S.; Chen, Z.; Zhu, X.

    2013-12-01

    A predictive understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes has been developed slowly, largely owing to lack of broad generalizations and a theoretical framework as well as clearly defined hypotheses. We synthesized Eddy flux data in different regions of northern hemisphere and previously published papers, then developed a framework for the climate controls on the geoecological patterns of terrestrial ecosystem C fluxes, and proposed the underlying mechanisms. Based on the case studies and synthesis, we found that the spatial patterns of ecosystem C fluxes in China, Asia, three continents of the northern hemisphere all had general patterns: predominately controlled by temperature and precipitation, supporting and further developing the traditional theory of 'climate controls on the spatial patterns of ecosystem productivity' in Miami and other models. Five hypotheses were proposed to explain the ecological mechanisms and processes that attribute to the climate-driven spatial patterns of C fluxes. (1) Two key processes determining gross primary productivity (GPP), i.e. growing season length and carbon uptake capacity, are jointly controlled by temperature and precipitation; (2) Ecosystem respiration (ER) is predominately determined also by temperature and precipitation, as well as substrate supply; (3) Components of ecosystem C fluxes are closely coupled with each other in response to climate change; (4) Vegetation types and soil nutrients in particular area are fundamentally determined by environmental factors, which may impact C fluxes within a certain range, but couldn't change the climate-driven pattern of C fluxes at large scale, (5) Land use only changes the magnitude of C fluxes, but doesn't change the spatial patterns and their climate dependence. All of these hypotheses were well validated by the evidences of data synthesis, which could provide the foundation for a theoretical framework for better understanding and predicting geoecological

  12. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  13. Accretion Disks Phase Transitions 2-D or not 2-D?

    Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Bjornsson, Gunnlaugur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that the proper way to treat thin-thick accretion-disk transitions should take into account the 2-D nature of the problem. We illustrate the physical inconsistency of the 1-D vertically integrated approach by discussing a particular example of the convective transport of energy.

  14. DNTM/R2D, 2-D Transport in X-Y Geometry

    1 - Description of program or function: DNTM/R2D solves the neutron transport equation in two-dimensional X-Y geometry by the discrete nodal transport method. Source and eigenvalue problems can be solved. As compared to the two-dimensional nodal transport code DNTM/2D, the following new improved features are included: - Anisotropic scattering is considered. The order of anisotropic scattering is from P0 to P3. - The cross section input format is the same as for ANISN. Multi- group cross section libraries such as DLC-37 and DLC-BUGLE-80 can be used. 2 - Method of solution: DNTM/R2D uses the discrete nodal transport method. Anisotropic scattering is treated using Legendre expansion. Order of interior flux approximation is 2. Plane leakage approximation of surface flux is used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of: anisotropic scattering order = 3; material composition = 20; energy groups = 2; angular quadrature = 8; zones = 30. When coarse-mesh re-balancing is used, the maximum number of coarse meshes is 12 in each direction. If the computer permits some arrays can be enlarged to reduce the above restrictions

  15. Synthesis and regulation of chlorogenic acid in potato: Rerouting phenylpropanoid flux in HQT-silenced lines.

    Payyavula, Raja S; Shakya, Roshani; Sengoda, Venkatesan G; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Swamy, Prashant; Navarre, Duroy A

    2015-05-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the major phenolic sink in potato tubers and can constitute over 90% of total phenylpropanoids. The regulation of CGA biosynthesis in potato and the role of the CGA biosynthetic gene hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) was characterized. A sucrose induced accumulation of CGA correlated with the increased expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) rather than HQT. Transient expression of the potato MYB transcription factor StAN1 (anthocyanin 1) in tobacco increased CGA. RNAi suppression of HQT resulted in over a 90% reduction in CGA and resulted in early flowering. The reduction in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity was less than the reduction in CGA, suggesting flux was rerouted into other phenylpropanoids. Network analysis showed distinct patterns in different organs, with anthocyanins and phenolic acids showing negative correlations in leaves and flowers and positive in tubers. Some flavonols increased in flowers, but not in leaves or tubers. Anthocyanins increased in flowers and showed a trend to increase in leaves, but not tubers. HQT suppression increased biosynthesis of caffeoyl polyamines, some of which are not previously reported in potato. Decreased PAL expression and enzyme activity was observed in HQT suppressed lines, suggesting the existence of a regulatory loop between CGA and PAL. Electrophysiology detected no effect of CGA suppression on potato psyllid feeding. Collectively, this research showed that CGA in potatoes is synthesized through HQT and HQT suppression altered phenotype and redirected phenylpropanoid flux. PMID:25421386

  16. 2D-Oide effect

    Blanco, O R; Bambade, P

    2015-01-01

    The Oide effect considers the synchrotron radiation in the final focusing quadrupole and it sets a lower limit on the vertical beam size at the Interaction Point, particularly relevant for high energy linear colliders. The theory of the Oide effect was derived considering only the radiation in the focusing plane of the magnet. This article addresses the theoretical calculation of the radiation effect on the beam size consider- ing both focusing and defocusing planes of the quadrupole, refered to as 2D-Oide. The CLIC 3 TeV final quadrupole (QD0) and beam parameters are used to compare the theoretical results from the Oide effect and the 2D-Oide effect with particle tracking in PLACET. The 2D-oide demonstrates to be important as it increases by 17% the contribution to the beam size. Further insight into the aberrations induced by the synchrotron radiation opens the possibility to partially correct the 2D-Oide effect with octupole magn

  17. SES2D user's manual

    SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run

  18. Global Patterns of Ecosystem C Flux in Forests: a Synthesis of Biometric Measurements

    Xu, B.; Fang, J.; Yang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems is one of the key issues in current global change analyses. During the past several decades, a number of individual studies have been conducted to examine key parameters of carbon balance in forest ecosystem. These individual measurements offer the possibility to be synthesized to clarify the strength, distribution and mechanisms of carbon sequestration in world's forests. However, most previous syntheses have been derived from eddy-covariance measurements. To the best of our knowledge, key parameters of forest carbon balance obtained from biometric measurements have not yet been synthesized. In this study, we established a global dataset of forest carbon balance by collecting the data from publications which reported the biometric measurements of carbon pool and flux. This dataset contains carbon pool and flux measurements from 243 sites, 304 site/years, and 81 literatures. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Across all sites, the average Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) in global forest ecosystem was 2.47 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, Net Primary Productivity (NPP) was 6.66 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, and Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) was 4.52 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The order of NEP values was Subtropical > Temperate broadleaves > Temperate conifer > Tropical > Boreal. NPP, GPP, Rh, and Re decreased with increases in latitude. However, NEP exhibited an initial increase and then declined along the latitudinal gradient. The variation in NEP was large in the middle-latitudes. The NPP, GPP, Rh, and Re had positive relationships with mean annual temperature, and increased firstly and declined afterward with mean annual precipitation. NEP peaked in moderate climate areas. Stand age was also very important in determining forest carbon budget. The forests in middle age classes had the highest NEP, while old forests were only a small carbon sink. (2) Our results show a significant correlation between productivity and respiration in forest

  19. On black hole thermodynamics of 2-D type 0A

    We present a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of two dimensional black hole solutions to type 0A with q units of electric and magnetic flux. We compute the free energy and derived quantities such as entropy and mass for an arbitrary non-extremal black hole. The free energy is non-vanishing, in contrast to the case of dilatonic 2-d black holes without electric and magnetic fluxes. The entropy of the extremal black holes is obtained, and we find it to be proportional to q2, the square of the RR flux. We compare these thermodynamics quantities with those from candidate matrix model duals. (author)

  20. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis.

    Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Zhao, Xiaojian; Papas, Klearchos K

    2011-11-11

    Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with (31)P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by (13)C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-(13)C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was found to be congruous with the correlation in KRB. Together, these results suggest that signaling mechanisms associated with both TCA cycle flux and with anaplerotic flux, but not ATP production, may be responsible for the enhanced rates of insulin secretion in more complex, and physiologically-relevant media. PMID:22008547

  1. Head First 2D Geometry

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  2. 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimointi

    Saturo, Reetta

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tutkia 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimoinnin mahdollisuuksia tiukan tuotantoaikataulun vaatimuksissa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kahta asiakasprojektia, jotka on toteutettu pienellä tuotantotiimillä. Työkaluna animaatioissa on käytetty pääosin Adoben After Effects -ohjelmistoa. Tutkielman alussa esitellään animaatiotuotannot, joiden tuloksena syntyi kaksi lyhyttä mainoselokuvaa. Sen jälkeen käydään läpi animaatioelokuvan tuotantoprosessia vaiheittain ja tark...

