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Sample records for 2-chloroethyl vesicants mustard

  1. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FTTM, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE2 synthases, leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  2. Role of TNFR1 in lung injury and altered lung function induced by the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Lung toxicity induced by sulfur mustard is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. To elucidate mechanisms mediating pulmonary damage, we used 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. Male mice (B6129) were treated intratracheally with CEES (3 or 6 mg/kg) or control. Animals were sacrificed 3, 7 or 14 days later and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue collected. Treatment of mice with CEES resulted in an increase in BAL protein, an indication of alveolar epithelial damage, within 3 days. Expression of Ym1, an oxidative stress marker also increased in the lung, along with inducible nitric oxide synthase, and at 14 days, cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inflammatory proteins implicated in tissue injury. These responses were attenuated in mice lacking the p55 receptor for TNFα (TNFR1-/-), demonstrating that signaling via TNFR1 is key to CEES-induced injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation. CEES-induced upregulation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MnSOD was delayed or absent in TNFR1-/- mice, relative to WT mice, suggesting that TNFα mediates early antioxidant responses to lung toxicants. Treatment of WT mice with CEES also resulted in functional alterations in the lung including decreases in compliance and increases in elastance. Additionally, methacholine-induced alterations in total lung resistance and central airway resistance were dampened by CEES. Loss of TNFR1 resulted in blunted functional responses to CEES. These effects were most notable in the airways. These data suggest that targeting TNFα signaling may be useful in mitigating lung injury, inflammation and functional alterations induced by vesicants.

  3. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450’s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroe...

  4. Free radical production from the interaction of 2-chloroethyl vesicants (mustard gas) with pyridine nucleotide-driven flavoprotein electron transport systems*

    Brimfield, A.A.; Mancebo, A.M.; Mason, R P; Jiang, J.J.; Siraki, A.G.; Novak, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The biochemical sequelae to chloroethyl mustard exposure correspond very well to toxic processes initiated by free radicals. Additionally, mustard solutions contain spontaneously formed cyclic onium ions which produce carbon free radicals when reduced electrochemically. Therefore, we hypothesized that the onium ions of sulfur or nitrogen mustards might produce carbon free radicals upon being reduced enzymatically, and that these radicals might constitute a metabolic activation. We set out to ...

  5. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100...

  6. Mustard vesicating agent-induced toxicity in the skin tissue and silibinin as a potential countermeasure.

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to the vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) causes severe skin injury with delayed blistering. Depending upon the dose and time of their exposure, edema and erythema develop into blisters, ulceration, necrosis, desquamation, and pigmentation changes, which persist weeks and even years after exposure. Research advances have generated data that have started to explain the probable mechanism of action of vesicant-induced skin toxicity; however, despite these advances, effective and targeted therapies are still deficient. This review highlights studies on two SM analogs, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and NM, and CEES- and NM-induced skin injury mouse models that have substantially added to the knowledge on the complex pathways involved in mustard vesicating agent-induced skin injury. Furthermore, employing these mouse models, studies under the National Institutes of Health Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats program have identified the flavanone silibinin as a novel therapeutic intervention with the potential to be developed as an effective countermeasure against skin injury following exposure to mustard vesicating agents. PMID:27326543

  7. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 μM) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

  8. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM

  9. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  10. A Role for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Sulfur Mustard Analog 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide-Induced Lung Cell Injury and Antioxidant Protection

    Gould, Neal S; White, Carl W; Day, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur mustards (SMs) have been used as warfare agents since World War I and still pose a significant threat against civilian and military personnel. SM exposure can cause significant blistering of the skin, respiratory injury, and fibrosis. No antidote currently exists for SM exposure, but recent studies, using the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), have focused on the ability of antioxidants to prevent toxicity. Although antioxidants can prevent CEES-induc...

  11. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  12. Rotational spectra, nuclear quadrupole hyperfine tensors, and conformational structures of the mustard gas simulent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Tubergen, M. J.; Lesarri, A.; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, A. C.; Jensen, J. O.; Ellzy, M. W.; Lochner, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    Rotational spectra have been recorded for both the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopic forms of two structural conformations of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The rotational constants of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopomers were used to identify the conformational isomers. A total of 236 hyperfine transitions have been assigned for 47 rotational transitions of the 35Cl isotope of a GGT conformer, and 146 hyperfine have been assigned for 37 rotational transitions of the 37Cl isotopomer. For the second conformer, a total of 128 (110) hyperfine and 30 (28) rotational transitions have also been assigned to the 35Cl ( 37Cl) isotopes of a TGT conformation. The extensive hyperfine splitting data, measured to high resolution with a compact Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, were used to determine both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors in the inertial tensor principal axis system. The experimental rotational constant data, as well as the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors, were compared to the results from 27 optimized ab initio (HF/6-311++G ∗∗ and MP2/6-311++G ∗∗) model structures.

  13. Zinc oxide nanocubes as a destructive nanoadsorbent for the neutralization chemistry of 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide: A sulfur mustard simulant.

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanocubes were surveyed for their destructive turn-over to decontaminate 2-chloro ethyl phenyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. Prior to the reaction, nanocubes were prepared through sol-gel method using monoethanolamine, diethylene glycol, and anhydrous citric acid as the stabilizing, cross linking/structure directing agents, respectively. The formation of nanoscale ZnO, the cubic morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical-adsorptive characteristics were certified by FESEM-EDS, TEM-SAED, XRD, FTIR, BET-BJH, H2-TPR, and ESR techniques. Adsorption and destruction reactions were tracked by GC-FID analysis in which the effects of polarity of the media, reaction time, and temperature on the destructive capability of the surface of nanocubes were investigated and discussed. Results demonstrated that maximum neutralization occurred in n-heptane solvent after 1/2h at 55°C. Kinetic study construed that the neutralization reaction followed the pseudo-second order model with a squared correlation coefficient and rate constant of 0.9904 and 0.00004gmg(-1)s(-1), respectively. Furthermore, GC-MS measurement confirmed the formation of 2-hydroxy ethyl phenyl sulfide (2-HEPS) and phenyl vinyl sulfide (PVS) as neutralization products that together with Bronsted and Lewis acid/base approaches exemplify the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the surface of zinc oxide nanocubes. PMID:27309947

  14. Inhibition of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages

    Smith Milton; Yang Hongsong; Paromov Victor M; Qui Min; Stone William L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD). Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide...

  15. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  16. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  17. Multiphoton imaging the disruptive nature of sulfur mustard lesions

    Werrlein, Robert J.; Braue, Catherine R.; Dillman, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide] is a vesicating agent first used as a weapon of war in WWI. It causes debilitating blisters at the epidermal-dermal junction and involves molecules that are also disrupted by junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and other blistering skin diseases. Despite its recurring use in global conflicts, there is still no completely effective treatment. We have shown by imaging human keratinocytes in cell culture and in intact epidermal tissues that the basal cells of skin contain well-organized molecules (keratins K5/K14, α6β4 integrin, laminin 5 and α3β1 integrin) that are early targets of sulfur mustard. Disruption and collapse of these molecules is coincident with nuclear displacement, loss of functional asymmetry, and loss of polarized mobility. The progression of this pathology precedes basal cell detachment by 8-24 h, a time equivalent to the "clinical latent phase" that defines the extant period between agent exposure and vesication. Our images indicate that disruption of adhesion-complex molecules also impairs cytoskeletal proteins and the integration of structures required for signal transduction and tissue repair. We have recently developed an optical system to test this hypothesis, i.e., to determine whether and how the early disruption of target molecules alters signal transduction. This environmentally controlled on-line system provides a nexus for real-time correlation of imaged lesions with DNA microarray analysis, and for using multiphoton microscopy to facilitate development of more effective treatment strategies.

  18. Protective Effects of Recombinant Kunitz-Domain 1 of Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-2 Against 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide Toxicity In Vitro

    Moonsuk S. Choi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard is a well-known blistering chemical warfare agent that has been investigated for its toxicological mechanisms and an efficacious antidote. Since sulfur mustard injury involves dermal:epidermal separation, proteolytic enzymes were suspected to be involved for this separation and eventual blister development. Therefore, protease inhibitors could be of therapeutic utility against sulfur mustard injury. In this study, the effects of Kunitz-domain 1 of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 were evaluated against the toxic effects of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a surrogate agent of sulfur mustard. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 is a 32-kDa serine protease inhibitor produced by a variety of cell types including human epidermal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. It consists of 3 Kunitz-domains and the first Kunitz-domain contains the putative P1 residue (arginine at position 24 responsible for protease inhibitory activity. Methods: Recombinant wild-type and R24Q mutant Kunitz-domain 1s were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified proteins were refolded, and their effects were tested in an in vitro human epidermal keratinocyte cell wounding assay. Results: Wild-type but not R24Q Kunitz-domain 1 inhibited the amidolytic activity of trypsin and plasmin. Wild-type Kunitz-domain1 was stable for 4 weeks at 42°C and for more than 8 weeks at room temperature. Wild-type Kunitz-domain 1 significantly improved wound healing of unexposed and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide–exposed cells without influencing cell proliferation. Although R24Q Kunitz-domain 1 lacked trypsin and plasmin inhibitory activity, it promoted wound closure of untreated and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide–treated cells but to a much lesser degree. Conclusion: These data suggest that wild-type Kunitz-domain 1 of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 can be developed as a medical countermeasure against sulfur mustard cutaneous injury.

  19. Vesical endometriosis

    Endometriosis affecting the urinary tract is very rare and the most common site of involvement is urinary bladder. The clinical features are urgency and frequency, hypo gastric pain and hematuria. Cystoscopic examination is the most valuable diagnostic test but definitive diagnosis requires histological confirmation. A 21-year-old unmarried female presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and blood in urine, more during menstruation. She gave history of left salpingo-oophorectomy. Ultrasonography revealed a mass in the bladder 2 x 3 cm on the posterior wall. Intravenous urography showed a filling defect in the bladder. Urethrocystoscopy performed and growth was resected and sent for histopathology. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of vesical endometriosis. She was advised Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) but she refused as she could not afford it. She was managed on Tab 17-aethinyl testosterone. (author)

  20. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS −/− mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS −/− mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS −/− mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS −/− mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS −/− mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ► Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ► RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ► iNOS −/− mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and

  1. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilvr@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS −/− mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS −/− mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS −/− mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS −/− mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS −/− mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ► Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ► RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ► iNOS −/− mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and

  2. Decontamination of 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide by Pulsed Corona Plasma

    Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES, CH3CH2SCH2CH2Cl) by pulsed corona plasma was investigated. The results show that 212.6 mg/m3 of 2-CEES, with the gas flow rate of 2 m3/h, can be decontaminated to 0.09 mg/m3. According to the variation of the inlet and outlet concentration of 2-CEES vapor with retention time, it is found that the reaction of 2-CEES in a pulsed corona plasma system follows the first order reaction, with the reaction rate constant of 0.463 s−1. The decontamination mechanism is discussed based on an analysis of the dissociation energy of chemical bonds and decontamination products. The C–S bond adjacent to the Cl atom will be destroyed firstly to form CH3CH2S· and ·CH2CH2Cl radicals. CH3CH2S· can be decomposed to ·C2H5 and ·S. ·S can be oxidized to SO2, while ·C2H5 can be finally oxidized to CO2 and H2O. The C–Cl bond in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can be destroyed to form ·CH2CH2. and ·Cl, which can be mineralized to CO2, H2O and HCl. The H atom in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can also be substituted by ·Cl to form CHCl2–CHCl2. (plasma technology)

  3. Sulfur Mustard Toxicity Following Dermal Exposure

    Paromov, Victor; Suntres, Zacharias; Smith, Milton; Stone, William L

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (bis-2-(chloroethyl) sulfide) is a chemical warfare agent (military code: HD) causing extensive skin injury. The mechanisms underlying HD-induced skin damage are not fully elucidated. This review will critically evaluate the evidence showing that oxidative stress is an important factor in HD skin toxicity. Oxidative stress results when the production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS) exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense mec...

  4. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Victor Paromov; Sudha Kumari; Marianne Brannon; Kanaparthy, Naga S.; Hongsong Yang; Smith, Milton G.; Stone, William L

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD) and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-sol...

  5. Sulfur Mustard

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sulfur Mustard What sulfur mustard is Sulfur mustard is a type of ... it is in liquid or solid form. Where sulfur mustard is found and how it is used ...

  6. N-4-(二氯乙基)丁胺-1,8-萘酰亚胺对人肝癌HepG2细胞的抑制作用及其机制研究%Inhibition effect and mechanism of novel nitrogen mustard derivative 2 -(4 -di (2-chloroethyl) aminobutylamino)-1H-benz-[ de] isoquinoline-1,3(2H) -dione on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    苗久旺; 张忠泉; 谢松强

    2015-01-01

    目的:体外评价N-4-(二氯乙基)丁胺-1,8-萘酰亚胺( XHH)对HepG2细胞的抑制作用及其作用机制。方法采用MTT法检测细胞增殖,高内涵筛选分析仪结合Annexin V-FITC/Hoechst33342, PI/Hoechst33342和Rh123/Hoechst33342双染色法检测细胞形态及膜电位;免疫荧光法检测caspase-3, caspase-9, Bcl-2, Bax的表达水平。结果 XHH能抑制HepG2细胞增殖,诱导细胞凋亡,降低线粒体膜电位,提高Bax/Bcl-2,使caspase-3, caspase-9表达增加。结论 XHH具有较好的抗HepG2肿瘤细胞作用,可通过线粒体途径诱导细胞凋亡。%Objective To investigate the effects of 2-(4-di(2-chlo-roethyl) aminobutylamino)-1H-benz-[de]isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione( XHH) , a novel nitrogen mustard derivative, on the growth and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro.Methods Cell pro-liferative effect was assessed by MTT assay.Changes of morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential ( MMP) were assessed by AnnexinV-FITC/Hoechst33342 , PI/Hoecsht33342 and Rh123/Hoechst33342 double staining using high content screening ( HCS ) .The expression of caspase-3 , caspase-9 , Bcl-2 , Bax was assessed by immunofluores-cence method using HCS. Results The results indicated that XHH could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, induce apoptosis, lose MMP, up-regulate the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, increase the expression of caspase-3 , caspase-9.Conclusion XHH could inhibit proliferative of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and induce cell apoptosis via mitochon-drial pathway.

  7. Effect of cycocel [(2, chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] on growth and nutrition of jute

    Studies were conducted on the effect of cycocel [(2, chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] on the growth and nutrition of two jute varieties. C. capsularis (JRC 212) and C. olitorius (JRO 632). In general, the soil application was found to be superior to foliar application. The latter method yielded significant results when applied at 30 days to C. capsularis whereas C. olitorius responded well at 45 days of spray. Out of the N, P and K application, P was applied as 32P-superphosphate. (author)

  8. Exogenously-sourced ethylene increases stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and growth under optimal and deficient nitrogen fertilization in mustard

    Iqbal, Noushina; Nazar, Rahat; Syeed, Shabina; Masood, Asim; Khan, Nafees A.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ascertain the stomatal and photosynthetic responses of mustard to ethylene under varying N availability, photosynthetic characteristics of mustard grown with optimal (80 mg N kg−1 soil) or low (40 mg N kg−1 soil) N were studied after the application of an ethylene-releasing compound, ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) at 40 days after sowing (DAS). The availability of N influenced ethylene evolution and affected stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. The effect of ethylene...

  9. An Unusual Vesical Calculus

    Rabia Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 52 year old patient presenting with a bladder stone formed over a migrated intrauterine device (copper -T. Her history was pertinent for intrauterine contraceptive (IUCD device placement 10 years back. Investigations included plain ultrasound of abdomen, X-ray of abdomen, urinalysis, and urine culture. Ultrasound and plain X-ray of the pelvis confirmed a bladder stone formed over a migrated copper-T intrauterine device. The device was removed through suprapubic cystolithotomy. Of all the reported cases of vesical stone formation over a migrated IUCD, this case is unique as the patient was an elderly - 52 year old - female. All previously reported cases are of younger age.

  10. Aminoalkylated Merrifield Resins Reticulated by Tris-(2-chloroethyl Phosphate for Cadmium, Copper, and Iron (II Extraction

    Mokhtar Dardouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to synthesize novel substituted polymers bearing functional groups to chelate heavy metals during depollution applications. Three polyamine functionalized Merrifield resins were prepared via ethylenediamine (EDA, diethylenetriamine (DETA, and triethylenetetramine (TETA modifications named, respectively, MR-EDA, MR-DETA, and MR-TETA. The aminoalkylated polymers were subsequently reticulated by tris-(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP to obtain new polymeric resins called, respectively, MR-EDA-TCEP, MR-DETA-TCEP, and MR-TETA-TCEP. The obtained resins were characterized via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis (EA, and thermogravimetric (TGA, thermodynamic (DTA, and differential thermogravimetric (DTG analysis. The synthesized resins were then assayed to evaluate their efficiency to extract metallic ions such as Cd2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ from aqueous solutions.

  11. The influence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthesis in stimulated macrophages treated with a mustard gas analogue

    Smith Milton; Yang Hongsong; Qui Min; Paromov Victor; Stone William L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulphur mustard gas, 2, 2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide (HD), is a chemical warfare agent. Both mustard gas and its monofunctional analogue, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES), are alkylating agents that react with and diminish cellular thiols and are highly toxic. Previously, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and that CEES transiently inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production via suppression ...

  12. N2,N2,N5,N5-Tetrakis(2-chloroethyl-3,4-dimethylthiophene-2,5-dicarboxamide

    Yi-Dan Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H22Cl4N2O2S, the two imide groups adopt a trans arrangement relative to the central thienyl ring, so the four terminal 2-chloroethyl arms adopt different orientations. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  13. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    Saber Imani; Yunes Panahi; Jafar Salimian; Junjiang Fu; Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl) sulphide) is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs express...

  14. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  15. Vesical endometriosis: utility of imaging techniques

    We present three cases of vesical endometriosis initially studied with ultrasound. One case was also studied with intravenous urography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We discuss on the utility of these imaging methods in the diagnosis of vesical endometriosis. (Author) 9 refs

  16. RARE CASE OF GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS

    Deepak Ramraj; MR Swaroop; Jagadeesha; Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Giant vesical calculus is a rare entity. Vesical calculi can be primary (stones form de novo in bladder) or secondary to the migrated renal calculi, chronic UTI, bladder outlet obstruction, bladder diverticulum or carcinoma, foreign body and neurogenic bladder. We report a case of an 85year old male patient who presented with history of...