  3. 2D SIMPLIFIED SERVO VALVE

    2003-01-01

    A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.

  4. Personalized 2D color maps

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  5. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb's cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian [The Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Papas, Klearchos K. [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with {sup 31}P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by {sup 13}C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-{sup 13}C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found

  6. Rates of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells are enhanced by coupling to anaplerosis and Kreb’s cycle flux independent of ATP synthesis

    Highlights: ► We studied media effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion of INS-1 cells. ► Insulin secretion was higher in DMEM than KRB despite identical ATP synthesis rates. ► Insulin secretion rates correlated with rates of anaplerosis and TCA cycle. ► Mitochondria metabolism and substrate cycles augment secretion signal of ATP. -- Abstract: Mechanistic models of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) established in minimal media in vitro, may not accurately describe the complexity of coupling metabolism with insulin secretion that occurs in vivo. As a first approximation, we have evaluated metabolic pathways in a typical growth media, DMEM as a surrogate in vivo medium, for comparison to metabolic fluxes observed under the typical experimental conditions using the simple salt-buffer of KRB. Changes in metabolism in response to glucose and amino acids and coupling to insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 832/13 cells. Media effects on mitochondrial function and the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation were determined by fluorometrically measured oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) combined with 31P NMR measured rates of ATP synthesis. Substrate preferences and pathways into the TCA cycle, and the synthesis of mitochondrial 2nd messengers by anaplerosis were determined by 13C NMR isotopomer analysis of the fate of [U-13C] glucose metabolism. Despite similar incremental increases in insulin secretion, the changes of OCR in response to increasing glucose from 2.5 to 15 mM were blunted in DMEM relative to KRB. Basal and stimulated rates of insulin secretion rates were consistently higher in DMEM, while ATP synthesis rates were identical in both DMEM and KRB, suggesting greater mitochondrial uncoupling in DMEM. The relative rates of anaplerosis, and hence synthesis and export of 2nd messengers from the mitochondria were found to be similar in DMEM to those in KRB. And, the correlation of total PC flux with insulin secretion rates in DMEM was

  7. 2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits

    Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.

  8. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  9. Modeling 2D and 3D Horizontal Wells Using CVFA

    Chen, Zhangxin; Huan, Guanren; Li, Baoyan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the recently developed control volume function approximation (CVFA) method to the modeling and simulation of 2D and 3D horizontal wells in petroleum reservoirs. The base grid for this method is based on a Voronoi grid. One of the features of the CVFA is that the flux at the interfaces of control volumes can be accurately computed via function approximations. Also, it reduces grid orientation effects and applies to any shape of eleme...

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescence Properties of a New 2D Cadmium Complex Based on the 4,4'-Bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethy1)biphenyl and Glutaric Acid Ligands

    TAO Zhao-Lin; QIN Ling; CUI Jie-Hu; ZHENG He-Gen

    2013-01-01

    A new polymeric complex {[Cd2(bbmb)2(gt)2]·(H2O)2}n (bbmb =4,4'-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethy1)biphenyl,H2gt =glutaric acid) has been obtained by hydrothermal method and structurally characterized by elemental analysis,IR,XRD,TGA and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.The complex belongs to the triclinic system,space group P(-1) with a =10.2417(15),b =13.752(2),c =22.201(3) (A),a =73.899(2),β =88.416(2),γ =78.305(2)°,V =2940.4(7) (A)3,Z =2,C66H56Cd2N8O8,Mr =1313.99,Dc =1.484 g/cm3,F(000) =1336 andμ =0.787 mm-1,and features a 2D network.In the solid state at room temperature,the cadmium(Ⅱ) complex exhibits strong fluorescence absorption at 435 nm (λmax).

  11. One pot synthesis, structure and magnetic property of a pseudo-interpenetrated 2D copper framework based on coordinated 1,1‧-biphenyl-3,3‧,5,5‧-tetracarboxylate and synthon

    Su, Feng; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli; Feng, Sisi

    2016-03-01

    A mixture of 1,1‧-biphenyl-3,3‧,5,5‧-tetracarboxylate acid (abbreviated as H4bpta), 4,4‧-bipyridine (abbreviated as 4,4‧-bipy), and CuCl2·2H2O generates co-crystallization supramolecular solids [Cu2(cis-H2bpta)2(4,4‧-bipy)2]n·nH4bpta·2nH2O (I) under hydrothermal condition and form of partly deprotonated cis-H2bpta2- firstly emerges in this work. Crystallographically, a 1:1 co-crystal is formed by co-crystallization of [Cu2(cis-H2bpta)2(4,4‧-bipy)2] and H4bpta in self-assembled process. Structurally, the compound (I) exhibits two-dimensional (2D) double-layered nets with a pseudo-interpenetrated skeleton, one layer is characteristic of metal-organic moiety linked via cis-H2bpta2- and 4,4‧-bipy spaces, and the other formed by O-H···O H-bonds presented in neutral H4bpta ligands. Interestingly, its mechanically interlocked structure is formed by hydrogen bonds, which results in an interesting interweaving framework with a new (3,4,5)-connected topological structure. Magnetic couplings between adjacent Cu(II) centers are mediated through double syn-syn carboxylate bridges. Magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates that (I) exhibits a dinuclear Cu(II) behavior with antiferromagnetic coupling (J = -35.69(1) cm-1).

  12. Surface modelling for 2D imagery

    Lieng, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Vector graphics provides powerful tools for drawing scalable 2D imagery. With the rise of mobile computers, of different types of displays and image resolutions, vector graphics is receiving an increasing amount of attention. However, vector graphics is not the leading framework for creating and manipulating 2D imagery. The reason for this reluctance of employing vector graphical frameworks is that it is difficult to handle complex behaviour of colour across the 2D domain. ...

  13. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  14. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  15. UNITS IN $F_2D_{2p}$

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Khan, Manju

    2012-01-01

    Let $p$ be an odd prime, $D_{2p}$ be the dihedral group of order 2p, and $F_{2}$ be the finite field with two elements. If * denotes the canonical involution of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$, then bicyclic units are unitary units. In this note, we investigate the structure of the group $\\mathcal{B}(F_2D_{2p})$, generated by the bicyclic units of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$. Further, we obtain the structure of the unit group $\\mathcal{U}(F_2D_{2p})$ and the unitary subgroup $\\mathcal{U}_*(F_...

  16. Bedform characterization through 2D spectral analysis

    Lefebvre, Alice; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian

    energetic peak of the 2D spectrum was found and its energy, frequency and direction were calculated. A power-law was fitted to the average of slices taken through the 2D spectrum; its slope and y-intercept were calculated. Using these results the test area was morphologically classified into 4 distinct...... characteristics using twodimensional (2D) spectral analysis is presented and tested on seabed elevation data from the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, where large compound bedforms are found. The bathymetric data were divided into 20x20 m areas on which a 2D spectral analysis was applied. The most...

  17. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Elena Purcaru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  18. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Purcaru, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  19. Hunting down magnetic monopoles in 2D topological insulators?

    He, Xugang; Cmpmsd At Bnl Team

    Contrary to the existence of electric charge, magnetic monopole does not exist in nature. It is thus extraordinary to find that magnetic monopoles can be pictured conceptually in topological insulators. For 2D topological insulators, the topological invariant corresponds to the total flux of an effective magnetic field (the Berry curvature) over the reciprocal space. Upon wrapping the 2D reciprocal space into a compact manifold as a torus, the non-zero total flux can be considered to originate from magnetic monopoles with quantized charge. We will first illustrate the intrinsic difficulty via extending a 2D problem to a 3D reciprocal space, and then demonstrate that analytical continuation to the complex momentum space offers a natural solution in which 1) the magnetic monopoles emerge naturally in pairs each forming a string above and below the real axis possessing opposite charge, and 2) the total charge below the real axis gives exactly the topological invariant. In essence, the robustness of the topology is mapped to the robustness of the total charge in the lower complex plan, a mapping intriguing even mathematically. Finally, we will illustrate the evolution across the topological phase transition, providing a natural description of the metallic nature in the phase boundary, and offering a clear explanation why a change of global topology can be induced via a local change in reciprocal space. Work supported by US DOE BES DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  20. Simulation of corium concrete interaction in 2D geometry

    Benchmarking work was recently performed for the issue of molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). A synthesis is given here. It concerns first the 2D CCI-2 test with a homogeneous pool and a limestone concrete, which was used for a blind benchmark. Secondly, the COMET-L2 and COMET-L3 2D experiments in a stratified configuration were used as a post-test (L2) and a blind-test (L3) benchmark. More details are given here for the recent benchmark considering a matrix of four reactor cases, with both a homogeneous and a stratified configuration, and with both a limestone and a siliceous concrete. A short overview is given on the different models used in the codes, and the consistency between the benchmark actions on experiments and reactor situations is discussed. Finally, the major uncertainties concerning MCCI are also pointed out. (authors)

  1. Simulation of corium concrete interaction in 2D geometry

    Cranga, M. [IRSN, DPAM, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Spindler, B.; Dufour, E. [CEA Grenoble, DEN, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Dimov, Dimitar [Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res and Nucl Energy, NPPSAL, BU-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Atkhen, Kresna [EDF, SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France); Foit, Jerzy [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Garcia-Martin, M. [Univ Politecn Madrid, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sevon, Tuomo [Tech Res Ctr Finland VTT, FI-02044 Helsinki (Finland); Schmidt, W. [AREVA, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Spengler, C. [Gesell Anlagen and Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, D-50667 Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Benchmarking work was recently performed for the issue of molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). A synthesis is given here. It concerns first the 2D CCI-2 test with a homogeneous pool and a limestone concrete, which was used for a blind benchmark. Secondly, the COMET-L2 and COMET-L3 2D experiments in a stratified configuration were used as a post-test (L2) and a blind-test (L3) benchmark. More details are given here for the recent benchmark considering a matrix of four reactor cases, with both a homogeneous and a stratified configuration, and with both a limestone and a siliceous concrete. A short overview is given on the different models used in the codes, and the consistency between the benchmark actions on experiments and reactor situations is discussed. Finally, the major uncertainties concerning MCCI are also pointed out. (authors)

  2. Statistical mechanics of shell models for 2D-Turbulence

    Aurell, E; Crisanti, A; Frick, P; Paladin, G; Vulpiani, A

    1994-01-01

    We study shell models that conserve the analogues of energy and enstrophy, hence designed to mimic fluid turbulence in 2D. The main result is that the observed state is well described as a formal statistical equilibrium, closely analogous to the approach to two-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics of Onsager, Hopf and Lee. In the presence of forcing and dissipation we observe a forward flux of enstrophy and a backward flux of energy. These fluxes can be understood as mean diffusive drifts from a source to two sinks in a system which is close to local equilibrium with Lagrange multipliers (``shell temperatures'') changing slowly with scale. The dimensional predictions on the power spectra from a supposed forward cascade of enstrophy, and from one branch of the formal statistical equilibrium, coincide in these shell models at difference to the corresponding predictions for the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations in 2D. This coincidence have previously led to the mistaken conclusion that shell models exhibit a forward ...

  3. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  4. 2D NMR studies of biomolecules

    The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs

  5. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...

  6. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  7. A parallel splitting wavelet method for 2D conservation laws

    Schmidt, Alex A.; Kozakevicius, Alice J.; Jakobsson, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The current work presents a parallel formulation using the MPI protocol for an adaptive high order finite difference scheme to solve 2D conservation laws. Adaptivity is achieved at each time iteration by the application of an interpolating wavelet transform in each space dimension. High order approximations for the numerical fluxes are computed by ENO and WENO schemes. Since time evolution is made by a TVD Runge-Kutta space splitting scheme, the problem is naturally suitable for parallelization. Numerical simulations and speedup results are presented for Euler equations in gas dynamics problems.

  8. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  9. Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra

    Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David

    2001-03-01

    We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.

  10. Low temperature synthesis of layered NaxCoO2 and KxCoO2 from NaOH/KOH fluxes and their ion exchange properties

    C Shivakumara; M S Hegde

    2003-10-01

    We report a low temperature synthesis of layered Na0.20CoO2 and K0.44CoO2 phases from NaOH and KOH fluxes at 400°C. These layered oxides are employed to prepare hexagonal HCoO2, LiCoO2 and Delafossite AgCoO2 phases by ion exchange method. The resulting oxides were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SEM and EDX analysis. Final compositions of all these oxides are obtained from chemical analysis of elements present. Na0.20CoO2 oxide exhibits insulating to metal like behaviour, whereas AgCoO2 is semiconducting.

  11. 2D supergravity in p+1 dimensions

    Gustafsson, H.; Lindstrom, U.

    1998-01-01

    We describe new $N$-extended 2D supergravities on a $(p+1)$-dimensional (bosonic) space. The fundamental objects are moving frame densities that equip each $(p+1)$-dimensional point with a 2D ``tangent space''. The theory is presented in a $[p+1, 2]$ superspace. For the special case of $p=1$ we recover the 2D supergravities in an unusual form. The formalism has been developed with applications to the string-parton picture of $D$-branes at strong coupling in mind.

  12. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...

  13. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for cell labeling: flux synthesis of manganite particles and novel functionalization of silica shell

    Kačenka, Michal; Kaman, Ondřej; Kikerlová, S.; Pavlů, B.; Jirák, Zdeněk; Jirák, D.; Herynek, Vít; Černý, J.; Chaput, F.; Laurent, S.; Lukeš, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, Jun (2015), s. 97-106. ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0807; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : manganites * magnetic nanoparticles * molten salt synthesis * silica coating * dual probes * MRI * cell labeling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  14. The molten hydrated flux synthesis of a novel open-framework copper borophosphate and its structural relation with the precursors

    Zhao, Long; Liu, Wei, E-mail: weiliu@ouc.edu.cn; Ma, Xiaohong; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Lu, Zhisheng

    2014-10-15

    A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[BP{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH)], has been synthesized by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure (Orthorhombic, Pbca, a=8.234 Å, b=9.655 Å, c=17.805 Å, V=1415.485 Å{sup 3}, Z=8) can be regarded as the condensation of alternately edge- and corner-shared copper pyramidal chains and borophosphate chains formed via vertex-sharing PO{sub 4} and BO{sub 3}(OH) tetrahedra. Magnetic measurements indicate that antiferromagnetic interactions exist in the title compound. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between final solids and raw materials has been discovered even though no ordered structural fragments exist in the latter. - Graphical: Structure comparison of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O and Cu{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[BP{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH)], showing the structural evolution of CuO{sub 5} pyramids in the synthetic process. - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been synthesized by the molten hydrated flux method. • Magnetic measurements show its antiferromagnetism at low temperature. • A structural relation between the precursor and the final solid is discovered.

  15. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date

  16. Beltrami States in 2D Electron Magnetohydrodynamics

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Hamiltonian formulations along with the Poisson brackets for two-dimensional (2D) electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) flows are developed. These formulations are used to deduce the Beltrami states for 2D EMHD flows. In the massless electron limit, the EMHD Beltrami states reduce to the force-free states, though there is no force-free Beltrami state in the general EMHD case.