  17. Discrepancy between mRNA and Protein Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    Majid Ebrahimi; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi; Raheleh Halabian; Mostafa Ghanei; Hisatake Kondo; Mohammad Reza Nourani

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant that has been employed as a chemical weapon in various conflicts during the 20th century. More recently, mustard was used in the Iraq conflict against Iranian troops and civilians. At the present time there are more than 40.000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special bronchiolitis obliterans (BOs) due to mustard gas. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, NGAL...

  18. Covalent DNA-Protein Cross-Linking by Phosphoramide Mustard and Nornitrogen Mustard in Human Cells.

    Groehler, Arnold; Villalta, Peter W; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2016-02-15

    N,N-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphorodiamidic acid (phosphoramide mustard, PM) and N,N-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-amine (nornitrogen mustard, NOR) are the two biologically active metabolites of cyclophosphamide, a DNA alkylating drug commonly used to treat lymphomas, breast cancer, certain brain cancers, and autoimmune diseases. PM and NOR are reactive bis-electrophiles capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form covalent DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to characterize PM- and NOR-mediated DNA-protein cross-linking in human cells. Following treatment of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) with cytotoxic concentrations of PM, over 130 proteins were found to be covalently trapped to DNA, including those involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA splicing/processing, chromatin organization, and protein transport. HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of proteolytic digests of DPC-containing DNA from NOR-treated cells revealed a concentration-dependent formation of N-[2-[cysteinyl]ethyl]-N-[2-(guan-7-yl)ethyl]amine (Cys-NOR-N7G) conjugates, confirming that it cross-links cysteine thiols of proteins to the N7 position of guanines in DNA. Cys-NOR-N7G adduct numbers were higher in NER-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (XPA) as compared with repair proficient cells. Furthermore, both XPA and FANCD2 deficient cells were sensitized to PM treatment as compared to that of wild type cells, suggesting that Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair pathways are involved in the removal of cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage. PMID:26692166

  19. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  20. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene catalyzed by EtAlCl 2/Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether soluble complex in hexanes

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda

    2014-03-25

    The polymerization of isobutylene (IB) to yield highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with high exo-olefin content using GaCl3 or FeCl3·diisopropyl ether complexes has been previously reported.1 In an effort to further improve polymerization rates and exo-olefin content, we have studied ethylaluminum dichloride (EADC) complexes with diisopropyl ether, 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether (CEEE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (CEE) as catalysts in conjunction with tert-butyl chloride as initiator in hexanes at different temperatures. All three complexes were readily soluble in hexanes. Polymerization, however, was only observed with CEE. At 0 °C polymerization was complete in 5 min at [t-BuCl] = [EADC·CEE] = 10 mM and resulted in PIB with ∼70% exo-olefin content. Studies on complexation using ATR FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that at 1:1 stoichiometry a small amount of EADC remains uncomplexed. By employing an excess of CEE, exo-olefin contents increased up to 90%, while polymerization rates decreased only slightly. With decreasing temperature, polymerization rates decreased while molecular weights as well as exo-olefin contents increased, suggesting that isomerization has a higher activation energy than β-proton abstraction. Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the Lewis acid·ether binding energies indicated a trend consistent with the polymerization results. The polymerization mechanism proposed previously for Lewis acid·ether complexes1 adequately explains all the findings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. CLINICO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VESICAL CALCULUS

    Pushpendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vesical calculi are the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis. Urinary infections play an important role in aetiopathogenesis of vesical calculi. OBJECTIVE Aim of this study was proposed to establish the bacteriology of stone and urine in an attempt to evaluate the role of infection in the formation of stone. Associated factors like age, sex, site of infection, obstruction, diet were also evaluated. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS The patients were admitted in surgical ward as provisional diagnosed cases of vesical calculus, were subjected to investigations including CBC, RBS, urine analysis, renal function test, x-ray KUB region and ultrasonography. Patients who were fit for surgery, various surgical procedures were done. Gross examination and core culture of stone was done to establish their aetiology. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with vesical calculus were evaluated. Incidence of vesical calculus was 1.13%. Majority of cases were from rural areas (92.55%. Urinary tract infection was present in 37.2% of cases, majority of cases urine culture was positive (30.95%. Core culture of stone was positive in 18 cases (25.17%. E. coli was the predominant organism both in urine culture (19.04% and core culture of stone (25.71%. CONCLUSIONS There is significant association regarding the presence of vesical calculi and the development of urinary infections. E. coli was the predominant organism found both in urine and core culture of stone.

  2. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  3. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.Tewari-Singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Jain, Anil K., E-mail: Anil.Jain@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Inturi, Swetha, E-mail: Swetha.Inturi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Ammar, David A., E-mail: David.Ammar@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla, E-mail: Chapla.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Tyagi, Puneet, E-mail: Puneet.Tyagi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kompella, Uday B., E-mail: Uday.Kompella@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Enzenauer, Robert W., E-mail: Robert.Enzenauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Petrash@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  4. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical coherence tomography

    Hammer-Wilson, Marie J.; Nguyen, Vi; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Ahn, Yehchen; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide [CEES, half-mustard gas (HMG)] at a concentration of 0.4, 2.0, or 5.0 mg/ml for 1 or 5 min. Twenty-four hours post-HMG exposure, tissue damage was assessed by both stereomicrography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Damage that was not visible on gross visual examination was apparent in the OCT images. Tissue changes were found to be dependent on both HMG concentration and exposure time. The submucosal and muscle layers of the cheek pouch tissue showed the greatest amount of structural alteration. Routine light microscope histology was performed to confirm the OCT observations.

  5. Potentiation in the intact rat of the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea.

    Nakae, D; Oakes, J W; Farber, J L

    1988-12-01

    Studies of the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen indicate that the cells are injured by an oxidative stress that accompanies the metabolism of the toxin (J. L. Farber et al. (1988) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 267, 640-650). The present report documents that the essential features of the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen are reproduced in the intact animal. Male rats had no evidence of liver necrosis 24 h after administration of up to 1000 mg/kg of acetaminophen. Induction of mixed function oxidase activity by 3-methylcholanthrene increased the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen. Inhibition of glutathione reductase by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) potentiated the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in male rats induced with 3-methylcholanthrene. Whereas the pretreatment with BCNU reduced the GSH content by 40%, a comparable depletion of GSH by diethylmaleate did not potentiate the toxicity of acetaminophen. The antioxidant diphenylphenylenediamine (25 mg/kg) and the ferric iron chelator deferoxamine (1000 mg/kg) prevented the liver necrosis produced by 500 mg/kg acetaminophen in rats pretreated with BCNU. Neither protective agent prevented the fall in GSH produced by acetaminophen. It is concluded the conditions of the irreversible injury of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen previously reported are not necessarily different from those that obtain in the intact rat with this toxin. PMID:3214175

  6. Endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi

    Objective: To determine the efficiency and safety of endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi with the available modern endoscopic instruments. Methology: In case series, patients were collected randomly from 2007 to 2014. Patients were diagnosed with ultrasound and Nephroscope with Swiss pneumatic lithoclast, lithotrite and stone punch were used for treatment. Results: Majority of the patient could be managed with the method adopted. Stone size, hardness or softness, gender were the factors affecting treatment. Associated prostate pathology was seen in four patients. Postoperative complications included hemorrhage, perforation, residual stone and transurethral resection of prostate syndrome. Conclusion: Overall, it is a safe procedure except in patients with large enlarged prostate and large vesical calculi. Very hard vesical calculus may need vesicolithotomy. (author)

  7. RARE CASE OF GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS

    Deepak Ramraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Giant vesical calculus is a rare entity. Vesical calculi can be primary (stones form de novo in bladder or secondary to the migrated renal calculi, chronic UTI, bladder outlet obstruction, bladder diverticulum or carcinoma, foreign body and neurogenic bladder. We report a case of an 85year old male patient who presented with history of recurrent episodes of burning micturition, pain abdomen, straining at micturition and diminished stream. Ultrasonography and X ray KUB showed a large vesical calculus. Patient underwent a n Open Cystolithomy and a large calculus of size 9x13cm weighing 310gms was removed. Bladder wall hypertrophy was seen with signs of inflammation. Bladder mucosal biopsy was taken which was normal on histopathological examination. Post - operative recovery was uneventful

  8. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).

  9. In vivo potentiation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea by the radiation sensitizer benznidazole

    Recent studies in mouse tumor systems have indicated a potential therapeutic advantage in combining the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO) with cancer chemotherapy drugs. One agent the antitumor activity of which has been enhanced to a greater extent than its hematological or gastrointestinal toxicities is the nitrosourea, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). Recently, sensitizers more lipophylic than MISO have been reported to give greater tumor response enhancement when combined with CCNU. The present studies compared the potential therapeutic benefit of combining MISO (partition coefficient, 0.43) or benznidazole (BENZO) (partition coefficient, 8.5) in KHT sarcoma or RIF-1 tumor-bearing C3H mice. Both sensitizers were administered i.p. and given either 30 min before (BENZO) or simultaneously with (MISO) the chemotherapeutic agent. Survival of clonogenic tumor cells assessed 22 to 24 hr after treatment or in situ tumor growth delay were used as assays of tumor response. Normal tissue toxicity was determined using the drug dose yielding 50% animal lethality in 30 days end point. When combined with CCNU, doses of MISO (5.0 mmol/kg) or BENZO (0.3 mmol/kg) were found to yield approximately equivalent increases in both the tumor effect (enhancement ratio, approximately 1.8 to 2.0) and normal tissue toxicity (enhancement ratio approximately 1.3 to 1.4). Both sensitizers therefore led to a therapeutic benefit. However, although a approximately 10-fold lower dose of the more lipophylic sensitizer BENZO proved to be as effective as MISO at enhancing the tumoricidal effects of CCNU, this dose reduction did not result in a greater therapeutic gain for BENZO

  10. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  11. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  12. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Highlights: → New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. → 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. → New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn4+ content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn4+ content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn37 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn5 with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  13. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  14. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    Saber Imani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl sulphide is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs expression. It seems SM can induce the epigenetic modifications that are translated into change in gene expression. Classification of epigenetic modifications long after exposure to SM would clarify its mechanism and paves a better strategy for the treatment of SM-affected patients. In this study, we review the key aberrant epigenetic modifications that have important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and compared with mustard lung.

  15. The design, synthesis and anticancer activity of new nitrogen mustard derivatives of natural indole phytoalexin 1-methoxyspirobrassinol.

    Mezencev, R; Kutschy, P; Salayova, A; Updegrove, T; McDonald, J F

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards cis-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[N,N-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (4) and trans-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[N,N-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (5) derived from 1-methoxyspirobrassinol, an indole phytoalexin produced by the Japanese radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis were designed as prospective dual-action compounds with DNA-alkylating effect and glutathione-depleting effects that may sensitize cancer cells to alkylating agents. Both new compounds demonstrated cytostatic/cytotoxic effects on various leukemia and ovarian cancer cell lines and dsDNA-destabilizing effects in vitro. Compound 4, the more promising of the two compounds, exerts earlier onset of anticancer effects on Jurkat cells via induction of apoptosis compared to the traditional alkylating anticancer agent melphalan. In addition, it demonstrated higher potency on ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cell line and lower fold resistance between Jurkat and Jurkat-M cells selected for the resistance to melphalan. Therefore, compound 4 may be less affected by certain cancer drug resistance mechanisms than melphalan and it may become a prototype of a new class of anticancer active nitrogen mustards that combine DNA-damaging and DNA-damage-sensitizing properties. PMID:19473057

  16. Vesical Leiomyoma: Presentation of a clinical case

    The vesical leiomyoma is a tumor of mesenchymal origin, and extremely rare. Most of them are diagnosed casually after the pathologic study of samples collected after surgery. Few cases were found in the reviewed literature, leading us to think of the scarce incidence of this kind of tumors. We present a case treated in our service, of an 18-years-old female patient, assisting to our consultation presenting a polaquiuria, ardor and mictional effort. The complementary exams led to the surgical treatment and follow up of the patient

  17. A unusual case of 356 vesical calculii

    A Agarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple vesical calculi are rarely seen in urological practice. Males are affected more than the females. Vesical calculi are usually secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. These patients present with recurrent urinary tract infection, haematuria or with retention of urine. We report a 43 years male patient who presented with acute urinary retention. He had history of trauma over perineal region three years back following which he had recurrent urinary tract infection and thinning of stream. USG abdomen revealed normal upper urinary tract with echogenic debris in partially filled urinary bladder. Renal function test was with in normal limit. Per urethral catheterization failed and over antibiotic cover, patient was posted for cystourethroscopy followed by suprapubic cystostomy under spinal anaesthesia. Membranous urethral stricture found during urethroscopy could be managed by optical internal urethrotomy. On cystoscopy whole of bladder was filled with thick pus like material with multiple large urinary bladder calculi. Open cystolithotomy was done and we were surprised to see 356 stones of various size and shape after removal. Patient made uneventful recovery and discharged after 12 days of hospital stay. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-1, 44-47 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i1.6825

  18. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  19. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    Barker Peter E; Xiao Yan; Ray Radharaman; Gao Xiugong; Ray Prabhati

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using ...

  20. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 ± 2°C ). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t1/2 were calculated to be 0.026 h-1, 26.6 h for CEES and 0.052 h-1, 13.24 h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure.

  1. GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS – A CASE REPORT

    Hanumanthaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 20th century, bladder stones were one of the most prevalent disorders among the poor class and the incidence was especially high in childhood and adolescent. 1 The decrease in incidence of bladder calculi is attributed mainly to dietary and nutritional progress especially in children. 2 A solitary bladder calculus is usual, although multiple stones are found in 25% of cases. 3 Bladder stones are rare, and they constitute about 5% of all urinary stones, 4, 5 it is classified as migrated from upper urinary tract, primary idiopathic, or secondary calculi. 6 Bladder stones are managed by Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL, endourology procedures, or open surgery. We report an unusual case of giant vesical calculus weighing 600grams in a 55 year old female with no evidence of hematuria, urinary retention, and dysuria.

  2. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  3. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  4. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  5. On vesical pathophysiology in context of chemoradiotherapy

    Functional disturbances of urinary bladder are described (incl. methods) after combined oncotherapy of the urogenital system: Radiocystitis (bladder hypertone, incontinence), etc. Earlier and recent results are given. Human detrusor (surgical tissue: 10-30 Gy/min) is over 10-times more radiosensitive than this of animal (rat, guinea pig = GP) and reacted with a dose-dependent tonic contraction (% init. prep. length): After 1 Gy: 4.3±9%; 2.5: 7.8±1.7; 5: 15.9±14.7; 10: 38.2±22.6; 30: 47.4±12.8 (p<0.01 or <0.05 for total n=45). The spontaneous phasic contr. (SPS) disappeared after irradiation in human, but not in GP detrusor preparations. Cytostatics such as cis-platinum (10 ng-1 μg/ml) and endoxan (0.1 ng-100 μg/ml) had inhibitory effects on SPS and contr. after neurogenic electrostimulation of GP (more than 50%), but adriblastin (0.1-10 μg/ml) and colchicine (1-100 μg/ml) - augmentory ones. Electrophysiological data demonstrated the presence of stretch dependent ion channels in GP vesical myocytes: The usual spike activity was transformed into a burst-plateau one: rate of rise and of fall of action potentials increased after stretch (3 to 80 mN: 0.4±0.2 to 3.3±0.7 V/cm resp. 0.4±0.3 to 2.3±0.6, n=33). A probable pathogenetic relation of cytostatic and radiation (acute and late) effects to the described stretch channels and electrical patterns, fast detrusor (1-5/min) and slow trigonal contr. (0.1-0.5/ min) as well as decrease of membrane potential of urothel at radiocystitis is of high scientific interest and has to be investigated: This could open a new possibility for vesical prophylaxis and pharmacotherapy

  6. Enhancement of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea resistance by gamma-irradiation or drug pretreatment in rat hepatoma cells

    Treatment of rat hepatoma cells (H4 cells) with various DNA-damaging agents increases the number of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (transferase) molecules per cell. Because the cellular resistance to chloroethylnitrosoureas depends on the number of transferase molecules, we studied the influence of pretreatment with gamma-irradiation, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II), or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium on the sensitivity of H4 cells to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). The BCNU resistance depends on the gamma-ray dose and increases with time after irradiation: it is maximum when the drug is added 48 h after irradiation, which corresponds to the maximum enhancement of the transferase activity in the cells. Pretreatment with a single dose of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium also increases the cellular resistance to BCNU. This resistance is not due to a modification of the alkylation of the cellular DNA in the pretreated cells but is related to the increased transferase activity, as it is no longer observed when this activity is depleted by incubating the pretreated cells with the free base O6-methylguanine before BCNU treatment. These results suggest that tumor cells surviving after gamma-irradiation or drug treatment may become resistant to chemotherapy with chloroethylnitrosoureas

  7. Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate-induced cell growth arrest via attenuation of SIRT1-independent PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Youjian; Wang, Zhiyuan; Xu, Tian; Huang, Cheng; Yin, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Xiong, Wei; Lu, Wenhong; Zheng, Hongyan; Yuan, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) as an organophosphorus flame retardant and plasticizer has been widely used in industrial and household products. It not only was detected in residential indoor air and dust, surface and drinking water, but also in human plasma and breast milk, and tissue samples of liver, kidneys and brain from rodents. TCEP is classified as carcinogenic category 2 and toxic for reproduction category 1B. Sufficient evidence from experimental animals indicated carcinogenicity of TCEP in the liver, and kidneys as well as cell loss in the brain. However, the underlying mechanisms of TCEP-induced hepatotoxicity are mostly unknown. We investigated the in vitro effects of TCEP as well as TCEP-induced cell growth in the L02 and HepG2 cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We found that TCEP reduced cell viability of these cell lines, induced the cell growth arrest, upregulated mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1, and attenuated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. However, growth arrest of the L02 and HepG2 cells were aggravated after inhibiting the SIRT1 expression with EX-527. The findings above suggested that TCEP induced the cell growth arrest of L02 and HepG2 cells via attenuation of the SIRT1-independent PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26378621

  8. Factors influencing the survival of rat brain tumor cells after in vitro treatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Wheeler, K.T.; Tel, N.; Williams, M.E.; Sheppard, S.; Levin, V.A.; Kara, P.M.