  17. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  18. 2d index and surface operators

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  19. Matrix models and 2-D gravity

    In these lectures, I shall focus on the matrix formulation of 2-d gravity. In the first one, I shall discuss the main results of the continuum formulation of 2-d gravity, starting from the first renormalization group calculations which led to the concept of the conformal anomaly, going through the Polyakov bosonic string and the Liouville action, up to the recent results on the scaling properties of conformal field theories coupled to 2-d gravity. In the second lecture, I shall discuss the discrete formulation of 2-d gravity in term of random lattices, and the mapping onto random matrix models. The occurrence of critical points in the planar limit and the scaling limit at those critical points will be described, as well as the identification of these scaling limits with continuum 2-d gravity coupled to some matter field theory. In the third lecture, the double scaling limit in the one matrix model, and its connection with continuum non perturbative 2-d gravity, will be presented. The connection with the KdV hierarchy and the general form of the string equation will be discuted. In the fourth lecture, I shall discuss the non-perturbative effects present in the non perturbative solutions, in the case of pure gravity. The Schwinger-Dyson equations for pure gravity in the double scaling limit are described and their compatibility with the solutions of the string equation for pure gravity is shown to be somewhat problematic

  20. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ''modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise

  1. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J ({ge}K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R ({le}K) orthogonalized modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  2. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity. Final report

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J ({ge}K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R ({le}K) orthogonalized ``modes`` of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  3. 2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计

    康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究,在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上,以均匀平面阵列为例,对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真,分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。

  4. Mercury in western North America: A synthesis of environmental contamination, fluxes, bioaccumulation, and risk to fish and wildlife

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wiener, James G.; Eckley, Chris S.; Willacker, James J.; Evers, David C.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Obrist, Daniel; Fleck, Jacob; Aiken, George R.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Webster, Jackson; Stewart, Robin; Davis, Jay; Alpers, Charles N.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Western North America is a region defined by extreme gradients in geomorphology and climate, which support a diverse array of ecological communities and natural resources. The region also has extreme gradients in mercury (Hg) contamination due to a broad distribution of inorganic Hg sources. These diverse Hg sources and a varied landscape create a unique and complex mosaic of ecological risk from Hg impairment associated with differential methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation. Understanding the landscape-scale variation in the magnitude and relative importance of processes associated with Hg transport, methylation, and MeHg bioaccumulation requires a multidisciplinary synthesis that transcends small-scale variability. The Western North America Mercury Synthesis compiled, analyzed, and interpreted spatial and temporal patterns and drivers of Hg and MeHg in air, soil, vegetation, sediments, fish, and wildlife across western North America. This collaboration evaluated the potential risk from Hg to fish, and wildlife health, human exposure, and examined resource management activities that influenced the risk of Hg contamination. This paper integrates the key information presented across the individual papers that comprise the synthesis. The compiled information indicates that Hg contamination is widespread, but heterogeneous, across western North America. The storage and transport of inorganic Hg across landscape gradients are largely regulated by climate and land-cover factors such as plant productivity and precipitation. Importantly, there was a striking lack of concordance between pools and sources of inorganic Hg, and MeHg in aquatic food webs. Additionally, water management had a widespread influence on MeHg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems, whereas mining impacts where relatively localized. These results highlight the decoupling of inorganic Hg sources with MeHg production and bioaccumulation. Together the findings indicate that developing

  5. Photonic crystals to enhance light extraction from 2D materials

    Noori, Yasir J; Roberts, Jonathan; Woodhead, Christopher; Bernardo-Gavito, Ramon; Tovee, Peter; Young, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme for coupling 2D materials to an engineered cavity based on a defective rod type photonic crystal lattice. We show results from numerical modelling of the suggested cavity design, and propose using the height profile of a 2D material transferred on top of the cavity to maximise coupling between exciton recombination and the cavity mode. The photonic structure plays a key role in enhancing the launch efficiency, by improving the directionality of the emitted light to better couple it into an external optical system. When using the photonic structure, we measured an increase in the extraction ratio by a factor of 3.4. We investigated the variations in the flux spectrum when the radius of the rods is modified, and when the 2D material droops to a range of different heights within the cavity. We found an optimum enhancement when the rods have a radius equal to 0.165 times the lattice constant, this enhancement reduces when the radius is reduced or increased. Finally, we discuss the possible use...

  6. Strings in a 2-d extremal black hole

    String theory on 2-d charged black holes corresponding to (SL(2) x U(1)L)/U(1) exact asymmetric quotient CFTs are investigated. These backgrounds can be embedded, in particular, in a two dimensional heterotic string. In the extremal case, the quotient CFT description captures the near horizon physics, and is equivalent to strings in AdS2 with a gauge field. Such string vacua possess an infinite space-time Virasoro symmetry, and hence enhancement of global space-time Lie symmetries to affine symmetries, in agreement with the conjectured AdS2/CFT1 correspondence. We argue that the entropy of these 2-d black holes in string theory is compatible with semi-classical results, and show that in perturbative computations part of an incoming flux is absorbed by the black hole. Moreover, on the way we find evidence that the 2-d heterotic string is closely related to the N=(2,1) string, and conjecture that they are dual. (author)

  7. SALE-2D, 2-D Fluid Flow, Navier Stokes Equation Using Lagrangian or Eulerian Method

    1 - Description of problem or function: SALE2D calculates two- dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program. 2 - Method of solution: The basic hydrodynamic part of each cycle of SALE is divided into three phases. Phase 1 is a typical explicit Lagrangian calculation in which the velocity field is updated by the effects of all forces. Phase 2 is a Newton-Raphson iteration that provides time-advanced pressures and velocities. It is used for calculations in the low-speed and even completely incompressible regimes. Phase 3 performs all the advective flux calculations. It is required for runs that are Eulerian or contain some other form of mesh rezoning. A powerful feature of SALE is the ease with which different phases can be combined to suit the requirements of individual problems

  8. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  9. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  10. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247

  11. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  12. Fluid and plastic flow dynamics of the critical state for a strongly pinned 2D superconductor

    Monier, D.; Fruchter, L. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides

    2000-09-01

    We present simulations of the dynamic critical state for a 2D superconductor with strong pinning centers, corresponding to a matching field twice the applied magnetic field. The sharp crossover between the plastic regime, at low current density and temperature, and the fluid flow regime for flux motion is characterized by the activation energy for flux motion and the transverse diffusion of the vortices trajectory. (orig.)

  13. Path integral quantization of 2 D- gravity

    2 D- gravity is investigated using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equations of motion and the action integral are obtained as total differential equations in many variables. The integrability conditions, lead us to obtain the path integral quantization without any need to introduce any extra un-physical variables. (author)

  14. Port Adriano, 2D-Model tests

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU). The objective of the tests was: To identify cross section design which restrict the overtopping to acceptable levels and to record the...

  15. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    Ambjorn, J.; S. Jain; G. Thorleifsson

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of $2d$ quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent $\\g_{string}$.

  16. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...

  17. ORION, Post-processor for Finite Elements Program NIKE2D and DYNA2D

    Description of program or function: ORION is an interactive post- processor for the analysis programs NIKE2D (NESC 9923), DYNA2D (NESC 9910), TOPAZ, TOPAZ2D (NESC9801), GEM2D (NESC9679), and TACO2D. ORION reads the binary plot data files generated by the two- dimensional finite element programs used at LLNL. Contours and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has the capability to plot color fringes, contour lines, vector plots, principal stress lines, deformed meshes and material outlines, time histories, reaction forces along constraint boundaries, interface pressures along slide lines, and user-supplied labels

  18. Initial Images of the Synthetic Aperture Radiometer 2D-STAR

    Initial results obtained using a new synthetic aperture radiometer, 2D-STAR, a dual polarized, L-band radiometer that employs aperture synthesis in two dimensions are presented and analyzed. This airborne instrument is the natural evolution of a previous design that employed employs aperture synthes...

  19. Seepage Analysis of Upper Gotvand Dam Concerning Gypsum Karstification (2D and 3D Approaches)

    Sadrekarimi, Jamshid; Kiyani, Majid; Fakhri, Behnam;

    2011-01-01

    model locates the phreatic surface somewhat higher than the 2D model. This means that the 2D model estimates lower pore water pressure pattern in comparison with the 3D model. These may be attributed to the fact that with 2D model the lateral components of vectors of seepage velocity are ignored. In the......Upper Gotvand Dam is constructed on the Karun River at the south west of Iran. In this paper, 2D and 3D models of the dam together with the foundation and abutments were established, and several seepage analyses were carried out. Then, the gypsum veins that are scattered throughout the foundation...... ground were included in the models, and the seepage pattern, considering the dissolution law of gypsum, was analyzed. It was disclosed that the discharge fluxes obtained from 2D and 3D analyses are not similar, and the discharge flux in 3D model is about four times that of the 2D model. Also, the 3D...

  20. 2-D soft x-ray arrays in the EAST

    Chen, Kaiyun; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Duan, Yanmin; Li, Xueqin; Yuan, Yi; Mao, Songtao; Sheng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jinlong

    2016-06-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution soft x-ray (SXR) imaging diagnostic has been installed in EAST for the study of magnetohydrodynamics activities and core high-Z impurity transport. Up to 122 lines of sight view the poloidal plasma from three directions (two up-down symmetrical horizontal arrays and one vertical array), which renders the diagnostic able to provide detailed tomographic reconstructions under various conditions. Fourier-Bessel method based on flux coordinates was employed for 2-D SXR tomographic reconstruction. Examples of several events measured by SXR diagnostic in EAST are shown, namely the crash patterns of sawtooth, periodical burst of edge localized modes, and the transport of high-Z intrinsic impurities.