    1975-06-01

    The shape of dose-response curves obtained for asynchronous, exponential growing 9L rat brain tumor cells treated in vitro with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea changed as a function of the drug exposure time. For short treatment times (<1 hr), the dose-response curves had shoulders, indicating that the cells may accumulate sublethal damage; however, after longer treatments (>1 hr), little if any shoulder was apparent. The slope of the exponential portion of the dose-response curve increased progressively with treatment periods from 15 min to 2 hr. Longer exposure times (up to 24 hr) produced no further changes in the cell-kill kinetics. Cell survival was directly related to the BCNU exposure dose and to the amount of bound BCNU per cell. Extrapolation of the curves for these two variables indicated that some BCNU damage accumulates before death occurs. The amount of serum and cell products available in the medium to bind BCNU affected the level of survival; however, there was no evidence that extracellular spontaneous breakdown products or chemical transformation products were involved in the cell-killing mechanism. (auth)

  9. O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity correlates with the therapeutic response of human rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Immune-deprived female CBA/CaJ mice bearing xenografts of six different human rhabdomyosarcoma lines were treated with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU). Tumor responses were compared with levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity because of evidence indicating that repair of DNA interstrand cross-link precursors, mediated by the transferase, may be an important determinant of MeCCNU cytotoxicity. Levels of methyltransferase in tumor extracts were measured by determining the loss of O6-methylguanine from 3H-labeled methylated DNA. Five of the six tumor lines examined showed either no response to MeCCNU or regrowth after an incomplete response. In each instance, the extent of tumor regression correlated with the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in tumor extracts. These results suggest that O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase levels in human tumor cells may be a clinically useful predictor of sensitivity to the chloroethylnitrosoureas

  10. Giant vesical diverticulum: A rare cause of defecation disturbance

    Sami Akbulut; Bahri Cakabay; Arsenal Sezgin; Kenan Isen; Ayhan Senol

    2009-01-01

    Vesical diverticula frequently result from bladder outlet obstructions. However, giant vesical diverticula which cause acute abdomen or intestinal obstruction are very rare. Our review of the English medical literature found 3 cases of bladder diverticula which caused gastrointestinal symptoms. Here, we present a 57-yearold man with a giant diverticulum of the urinary bladder who complained of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting,constipation, no passage of gas or feces, and abdominal distension for 3 d. A 20 cm × 15 cm diverticulum was observed upon laparotomy. The colonic obstruction was secondary to external compression of the rectum against the sacrum by a distended vesical diverticulum.We performed a diverticulectomy and primary closure.Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had no difficulty with voiding or defecation.

  11. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  12. Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography

    Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using [14C]alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and [18F]fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with [18F]fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy

  13. Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography

    Nagahiro, S.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Diksic, M.; Mitsuka, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Feindel, W. (Cone Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-07-01

    Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using (14C)alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and (18F)fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with (18F)fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy.

  14. HILIC-MS Determination of Genotoxic Impurity of 2-Chloro-N-(2-Chloroethyl)Ethanamine in the Vortioxetine Manufacturing Process.

    Douša, Michal; Klvaňa, Robert; Doubský, Jan; Srbek, Jan; Richter, Jindřich; Exner, Marek; Gibala, Petr

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, pharmaceutical regulatory agencies are focused on monitoring and evaluation of trace-level genotoxic impurities (GTIs) in drug substances, which requires manufacturers to deliver innovative approaches for their analysis and control. GTIs in the low p.p.m. level rising from the process of drug production have to be positively identified and quantified. Therefore, sensitive and selective analytical methods are necessary for required quantification level of these GTIs. Unfortunately, general guidance on how to develop strategy of the analysis and control of GTIs is currently missing in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, practical example of the analytical control of 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)ethanamine GTI in the vortioxetine (VOR) manufacturing process was demonstrated in this work. QDa mass detection with electrospray ionization in selected-ion recording mode was utilized for quantitation of GTIs. The method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (HILIC-MS) was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and was able to quantitate GTIs at 75 p.p.m. with respect to VOR. The HILIC-MS method was achieved using a Primesep B column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 µm; Sielc, USA) using mobile phase consisting of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (5 : 95, v/v) at 0.8 mL/min flow rate. The QDa mass detector was operated in the positive ion mode. Quadrupole mass analyzer was employed in selected-ion monitoring mode using target ion at m/z 142 as [M+H](+). PMID:26223463

  15. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Victor Paromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD.

  16. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  17. Mustard meal weed control

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  18. Protein Changes in Sulfur Mustard Exposure: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

    Laminin-5, a heterotrimer of laminin α3, β3, and γ2 subunits, is a component of the skin basal epithelium. Laminin-5 functions as a ligand of the α3β1 and α6β4 integrins in epidermal keratinocytes to regulate cell adhesion, migration, morphogenesis, and assembly of basement membranes; thus it is essential for a stable attachment of the epidermis to the dermis and recovery of damaged skin. Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare and terrorism agent. Skin exposure to SM results in fluid-filled blisters; proposed mechanisms are inflammation, protease stimulation, basal cell death, and separation of the epidermis from the dermis apparently due to the degradation of attachment proteins like laminin-5. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SM exposure on the degradation of laminin-5 by exposing normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to SM (0-300 μM, 1-24 hours). We found that SM degraded laminin-5 and its two subunits β3 and γ2, but not α3. Preincubation of cells with a serine protease inhibitor (PMSF), or a metalloprotease inhibitor (1, 10-phenanthroline) prior to SM exposure partially prevented SM-induced degradation of laminin-5 subunits, β3 and γ2. Regarding specificity, laminin-5 γ2 was degraded due to a bifunctional mustard compound like SM, but not due to the other alkylating agents tested. Our results support that laminin-5 degradation is an important mechanism of SM injury as well as a useful biomarker of SM exposure. This knowledge of the mechanism of laminin-5 degradation due to SM has potential application in developing cutaneous therapeutics against SM.(author)

  19. Vesical nephrogenic adenoma: an unusual presentation of a bladder tumour

    Martínez-Sanchíz, Carlos; Martínez-Ruiz, Jesús; Anguita-Fernandez, Pedro J.; Giménez-Bachs, José M.; Atiénzar-Tobarra, Manuel; Rodríguez, Julio Antonio Virseda; Salinas-Sánchez, Antonio S

    2011-01-01

    Vesical nephrogenic adenoma is a rare, benign entity that appears most commonly in middle-aged males. Its etiology is unknown, but it has been linked to chronic irritating factors, such as infection, trauma, urological surgery, kidney stones, foreign bodies and chemical agents, such as Bacille Calmette-Guerin. We report 2 new cases with a history of transurethral resection of the bladder and the prostate and a history of prolonged voiding symptoms. In both cases, the findings of encysted tubu...

  20. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    . 2. Vogel, S. Search to Resume near AU for WWI Chemicals; Washington Post, January 24, 1999, page C01. 3. Yperite is a trivial name for sulfur mustard or bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide. The name honors Ypres, Belgium, where the Germans first used sulfur mustard as a chemical weapon on July 12, 1917. 4. Zhao, L. Two Scenes of Poisonous Shells Left Over by Japan in Dunhua, Jilin Province; presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Sino-Japan relations over the past 100 years, Changchun, PRC, September 23-29, 1998.

  1. In vitro release of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained-release microspheres and the distribution in rat brain tissues

    Xia Li; Liping Guo; Qin Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The implantation of released chemotherapeutic drugs, which takes biodegradable polymer as vector, into the tumor site can get high concentration and release the drug for a long time, it can directly act on the tumor cells, and reduce the general toxicity.OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vitro and in vivo course of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) sustained-release from BCNU-loaded polylactide (PLA) microspheres (MS) and location in rat brain tissue.DESIGN: A repetitive measurement.SETTING: Central Pharmacy, General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.MATERIALS: Thirty male SD rats were used. PLA (Mr5000, batch number: KSL8377) was produced by Wako Pure Chemical Inc.,Ltd. (Japan); BCNU (batch number: 021121) by Tianjin Jinyao Amino Acid Co., Ltd.;BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation and pressed into tablets (10 mg/tablet).High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Agilent 1100 (USA); LS9800 liquid-scintillation radiometric apparatus (Beckman). Chromatographic conditions: Elite Hypersil ODS2 C18 chromatographic column (5 μm,4.6 mm ×150 mm); Mobile phase: methanol: water (50:50), flow rate was 1.0 mL per minute, wave length of ultraviolet detection was 237 nm, and the inlet amount of samples was 10 μL.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the experimental animal center of the General Hospital of Chinese Armed Police from May 2004 to July 2005. ① In vitro BCNU-PLA-MS release test: BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation, then placed in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered solution (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 ℃), part of MS were taken out at 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 15 days respectively, and the rest amount of BCNU in MS was determined by HPLC, then the curve of BCNU-PLA-MS release was drawn. ②In vivo BCNU-PLA-MS release and distribution test: The rats were anesthetized, then BCNU-PLA-MS were implanted to the site 1 mm inferior to the cortex of frontal lobe. Five rats were killed postoperatively

  2. Giant Vesical Calculus Formation as a Complication of Augmentation Cystoplasty.

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Ranjeet Kumar; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2016-02-01

    A 44-year-old female presented with the history of recurrent UTI and intermittent hematuria. She underwent augmentation ileocystoplasty for small capacity bladder 19 years back. Patient was on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) since then. Abdominal radiograph and ultrasonography showed the large vesical calculus. Open cystolithotomy was done, and a yellowish brown hard stone weighing 1025 g was removed. Chemical analysis revealed struvite stone. Postoperative period was uneventful. Regular bladder wash, lifelong surveillance and follow-up is advisable. PMID:27186046

  3. Photoassisted and photocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard using TiO2 nanoparticles and polyoxometalates.

    Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Sarabadani, Mansour; Ashrafi, Davood; Saeidian, Hamdollah; Babri, Mehran

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition of highly toxic chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide or HD), has been studied by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation on titania nanoparticles. Direct photolysis degradation of HD with irradiation system was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of HD was investigated in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyoxometalates embedded in titania nanoparticles in liquid phase at room temperature (33 ± 2 °C). Degradation products during the treatment were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas apparent first-order kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were slow (0.0091 min(-1)), the highest degradation rate is obtained in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles as nanophotocatalyst. Simultaneous photolysis and photocatalysis under the full UV radiation leads to HD complete destruction in 3 h. No degradation products observed in the presence of nanophotocatalyst without irradiation in 3 h. It was found that up to 90 % of agent was decomposed under of UV irradiation without TiO(2), in 6 h. The decontamination mechanisms are often quite complex and multiple mechanisms can be operable such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and elimination. By simultaneously carrying out photolysis and photocatalysis in hexane, we have succeeded in achieving faster HD decontamination after 90 min with low catalyst loading. TiO(2) nanoparticles proved to be a superior photocatalyst under UV irradiation for HD decontamination. PMID:22707206

  4. Orthotopic ileocystoplasty results in patient presenting vesical tumor

    INTRODUCTION: The bladder cancer is considered a health problem in Cuba and worldwide. The aim of radical cystectomy and its therapeutical variants is to cure or control the disease and it is necessary the creation of a reservoir very similar to bladder and nowadays it is working in creation and improvement of the neo-bladders from an intestinal segment. The aim of present research was to assess the orthotopic ileocystoplasty results as urine derivative procedure after total cystectomy. METHODS: A prospective, retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in 40 patients seen in Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital of Ciudad de La Habana between 2000 and 2008. The information's source was the patient clinical expedients and data were processed by automated means. RESULTS: The higher incidence was found inpatients aged 65. Enuresis was the predominant urinary incontinence and most of patients had voluntary urination. Seven patients had hydronephrosis and reservoir fistulae were related to radiotherapy. Mortality rate was of 7,5%. CONCLUSIONS: Orthotopic ileocystoplasty is a acceptable vesical substitute in patients presenting with vesical tumors. (author)

  5. A dominated and resistant subpopulation causes regrowth after response to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea treatment of a heterogeneous small cell lung cancer xenograft in nude mice

    Aabo, K; Roed, H; Vindeløv, L L;

    1994-01-01

    In order to address the question of the influence of a primarily chemoresistant tumor cell subpopulation on the progression of a heterogeneous tumor after cytotoxic therapy, in vitro established human small cell lung cancer cell lines of a 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU)-sensitive (592......) and a resistant (NYH) tumor were used to produce mixed solid tumors in nude mice. Mixtures of 592/NYH (9:1 and 1:1) were inoculated s.c. After 3-4 weeks of tumor growth, the mice were stratified according to tumor size and randomized to treatment with BCNU 40 mg/kg i.p. (10% of lethal dose) or no...

  6. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  7. Argon laser treatment of urethral stricture and vesical neck contracture.

    Adkins, W C

    1988-01-01

    The physical characteristics of the argon laser wavelength allow a precise incision with excellent hemostasis and negligible heating of adjacent tissues resulting in less scarring. These qualities are used to advantage in the treatment of strictures. The argon laser was used to perform 13 internal urethrotomies and ten vesical neck incisions. The operative method used is similar to optical internal urethrotomy. The argon probe incises hemostatically, reducing the need for extensive fulguration of tissues at the operative site and thereby reducing the tendency for more scar tissue to form and compromise the operation. The same hemostasis reduces the need for postoperative indwelling urethral catheterization. Utility of the argon device in most instances allows treatment to be conducted on an outpatient basis without general anesthesia and without use of postoperative urethral catheters, yielding an effective, cost-saving therapy. PMID:3210887

  8. New Surgical Approach for treatment of complex vesicovaginal fistula. Vesical autoplasty; Avances en la cirugia de la fistula vesicovaginal compleja. Autoplastia vesical

    Gil-Vernet Vila, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Although currently complex ve sico-vaginal fistulae are an uncommon finding, their solution still remains a problem since no effective surgical technique is yet available. We describe a new vesical autoplasty procedure for solving this entity. Once the fistulae has been thoroughly resected and its borders have been unfolded, a graft is obtained from the posterior-superior vesical wall, which is then slid down to the vesical neck thereby covering great extensions where tissue has been lost, even in the presence of low-capacity bladders. This new operation has led to a 100% cure rate of the 42 consecutive cases of vesico-vaginal fistulae operated on and that had undergone repeated surgery using other thecniques. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  10. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure determination and computational study of a new Cu(II) complex of bis [2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl)imino]methyl}phenolato)] copper(II) Schiff base complex

    Grivani, Gholamhossein; Vakili, Mohammad; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Taghavi, Maedeh

    2016-07-01

    The copper (II) Schiff base complex of [CuL2] (1), HL = 2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl) imino]methyl}phenol, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental (CHN) analysis, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The conformational analysis and molecular structures of CuL2 were investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP/6-311G* level. An excellent agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental results. The Schiff base ligand of HL acts as a chelating ligand and coordinates via one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom to the metal center. The copper (II) center is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms from two Schiff base ligands in an approximately square planar trans-[MN2O2] coordination geometry. Thermogravimetric analysis of CuL2 showed that it was decomposed in five stages. In addition, the CuL2 complex thermally decomposed in air at 660 °C and the XRD pattern of the obtained solid showed the formation of CuO nanoparticles with an average size of 34 nm.

  12. Reduced sulfur mustard-induced skin toxicity in cyclooxygenase-2 knockout and celecoxib-treated mice

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a potent vesicant and chemical warfare agent, induces tissue damage involving an inflammatory response, including vasodilatation, polymorphonuclear infiltration, production of inflammatory mediators, and cyclooxygenase activity. To evaluate the role of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1, COX-2) in sulfur mustard-induced skin toxicity, we applied the agent to the ears of wildtype (WT) and COX-1- and COX-2-deficient mice. In the latter, ear swelling 24 and 48 h after exposure was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 55% and 30%, respectively, compared to WT. Quantitative histopathology revealed no epidermal ulceration in COX-2-deficient mice but some degree of severity in WT. COX-2-deficient mice showed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in severity of epidermal necrosis (29%), acute inflammation (42%), and hemorrhage (25%), compared to the WT mice. COX-1 deficiency resulted in significant exacerbation (P < 0.05) in severity of some parameters, including increases of 4.6- and 1.2-fold in epidermal ulceration and epidermal necrosis, respectively, compared to WT. Postexposure treatment of normal male ICR mice with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib resulted in significant reductions of 27% (P < 0.05) and 28% (P < 0.01) in ear swelling at intervals of 40 and 60 min between exposure and treatment, respectively. Histopathological evaluation revealed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in subepidermal microblister formation (73%) and dermal necrosis (32%), compared to the control group. These findings may indicate that COX-2 participates in the early stages of sulfur mustard-induced acute skin toxicity and that COX-1 might exert some protective function against this chemical insult

  13. Historical perspective on effects and treatment of sulfur mustard injuries.

    Graham, John S; Schoneboom, Bruce A

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide; SM) is a potent vesicating chemical warfare agent that poses a continuing threat to both military and civilian populations. Significant SM injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in long-term complications affecting the skin, eyes, and lungs. This report summarizes initial and ongoing (chronic) clinical findings from SM casualties from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), with an emphasis on cutaneous injury. In addition, we describe the cutaneous manifestations and treatment of several men recently and accidentally exposed to SM in the United States. Common, chronic cutaneous problems being reported in the Iranian casualties include pruritis (the primary complaint), burning, pain, redness, desquamation, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, erythematous papular rash, xerosis, multiple cherry angiomas, atrophy, dermal scarring, hypertrophy, and sensitivity to mechanical injury with recurrent blistering and ulceration. Chronic ocular problems include keratitis, photophobia, persistent tearing, sensation of foreign body, corneal thinning and ulceration, vasculitis of the cornea and conjunctiva, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Chronic pulmonary problems include decreases in lung function, bronchitis with hyper-reactive airways, bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, stenosis of the trachea and other large airways, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, decreased total lung capacity, and increased incidences of lung cancer, pulmonary infections, and tuberculosis. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management; current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. New strategies are needed to provide for optimal and rapid healing, with the goals of (a) returning damaged tissue to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest period of time, and (b) ameliorating chronic

  14. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7-1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNFα and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant.

  15. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  16. "Immunobiological Consequences of Sulfur Mustard Contamination "

    Zuhair Mohammad Hassan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard has been employed in chemical warfare in certain regions including Iran. The short and long term biological effects of sulfur mustard contamination have been studied in both basic and clinical aspects. Sulfur mustard has been shown to induce a vast array of pathological effects in affected persons. In addition to skin, lung, eyes and gastrointestinal disturbances, sulfur mustard has been shown to induce hematological complications and a severe suppression of the immune system. The short and long term immunological (both cellular and humoral, hematological, genetic and biochemical consequences of persons exposed to sulfur mustard are extensively reviewed here. The long term complications of these patients indicate the need to develop effective preventive and therapeutic strategies in the clinic. These strategies may be based upon immunopotentiating intervention and therapy.

  17. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Paunović Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen Tatjana; Krivokapić Mirjana; Zlatković Branislav; Antić Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  18. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J.; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg−1. Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4ʹ-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as an important intermediate. Hot mustard made only from brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) or black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra) contained no BPF. BPF is structurally very similar to bisphenol A and has a similar weak estrogenic activity. The consumption of a portion of 20 g of mustard can lead to an intake of 100–200 µg of BPF. According to a preliminary risk assessment, the risk of BPF in mustard for the health of consumers is considered to be low, but available toxicological data are insufficient for a conclusive evaluation. It is a new and surprising finding that BPF is a natural food ingredient and that this is the main uptake route. This insight sheds new light on the risk linked to the family of bisphenols. PMID:26555822

  19. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    Manoj Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Uma Pathak; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 ...

  20. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur m...

  1. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  2. Quenching action of monofunctional sulfur mustard on chlorophyll fluorescence: towards an ultrasensitive biosensor.

    Kaur, Simerjit; Singh, Minni; Flora, Swaran Jeet Singh

    2013-11-01

    An ultrasensitive fluorimetric biosensor for the detection of chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) was developed using its monofunctional analogue. SM is a vesicant and a potent chemical threat owing to its direct toxic effects on eyes, lungs, skin and DNA. This work investigates the quenching action of the analyte on chlorophyll fluorescence as elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies suggesting the electrophilic attack of carbonium ion on nitrogens of the porphyrin moiety of chlorophyll. The properties of immobilisation matrix were optimised and scanning electron microscope observations confirmed improvement in pore size of sol-gels by addition of 32 % (v/v) glycerol, a feature enabling enhanced sensitivity towards the analyte. Chlorophyll embedded sol-gel was treated with increasing concentrations of monofunctional SM and the corresponding drop in maximum fluorescence intensity as measured by emission at 673 nm was observed, which varied linearly and had a detection limit of 7.68 × 10(-16) M. The biosensor was found to be 6 orders of magnitude more sensitive than the glass microfibre-based disc biosensor previously reported by us. PMID:23955347

  3. Vesical-ureteral reflux in children; Reflux vesico-ureteral chez l`enfant

    Desvignes, V.; Palcoux, J.B. [Hotel-Dieu, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cochat, P. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1995-12-31

    The vesical-ureteral reflux is the most frequent uropathy in children. The diagnosis is made by uretero-cystography, often after pyelonephritis, sometimes after ante-natal diagnosis from echographic abnormalities. Spontaneous recovery is possible in 50 to 80% of cases. This is especially true in grade 1, 2 and 3, however complications may occur. They are more frequent in the case of reflux nephropathy with a resulting risk of hypertension and chronic renal failure. The therapeutic choice is between the conservative management with urinary antiseptics ad the surgical treatment with ureters re-implantation or endoscopic treatment. The therapeutic indications take into account vesical-ureteral reflux grades, the child`s age, the associated diseases and the child`s and parents` compliance. (authors). 22 refs., 2 figs.

  4. A RARE ASSOCIATION OF A BIG VESICAL CALCULUS WITH UTEROVAGINAL PROLAPSE: A CASE REPORT

    Jayanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterovaginal prolapse is a common gynaecological problem encountered in day today practice. Uterovaginal prolapse is usually associated with repeated childbirth trauma. Descent of urinary bladder, urethra, rectum, intestines are common. Associated urinary bladder prolapse leads to recurrent Urinary tract infection and obstructive uropathy. Infection and obstruction together leads to calculus formation in urinary bladder. A 38 years old multiparous lady with uterovaginal prolapse associated with vesical calculus treated by vaginal hysterectomy with suprapubic cystolithotomy. X ray KUB and Ultrasonography was diagnostic of vesical calculus. In this case report, there was associated giant urinary bladder calculus along with the Uterovaginal prolapse. This association is rare and needs meticulous surgery to treat all the associated problems simultaneously.

  5. Intra-vesical knot of bladder catheter in an extremely low birthweight neonate: A case report

    Paula M.Y. Tang; Kenneth L.Y. Chung; Yvonne C.L. Leung; Judy W.S. Hung; Clarence C.W. Liu; Nicholas S.Y. Chao; Michael W.Y. Leung; Kelvin K.W. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Premature and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates are at high risk of developing multiple co-morbidities and often require urinary catheterization for various medical indications. Intra-vesical knotting of bladder catheter is a known but uncommon complication of this procedure. We report a case of an ELBW baby boy with a knotted bladder catheter requiring surgical retrieval. After an elective operation for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus, a 4 French urinary catheter was inserte...

  6. 7 CFR 457.168 - Mustard crop insurance provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ...) Any other uninsurable mustard production that is delivered to fulfill the processor contract. (d... applicable, it will be made prior to any adjustment for quality. (1) Mustard production will be reduced by 0... of the production to determine the moisture content. (2) Mustard production will be eligible...

  7. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  8. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg−1. Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4ʹ-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-...

  9. Mustard meal as an organic herbicide

    Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings: unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Field research was conducted in s...

  10. Plant dermatitis-isolation and chemical investigation of the major vesicant principle of Smodingium argutum

    Dermatitis precipitated by contact with sensitizing or irritating plants can be a persistent and disabling condition. Although presenting a characteristic clinical appearance, its infrequent occurrence oftenresults in difficulty in diagnosis to those unfamiliar with its effects. The most common cause of plant dermatitis in the Southern Transvaal is Smodingium argutum, an indigenous member of the family Anacardiaceae. The major vesicant principle of Smodingium argutum has been isolated for the first time, and its structure determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. 13C n.m.r. and 1H n.m.r. data for compounds are given

  11. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sidell, F.R. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Leffingwell, S.S. [Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  12. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS+ and cyclooxygenase-2+) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1+ and galectin-3+) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by

  13. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute

  14. Comparison of fixation and processing methods for hairless guinea pig skin following sulfur mustard exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Bryant, M.A.; Braue Jr, E.H.

    1992-12-31

    Ten anesthetized hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR were exposed to 10 pi of neat sulfur mustard (HD) in a vapor cup on their skin for 7 min. At 24 h postexposure, the guinea pigs were euthanatized and skin sections taken for histologic evaluation. The skin was fixed using either 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), McDowell Trump fixative (4CF-IG), Zenker`s formol-saline (Helly`s fluid), or Zenker`s fluid. Fixed skin sections were cut in half: one half was embedded in paraffin and the other half in plastic (glycol methacrylate). Paraffin-embedded tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin; plastic-embedded tissue was stained with Lee`s methylene blue basic fuchsin. Skin was also frozen unfixed, sectioned by cryostat, and stained with pinacyanole. HD-exposed skin was evaluated histologically for the presence of epidermal and follicular necrosis, microblister formation, epidermitis, and intracellular edema to determine the optimal fixation and embedding method for lesion preservation. The percentage of histologic sections with lesions varied little between fixatives and was similar for both paraffin and plastic embedding material. Plastic-embedded sections were thinner, allowing better histologic evaluation, but were more difficult to stain. Plastic embedding material did not infiltrate tissue fixed in Zenker`s fluid or Zenker`s formol-saline. Frozen tissue sections were prepared in the least processing time and lesion preservation was comparable to fixed tissue. It was concluded that standard histologic processing using formalin fixation and paraffin embedding is adequate for routine histopathological evaluation of HD skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig.... Sulfur mustard, Vesicating agents, Pathology, Hairless guinea pig model, Fixation.

  15. Intra-vesical knot of bladder catheter in an extremely low birthweight neonate: A case report

    Paula M.Y. Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature and extremely low birth weight (ELBW neonates are at high risk of developing multiple co-morbidities and often require urinary catheterization for various medical indications. Intra-vesical knotting of bladder catheter is a known but uncommon complication of this procedure. We report a case of an ELBW baby boy with a knotted bladder catheter requiring surgical retrieval. After an elective operation for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus, a 4 French urinary catheter was inserted into an ELBW baby boy for urine output monitoring and left in-situ. Resistance was encountered in attempt to remove the urinary catheter. Abdominal X Ray confirmed intra-vesical knotting of the tube. Knot unravelling by interventional radiology was attempted but was unsuccessful. Open extra-peritoneal bladder exploration was performed for the retrieval of the tightly knotted catheter. A 6 French transurethral Foley catheter was inserted for bladder drainage. Upon removal of the Foley's catheter on day 5 post op, the baby was able to void spontaneously. With literature review, we postulated the potential risk factors resulting in this potentially avoidable iatrogenic unusual complication. Recommendations were suggested to avoid further incidences.

  16. Modeling the spinal pudendo-vesical reflex for bladder control by pudendal afferent stimulation.

    McGee, Meredith J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is a promising approach to restore continence and micturition following bladder dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury. Although the pudendo-vesical reflex and its physiological properties are well established, there is limited understanding of the specific neural mechanisms that mediate this reflex. We sought to develop a computational model of the spinal neural network that governs the reflex bladder response to PN stimulation. We implemented and validated a neural network architecture based on previous neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies. Using synaptically-connected integrate and fire model neurons, we created a network model with realistic spiking behavior. The model produced expected sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN) neuron firing rates from prescribed neural inputs and predicted bladder activation and inhibition with different frequencies of pudendal afferent stimulation. In addition, the model matched experimental results from previous studies of temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation and selective pharmacological blockade of inhibitory neurons. The frequency- and pattern-dependent effects of pudendal afferent stimulation were determined by changes in firing rate of spinal interneurons, suggesting that neural network interactions at the lumbosacral level can mediate the bladder response to different frequencies or temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation. Further, the anatomical structure of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the network model was necessary and sufficient to reproduce the critical features of the pudendo-vesical reflex, and this model may prove useful to guide development of novel, more effective electrical stimulation techniques for bladder control. PMID:26968615

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: field mustard [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available field mustard Brassica rapa Brassica_rapa_L.png Brassica_rapa_NL.png Brassica_rapa_S.png Brassica..._rapa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica...+rapa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NS ...

  18. Proteomic assessment of sulfur mustard-induced protein adducts and other protein modifications in human epidermal keratinocytes

    Although some toxicological mechanisms of sulfur mustard (HD) have been uncovered, new knowledge will allow for advanced insight in the pathways that lead towards epidermal-dermal separation in skin. In the present investigation, we aimed to survey events that occur at the protein level in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) during 24 h after exposure to HD. By using radiolabeled 14C-HD, it was found that proteins in cultured HEK are significant targets for alkylation by HD. HD-adducted proteins were visualized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Several type I and II cytokeratins, actin, stratifin (14-3-3σ) and galectin-7 were identified. These proteins are involved in the maintenance of the cellular cytoskeleton. Their alkylation may cause changes in the cellular architecture and, in direct line with that, be determinative for the onset of vesication. Furthermore, differential proteomic analysis was applied to search for novel features of the cellular response to HD. Partial breakdown of type I cytokeratins K14, K16 and K17 as well as the emergence of new charge variants of the proteins heat shock protein 27 and ribosomal protein P0 were observed. Studies with caspase inhibitors showed that caspase-6 is probably responsible for the breakdown of type I cytokeratins in HEK. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of toxicological relevance and possible clues for therapeutic intervention

  19. Use of epr spin-trapping techniques to detect radicals from rat lung lavage fluid following sulfur mustard vapor exposure

    Anderson, D.R.; Yourick, J.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Young, G.D.; Harris, L.W.

    1993-05-13

    Although well known for skin vesicating properties, pulmonary damage and associated infections account for most of the mortality associated with sulfur mustard (HD). We have employed an in vivo HD vapor exposure model, bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques to provide evidence for HD-induced (free radical/lipid peroxidation associated) lung injury. Anesthetized rats were intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.35 mg HD vapor over 50 min. Immediately, 1 hr or 24 hr after exposure, lungs were lavaged with the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN; 0.35 mg/ml). Recovered lavage fluid was assayed by EPR spectroscopy for radical spin adducts. Airway lipid extracts were assayed for thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARs); while separate groups of rats were used to evaluate histopathology. EPR results show the presence of an ascorbyl radical at 1 and 24 hr, and a carbon centered PBN spin adduct at 24 hr, both indicative of lipid peroxidation. TBAR (A532nm) formation was also detected at 24 hr. Histopathology revealed multifocal separation of the bronchial epithelium from the submucosa with little or no alveolar involvement at 24 hrs. These studies provide evidence that HD may affect lungs by a free radical mechanism which produces membrane and other tissue damage.

  20. Efeito do cloridrato de oxibutinina na hiperatividade vesical conseqüente a cistite hemorrágica Effects of oxybutynin in bladder hyperactivity caused by hemorrhagic cystitis

    Mizuma EK; MS Takeshita; Haylton Jorge Suaid; Antonio Carlos Pereira Martins; Silvio Tucci Jr; Adaulto José Cologna; MA Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A oxibutinina atua como agente anticolinérgico que tem ação anti-muscarínica e, principalmente, ação antiespasmódica na musculatura lisa vesical. Assim, ela causa aumento da capacidade vesical e diminui a frequência miccional e bloqueia o estímulo inicial da micção. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a oxibutinina atua sobre a hiperatividade vesical causada pela cistite hemorrágica, dependente do óxido nítrico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de animais. O controle com 5 ratas e o experi...

  1. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  2. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  3. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    2011-01-01

    Background 1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5-(4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. Methods The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3) following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. Results BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. Conclusions These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells. PMID:21244709

  4. An improved method for retrospective quantification of sulfur mustard exposure by detection of its albumin adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Liu, ChangCai; Liang, LongHui; Xiang, Yu; Yu, HuiLan; Zhou, ShiKun; Xi, HaiLing; Liu, ShiLei; Liu, JingQuan

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) adduct to human serum albumin (ALB) at Cys-34 residue has become an important and long-term retrospective biomarker of HD exposure. Here, a novel, sensitive, and convenient approach for retrospective quantification of HD concentration exposed to plasma was established by detection of the HD-ALB adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with a novel non-isotope internal standard (IS). The HD-ALB adduct was isolated from HD-exposed plasma with blue Sepharose. The adduct was digested with proteinase K to form sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl ([S-HETE])-Cys-Pro-Phe tripeptide biomarker. The tripeptide adduct could be directly analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS without an additional solid phase extraction (SPE), which was considered as a critical procedure in previous methods. The easily available 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES) as HD surrogate was first reported to be used as IS in place of traditional d8-HD for quantification of HD exposure. Furthermore, 2-CEES was also confirmed to be a good IS alternative for quantification of HD exposure by investigation of product ion spectra for their corresponding tripeptide adducts which exhibited identical MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. The method was found to be linear between 1.00 and 250 ng•mL(-1) HD exposure (R(2)>0.9989) with precision of method. The entire method required only 0.1 mL of plasma sample and took under 7 h without special sample preparation equipment. It is proven to be a sensitive, simple, and rugged method, which is easily applied in international laboratories to improve the capabilities for the analysis of biomedical samples related to verification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC). PMID:26164303

  5. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  6. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5- (4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3) following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells

  7. Steamed Sliced Pork with Dried Mustard Cabbage (Meigancai Kourou)

    2004-01-01

    500 grams pork with skin75 grams dried mustard cabbage10 grams Shaoxing wine50 grams sugar100 grams soy sauce2 grams salt5 grams spring onions5 grams ginger500 grams clear stockClean the pork, soak the dried mustard cabbage until soft, and clean and slice the spring onion and ginger.Braise the pork in a wok, then

  8. Symptomatic treatment of ascites with a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system in a dog.

    Venzin, C; Kook, P; Jenni, S; Wilhelm, S; Degen, T; Braun, A; Rütten, M; Glaus, T M

    2012-02-01

    A six-year-old Rottweiler with chronic ascites and moderate panhypoproteinaemia that had been treated with large volume paracentesis over several months duration was diagnosed with a large bi-atrial mass and hepatic fibrosis. For palliative treatment, a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system with an integrated chargeable battery and an integrated computer to control pump function and to transmit data transcutaneously was implanted by coeliotomy. The pump was left in place for 10 weeks, eliminating the need for further paracentesis during this time. At the end of this period, no ascites was discernible and serum protein concentrations had returned to their respective reference intervals. As a complication, decubitus with skin perforation had developed above the pump. Besides palliative treatment of chronic refractory ascites, this pump may have application in other conditions characterised by chronic cavity effusion or in peritoneal dialysis. PMID:22106956

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustards

    Hua Bing Zhang; Ji Jun Xue; Xiao Long Zhao; De Gang Liu; Ying Li

    2009-01-01

    Two novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustard conjugates 1a and 1b were synthesized by using estrogenic acid 4 coupled with aniline mustard 8 and phenol mustard 13 in an esterification or amidation procedure. Preliminary cytotoxic screening on cancer cell lines in vitro showed that, the steroid-ester linked nitrogen mustard conjugate la exhibited obvious increasing of activities.

  10. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    Barker Peter E

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using SM-exposed normal human small airway epithelial (SAE cells and bronchial/tracheal epithelial (BTE cells. Cell viability, expression of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were examined, since these proinflammatory cytokines/mediators are import indicators of tissue inflammatory responses. We suggest that the influence of roxithromycin on SM-induced inflammatory reaction could play an important therapeutic role in the cytotoxicity exerted by this toxicant. Results MTS assay and Calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (EthD-1 fluorescence staining showed that roxithromycin decreased SM cytotoxicity in both SAE and BTE cells. Also, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-stimulated overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF at both the protein level and the mRNA level, as measured by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or real-time RT-PCR. In addition, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-induced overexpression of iNOS, as revealed by immunocytochemical analysis using quantum dots as the fluorophore. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that roxithromycin has inhibitory effects on the cytotoxicity and inflammation provoked by SM in human respiratory epithelial cells. The decreased cytotoxicity in roxithromycin-treated cells likely depends on the ability of the macrolide to down-regulate the production of proinflammatory

  11. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  12. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  13. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application.

    Zawar, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant. PMID:16394442

  14. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  15. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md. Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at...

  16. Value of normalized apparent diffusion coefficient for estimating histological grade of vesical urothelial carcinoma

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalized ADC (nADC) for estimating the histological grade of vesical urothelial carcinoma and to identify an optimal reference for nADC calculation. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with histologically confirmed vesical urothelial carcinomas underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) of the pelvis. nADC of the tumour was calculated as ADC (tumour)/ADC (reference) using urine in the bladder lumen, and the obturator internus and gluteus maximus muscles as reference. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and compared to identify an optimal reference for nADC calculation. Results: Both ADC and nADC of low-grade tumours (1.112 ± 0.159 × 10−3 mm2/s, 0.403 ± 0.047 × 10−3 mm2/s) were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than those of high-grade tumours (0.772 ± 0.091 × 10−3 mm2/s, 0.276 ± 0.033 × 10−3 mm2/s). The area under the nADC ROC curve using urine as reference was significantly (p = 0.000) larger (0.995) than those using obturator internus (0.960) and gluteus maximus (0.945). Conclusions: nADC is superior to ADC for estimating the histological grade of bladder carcinoma using urine in the bladder lumen as an optimal reference for nADC calculation. - Highlights: • We use a new non-invasive method in bladder cancer preoperative pathological grade evaluation. • We first use the normalized ADC value in bladder cancer. • Normalized ADC value was confirmed to be more reliable than ADC value

  17. Suppression of Hyperactive Immune Responses Protects against Nitrogen Mustard Injury

    Au, Liemin; Meisch, Jeffrey P.; Das, Lopa M; Binko, Amy M; Boxer, Rebecca S.; Wen, Amy M.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lu, Kurt Q.