  1. Performance of the new 2D ACAR spectrometer in Munich

    Ceeh, Hubert; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation (ACAR) is a well established technique for the investigation of the electric structure. A major limitation of ACAR studies is the available positron flux at a small spot on the sample. Fore this reason, the focus of this work is put on the discussion of a newly developed source-sample stage which uses an optimized static magnetic field configuration to guide the positrons onto the sample. The achieved spot size is $d_{\\mathrm{FWHM}}=5.4\\,$mm, with a high efficiency over the whole energy spectrum of the $^{22}$Na positron source. The implications of the performance of the source-sample stage are discussed with regard to 2D-ACAR measurements of single crystalline $\\alpha$-quartz, which serves as a model system for the determination of the total resolution.

  2. 2-D geometrical analysis of deformation

    Engineering structures such as dams, bridges, high rise buildings, etc. are subject to deformation. Deformation survey is therefore necessary to determine the magnitude and direction of such movements for the purpose of safety assessment. In this study, a strategy for two-step analyses for deformation survey rising the two dimensional (2-D) geodetic method has been developed, consisting of independent least squares estimation (LSE) of each epoch followed by deformation detection. Important aspects on LSE include global and local testing. In deformation detection, the following aspects were implemented; datum definition by the user. determination of stable datum points, geometrical analysis of deformation and graphic presentation. The developed strategy has been implemented in three computer programs, COMPUT, DEFORM and STRANS. Tests carried out with simulated and known data show that the developed strategy and programs are applicable for 2-D geometrical detection of deformation. (Author)

  3. Branes in the 2D black hole

    Ribault, Sylvain E-mail: ribault@mth.kcl.ac.uk; Schomerus, Volker

    2004-02-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models. (author)

  4. Branes in the 2D black hole

    Ribault, S; Ribault, Sylvain; Schomerus, Volker

    2004-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models.

  5. Branes in the 2D black hole

    We present a comprehensive analysis of branes in the Euclidean 2D black hole (cigar). In particular, exact boundary states and annulus amplitudes are provided for D0-branes which are localized at the tip of the cigar as well as for two families of extended D1 and D2-branes. Our results are based on closely related studies for the Euclidean AdS3 model and, as predicted by the conjectured duality between the 2D black hole and the sine-Liouville model, they share many features with branes in Liouville theory. New features arise here due to the presence of closed string modes which are localized near the tip of the cigar. The paper concludes with some remarks on possible applications to exact tachyon condensation and matrix models. (author)

  6. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  7. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  8. 2D-Tasks for Cognitive Rehabilitation

    Caballero Hernandez, Ruth; Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; García Molina, A.; Ferrer Celma, S.; Solana Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Carrion, R.; Fernandez Casado, E.; Pérez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gomez Pulido, A.; Anglès Tafalla, C.; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Ferre Vergada, M.; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Garcia Lopez, P.; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a complex clinic process which tries to restore or compensate cognitive and behavioral disorders in people suffering from a central nervous system injury. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Biomedical Engineering play an essential role in this field, allowing improvement and expansion of present rehabilitation programs. This paper presents a set of cognitive rehabilitation 2D-Tasks for patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). These t...

  9. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    Lien, Derhsien

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  10. Similarities between 2D and 3D convection for large Prandtl number

    PANDEY AMBRISH; VERMA MAHENDRA K; CHATTERJEE ANANDO G; DUTTA BIPLAB

    2016-07-01

    Using direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC), we perform a comparative study of the spectra and fluxes of energy and entropy, and the scaling of large-scale quantities for large and infinite Prandtl numbers in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. We observe close similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC, in particular, the kinetic energy spectrum $E^{u}(k) ∼ k^{−13/3}$, and the entropy spectrum exhibits a dual branch with a dominant $k^{−2}$ spectrum. We showed that the dominant Fourier modes in 2D and 3D flows are very close. Consequently, the 3D RBC is quasi-two-dimensional, which is the reason for the similarities between the 2D and 3D RBC for large and infinite Prandtl numbers.

  11. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  12. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    Mutlu, Z; Wu, RJ; Wickramaratne, D.; Shahrezaei, S; Liu, C; Temiz, S; Patalano, A; M Ozkan; Lake, RK; Mkhoyan, KA; Ozkan, CS

    2016-01-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2...

  13. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the theory of deformable templates is a vector cycle in 2D is described. The deformable template model originated in (Grenander, 1983) and was further investigated in (Grenander et al., 1991). A template vector distribution is induced by parameter distribution from transformation...... matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation and...

  14. Limit theorems for 2D invasion percolation

    Damron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We prove limit theorems and variance estimates for quantities related to ponds and outlets for 2D invasion percolation. We first exhibit several properties of a sequence (O(n)) of outlet variables, the n-th of which gives the number of outlets in the box centered at the origin of side length 2^n. The most important of these properties describe the sequence's renewal structure and exponentially fast mixing behavior. We use these to prove a central limit theorem and strong law of large numbers for (O(n)). We then show consequences of these limit theorems for the pond radii and outlet weights.

  15. Instant HTMl5 2D platformer

    Temple, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to

  16. Interparticle attraction in 2D complex plasmas

    Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V

    2015-01-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecular-like. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecular-like interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  17. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates

  18. Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-03-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  19. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  20. Comments on Thermalization in 2D CFT

    de Boer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D CFT. In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a BTZ black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering $c < 1$ theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect o...

  1. Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials

    Cobden, David

    Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.

  2. AIRDIF, Neutron and Gamma Doses from Nuclear Explosion by 2-D Air Diffusion

    1 - Description of problem or function: AIRDIF is a two-dimensional atmospheric radiation diffusion code designed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in the environment of a nuclear explosion. It calculates radiation fluxes in one-dimensional homogeneous air, or two-dimensional variable density air. The results are limited by the assumptions inherent in diffusion theory: the region of interest must be large compared to the radiation mean free path, the spatial flux gradients must not be steep, flux varies linearly with the cosine of the direction angle. The code requires as input data neutron and gamma source spectra, coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross sections, and, for two- dimensional problems, a set of mass integral scaling (MIS) coefficients. These latter are calculated from an AIRDIF output flux file for a one-dimensional problem by the auxiliary program MISFIT, using a least squares fitting technique to Murphy's radiation transmission equation. MISFIT can also be used to calculate one- dimensional MIS doses. The MIS coefficients and doses can be input to AIRDIF, in two- dimensional mode to calculate 2-D fluxes, doses and K-factors (the ratio of 2-D to 1-D dose). Alternatively the 2-D doses and K-factors may be computed using the output 2-D flux file of a previous AIRDIF run using the auxiliary program DOSCOMP. 2 - Method of solution: Un-collided particle flux is determined from an analytic expression describing exponential attenuation with distance. Diffusion theory is used for the flux, using un-collided flux as a source term. A central collided differencing technique is used to reduce the diffusion equation to a matrix equation, which is solved by the Successive Line Over-relaxation (SLOR) method. Total flux is calculated as the sum of collided and un-collided components. To maintain a mesh interval which has the same relationship to mean free path at all heights, an expanding non-orthogonal coordinate system is used. In homogeneous air this system

  3. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is

  4. Area preserving diffeomorphisms and 2-d gravity

    La, H S

    1995-01-01

    Area preserving diffeomorphisms of a 2-d compact Riemannian manifold with or without boundary are studied. We find two classes of decompositions of a Riemannian metric, namely, h- and g-decomposition, that help to formulate a gravitational theory which is area preserving diffeomorphism (SDiffM-) invariant but not necessarily diffeomorphism invariant. The general covariance of equations of motion of such a theory can be achieved by incorporating proper Weyl rescaling. The h-decomposition makes the conformal factor of a metric SDiffM-invariant and the rest of the metric invariant under conformal diffeomorphisms, whilst the g-decomposition makes the conformal factor a SDiffM scalar and the rest a SDiffM tensor. Using these, we reformulate Liouville gravity in SDiffM invariant way. In this context we also further clarify the dual formulation of Liouville gravity introduced by the author before, in which the affine spin connection is dual to the Liouville field.