    2015-01-01

    DNA alkylating agents like nitrogen mustard (NM) are easily absorbed through the skin and exposure to such agents manifest not only in direct cellular death but also in triggering inflammation. We show that toxicity resulting from topical mustard exposure is mediated in part by initiating exaggerated host innate immune responses. Using an experimental model of skin exposure to NM we observe activation of inflammatory dermal macrophages that exacerbate local tissue damage in an inducible nitri...

  18. Subcutaneous nephro-vesical bypass in the treatment of ureteral obstruction

    Zhi-guo YANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To sum up the experiences on treating ureteral obstruction in patients with terminal tumor by subcutaneous nephro-vesical bypass.Methods A total of 16 subcutaneous prosthetic ureters were percutaneously implanted into 12 patients(8 unilateral and 4 bilateral for the treatment of ureteral obstruction due to terminal tumor.The tube was inserted into the renal pelvis,tunnelled subcutaneously and introduced in the bladder through a small suprapubic incision.Serum creatinine and renal ultrasonography were evaluated during follow up.Results No operative or immediate postoperative death occurred.The patients were alive with the prosthesis without occurrence of encrustation,infection,or obstruction,and the renal function was normal.The serum creatinine level decreased significantly from 232.2±18.1μmol/L(preoperation to 115.2±17.1μmol/L(postoperation.Conclusions The subcutaneous urinary diversion using Ureteral Bypass Set is an efficient and minimally invasive way to bypass malignant obstructions of the ureters that otherwise would necessitate permanent nephrostomy drainage.With the operation patients may get a better quality of life due to increased independence and activity during their final stage of life.

  19. Extrofia vesical, una anomalía congénita

    Roger Rojas Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo y representativo de un caso, para el que se utilizó la entrevista, la ultrasonografía y la evaluación del grupo Multidisciplinario de Genética Provincial. La paciente con 23 años de edad, con historia obstetricia de G2 P1 eutócico, clasificado de riesgo genético bajo, se le detectó en el ultrasonido del segundo semestre en la semana de gestación 19.6 una anomalía congénita, diagnosticada como extrofia vesical. Después de encontrado este hallazgo, la gestante fue remitida al Centro Genético Provincial. El equipo facultativo evaluó el caso y decidió la interrupción electiva del embarazo, siendo un feto de 450 gramos del sexo femenino. El resultado final de la anatomía patológica fue: ausencia de fusión del hueso pelviano; malformación de la vulva, clítoris prominente, labios mayores cortos y abiertos; vejiga insertada en la pared abdominal.

  20. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food.

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Wolny, Martina; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food. The primers and the probe target the B. nigra partial RT gene for reverse transcriptase from gypsy-like retroelement 13G42-26. The real-time PCR method does not show any cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species with the exception of white mustard. Low cross-reactivities with cinnamon, cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric can be ignored because in common mustard containing foodstuffs these biological species are present in very low amounts. By analysing serially diluted DNA extracts from black and brown mustard, the DNA of both mustard species could be detected down to 0.1 pg. With 10 ng DNA per PCR tube the real-time PCR method allows the detection of 5 ppm black and brown mustard in brewed sausages. PMID:23265498

  1. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein. PMID:25859422

  2. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  3. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of novel sulfonylcycloureas derived from nitrogen mustard.

    Cheloufi, H; Belhani, B; Ouk, T S; Zerrouki, R; Aouf, N-E; Berredjem, M

    2016-05-01

    A new series of sulfonylcycloureas derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activity against four cancer cell lines (A431, Jurkat, U266, and K562). These compounds were prepared by the condensation of several sulfonamides (2a-m) with ethyl bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate (1a). The relative cytotoxicity of these new derivatives in comparison to chlorambucil is reported. PMID:26597910

  4. Efeito do cloridrato de oxibutinina na hiperatividade vesical conseqüente a cistite hemorrágica

    Mizuma EK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A oxibutinina atua como agente anticolinérgico que tem ação anti-muscarínica e, principalmente, ação antiespasmódica na musculatura lisa vesical. Assim, ela causa aumento da capacidade vesical e diminui a frequência miccional e bloqueia o estímulo inicial da micção. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a oxibutinina atua sobre a hiperatividade vesical causada pela cistite hemorrágica, dependente do óxido nítrico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de animais. O controle com 5 ratas e o experimental com 10 ratas, cujos pesos variaram entre 200g a 250g. A cistite hemorrágica foi provocada pela injeção intraperitoneal de ciclofosfamida 200mg/kg, na véspera do experimento. Após 24 horas, as ratas foram anestesiadas com uretana 1,25mg/kg. A seguir, foi feita cistostomia com cateter P-50. Esse cateter foi conectado em Y a uma bomba de infusão contínua com fluxo de água de 0,3ml/min e a um polígrafo para o registro da cistometria. O registro cistométrico foi feito com a velocidade do papel de 0,05cm/seg, com sensibilidade de 20 e calibração para um curso de 60mm para uma pressão de 100mmHg. Os parâmetros estudados foram: freqüência de contração (Fc, intensidade das contrações (Ic, tempo de enchimento vesical (Te, tempo de contração vesical (Tc e capacidade vesical (Cv, que foi determinado pelo Te x Fluxo. Esses parâmetros foram determinados por suas médias durante o período de observação de 10 min. Após o registro, foi infundido por gavagem 71 mg/kg de cloridato de oxibutinina. Uma hora depois foi feita nova cistometria. A análise estatística foi feita pelo método de Kruskal-Wallis que comparou os valores do grupo controle com o experimental. O p foi considerado significante quando menor que 0,05. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre os dois grupos dos parâmetros estudados antes da infusão do cloridrato de oxibutinina mostrou: Fc - p=0,007; Ic - p=0,0002; Te - p=0,768; Tc - p=0,492; Cv - p=0,056 A compara

  5. Coexistence of prostate neoplasia in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy due to vesical neoplasia

    Frederico R. Romero

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of bladder carcinoma infiltrating the prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy due to bladder cancer, as well as to assess if the characteristics of the bladder neoplasia influence the prostatic involvement by this neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 60 male patients, who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy between July 1997 and December 2003. Mean age was 66.7 years (40 and 93 years. The product of radical cystoprostatectomies was checked for involvement of urethra and prostate parenchyma by the primary neoplasia, and for the presence of associated prostate adenocarcinoma. Bladder neoplasia characteristics, such as localization, size, multifocality, association with in situ carcinoma and histological grade, were studied in order to assess the possibility of using such characteristics as predictive factors of prostate infiltration by bladder urothelial carcinoma. RESULTS: We observed the presence of 20% of patients with bladder carcinoma infiltrating the prostatic urethra, 23.3% of patients with infiltration of the prostate parenchyma and 28.3% of patients with associate prostate adenocarcinoma, resulting in a total of 55% of patients with prostatic involvement (infiltrative bladder carcinoma and/or adenocarcinoma. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between tumor location in the trigone, the presence of in situ carcinoma and the histological grade of the bladder tumor with prostatic infiltration by the vesical neoplasia. CONCLUSION: The coexistence of prostatic neoplasia in patients operated for bladder neoplasia was frequent in our sample (55%. We observed that the prostatic infiltration by bladder tumors occurs more frequently with tumors located in the trigone, with associated in situ carcinoma and with high histological grade. There was no correlation between neoplastic infiltration of prostate and multifocality

  6. Evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall obtained by transurethral intravesical echotomography

    Milošević Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is the most frequent tumor of the bladder and represents 95−98% of blader neoplasams and 2−3% of all carcinomas in the body. In urogenital oncology more frequent is only prostatic cancer. Evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall represents the clinical base in treatment planning and prognosis. Clinical investigation and convential radiological procedures have a low level of accuracy in estimating the local growth of the tumor. The aims of our investigation were to determine the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall in the investigated group of patients by transurethral intravesical echotomography (TIE and computerised tomography (CT scan and to compare results obtained by both methods with pathohistological (PH results, and, based on the difference of the results determine which method was more accurate in the evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall. Methods. Thirty patients with TCC of the bladder both genders, aged 51−81 years were involved in our investigation. In all of these patients, radical cystectomy (RC was performed. This was neccessary to provide the defintive PH result. Transurethral intravesical echotomography was performed by ultrasound scanner type 1846 Bruel and Kjaer, sond type 1850, and the CT scan was perfomed by Pace plus, General Electric, U.S.A. The specimen for the definitive PH result obtained by RC includes all standards of the TNM classification. Results. Using CT scan, the most frequent was T1 stage (17 patients or 56.68%. Using TIE, the most frequent was T2 stage (22 patients or 73.33%. After RC the most frequent was T2 stage (21 patients or 70%. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, showed a high significant difference between the results obtained using CT and definitive PH results after RC. The same test showed no statistically significant difference between

  7. Eversión vesical completa a través de una fístula vesicovaginal

    Jhoan Aragón Charry; Eduardo Reyna Villasmil; Joel Santos Bolívar

    2013-01-01

    La eversión vesical completa es rara. Se presenta el caso de una eversión de vejiga urinaria a través de una fístula vesicovaginal acompañada de prolapso útero-vaginal concurrente. Se trata de paciente de 70 años que presentó una tumoración compatible con un prolapso vaginal grado IV y una tumoración edematosa, pegajosa y piriforme por delante del prolapso compatible con la vejiga con un orificio en la pared anterior de la vagina a través del cual la mucosa de la vejiga estaba evertida, proc...

  8. [Mustard gas bombs found astray in the Faxaflói bay. Mustard gas: usage and poisonings].

    Kristinsson, Jakop; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2009-05-01

    The finding in 1972 of two World War II mustard gas artillery shells in crushed shell sediment dredged in the Faxaflói Bay and transported as raw material for cement production at Akranes (Western Iceland) is reported. One of the shells was wedged in a stone crusher in the raw material processing line and was ruptured. As a result dark fluid with a garlic like smell seeped out from the metal canister. The attending employees believed the metal object to be inert and tried to cut it out with a blow torch. This resulted in the explosion of the shell charge and in the exposure of four employees to mustard gas. All suffered burns on their hands and two of them in the eyes also. The second shell was detonated in the open at a distance from the factory. Emphasis is given to the fact that instant, or at least as soon as possible, cleansing and washing is the most efficient measure to be taken against the debilitating effects of mustard gas. It is also pointed out that the active principle in mustard gas (dichlorodiethyl sulphide) can easily be synthesized and none of the precursor substances are subjected to any restrictions of use. The authors conclude that mustard gas bombs may still be found in the arsenals of some military powers in spite of an international convention that prohibits the production, stockpiling and the use of chemical weapons. Terrorist groups have also seemingly tried to aquire mustard gas bombs and other chemical weapons. Therefore cases of mustard gas poisoning might still occur. PMID:19430031

  9. Characterization of mustard seeds and paste by DART ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Prchalová, Jana; Kovařík, František; Ševčík, Rudolf; Čížková, Helena; Rajchl, Aleš

    2014-09-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a novel technique with great potential for rapid screening analysis. The DART ionization method coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) has been used for characterization of mustard seeds and table mustard. The possibility to use DART to analyse glucosinolates was confirmed on determination of sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate). The DART-TOF-MS method was optimized and validated. A set of samples of mustard seeds and mustard products was analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography and DART-TOF-MS were used to determine glucosinolates in mustard seeds and compared. The correlation equation between these methods was DART = 0.797*HPLC + 6.987, R(2)  = 0.972. The DART technique seems to be a suitable method for evaluation of the quality of mustard seeds and mustard products. PMID:25230177

  10. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    Manoj Sharma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3 and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 mg/kg was used and for other analogues, equimolar dose of DRDE-07 was used. For amifostine, N-acetyl cysteine, melatonin and sodium thiosulphate, oral dose was 185 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg respectively. The animals were observed for mortality for 14 days. The protection index (PI was calculated as a ratio of LD50 with treatment to LD50 without treatment. The protection of the antidotes was also determined by intraperitoneal route and half of the oral dose of the antidotes was given. The estimated percutaneous LD50 of HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 and sulphur mustard was 11.9 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 7.1 mg/kg and 7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-1 were DRDE-10 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-2 were amifostine, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-30, DRDE-35 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-3 were amifostine, DRDE-30, DRDE-35, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin with a PI of 1.7. In the case of sulphur mustard, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30, and DRDE-35 gave a good protection with a PI of more than 5.0. Amifostine and sodium thiosulphate gave a PI of 4.5 and 4.0, respectively, while DRDE-09, N-acetyl cysteine and melatonin gave less protection against sulphur mustard. Intraperitoneally administered amifostine, DRDE-30, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin gave marginal protection against HN-2 with a PI of 1.2, while

  11. Fatores associados à bacteriúria após sondagem vesical na cirurgia ginecológica Factors associated with bacteriuria after indwelling urethral catheterization in gynecologic surgery

    Sonia Cristina Araújo Hinrichsen; Alex Sandro Rolland Souza; Aurélio Costa; Melania Maria Ramos Amorim; Maria Gabriela M.L. Hinrichsen; Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar a frequência e os principais fatores associados à bacteriúria após a sondagem vesical em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo coorte em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica após sondagem vesical no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, no período de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas até 24 horas após a retirada da sonda e 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical. A análise estat...

  12. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  13. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  14. Sulfur mustard destruction using ozone, UV, hydrogen peroxide and their combination

    Numerous methods are used for destruction of sulfur mustard. Oxidation is one of those methods. There have been only limited data concerning application of the advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) for mustard destruction available before. In this study sulfur mustard oxidation rate depending on kind of the oxidative system and process parameters used was assessed using selected AOT. The following were selected for mustard oxidation: ozone (O3), UV light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); double systems: UV/O3, UV/H2O2, and O3/H2O2; a triple system: O3/H2O2/UV and Fenton reaction. Effectiveness of the selected AOT methods has been evaluated and the most suitable one for mustard destruction was chosen. Using ozone in various combinations with hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation mustard can be destroyed much quicker comparing to the classical oxidizers. Fast mustard oxidation (a few minutes) occurred in those systems where ozone alone was used, or in the following combinations: O3/H2O2, O3/UV and O3/H2O2/UV. When those advanced oxidation technologies are used, mustard becomes destroyed mainly in course of the direct oxidation with ozone, and reactions of mustard with radicals formed due to ozone action play a secondary role. Rate of sulfur mustard oxidation in the above mentioned ozone-containing oxidative systems decreases with pH value increasing from 2 to 12. Only when pH value of reaction solutions is close to pH 5, mustard oxidation rate is minimal, probably due to 'disappearance' of radicals participating in oxidation in this pH. Sulfur mustard can be most effectively destroyed using just ozone in pH 7. In that case mustard destruction rate is only slightly lower than the rate achieved in optimal conditions, and the system is the simplest

  15. A RARE CASE OF LARGE VESICAL CALCULUS AROUND A PROL ONGED DOUBLE J STENT: A CASE REPORT

    Sunil Kr.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: D/J stents constitute an important armamentarium in the hands of an urosurgeon. During short term placement (4-12 weeks, they may c ause flank pain and irritative voiding symptoms, referred to as “stent syndrome.” Complicati ons occur in patients with long term placement of stents who do not come for follow-up - t he forgotten stent. We report a female case with something coming out from external meatus since 2 days with past history of open surgery for right PUJ obstruction with D/J stent in sertion 9 years ago. X-ray KUB & USG abdomen shows a huge vesical calculus around remain ing of the D/J stent. We operated the case with good outcome. This type of rare presentation o f D/J stent motivate us to report this case

  16. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  17. Seed lipids of irradiated mustard and sunflower plants in the first and second generations

    Under gamma irradiation of vegetating plants the changes in a lipid complex of the Chinese mustard and sunflower seeds occur. Low radiation doses change the ratio of falty acids in common lipids (native oil), triglycerides, phospholipids, esters of sunflower and mustard seed sterols. Radiation does not effect on substances with cyclic structure: sunflower sterols-kampesterine, stigmasterin, β citosterine; mustard sterols-brassicasterine, kampesterine, β citosterine

  18. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  19. Efficacy of Treatments against Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Effects on Forest Understory Plant Diversity

    Andrew J. Storer; Shartell, Lindsey M.; Nagel, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Garlic mustard, an invasive exotic biennial herb, has been identified in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but is not yet widely distributed. We tested the effectiveness and impact of management tools for garlic mustard in northern hardwood forests. Six treatment types (no treatment control, hand-pull, herbicide, hand-pull/herbicide, scorch, and hand-pull/scorch) were applied within a northern hardwood forest invaded by garlic mustard. We sampled understory vegetation within plots to compare g...

  20. Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Production in Chitwan District of Nepal

    S.C. Dhakal; Regmi, P.P.; R.B. Thapa; S.K. Sah; D.B. Khatri-Chhetri

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43) indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. T...

  1. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  2. Biodiesel from Mustard oil: a Sustainable Engine Fuel Substitute for Bangladesh

    M.M. Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Various attractive features of mustard oil based biodiesel as a potential substitute for engine fuel are investigated in this paper for use in Bangladesh. Although the use of mustard oil as edible oil has been reduced, Bangladesh still produces 0.22 million metric tons of mustard oil per year. This surplus mustard oil would satisfactorily be used as an alternative to diesel fuel, and thus could contribute in reducing the expenses for importing fuel from foreign countries. Moreover, the rural people of Bangladesh are capable of producing mustard oil themselves using indigenous machines. Fuel properties of biodiesel obtained from mustard oil were determined in the laboratory using standard procedure and an experimental setup was constructed to study the performance of a small diesel engine. It is observed that with biodiesel, the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Initially different lower blends of biodiesel (e.g., B20, B30 etc. have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine and the fuel supply system. It is also found in some condition that mustard oil based biodiesel have better properties than those made from other vegetable oils. These properties of mustard oil based biodiesel were evaluated to validate its sustainability in Bangladesh. Keywords: biodiesel, indigenous machines, mustard oil, renewable energy policy, sustainability

  3. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. PMID:24025044

  4. Malignant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma among 1100 Iranian victims, two decades after exposure to sulfur mustard: a long term investigation

    Sulfur Mustard ((SM; 2, 2 -dichlorethyl sulfide)) is a potent chemical warfare agent that was widely used during First World War and Iran -Iraq conflict. Over 100,000 Iranians were injured by sulfur mustard. This vesicant agent has a lot of acute and chronic destructive influences on the skin, eye and respiratory system. SM via the alkylation of DNA and several cellular proteins (structural, cytoplasmic and enzymes) and cell nuclei; produce several toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on epidermis, dermis, dermal appendix and hypodermics. In acute phases flexural locations and thin epidermal area such as groin, scrotum, and axilla and eyelids showed the most severe complication. According to scientific studies on chemical victims depression of cell-mediated immunity and also lower percentage of NK cell has been observed in SM exposure furthermore cytokines and other growth factors produced and secreted during epidermal and dermal regeneration of healing skin blisters. In reference to the last study about long term effect of SM the cutaneous signs and disorders could be categorized into 3 different groups. Conclusion Human data on the carcinogenicity of SM are from (a) battlefield exposures, (b) accidents, and (c) workers in chemical factories. Both British and American studies and other researchers have investigated the increased incidences of leukemia, pulmonary and skin carcinoma arising from World War I battlefield exposure. Clinical documentation in our cases shows notable and common signs, symptoms and data such as 1- Middle ages 2- Location of CTCL (folds and exposed areas) 3- The similarity between CTCL and SM scar (pigmentory and vascular changes) 4- Chronic dermatitis especially xerosis and eczema with itching before the beginning of CTCL. All of this study and data leads us to the conclusion that SM can possibly cause CTCL in indirect and direct way. CTCL can be caused indirectly due to prolonged period of chronic dermatitis (xerosis, eczema

  5. Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Panahi, Yunes; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2011-05-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims. PMID:21329486

  6. Seasonal changes in radiation penetration within mustard crop canopy

    Adak, Tarun; Chakravarty, NVK

    2012-01-01

    Green leaf area index, dry matter production and economic seed yield are significantly influenced by dynamics of radiation penetration within oilseed crop canopy. Keeping this in view, following a two years field experiment with Indian mustard cultivars in IARI research farm, it was revealed that the radiation penetration at the early crop growth stage was high and then decreased within the canopy as the leaf area developed. The study indicated significant seasonal changes in radiation penetr...

  7. Brassica tournefortii: Phenology, Interactions and Management of an Invasive Mustard

    Marushia, Robin Gene

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONBrassica tournefortii: Phenology, Interactions and Management of an Invasive Mustardby Robin Gene Marushia Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Plant Biology University of California, Riverside, June 2009 Dr. Jodie S. Holt, Chairperson Brassica tournefortii (Gouan), or Sahara mustard, is a nonnative, invasive annual forb currently invading the deserts of North America. Despite its increasing distribution and dominance in desert plant communities, little is kno...

  8. Optimized verification method for detection of an albumin-sulfur mustard adduct at Cys(34) using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer after direct plasma proteolysis.

    John, Harald; Siegert, Markus; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-02-26

    The vesicant sulfur mustard (SM) is a banned chemical warfare agent that is controlled by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Bioanalytical procedures are mandatory for proving an alleged use and incorporation of SM into the body. We herein present the development and application of a novel optimized procedure suitable for qualitative verification analysis of plasma targeting the SM-adduct of human serum albumin (HSA) alkylated at the cysteine(34) residue. Diluted human plasma is directly mixed with pronase in an ultrafiltration device (10kDa cut-off) for proteolysis (4h, 37°C). Following ultrafiltration the filtrate is diluted and analyzed by microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution tandem-mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI HR MS/MS) targeting the alkylated dipeptide hydroxyethylthioethyl-CysPro (HETE-CP). A hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer provided high mass spectrometric resolution in the MS/MS mode enabling highest selectivity and sensitivity (lower limit of detection corresponding to 9.8nM SM in plasma). Kinetics of HETE-CP formation from heparin-, citrate-, and EDTA-plasma as well as serum are presented and the influence of different EDTA and pronase concentrations was characterized. The novel procedure was applied to plasma samples provided by the OPCW as well as to patientś plasma derived from real cases of SM-poisoning. PMID:26449527

  9. Topical cyclosporine A for mustard gas induced ocular surface disorders

    Khosrow Jadidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A 0.05% for treatment of mustard gas-induced ocular surface disorders with special attention to conjunctival goblet cell density in patients with severe dry eye. Methods: This prospective clinical study included 20 eyes of 20 patients previously exposed to mustard gas with dry eye syndrome unresponsive to artificial tears. Before and after treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% twice daily for 3 months, subjects were evaluated for improvement in symptoms using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI and signs by tear breakup time (TBUT, Schirmer test and measurement of superior bulbar conjunctival goblet cell density. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD and the degree of corneal squamous cell metaplasia were also assessed before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, mean OSDI score, Schirmer test I value and mean TBUT were 42.8 ± 6.1, 4.2 ± 1.2 mm and 2.5 ± 1.3 s, respectively. After 3 months of treatment with topical cyclosporine A, these scores reached 36.4 ± 5.2, 5.8 ± 1.6 mm and 4.9 ± 2.1 s, respectively showing a statistically significant improvement (P 0.05. Conclusion: Treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in patients with severe dry eye due to mustard gas injury increases goblet cell density in the bulbar conjunctiva and improves symptoms of the disease.

  10. Nitrogen mustard derivated from adiphenine. Synthesis and 14C labelling. Antitumor activity and tissular distribution

    The synthesis of a new nitrogen mustard 14C is described. The compound is found to be active in intraperitoneal murine L 1210 and P 388 tumors. Preliminary tissue distribution studies after i.v. administration to rats and mice show that the mustard and/or its metabolites partially cross the blood-brain barrier

  11. Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy and 15 other Brassica vegatables

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip...

  12. Protection of chymotrypsin from inactivation by a N-mustard analog.

    Brecher, A S; Koenig, M J

    1995-02-01

    Chymotrypsin activity is rapidly inactivated by the N-mustard anti-tumor drug, chlorambucil. Since mustards react with thiols, amines, carboxyls, imidazoles, and sulfide sites on proteins, N-acetylcysteine, 2 proprietary protein hydrolyzates, beta-mercaptoethanol, ethanolamine, and sodium lactate were tested for their capacity to protect chymotrypsin from inactivation by the mustard. In each instance, protection was afforded to chymotrypsin. In as much as N-acetylcysteine protected chymotrypsin from inactivation by chlorambucil, it is suggested that this thiol compound may serve as a detoxication agent and may not require prior transformation into glutathione by cells in order to reduce mustard levels within the cells, as suggested by Smith and Gross (Proceedings of the NATO Panel VIII meeting, Grenoble, France, 1991.) It is further suggested that amino acids present as biosynthetic and degradative components of cells may detoxify mustards. PMID:7701511

  13. Clinical Observation on Treatment of 43 Cases of Diabetic Vesical Pathological Changes by Needle-warming Moxibustion

    LIU Bo; DENG Xiao-hua; CHEN Hong-tao; SU Chang-ming; HUANG Guo-qi

    2004-01-01

    By the needle-warming moxibustion, 43 cases of diabetic vesical pathological changes,together with 43 cases in the control group, were treated for 30 days, to observe the times of urination,volume of urine and residual urine inside the bladder before and after treatment every day. It has been indicated in observation that needle-warming acupuncture therapy can decrease the time of urination every day, elevate the urine volume each time and decrease the residual urine in the bladder, with a significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with before the treatment.%运用温针灸治疗糖尿病性膀胱病变43例,设对照组43例,共治疗30d.分别于治疗前后观察每日排尿次数、每次尿量、膀胱残余尿量.观察结果表明温针灸疗法能够减少每日排尿次数,提高每次尿量,减少膀胱残余尿量,同治疗前相比差异显著(P>0.05).

  14. A case of rectovagino-vesical fistula due to radiation therapy for uterine cancer treated with covered expandable metallic stent

    Ohtsukasa, Shunroh; Okabe, Satoshi; Tanami, Hideaki [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-04-01

    A 65-year-old woman had received a panhysterectomy and radiation therapy for a uterine cancer in 1974 and underwent a drainage operation for a peritonitis due to rupture of the bladder associated with radiation cystitis in 1983. A rectovesical fistula was revealed and partial resection of the bladder and rectum was performed in 1996. In 1998, rectovesical fistula recurred and symptom of fecaluria and contact-type dermatitis at perineal region subsequently worsened. In February, 2000, colonoscopy and gastrograffin-enema revealed a giant recto-vagino-vesical fistula. Although we recommended ileostomy, the patient refused our offer. She gave informed consent to our proposal about the insertion of a covered expandable metallic stent (EMS) into the rectum to treat for fecaluria. After insertion of a covered EMS, fecaluria and contact-type dermatitis at perineal region subsequently improved. Three months later, fecaluria appeared again. Finally, seven months later, severe inflammation occurred at perineal and pubic region because of migration of the covered EMS into the bladder, then we removed the covered EMS and performed ileostomy. It is difficult to use the covered EMS treatment for benign rectovesical or rectovaginal fistula for a long term. (author)

  15. Eversión vesical completa a través de una fístula vesicovaginal

    Jhoan Aragón Charry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La eversión vesical completa es rara. Se presenta el caso de una eversión de vejiga urinaria a través de una fístula vesicovaginal acompañada de prolapso útero-vaginal concurrente. Se trata de paciente de 70 años que presentó una tumoración compatible con un prolapso vaginal grado IV y una tumoración edematosa, pegajosa y piriforme por delante del prolapso compatible con la vejiga con un orificio en la pared anterior de la vagina a través del cual la mucosa de la vejiga estaba evertida, procediendo al reposicionamiento y corrección manual de la eversión para luego ser corregida quirúrgicamente. Complete bladder eversion through vesicovaginal fistula Abstract Complete bladder eversion is rare. A case of bladder eversion trough vesicovaginal fistula accompanied with concomitant uterovaginal prolapse is presented. A 70 year-old patients presented a tumor compatible with vaginal prolapse type IV and an edematous, sticky and piriform tumor ahead of prolapse compatible with bladder with an orifice on anterior wall of vagina through bladder mucosa was everted, proceeding to reduction and manual correction of eversion and then was surgical corrected.

  16. Covalent adduction of nitrogen mustards to model protein nucleophiles.

    Thompson, Vanessa R; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2013-08-19

    Protein adducts have the potential to serve as unique biomarkers of exposure to compounds of interest. Many xenobiotics (or their metabolites) are electrophilic and therefore reactive with nucleophilic amino acid residues on proteins. Nitrogen mustards are reactive xenobiotics with potential use as chemical warfare agents (CWA) or agents of terrorist attack, in addition to being employed as chemotherapeutic agents. The present study utilized cysteine-, lysine-, and histidine-containing model peptides to characterize in vitro adduction of the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine (HN-2) and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine (HN-3) to these nucleophilic amino acid residues by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study assessed the structure of adducts formed, the time course of adduct formation, concentration-response relationships, and temporal stability of adducts. Adduction was hypothesized to occur on all three model peptides via initial formation of a reactive aziridinium intermediate for both mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine, followed by covalent adduction to nucleophilic residues. While adduction was found to occur most readily with cysteine, it was also observed at lysine and histidine, demonstrating that adduction by mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine is possible at multiple nucleophilic sites. Following solid phase extraction cleanup, adducts formed with mechloroethamine were stable for up to three weeks. Adducts formed with tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine were less stable; however, hydrolyzed secondary adducts were observed throughout the three week period. This study demonstrates that the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine form stable adducts with reactive protein nucleophiles other than cysteine. PMID:23859065

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells are highly resistant to sulfur mustard.

    Schmidt, Annette; Scherer, Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    The effect of sulfur mustard (SM) to the direct injured tissues of the skin, eyes and airways is well investigated. Little is known about the effect of SM to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, this is an interesting aspect. Comparing the clinical picture of SM it is known today that MSC play an important role e.g. in chronic impaired wound healing. Therefore we wanted to get an understanding about how SM affects MSC and if these findings might become useful to get a better understanding of the effect of sulfur mustard gas with respect to skin wounds. We used mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from femoral heads from healthy donors and treated them with a wide range of SM to ascertain the dose-response-curve. With the determined inhibitory concentrations IC1 (1μM), IC5 (10μM), IC10 (20μM) and IC25 (40μM) we did further investigations. We analyzed the migratory ability and the differentiation capacity under influence of SM. Already very low concentrations of SM demonstrated a strong effect to the migratory activity whereas the differentiation capacity seemed not to be affected. Putting these findings together it seems to be likely that a link between MSC and the impaired wound healing after SM exposure might exist. Same as in patients with chronic impaired wound healing MSC had shown a reduced migratory activity. The fact that MSC are able to tolerate very high concentrations of SM and still do not lose their differentiation capacity may reveal new ways of treating wounds caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:23933411

  18. Biological and molecular mechanisms of sulfur mustard analogue-induced toxicity in JB6 and HaCaT cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related cell cycle checkpoint pathway.

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2010-06-21

    Effective medical treatment and preventive measures for chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD)-caused incapacitating skin toxicity are lacking, because of limited knowledge of its mechanism of action. The proliferating basal epidermal cells are primary major sites of attack during HD-caused skin injury. Therefore, employing mouse JB6 and human HaCaT epidermal cells, here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HD analogue 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES)-induced skin cytotoxicity. As compared to the control, up to 1 mM CEES treatment of these cells for 2, 4, and 24 h caused dose-dependent decreases in cell viability and proliferation as measured by DNA synthesis, together with S and G2-M phase arrest in cell cycle progression. Mechanistic studies showed phosphorylation of DNA damage sensors and checkpoint kinases, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) at ser1981 and ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related (ATR) at ser428 within 30 min of CEES exposure, and modulation of S and G2-M phase-associated cell cycle regulatory proteins, which are downstream targets of ATM and ATR kinases. Hoechst-propidium iodide staining demonstrated that CEES-induced cell death was both necrotic and apoptotic in nature, and the latter was induced at 4 and 24 h of CEES treatment in HaCaT and JB6 cells, respectively. An increase in caspase-3 activity and both caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage coinciding with CEES-caused apoptosis in both cell lines suggested the involvement of the caspase pathway. Together, our findings suggest a DNA-damaging effect of CEES that activates ATM/ATR cell cycle checkpoint signaling as well as caspase-PARP pathways, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/necrosis in both JB6 and HaCaT cells. The identified molecular targets, quantitative biomarkers, and epidermal cell models in this study have the potential and usefulness in rapid development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against HD-induced skin toxicity

  19. Sulfur mustard destruction using ozone, UV, hydrogen peroxide and their combination

    Popiel, Stanislaw [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: spopiel@wat.edu.pl; Witkiewicz, Zygfryd [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); ' Jan Kochanowski' Swietokrzyska Academy, Institute of Chemistry, 5, Checinska-Street, 25-020 Kielce (Poland); Chrzanowski, Michal [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-05-01

    Numerous methods are used for destruction of sulfur mustard. Oxidation is one of those methods. There have been only limited data concerning application of the advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) for mustard destruction available before. In this study sulfur mustard oxidation rate depending on kind of the oxidative system and process parameters used was assessed using selected AOT. The following were selected for mustard oxidation: ozone (O{sub 3}), UV light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}); double systems: UV/O{sub 3}, UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; a triple system: O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and Fenton reaction. Effectiveness of the selected AOT methods has been evaluated and the most suitable one for mustard destruction was chosen. Using ozone in various combinations with hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation mustard can be destroyed much quicker comparing to the classical oxidizers. Fast mustard oxidation (a few minutes) occurred in those systems where ozone alone was used, or in the following combinations: O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV and O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV. When those advanced oxidation technologies are used, mustard becomes destroyed mainly in course of the direct oxidation with ozone, and reactions of mustard with radicals formed due to ozone action play a secondary role. Rate of sulfur mustard oxidation in the above mentioned ozone-containing oxidative systems decreases with pH value increasing from 2 to 12. Only when pH value of reaction solutions is close to pH 5, mustard oxidation rate is minimal, probably due to 'disappearance' of radicals participating in oxidation in this pH. Sulfur mustard can be most effectively destroyed using just ozone in pH 7. In that case mustard destruction rate is only slightly lower than the rate achieved in optimal conditions, and the system is the simplest.

  20. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  1. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis. PMID:25977054

  2. Breeding strategy for the improvement of mustard (Brassica Juncea Coss.)

    Mutants having desirable agronomic characters were obtained in the high yielding, recommended mustard (B. juncea) varieties Rai 5, RL 9 and Varuna (T 59). Following hybridizations between induced mutants or mutants with other promising varieties, recombinants having superior agronomic traits have been developed. The parent varieties are characterised by open pod arrangement and blackish brown seeds. The mutants and the recombinants have desirable agronomic characters like compact plant type, appressed pods with less shattering nature, yellow seeds, higher oil content and lighter coloured oil. Among the 12 new strains developed at this centre, five have been tested at various locations in the country. At many places, TM-(Trombay Mustard-) cultures outyielded or were at par with the local check varieties. TM-2-11 (Appressed pod mutant) and TM-4 (Yellow bold seeded Mutant) have also been included in the Initial Evaluation Trial of the All India Co-ordinated Research Project in Oilseeds (AICORPO) improvement. Reports so far received from various locations in the country indicate that TM-strains, being relatively early cultures, are suited more for states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P. and Bihar. (author)

  3. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. Cosson): An Overview

    J.S. Chauhan; Kandpal, B. K.; O. P. Premi; Kapila Shekhawat; Rathore, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation...

  4. Infección del tracto urinario por uso del catéter vesical en pacientes ingresados en cuidados intensivos

    Susana Virgen Fong Reyes; Mercedes del Rosario Porto Castellanos; Zadis Navarro Rodríguez; Felipa Nerys López Veranes; Zenén Rodríguez Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 37 pacientes con infección urinaria luego de la utilización de catéter vesical, ingresados en la sala de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba desde mayo de 2011 hasta abril de 2012, con vistas a identificar las causas principales que la ocasionaron. Se halló predominio de los hombres mayores de 60 años que permanecieron expuestos al proceder durante más de 15 día...

  5. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  6. Perfil dos microrganismos isolados no trato urinário após sondagem vesical em cirurgia ginecológica Profile of microorganisms found in urocultures after urinary catheterization in patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery

    Sônia Cristina Hinrichsen; Melania Maria Ramos Amorim; Alex Sandro Rolland Souza; Aurélio Costa; Maria Gabriela M.L. Hinrichsen; Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: determinar os microrganismosfreqüentemente encontrados nas uroculturas apóssondagem vesical e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica com sondagem vesical, no Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP), em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas em dois períodos: até 24h da...