  5. Locality constraints and 2D quasicrystals

    The plausible assumption that long-range interactions between atoms are negligible in a quasicrystal leaks to the study of tilings that obey constraints on the local configurations of tiles. The theory of such constraints (called matching rules) for 2D quasicrystal tilings is reviewed here. Different types of matching rules are defined and examples of tilings obeying them are given where known. The role of tile decoration is discussed and is shown to be significant in at least two cases (octagonal and dodecagonal duals of periodic 4-grids and 6-grids). A new result is introduced: a constructive procedure is described for generating weak matching rules for tilings with N-fold symmetry, for any N that is either a prime number or twice a prime number. The physics associated with weak matching rules, results on local growth rules, and the case of icosahedral symmetry are all briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs

  6. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  7. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  8. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The rational design diagram for Dolos armour should incorporate both the hydraulic stability and the structural integrity. The previous tests performed by Aalborg University (AU) made available such design diagram for the trunk of Dolos breakwater without superstructures (Burcharth et al. 1992). To...... extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92......-0042. Furthermore, Task IA will give the design diagram for Tetrapod breakwaters without a superstructure. The more complete research results on Dolosse can certainly give some insight into the behaviour of Tetrapods armour layer of the breakwaters with superstructure. The main part of the experiment was on the...

  9. Rotenone Upregulates Alpha-Synuclein and Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2D Independently from Lysosomal Degradation Inhibition

    Gessica Sala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctions of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA, the main catabolic pathway for alpha-synuclein, have been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Since till now there is limited information on how PD-related toxins may affect CMA, in this study we explored the effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone on CMA substrates, alpha-synuclein and MEF2D, and effectors, lamp2A and hsc70, in a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Rotenone induced an upregulation of alpha-synuclein and MEF2D protein levels through the stimulation of their de novo synthesis rather than through a reduction of their CMA-mediated degradation. Moreover, increased MEF2D transcription resulted in higher nuclear protein levels that exert a protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. These results were compared with those obtained after lysosome inhibition with ammonium chloride. As expected, this toxin induced the cytosolic accumulation of both alpha-synuclein and MEF2D proteins, as the result of the inhibition of their lysosome-mediated degradation, while, differently from rotenone, ammonium chloride decreased MEF2D nuclear levels through the downregulation of its transcription, thus reducing its protective function. These results highlight that rotenone affects alpha-synuclein and MEF2D protein levels through a mechanism independent from lysosomal degradation inhibition.

  10. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  11. 2D magnetic nanoparticle imaging using magnetization response second harmonic

    Tanaka, Saburo, E-mail: tanakas@ens.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Murata, Hayaki; Oishi, Tomoya; Suzuki, Toshifumi [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Zhang, Yi [Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich D-52425 (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    A detection method and an imaging technique for magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been investigated. In MNP detection and in magnetic particle imaging (MPI), the most commonly employed method is the detection of the odd harmonics of the magnetization response. We examined the advantage of using the second harmonic response when applying an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field. If the magnetization response is detected by a Cu-wound-coil detection system, the output voltage from the coil is proportional to the change in the flux, dϕ/dt. Thus, the dependence of the derivative of the magnetization, M, on an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field were calculated and investigated. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. We demonstrated that the use of the second harmonic response for the detection of MNPs has an advantage compared with the usage of the third harmonic response, when the Cu-wound-coil detection system is employed and the amplitude of the ratio of the AC modulation field and a knee field H{sub ac}/H{sub k} is less than 2. We also constructed a 2D MPI scanner using a pair of permanent ring magnets with a bore of ϕ80 mm separated by 90 mm. The magnets generated a gradient of G{sub z}=3.17 T/m transverse to the imaging bore and G{sub x}=1.33 T/m along the longitudinal axis. An original concentrated 10 μl Resovist solution in a ϕ2×3 mm{sup 2} vessel was used as a sample, and it was imaged by the scanner. As a result, a 2D contour map image could be successfully generated using the method with a lock-in amplifier.

  12. Local 2D-2D tunneling in high mobility electron systems

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Sciambi, Adam; Bartel, John; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Lilly, Michael; Bank, Seth; Gossard, Arthur

    2012-02-01

    Many scanning probe techniques have been utilized in recent years to measure local properties of high mobility two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in GaAs. However, most techniques lack the ability to tunnel into the buried 2D system and measure local spectroscopic information. We report scanning gate measurements on a bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure that allows for a local modulation of tunneling between two 2D electron layers. We call this technique Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (VSTM) [1,2] as the influence of the scanning gate is analogous to an STM tip, except at a GaAs/AlGaAs interface instead of a surface. We will discuss the spectroscopic capabilities of the technique, and show preliminary results of measurements on a high mobility 2D electron system.[1] A. Sciambi, M. Pelliccione et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 132103 (2010).[2] A. Sciambi, M. Pelliccione et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 085301 (2011).

  13. Face recognition method based on 2D-PCA and 2D-LDA%基于2D-PCA和2D-LDA的人脸识别方法

    温福喜; 刘宏伟

    2007-01-01

    提出了基于2D-PCA、2D-LDA两种特征采用融合分类器的人脸识别方法.首先提取人脸图像的2D-PCA和2D-LDA特征,对不同特征在决策层对分类器进行融合.在ORL人脸库上的试验结果表明,分类器决策层融合方法在识别性能上优于2D-PCA和2D-LDA,更具有鲁棒性.

  14. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  15. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F. [Aix-Marseille Univ, IUSTI, UMR CNRS 7343, F-13453 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ~ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ~ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  16. Design of 2D Porous Coordination Polymers Based on Metallacrown Units.

    Atzeri, Corrado; Marchiò, Luciano; Chow, Chun Y; Kampf, Jeff W; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Tegoni, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    A 12-metallacrown-4 (MC) complex was designed and employed as the building block in the synthesis of coordination polymers, one of which is the first permanently porous MC architecture. The connection of the four-fold symmetric MC subunits by Cu(II) nodes led to the formation of 2D layers of metallacrowns. Channels are present in the crystalline architecture, which exhibits permanent porosity manifested in N2 and CO2 uptake capacity. PMID:26951956

  17. Large-area and high-quality 2D transition metal telluride

    Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Fucai; Lin, Junhao; Huang, Xiangwei; Xia, Juan; Zhang, Bowei; Zeng, Qingsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Chao; Niu, Lin; Wang, Xuewen; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Chang, Tay-Rong; Hsu, Chuang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Atomically thin transitional metal ditellurides like WTe2 and MoTe2 have triggered tremendous research interests because of their intrinsic nontrivial band structure. They are also predicted to be 2D topological insulators and type-II Weyl semimetals. However, most of the studies on ditelluride atomic layers so far rely on the low-yield and time-consuming mechanical exfoliation method. Direct synthesis of large-scale monolayer ditellurides has not yet been achieved. Here, using the chemical v...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF COUPLED 1D-2D MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR TIDAL RIVERS

    XU Zu-xin; YIN Hai-long

    2004-01-01

    Some coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic and water quality models depicting tidal water bodies with complex topography were presented. For the coupled models, finite element method was used to solve the governing equations so as to study tidal rivers with complex topography. Since the 1D and 2D models were coupled, the principle of model coupling was proposed to account appropriately for the factors of water level, flow and pollutant flux and the related dynamical behavior was simulated. Specifically the models were used to probe quantitative pollution contribution of receiving water from neighboring Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces to the pollution in the Huangpu River passing through Shanghai City. Numerical examples indicated that the developed coupled 1D-2D models are applicable in tidal river network region of Shanghai.

  19. Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels

    Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  20. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  1. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water.

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  2. 2D DIGITAL SIMPLIFIED FLOW VALVE

    Ruan Jian; Li Sheng; Pei Xiang; Burton R; Ukrainetz P; Bitner D

    2004-01-01

    The 2D digital simplified flow valve is composed of a pilot-operated valve designed with both rotary and linear motions of a single spool,and a stepper motor under continual control.How the structural parameters affect the static and dynamic characteristics of the valve is first clarified and a criterion for stability is presented.Experiments are designed to test the performance of the valve.It is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless,it is possible to maintain the dynamic response at a fairly high level,while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.One of the features of the digital valve is stage control.In stage control the nonlinearities,such as electromagnetic saturation and hysteresis,are greatly reduced.To a large extent the dynamic response of the valve is decided by the executing cycle of the control algorithm.

  3. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  4. 2D manifold-independent spinfoam theory

    A number of background-independent quantization procedures have recently been employed in 4D nonperturbative quantum gravity. We investigate and illustrate these techniques and their relation in the context of a simple 2D topological theory. We discuss canonical quantization, loop or spin network states, path integral quantization over a discretization of the manifold, spin foam formulation and the fully background-independent definition of the theory using an auxiliary field theory on a group manifold. While several of these techniques have already been applied to this theory by Witten, the last one is novel: it allows us to give a precise meaning to the sum over topologies, and to compute background-independent and, in fact, 'manifold-independent' transition amplitudes. These transition amplitudes play the role of Wightman functions of the theory. They are physical observable quantities, and the canonical structure of the theory can be reconstructed from them via a C* algebraic GNS construction. We expect an analogous structure to be relevant in 4D quantum gravity

  5. Resolution Independent 2D Cartoon Video Conversion

    MSF. Fayaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel system for vectorizing 2D raster cartoon. The output videos are the resolution independent, smaller in file size. As a first step, input video is segment to scene thereafter all processes are done for each scene separately. Every scene contains foreground and background objects so in each and every scene foreground background classification is performed. Background details can occlude by foreground objects but when foreground objects move its previous position such occluded details exposed in one of the next frame so using that frame can fill the occluded area and can generate static background. Classified foreground objects are identified and the motion of the foreground objects tracked for this simple user assistance is required from those motion details of foreground object’s animation generated. Static background and foreground objects segmented using K-means clustering and each and every cluster’s vectorized using potrace. Using vectored background and foreground object animation path vector video regenerated.

  6. 2D edge plasma modeling extended up to the main chamber

    Dekeyser, W., E-mail: wouter.dekeyser@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baelmans, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Reiter, D.; Boerner, P.; Kotov, V. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-08-01

    Far SOL plasma flow, and hence main chamber recycling and plasma surface interaction, are today still only very poorly described by current 2D fluid edge codes, such as B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D, due to a common technical limitation. We have extended the B2 plasma fluid solver in the current ITER version of B2-EIRENE (SOLPS4.3) to allow plasma solutions to be obtained up to the 'real vessel wall', at least on the basis of ad hoc far SOL transport models. We apply here the kinetic Monte Carlo Code EIRENE on such plasma solutions to study effects of this model refinement on main chamber fluxes and sputtering, for an ITER configuration. We show that main chamber sputtering may be significantly modified both due to thermalization of CX neutrals in the far SOL and poloidally highly asymmetric plasma wall contact, as compared to hitherto applied teleportation of particle fluxes across this domain.

  7. Program package for 2D burnup calculation

    The program package for 2 dimension burnup calculation was developed for TRIGA Mark III reactor. The package consists of 3 modules: PRESIX, SIXTUS-2, and BURN; 1 library, and 2 input files. PRESIX module prepared cross sections for diffusion calculation. SIXTUS-2 module, a two dimensional diffusion code in hexagonal geometry, calculates keff, neutron fluxes and power distributions. BURN module performs the burnup of fuel elements and stored the result in the ELEM.DAT file. PRESIX.LIB is two group cross section library for major reactor core components prepared using WIMS-D4 code. PRES.INP, the first input file, reads information on reactor power and core loading pattern. ELEM.DAT, the second input file, is prepared for specific TRIGA reactor and dependent on operation history. To verify the reactor model and computational methods, the calculated excess reactivities were compared to the measurement. The results are in good agreement. (author)

  8. Identification of novel CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids: non-functional and functional variants

    Andrea Gaedigk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic expression of CYP2D6 contributes to the wide range of activity observed for this clinically important drug metabolizing enzyme. In this report we describe novel CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid genes encoding non-functional and functional CYP2D6 protein and a CYP2D7 variant that mimics a CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene. Five kb long PCR products encompassing the novel genes were entirely sequenced. A quantitative assay probing in different gene regions was employed to determine CYP2D6 and 2D7 copy number variations and the relative position of the hybrid genes within the locus was assessed by long-range PCR. In addition to the previously known CYP2D6*13 and *66 hybrids, we describe three novel non-functional CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids with gene switching in exon 2 (CYP2D6*79, intron 2 (CYP2D6*80 and intron 5 (CYP2D6*67. A CYP2D7-specific T-ins in exon 1 causes a detrimental frame shift. One subject revealed a CYP2D7 conversion in the 5’-flanking region of a CYP2D6*35 allele, was otherwise unaffected (designated CYP2D6*35B. Finally, three DNAs revealed a CYP2D7 gene with a CYP2D6-like region downstream of exon 9 (designated CYP2D7[REP6]. Quantitative copy number determination, sequence analyses and long-range PCR mapping were in agreement and excluded the presence of additional gene units. Undetected hybrid genes may cause over-estimation of CYP2D6 activity (CYP2D6*1/*1 vs *1/hybrid, etc, but may also cause results that may interfere with the genotype determination. Detection of hybrid events, ‘single’ and tandem, will contribute to more accurate phenotype prediction from genotype data.

  9. 2D Stochastic Monte Carlo to evaluate the modulation of GCR for positive and negative periods

    We developed a 2D model Stochastic Monte Carlo for Cosmic Rays propagation in the Heliosphere. The model solves numerically the transport equation of particles in the heliosphere, including major processes affecting the heliospheric particle propagation: diffusion, convection, adiabatic energy losses and drift of particles. We evaluated the modulated flux at several distances from the sun (i.e. at planets distance) and we compared our results for both solar polarities with measurements of CR protons at the Earth distance, 1 AU. (authors)

  10. MOCUM solutions to the 2-D hexagonal HTTR benchmark problems

    Highlights: ► Method of characteristic solutions of prismatic heterogeneous HTTR benchmarks are presented. ► Excellent agreements between MOCUM and MCNP5 results were achieved. ► HTTR benchmark problems are insensitive to azimuthal angle number. ► Leonard polar angle performs better than the Gauss–Legendre polar angles. ► Small zone size is required for accurate modeling of the strong flux gradient. - Abstract: The 2-D hexagonal HTTR benchmark problems were calculated by MOCUM code, whose fundamental methodologies are method of characteristics and unstructured meshing. MOCUM multiplication factors, fuel block and fuel pin fission rates, burnable poison and control rod absorption rates of three control rod configurations were compared with MCNP5 reference solutions. Excellent agreements were achieved. Maximum keff and reaction rate different among three cases are 0.01% and 0.26%, respectively. Sensitivity studies on parameter impacts are also presented. These benchmark problems are insensitive to the number of azimuthal angles. Small zone size is required for modeling the strong absorbers. Leonard type polar angles perform better than the Gauss–Legendre polar angles

  11. Finite state models of constrained 2d data

    Justesen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods.......This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods....

  12. Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer

    Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2000-05-01

    During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.

  13. Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem

    Sebek, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2)

  14. Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem

    Sebek, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2) as well.

  15. Stability Test for 2-D Continuous-Discrete Systems

    2002-01-01

    Models of 2-D continuous-discrete systems are introduced, which can be used to describe some complex systems. Different from classical 2-D continuous systems or 2-D discrete systems, the asymptotic stability of the continuous-discrete systems is determined by Hurwitz-Schur stability (hybrid one) of 2-D characteristic polynomials of the systems. An algebraic algorithm with simpler test procedure for Hurwitz-Schur stability test of 2-D polynomials is developed. An example to illustrate the applications of the test approach is provided.

  16. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  17. CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping

    Amanda K Riffel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe

  18. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  19. Flux Creep and Flux Jumping

    Mints, R G

    1995-01-01

    We consider the flux jump instability of the Bean's critical state arising in the flux creep regime in type-II superconductors. We find the flux jump field, $B_j$, that determines the superconducting state stability criterion. We calculate the dependence of $B_j$ on the external magnetic field ramp rate, magnetization experiments the slope of the current-voltage curve in the flux creep regime determines the stability of the Bean's critical state, {\\it i.e.}, the value of $B_j$. We show that a flux jump can be preceded by the magneto-thermal oscillations and find the frequency of these oscillations as a function of $\\dot B_e$.