  7. 'NIFA-mustard canola' - First mutant variety of oilseed mustard (Brassica juncea COSS and CZERN.) in Pakistan

    The edible oil production in the country is short of requirements to the tune of 70%. The gap is filled by heavy imports costing the national exchequer over 400 million US$ annually. Increasing domestic production of edible oil is thus of high priority for the Government of Pakistan. Rapeseed and mustard (Brassica juncea), being indigenous oilseed crops and well entrenched in the cropping system of the growers, have the potential to bridge the gap between production and consumption. Mustard is the predominantly grown species of oilseed Brassica in Pakistan as it has superior adaptability to semi-arid conditions and tolerance to drought as well as heat and seed shattering. However, no juncea cultivar of canola quality is available in Pakistan so far. In this backdrop, a comprehensive research program was launched in 1994- 95 at NIFA, with the help of IAEA, through a Technical Cooperation Project to develop improved varieties of mustard. Gamma irradiation and fast neutrons were used to induce genetic variability in traits of economic importance, thus diversifying the genetic base of indigenous/exotic cultivars (cvs.) of Brassica oilseeds. About 15,000 dry seeds of exotic mustard line (DLJ-3) having about 10% moisture were irradiated at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 kGy gamma rays (60Co gamma source) in 1994-95. The treated seeds were planted directly in the field in isolation of M1 generation. Selection for desirable mutants was carried out in M2 and useful mutants, including MM-1266, were selected. The stability of selected traits of MM-1266 was confirmed in M3 and M4 generations. MM-1266 was thoroughly assessed for yield in different replicated trials at NIFA and other stations in Pakistan and the results of MM-1266 in comparison with the control cv. is presented. In the preliminary yield trial in rabi 1997-98d at NIFA, MM-1266 produced the highest yield (1908 kg/ha) and significantly outyielded the parent by 100%. The following year, MM-1266 was tested in advanced yield trials

  8. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  9. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    The study of 31P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  10. Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1.

    Jordt, Sven-Eric; Bautista, Diana M; Chuang, Huai-Hu; McKemy, David D; Zygmunt, Peter M; Högestätt, Edward D; Meng, Ian D; Julius, David

    2004-01-15

    Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors. PMID:14712238

  11. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    2006-01-01

    To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern...

  12. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative ...

  13. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun) of East Africa

    Adeniji, OT.; A. Aloyce, A.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improv...

  14. Nitrogen mustard inhibits transcription and translation in a cell free system.

    Masta, A; Gray, P J; D. R. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard and its derivatives such as cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and melphalan are widely used anti-cancer agents, despite their non-specific reaction mechanism. In this study, the effect of alkylation by nitrogen mustard of DNA and RNA (coding for a single protein) was investigated using both a translation system and a coupled transcription/translation system. When alkylated DNA was used as the template for coupled transcription and translation, a single translation product corres...

  15. 28-HOMOBRASSINOLIDE PROTECTS PHOTOSYNTHETIC MACHINERY IN INDIAN MUSTARD UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS

    Qazi Fariduddin; Mohammad Yusuf; Mahmooda Begum; Aqil Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated wi...

  16. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna sausages by an antimicrobial film containing mustard extract or sinigrin.

    Lara-Lledó, Marta; Olaimat, Amin; Holley, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    The ability of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes to convert glucosinolates into antimicrobial isothiocyanates was investigated. Mustard glucosinolates in pure (sinigrin) or extract forms (sinigrin, oriental; sinalbin, yellow mustard) were used in broth media and in a polyvinyl polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PPG) packaging film with bologna to examine their value as antimicrobial precursors for the control of L. monocytogenes viability and extension of bologna shelf-life at 4 °C. During broth tests with deodorized (myrosinase-inactivated) mustard extracts (10 d at 20 °C) or with purified sinigrin (21 d at 20 °C) L. monocytogenes was only inhibited when exogenous myrosinase was added. None the less, the organism was able to hydrolyze almost half the pure sinigrin by 21 d in tests without added enzyme. Reductions in sinigrin levels were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and in the absence of L. monocytogenes or added myrosinase the glucosinolate was stable. When pure sinigrin, oriental or yellow mustard extracts were incorporated in PPG films containing 3, 5 and 6% (w/w) of the corresponding glucosinolate and used to package bologna inoculated with 4 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, the pathogen became undetectable in bologna packed with the oriental mustard extract at 52 d storage and remained undetectable at 70 d. The yellow mustard extract was less inhibitory and the pure sinigrin was not antimicrobial. L. monocytogenes numbers reached >7 log CFU/g in the film and untreated controls at 17 d storage. At 35 d storage, samples packed with control film contained sufficient numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (>7 log CFU/g) to be considered spoiled, whereas treatments containing mustard or sinigrin remained <7 log CFU/g LAB for ≤ 70 d. L. monocytogenes played a key role in exerting control over its own viability in bologna by hydrolysis of the glucosinolate in the oriental mustard film, but other antimicrobials in treatments may have contributed. PMID

  17. Mutation induced changes in essential fatty acids composition in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    Changes in fatty acid composition were studied in M2 generation using two varieties (Varuna and BR-40) of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Fatty acid profile indicated inverse relationship between erucic acid and oleic acid in Varuna progenies derived from higher doses of gamma rays whereas in BR-40, it was true for all the treatments. Selection of mutants having high oleic and linoleic acid and low erucic and eicosenoic acid was preferred for further quality improvement in Indian mustard. (author)

  18. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  19. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal formation of crucifer leaf mustard induced by flavonoids apigenin and daidzein

    DONG Changjin; ZHAO Bin

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids from legume root secretion may probably act as signal molecules for expression of Rhizobial "nod" nodulation genes and AM fungal symbiotic gene. Leaf mustard is a non-mycorrhizal plant; it does not contain fiavonoids and other signal molecules. AM fungi could not infect the roots of leaf mustard and form a symbiont in nature,when it was treated with fiavonoids (apigenin or daidzein).The results of trypan blue staining showed that two kinds of AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) successfully infected the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard. AM fungi grew towards and colonized the roots of leaf mustard,producing young spores and completing the course of life.AM fungi are the only one kind of fungi with ALP activity.The result of ALP staining has also proved that AM fungi infected successfully the roots of leaf mustard. AM fungi (G.intraradices and G. mosseae) that existed in the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard were probed by nested PCR and special molecular probes. The above-mentioned proof chains have fully proved that fiavonoids induced AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) to infect non-mycorrhizal plant and establish symbiotic relationship.

  1. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m2 g−1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  2. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in White Mustard (A Biochemical Anomaly).

    Bennett, R. N.; Kiddle, G.; Wallsgrove, R. M.

    1997-08-01

    One of the first steps in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to their aldoximes. The biochemistry of this process is controversial, and several very different enzyme systems have been described. The major glucosinolate in white mustard (Sinapis alba) is sinalbin, which is derived from tyrosine via its aldoxime, and this conversion is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) monooxygenase. Phenylethyl- and alkenylglucosinolates are also present in white mustard leaves, as are the enzymes catalyzing the relevant aldoxime formation from homophenylalanine and methionine homologs, respectively. These enzymes are similar to those found in Brassica sp. and are distinct from the tyrosine-dependent enzyme in that they contain no heme and are unaffected by Cyt P450 inhibitors. They are instead inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and by Cu2+. In both white mustard and oilseed rape (Brassica napus) methyl jasmonate specifically stimulates indolylglucosinolate biosynthesis and yet has no effect on sinalbin accumulation in either cotyledons or leaves of white mustard. White mustard appears to be unique among crucifers in having a Cyt P450 aldoxime-forming enzyme for biosynthesis of one glucosinolate, although it also contains all of the non-Cyt P450 enzyme systems found in other members of the family. Sinalbin biosynthesis in white mustard is therefore an inappropriate model system for the synthesis of other glucosinolates in crucifers, including canola and oilseed rape. PMID:12223771

  3. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  4. Influence of antiplatelet-anticoagulant drugs on the need of blood components transfusion after vesical transurethral resection

    Alvaro Julio Virseda-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of the antithrombotic preventive therapy on haemorrhage keeps uncertain. We investigate the influence of the antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs (AP/AC drugs on the transfusion requirement after vesical transurethral resection (VTUR. We also describe the epidemiology of the blood components transfusion in our department. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of a series of patients needing blood transfusion at the Urology Department between June 2010 and June 2013. Selection of 100 consecutive patients who were transfused after VTUR due to bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC (group A = GA. Control group: 100 consecutive patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC and were not transfused (group B = GB. Transfusion criteria: Haemoglobin < 8 g/dl + anaemia symptoms. Age, gender, associated AP/AC treatment, secondary diagnoses, toxics, tumour stage and grade were analysed. Results: 212 patients required transfusion of a blood component. 169 were men (79% and 43 women (21%. Median age 77.59 years (SD 9.42, range 50-92. Secondary diagnoses: Diabetes Mellitus 64%, high blood pressure 77%, dyslipidemia 52%. 60% of patients were previously treated with AP/AC drugs. Average Haemoglobin pre-transfusion values: 7.4 g/dl (DE ± 0.7. Average Haemoglobin post-transfusion values: 8.9 g/Dl (DE ± 0.72. Most frequent transfusion indications were bladder cancer (37%, kidney cancer (11%, prostate cancer (8%, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP (8%, other urological diagnoses (36%. Intraoperative transfusions indicated by the anaesthesiologist: kidney cancer (33%, BPH (28%. Patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC were older in GA (77.59 years SD 9.42 than in GB (68.98 years SD 11.78 (p = 0.0001. Similar gender distribution (15 women in GA and 24 in GB. Less patients were asked to keep their treatment with ASA 100mg (AcetylSalicylicAcid in GA (25.64% than in GB (50% (p = 0.0330. More aggressive tumour grade in GA (p = 0.0003 and

  5. Radioiodination and preliminary biological tests of aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate as a potential anticancer prodrug

    Aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate were radioiodinated with 131I. The preliminary dynamic tests were carried out on rabbits. The scintigrams showed clearly that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard was very quickly cleared from the metabolism, accumulating in the bladder in about 15 minutes. The clearance time of radioiodinated aniline-mustard-glucuronide was considerably longer (about 45 min.). The results obtained from the biodistributional studies have represented interesting differences between the metabolic details of radioiodinated compounds, and indicated that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard may be a promising radioiodinated prodrug, if verification of its selective accumulation in some kinds of tumor cells can be obtained. (author)

  6. 38 CFR 3.316 - Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite.

    2010-07-01

    ..., bronchitis, emphysema, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (3) Full-body exposure to nitrogen mustard during active military service together with the subsequent development of acute...

  7. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Davood Attaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  8. Study of the Efficacy of CC-2 and Fuller's Earth Combination as a Decontaminant against Sulphur Mustard (Mustard Gas) Dermal Intoxication in Mice

    Pravin Kumar; U. S. Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1991-01-01

    Decontamination efficacy of Fuller's earth and CC-2 independently; and in different combinations was evaluated against toxicity of sulphur mustard applied percutaneously on mice. Maximum protection was obtained with Fuller's earth and CC-2 in a combination of 80:20(w/w).

  9. Interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard and sunflower grown in the hydroponic solution

    Both Indian mustard and sunflower were grown in a hydroponic solution treated with different concentration activities of 134Cs or with different amounts of copper or with both in order to investigate the interaction between copper and radiocesium. It was found that 134Cs activity concentration applied in the nutrient solution exerted more influence on the uptake and translocation of copper by Indian mustard than by sunflower. Indian mustard grown in hydroponic solution containing certain levels of copper and being treated with higher 134Cs activity concentration showed higher uptake of copper than sunflower. However, in the case of root copper concentrations, sunflower showed significantly higher copper immobilization by roots than Indian mustard. It was also found that the presence of copper the the hydroponic solution did modify radiocesium uptake by both species. The application of 1 mg/l in the growth medium could greatly increase the uptake of 134 Cs by both species. With 3 mg/l concentration of copper amended to the solution, the accumulation of 134Cs by both species was decreased compared to the 1 mg/l copper treatment. These lines of evidence show that there is stronger interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard than in sunflower during the root uptake through nutrient solution. (author)

  10. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    mansour Razavi Seyed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980–1988. More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic.

  11. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980--1988. More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic.

  12. Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Production in Chitwan District of Nepal

    S.C. Dhakal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43 indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. The magnitude of regression coefficients of mustard implied that use of human labor, tractor, nutrient and irrigation and pesticides costs had significant positive effect on gross return with estimated increasing return to scale (1.03. According to estimated allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to increase use of tractor labor, seed, nutrient and irrigation plus pesticides cost by about 47%, 82%, 84% and 94%, respectively. Extension of modern technologies with adjustment on resource use is to be encouraged for increase in productivity and profit from mustard production which indirectly promotes and ensure forage for pollinators.

  13. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Glucosinolate Content Varies Across a Natural Light Gradient.

    Smith, Lauren M

    2015-05-01

    Garlic mustard is a well-known invader of deciduous forests of North America, yet the influence of environmental factors on garlic mustard allelochemical production is not well understood. Three experiments were conducted to detect interactions between one garlic mustard allelochemical (glucosinolate) production and light availability. First, to detect patterns of glucosinolate production across a natural light gradient, leaves and roots of mature plants and first-year rosettes were sampled in patches ranging from 100 to 2 % of full sun within an Indiana forest. Second, to determine whether genetic variation drives observed correlations between glucosinolate content and light, seed collected across light gradients within six sites was grown in a common garden and glucosinolate production was measured. Finally, to understand whether local adaptation occurred in garlic mustard's response to light, seed collected from defined light environments across six sites was grown under four light treatments. Results of the field sampling showed that mature plants' root glucosinolate content was elevated in high compared to low light. In the common garden experiment, however, there was no correlation between light availability at seed origin and constitutive glucosinolate content. Additionally, in the common light treatments, there was no evidence for local adaptation to light environment. Overall, the results indicate that plasticity in response to light, not genetic variation among plants growing in different light environments, generates correlations between glucosinolate content and light in the field. Since mature garlic mustard populations in high light may exhibit increased glucosinolate content, it makes them potential targets for management. PMID:25912227

  14. The stibian mustard gold from the Kriván¿ Au deposit,Tatry Mts., Slovak Republic

    Makovicky, Emil; Martin, Chovan; František, Bakos

    2007-01-01

    with pores more or less fi lled by oxidation products of Sb and Fe. Compositionally it does not conform with stibian mustard gold from Yakutia and Bolivia, approximately AuSb1.4O2.1, derived from decomposition of aurostibite, but it conforms with mustard gold from Krásná Hora, Czech Republic. For this...

  15. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  16. New studies on mustard gold from the Dongping Mines, Hebei Province, China: The tellurian, plumbian, manganoan and mixed varieties

    Li, Jiuling; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold......geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold...

  17. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  18. Long-Term Outcome of Mustard/Senning Correction for Transposition of the Great Arteries in Sweden and Denmark

    Vejlstrup, Niels; Sørensen, Keld; Mattsson, Eva; Thilén, Ulf; Kvidal, Per; Johansson, Bengt; Iversen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Lars; Dellborg, Mikael; Eriksson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atrial switch operation, the Mustard or Senning operation, for the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) was introduced in the late 1950s and was the preferred surgery for TGA until the early 1990s. The Mustard and Senning operation involves extensive surgery in the atria and...... leaves the right ventricle as the systemic ventricle. The Mustard and Senning cohort is now well into adulthood and we begin to see the long-term outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: All the 6 surgical centers that performed Mustard and Senning operations in Sweden and Denmark identified all operated TGA...... long-term outcome (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.46, P=0.04), once the TGA patient has survived the perioperative period. The risk of reoperation was correlated to the presence of associated defects and where the first Mustard/Senning operation was performed. CONCLUSIONS: The long...

  19. Antioxidants from defatted Indian Mustard (Brassica Juncea) protect biomolecules against in vitro oxidation.

    Dua, Anita; Chander, Subhash; Agrawal, Sharad; Mahajan, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Indian mustard seeds were defatted by distillation with hexane and the residue extracted with methanol was analyzed for potential antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, and polyphenols. Gallic acid (129.796 μg), caffeic acid (753.455 μg), quercetin (478.352 μg) and kaempferol (48.060 μg)/g dry seeds were identified by HPLC analysis of the extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protection of lipids, proteins and DNA against metal induced oxidation was examined. Defatted mustard seed remnant had excellent free radical scavenging activity and protects biomolecules with IC50 value 2.0-2.25 mg dry seed weight. Significant content of polyphenols in methanol extract of defatted seeds accounts for high antioxidant potential. We are the first to report the detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and protection of biomolecules against oxidative damage by methanol extract of mustard seed remnant after oil extraction. PMID:25320478

  20. Study on irradiation sterilization of mixture of blanched mustard greed and soybean

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological and sensory qualities of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean stored at commercial condition and D10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua were investigated. The results show that D10 value of Listeria innocua inoculated in mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean is 0.264 kGy, and fatality rate of the Listeria irradiated by a dose of 1.2 kGy was 99.996%; Irradiation at doses less than 2.0 kGy does not have significant effects on sensory qualities, and this dose is able to decrease microbe and pathogens of Listeria innocua by 2-3 log and 6 log, respectively. A dose of 2.0 kGy might be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean. (authors)

  1. Using neutron source distinguish mustard gas bomb from the others with Monte Carlo simulation method

    After Japan was defeated, the chemical weapon that left in China injured people constantly. It made very grave lost to the Chinese because of people's innocent to it. In these accidents, mustard gas bomb is the most. It is more difficult to distinguish mustard gas bomb from other normal bomb in out because it embedded in the earth for long time; leakage, eroding and rust appearance looked very serious. So the untouched measure method, neutron source inducing γ spectrum, showed very important. The Monte Carlo method was used in this paper to compute the γ spectrum when using neutron source irradiate mustard gas bomb. The characteristic radial of Cl, S, Fe and the other elements can picked up clearly. The result play some referenced role in analyzing γ spectrum. (authors)

  2. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  3. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness. PMID:27107236

  4. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  5. IMPACT OF HONEY BEE POLLINATION ON POD SET OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.: CRUCIFERAE AT PANTNAGAR

    VIMLA GOSWAMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and abundance of different insect visitors on mustard (Brassica juncea were studied at Pantnagar. A total of 19 insect visitors belonging to order Hymenoptera (15 and Diptera (4 were found to visit the mustard blossoms at Pantnagar. The abundance (percentage of insect/m2/2min. of Hymenopterans were maximum followed by the Dipterans and others. In Hymenopterans, the honeybees (Apis bees were observed maximum followed by non Apis bees and the scolid wasp. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods and percent pod set.