  20. MAZE, Input Generator for Program DYNA2D and NIKE2D

    Description of program or function: MAZE is an interactive input generator for two-dimensional finite element codes. MAZE has three phases. In the first phase, lines and parts are defined. The first phase is terminated by the 'ASSM' or 'PASSM' command which merges all parts. In the second phase, boundary conditions may be specified, slide-lines may be defined, parts may be merged to eliminate nodes along common interfaces, boundary nodes may be moved for graded zoning, the mesh may be smoothed, and load curves may be defined. The second phase is terminated by the 'WBCD' command which causes MAZE to write the output file as soon as the 'T' terminate command is typed. In the third phase, material properties may be defined. Commands that apply to the first phase may not be used in the second or third; likewise, commands that apply in the second may not be used in the first and third, or commands that apply in the third in the first and second. Nine commands - TV, Z, GSET, PLOTS, GRID, NOGRID, FRAME, NOFRAME, and RJET are available in all phases. Comments may be added anywhere in the input stream by prefacing the comment with 'C'. Any DYNA2D or NIKE2D material and equation-of- state model may be defined via the MAT and EOS commands respectively. Maze may be terminated after phase two; it is not necessary to define the materials

  1. Estimating surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical ogive optimization

    Sievers, J.; Papakyriakou, T.; Larsen, Søren Ejling;

    2015-01-01

    -frequency contributions to vertical turbulent surface fluxes. For high flux rates (|Sensible heat flux| > 40Wm-2, |latent heat flux|> 20Wm-2 and |CO2 flux|> 100 mmolm-2 d-1/ we found that the average relative difference between fluxes estimated by ogive optimization and the conventional method was low (5–20 %) suggesting...... negligible low-frequency influence and that both methods capture the turbulent fluxes equally well. For flux rates below these thresholds, however, the average relative difference between flux estimates was found to be very high (23–98 %) suggesting non-negligible low-frequency influence...... and that the conventional method fails in separating low-frequency influences from the turbulent fluxes. Hence, the ogive optimization method is an appropriate method of flux analysis, particularly in low-flux environments....

  2. Plasmas for environmental issues: from hydrogen production to 2D materials assembly

    Tatarova, E.; Bundaleska, N.; Sarrette, J. Ph; Ferreira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    generation in water discharges of intense UV radiation, shock waves and active radicals (OH, O, H2O2, etc), which are all effective agents against many biological pathogens and harmful chemicals, make these discharges suitable for decontamination, sterilization and purification processes. Moreover, plasmas appear as invaluable tools for the synthesis and engineering of new nanomaterials and in particular 2D materials. A brief overview on plasma-synthesized carbon nanostructures shows the high potential of such materials for energy conversion and storage applications.

  3. Plasmas for environmental issues: from hydrogen production to 2D materials assembly

    generation in water discharges of intense UV radiation, shock waves and active radicals (OH, O, H2O2, etc), which are all effective agents against many biological pathogens and harmful chemicals, make these discharges suitable for decontamination, sterilization and purification processes. Moreover, plasmas appear as invaluable tools for the synthesis and engineering of new nanomaterials and in particular 2D materials. A brief overview on plasma-synthesized carbon nanostructures shows the high potential of such materials for energy conversion and storage applications. (invited review)

  4. Flux-Aided Synthesis of Lu2O3 and Lu2O3:Eu—Single Crystal Structure, Morphology Control and Radioluminescence Efficiency

    Justyna Zeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Li2SO4 or (Li2SO4 + SiO2-mixture fluxes were used to prepare a Lu2O3:Eu powder phosphor as well as an undoped Lu2O3 utilizing commercial lutetia and europia as starting reagents. SEM images showed that the fabricated powders were non-agglomerated and the particles sizes varied from single microns to tens of micrometers depending largely on the flux composition rather than the oxide(s-to-flux ratio. In the presence of SiO2 in the flux, certain grains grew up to 300–400 μm. The lack of agglomeration and the large sizes of crystallites allowed making single crystal structural measurements and analysis on an undoped Lu2O3 obtained by means of the flux technique. The cubic structure with a = 10.393(2 Å, and Ia  space group at 298 K was determined. The most efficient radioluminescence of Lu2O3:Eu powders reached 95%–105% of the commercial Gd2O2S:Eu.

  5. Initial global 2-D shielding analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source core and reflector

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This document describes the initial global 2-D shielding analyses for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor, the D{sub 2}O reflector, the reflector vessel, and the first 200 mm of light water beyond the reflector vessel. Flux files generated here will later serve as source terms in subsequent shielding analyses. In addition to reporting fluxes and other data at key points of interest, a major objective of this report was to document how these analyses were performed, the phenomena that were included, and checks that were made to verify that these phenomena were properly modeled. In these shielding analyses, the fixed neutron source distribution in the core was based on the `lifetime-averaged` spatial power distribution. Secondary gamma production cross sections in the fuel were modified so as to account intrinsically for delayed fission gammas in the fuel as well as prompt fission gammas. In and near the fuel, this increased the low-energy gamma fluxes by 50 to 250%, but out near the reflector vessel, these same fluxes changed by only a few percent. Sensitivity studies with respect to mesh size were performed, and a new 2-D mesh distribution developed after some problems were discovered with respect to the use of numerous elongated mesh cells in the reflector. All of the shielding analyses were performed sing the ANSL-V 39n/44g coupled library with 25 thermal neutron groups in order to obtain a rigorous representation of the thermal neutron spectrum throughout the reflector. Because of upscatter in the heavy water, convergence was very slow. Ultimately, the fission cross section in the various materials had to be artificially modified in order to solve this fixed source problem as an eigenvalue problem and invoke the Vondy error-mode extrapolation technique which greatly accelerated convergence in the large 2-D RZ DORT analyses. While this was quite effective, 150 outer iterations (over energy) were still required.

  6. Initial global 2-D shielding analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source core and reflector

    This document describes the initial global 2-D shielding analyses for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor, the D2O reflector, the reflector vessel, and the first 200 mm of light water beyond the reflector vessel. Flux files generated here will later serve as source terms in subsequent shielding analyses. In addition to reporting fluxes and other data at key points of interest, a major objective of this report was to document how these analyses were performed, the phenomena that were included, and checks that were made to verify that these phenomena were properly modeled. In these shielding analyses, the fixed neutron source distribution in the core was based on the 'lifetime-averaged' spatial power distribution. Secondary gamma production cross sections in the fuel were modified so as to account intrinsically for delayed fission gammas in the fuel as well as prompt fission gammas. In and near the fuel, this increased the low-energy gamma fluxes by 50 to 250%, but out near the reflector vessel, these same fluxes changed by only a few percent. Sensitivity studies with respect to mesh size were performed, and a new 2-D mesh distribution developed after some problems were discovered with respect to the use of numerous elongated mesh cells in the reflector. All of the shielding analyses were performed sing the ANSL-V 39n/44g coupled library with 25 thermal neutron groups in order to obtain a rigorous representation of the thermal neutron spectrum throughout the reflector. Because of upscatter in the heavy water, convergence was very slow. Ultimately, the fission cross section in the various materials had to be artificially modified in order to solve this fixed source problem as an eigenvalue problem and invoke the Vondy error-mode extrapolation technique which greatly accelerated convergence in the large 2-D RZ DORT analyses. While this was quite effective, 150 outer iterations (over energy) were still required

  7. Methane Flux

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Methane (CH4) flux is the net rate of methane exchange between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. Data of this variable were generated by the USGS LandCarbon project...

  8. Surface Approximation Using the 2D FFENN Architecture

    Panagopoulos S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-dimensional feed-forward functionally expanded neural network (2D FFENN used to produce surface models in two dimensions is presented. New nonlinear multilevel surface basis functions are proposed for the network's functional expansion. A network optimization technique based on an iterative function selection strategy is also described. Comparative simulation results for surface mappings generated by the 2D FFENN, multilevel 2D FFENN, multilayered perceptron (MLP, and radial basis function (RBF architectures are presented.

  9. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino; Zamarin, Marco; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square const...

  10. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino;

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... of the Markov random field defined by the 2-D constraint is estimated to be (upper bounded by) 0.8570 bits/symbol using the iterative technique of Belief Propagation on 2 £ 2 finite lattices. Based on combinatorial bounding techniques the maximum entropy for the constraint was determined to be 0.848....