  6. The synthesis of spiromustine-d8. A general approach to octadeuterated nitrogen mustards

    The synthesis of deuterium labelled spiromustine, a potential new antitumor agent designed specifically for neoplasms of the central nervous system, is described. Eight deuterium atoms have been incorporated specifically into the nitrogen mustard moiety to provide a deuterated internal standard suitable for selected ion monitoring by GC/MS. Starting with ethylene glycol-d6, diethanolamine-d8 is produced efficiently in good yield with no deuterium exchange via a 2-imino-1,3-oxazolidine intermediate. The resultant diethanolamine-d8 may then be used to synthesize spiromustine-d8 or other octadeuterated nitrogen mustards. (author)

  7. Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatmen...

  8. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  9. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  10. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  11. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  12. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities produced during the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reaction-produced impurities indicative of specific TEA and chloroform stocks were exclusively discovered in HN3 batches made with those reagent stocks. In addition, some reagent impurities were found in the HN3 batches that were presumably not altered during synthesis and believed to be indicative of reagent type regardless of stock. Supervised classification using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) on the impurity profiles of chloroform samples from seven stocks resulted in an average classification error by cross-validation of 2.4%. A classification error of zero was obtained using the seven-stock PLSDA model on a validation set of samples from an arbitrarily selected chloroform stock. In a separate analysis, all samples from two of seven chloroform stocks that were purposely not modeled had their samples matched to a chloroform stock rather than assigned a “no class” classification.

  13. Speciation and bioaccessibility of lead and cadmium in soil treated with metal-enriched Indian mustard leaves

    Yanshan Cui; Jin Fu; Xiaochen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) has shown good potential for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there is little information about the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil during the decomposition of metal-rich Indian mustard leaves. Incubation experiments (1-, 3-, and 6-month) were carried out in Beijing and Hunan soil with metal-rich Indian mustard leaves addition (1% and 3%) and the effects of mustard leaves addition on the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals were studied. The results showed that the addition of mustard leaves led to significant increases in pH and DOC in the Hunan soil. Both 1% and 3% of mustard leaf amendment caused the percentage of the exchangeable (F1), precipitated with carbonates (F2), bound to Fe/Mn oxides (F3) and bound to organic matter (F4) fractions of Pb and Cd to increase dramatically, while the percentage of the residual fraction (F5) of Cd and Pb significantly dropped in both Beijing and Hunan soils. Mustard leaf addition caused the bioaccessibility of Pb to decrease in the gastric phase, whereas the values increased in the small intestinal phase. The Cd bioaccessibility increased with mustard leaf addition in both the gastric and small intestinal phases. In conclusion, the metal-enriched mustard leaves addition induces Pb and Cd concentrations and their mobility increasing in the Beijing and Hunan soils. Therefore, heavy metal risk in metal-enriched plant leaves should be considered in phytoremediation system in which heavy metal might be brought back to soil and changed over time.

  14. Distribution of cadmium in oilseed rape and Indian mustard grown on cadmium contaminated soil

    WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal distribution in the specialized accumulating plants was important for phytoextraction technique. Hydroponic and pot experiment were conducted to investigated Cd phytoextraction ability and Cd distribution in the plant of oilseed rape species. The results showed that oilseed rape Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 was more effective in phytoexetraction Cd among 21 varieties of oilseed rape and indicator plant Indian mustard. Cd concentration in the shoot of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard gradually decreased with an increase in growth period, while the amount of Cd uptake increased with the increase of growth period. There was constantly decrease in Cd concentration from the base leaves to the top leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard, the percentages of Cd uptake in older leaves were higher than those of younger leaves. Older leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ -10 and Indian mustard extracted more Cd for the Cd contamination soil, leaves should as far as possible develop before they reached the soil and the older leaves were harvested in priority.

  15. Study of Inheritance of Erucic acid in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss

    Sharad Pandey, Manoj Kabdal and M.K.Tripathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed-mustard is second most important group of oilseed crops next to groundnut. Among these, Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L. Czern and Coss] is the most important crop grown during rabi season. Though the productivity of Indian mustard in India has considerably improved in last decade but it is still very low in comparison to many European countries. On the other hand, Rapeseed – mustard have been used as a source of oil since long time. The reason for low use of the oil is the presence of high percentage of erucic acid and linolenic acid contents in the oil, which not only deteriorate the oil quality but are also known to produce harmful effects on the body. In the present study one zero erucic acid line PRQ-9701-46 was crossed with JM-1 (46.29%, a high erucic acid cultivar including reciprocals to find out the number of genes controlling inheritance of erucic acid in Brassica juncea. The erucic acid content of F1’s and their reciprocals was intermediate between the parents thus indicating embryonic control of erucic acid and absence of maternal effect in the inheritance of erucic acid in B. juncea. Erucic acid content of F2 seeds segregated into 5 classes (46% erucic acid with a ratio of 1:2:1. The segregation patterns confirmed that inheritance of erucic acid content in B. juncea was governed by two genes with additive effects.

  16. Efficacy of white mustard and soybean meal as a bioherbicide in organic broccoli and spinach production

    Weed control in organic cropping systems generally rely on mechanical or physical methods because of the lack of reliable organically accepted herbicides. Among the several potential bioherbicides being explored, white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal is among those bioherbicides that have been sho...

  17. Analysis of esterase isozyme and SSR for mutagenic progenies induced by space mutation in mustard

    Seeds of five mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) varieties were carried into outer space by 'Shijian No.8' satellite. After five years' consecutive planting and selection, ten relatively stable mutant lines were obtained, which had significant variation in agronomic and economic characters. The mutant lines and their original varieties without space mutation treatment as control were studied by esterase isozyme and SSR analyses. Electrophoresis analysis of esterase isozymes indicated that there were differences between mutant lines and their controls in enzyme types and enzyme activity. Different mustard varieties had different enzymographs, and so did the mutants induced by space mutation, which shows different sensitivity among different mustard varieties. The SSR analysis showed that large differences were found in the SSR loci between mutant lines and their original variety, the variation frequency was between 9.52% and 57.14% with an average frequency of 26.19% for all the mutant lines. Among the mutant SSR loci, about 56.36% showed changes in band number and 43.64% in molecular weight. These results indicated that the ten mutant lines had large genetic difference in phenotype, genomic sequence and gene expression, and the outer space mutation would be an effective method to develop new mustard germplasm and variety. (authors)

  18. Synthesis of a duplex oligonucleotide containing a nitrogen mustard interstrand DNA-DNA cross-link.

    Ojwang, J O; Grueneberg, D A; Loechler, E L

    1989-12-01

    Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents react with DNA and give adducts that block DNA replication, which is thought to result in cytotoxicity, especially in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells. One class of these agents is bifunctionally reactive (e.g., the nitrogen mustards) and forms DNA-DNA cross-links. It is unknown whether inter- or intrastrand cross-links are more effective at blocking DNA replication. To evaluate this, a DNA shuttle vector is being constructed with an interstrand cross-link at a unique site. In the first step of this project, a duplex oligonucleotide containing an interstrand cross-link is isolated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the reaction of nitrogen mustard with two partially complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. The purified oligonucleotide product is characterized and shown to be cross-linked in a 5'-GAC-3' 3'-CTG-5' sequence by a nitrogen mustard moiety that is bound at the N(7)-position of the guanines in the opposing strands; the glycosylic bonds of these guanine adducts are stabilized in their corresponding imidazole ring-opened form. Nitrogen mustard is shown to react with a variety of oligonucleotides and, based upon these results, its preferred targets for interstrand cross-linking are 5'-GXC-3' sequences, where X can be any of the four deoxyribonucleotide bases. PMID:2819709

  19. CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demand increases and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. Properties of waste oil (cotton seed oil and mustard oil have been compared with the properties of petro-diesel, showing a comparable regimefor satisfactory optimized blend which is to be selected for the better performance of a C.I. engine with biodiesel. The work presented in this paper is the study of characteristics of biodiesel prepared from vegetable oils (waste cotton seed oil and waste mustard oil.The characteristics of biodiesel are to be checked at different blends (B10, B15, B20 and select the optimum blend based on these characteristics. The characteristics include free fatty acid value, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point and pour point, carbon residue content and ash residue content. Different fuel properties of the cotton methyl ester and mustard methyl ester were also measured. Results show that the properties of methyl ester of cotton seed were more suitable as compared to properties of mustard methyl ester.

  20. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar...

  1. Effect of methionine and glucosamine conjugation on the anticancer activity of aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards

    Karmakar Subhendu; Sudipta Bhattacharyya; Arindam Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Certain nutrients viz.,glucose and methionine are consumed more by cancer cells. Hence, an anticancer agent conjugated to them may render more toxicity in cancer cells due to higher uptake. To probe this effect, methionine and glucosamine were conjugated to a series of well-known aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies performed to probe the effect of such conjugation showed that the conjugation of methionine and glucosamine to one of the dinitrobenzamide mustard led to more toxicity selectively in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. However, effect of functionalization cannot be generalized. Hypoxia based studies showed that IC50 value did not show much change from normoxic condition which is encouraging as many drugs deactivate in hypoxia. Among the glucosamine and methionine conjugated dinitrobenzamide mustards, the methionine conjugated aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustard of 2-chlorobenzoic acid is the most effective one. It acts by inducing apoptosis through G2/M phase arrest and encouragingly, is much less toxic to nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines in vitro.

  2. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency. PMID:23359937

  3. Comparative growth of Spring-planted canola, brown mustard and camelina

    With increased emphasis for diesel substitution, production of brown mustard (Brassica juncea), canola (B. napus) and camelina (Camelina sativa) used as biodiesel may increase in the High Plains. The objective was to elucidate the growth pattern of these crops when spring-planted in western Nebraska...

  4. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  5. Prophylactic Effect of Gossypin Against Percutaneously Administered Sulfur Mustard

    ANSHOO GAUTAM; R.VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective efficacy of gossypin(3,3',4',5,7,8-hexahydroxyflavone 8-glucoside)by administering it intraperitoneally,for dose,time,and vehicle dependent effects against sulphur mustard(SM),administered through percutaneous route in mice.Methods SM(diluted in PEG-300)was administered percutaneously.The protective efficacy of gossypin was evaluated by administering it intraperitoneally(50,100,200,and 400 mg/kg),in various vehicles (water,PEG-300 and DMSO),and time intervals(30 min prior,simultaneous and 2 h post).The time dependent protection of gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was also evaluated using selected biochemical variables(GSH,GSSG,MDA,total antioxidant status,Hb,WBC count,RBC count,glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase,and superoxide dismutase)and liver histology.The protection of gossypin by oral route was also evaluated against percutaneously administered SM.Results The protection against systemic toxicity of SM(LD50 8.1 mg/kg)was beRer when gossypin was given with PEG-300 (8.0 folds)than DMSO(5.7 folds).No protection was observed when gossypin was administered with water.Good protection (8.0 folds)was observed when gossypin was administered(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)at 30 min prior or simultaneous to SM exposure,but no protection was observed when gossypin was administered 2 h post to SM exposure.A significant weight loss was observed 7 days after SM administration(2 LD50),with a significant increase in RBC and Hb.A significant decrease in total antioxidant status of plasma,liver GSH and GSSG levels,and in the activities of glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase was also observed 7 days after SM administration.SM treated mouse liver also showed necrosis.A significant protection was observed when gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was administered either as a pretreatment(30 min before)or simultaneous treatment,and not as a post treatment(2 h).The protective efficacy of gossypin was better

  6. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pHi) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pHi to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC50 values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlueTM. The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD50 obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pHi, so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pHi that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death

  7. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Abedi, A.; HR Koohestani; Z Roosta

    2008-01-01

    ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical ...

  8. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulator, Immunity and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard Seeds (Brassica juncea)

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Among the oilseeds grown around the world, mustard is one of the important crop worldwide due to its wide adaptability and high yielding capacity. Owing to the importance of its utilities as condiment, cooking oil and some medical aids, the demand for its seed production is too high. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in leaves, ...

  9. Calmodulin mediates sulfur mustard toxicity in human keratinocytes

    Sulfur mustard (SM) causes blisters in the skin through a series of cellular changes that we are beginning to identify. We earlier demonstrated that SM toxicity is the result of induction of both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis in human keratinocytes (KC). Because of its importance in apoptosis in the skin, we tested whether calmodulin (CaM) mediates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway induced by SM. Of the three human CaM genes, the predominant form expressed in KC was CaM1. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis revealed upregulation of CaM expression following SM treatment. To delineate the potential role of CaM1 in the regulation of SM-induced apoptosis, retroviral vectors expressing CaM1 RNA in the antisense (AS) orientation were used to transduce and derive stable CaM1 AS cells, which were then exposed to SM and subjected to immunoblot analysis for expression of apoptotic markers. Proteolytic activation of executioner caspases-3, -6, -7, and the upstream caspase-9, as well as caspase-mediated PARP cleavage were markedly inhibited by CaM1 AS expression. CaM1 AS depletion attenuated SM-induced, but not Fas-induced, proteolytic processing and activation of caspase-3. Whereas control KC exhibited a marked increase in apoptotic nuclear fragmentation after SM, CaM1 AS cells exhibited normal nuclear morphology up to 48 h after SM, indicating that suppression of apoptosis in CaM1 AS cells increases survival and does not shift to a necrotic death. CaM has been shown to activate the phosphatase calcineurin, which can induce apoptosis by Bad dephosphorylation. Interestingly, whereas SM-treated CaM1-depleted KC expressed the phosphorylated non-apoptotic sequestered form of Bad, Bad was present in the hypophosphorylated apoptotic form in SM-exposed control KC. To determine if pharmacological CaM inhibitors could attenuate SM-induced apoptosis via Bad dephosphorylation, KC were pretreated with the CaM-specific antagonist W-13 or its less active structural

  10. Crystal structure of 6-chloro-5-(2-chloroethyl-3-(propan-2-ylideneindolin-2-one

    K. R. Roopashree

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H13Cl2NO, has a 3-(propan-2-ylideneindolin-2-one core with a Cl atom and a chloroethyl substituent attached to the aromatic ring. Two atoms of the aromatic ring and the chloroethyl substituent atoms are disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.826 (3:0.174 (3. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 ring motif.

  11. 2-Chloroethyl 2-(5-bromo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Uk Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H12BrClO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. There is a mean deviation of 0.016 (4 Å from the least-squares plane defined by the nine constituent benzofuran atoms. The crystal structure is stabilized by aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.689 (7 Å]and by a weak C—H...π interaction between an H atom of the methylene group bonded to the carboxylate O atom and the benzene ring of an adjacent molecule. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak non-classical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The chloroethyl group is disordered over two positions, with refined site-occupancy factors of 0.767 (6 and 0.233 (6.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION GC/FT-IR

    Gas chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/FT-IR) is rapidly becoming an accepted analytical technique complementary to GC/mass spectroscopy for identifying organic compounds in mixtures at low to moderate concentrations. irect aqueous injection (DA...

  13. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; SINGH, LOKENDRA

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nemat...

  14. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of ∼30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  15. Sulfur Mustard Exposure and Non-Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Nasser Shoeibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man was referred with a complaint of visual loss in his left eye and his best corrected visual acuity was 20/80. Slit lamp examination showed arborizing conjunctival vessels and dry eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography revealed a non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. Cardiovascular, rheumatologic, and hematologic work up showed no abnormal findings. An ascertained history of exposure to sulfur mustard during the Iran-Iraq war was documented in his medical history. Four sessions of intravitreal bevacizumab injections were done as needed. After two-year follow-up, visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/25 and macular edema was resolved without any need for further interventions. We conclude that sulfur mustard gas exposure may be considered as a predisposing factor for central retinal vein occlusion, as was found in our patient (an Iranian war veteran by excluding all yet known etiologies and predisposing factors.

  16. Cytoplasmic male sterility of tuber mustard is associated with the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts

    PEI Yanxi; CHEN Zhujun; CAO Jiashu; CHEN Xuejun; LIU Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Two transcripts of T gene, T1170 and T1243, were obtained from the mitochondrial cDNA of tuber mustard CMS line. T1243 was a transcript with an intron unspliced, which has the basic characteristics of type Ⅱ intron. The expressions of the two transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed that, at seedling stage, the expression of T gene was mainly in the form of T1170 but decreased with the development gradually, while the expression abundance of another transcript, T1243, increased gradually. The T1243 was prevalent at the profuse flowering stage. The expression pattern was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These results suggested that the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts were related to CMS of tuber mustard.

  17. Reliable screening technique for evaluation of wild crucifers against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    Singh, S P; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Y P; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-01

    Wild crucifers namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica fruticulosa, B. rugosa, B. spinescens, B. tournefortii, Camelina sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Crambe abysinnica, Cronopus didymus, Diplotaxis assurgens, D. gomez-campoi, D. muralis, D. siettiana, D. tenuisiliqua, Enatharocarpus lyratus, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba along with five cultivated Brassica species including B. rapa (BSH-1), B. juncea (Rohini), B. napus (GSC-6), B. carinata (DLSC-2) and Eruca sativa (T-27) were screened against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with a standardized technique under definite level of aphid pressure developed using specially designed cages. Observations have revealed that B. fruticulosa, B. spinescens, Camelina sativa, Crambe abysinnica and Lepidium sativum were resistant to mustard aphid L. erysimi with aphid infestation index (AII) ≤ 1. Capsella bursa-pastoris was highly susceptible to bean aphid, Aphis fabae during its vegetative stage (with 100% mortality). Other genotypes were found in the range of 'susceptible' to 'highly susceptible' with AII ranging 3-5. PMID:25651614

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure

    Humphries Steve E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to mustard gas frequently results in long-term respiratory complications. However the factors which drive the development and progression of these complications remain unclear. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS has been implicated in lung inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Genetic variation within the gene coding for the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE, specifically the Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (I/D, is associated with variable levels of ACE and with the severity of several acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesized that the ACE genotype might influence the severity of late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. Methods 208 Kurdish patients who had suffered high exposure to mustard gas, as defined by cutaneous lesions at initial assessment, in Sardasht, Iran on June 29 1987, underwent clinical examination, spirometric evaluation and ACE Insertion/Deletion genotyping in September 2005. Results ACE genotype was determined in 207 subjects. As a continuous variable, FEV1 % predicted tended to be higher in association with the D allele 68.03 ± 20.5%, 69.4 ± 21.4% and 74.8 ± 20.1% for II, ID and DD genotypes respectively. Median FEV1 % predicted was 73 and this was taken as a cut off between groups defined as having better or worse lung function. The ACE DD genotype was overrepresented in the better spirometry group (Chi2 4.9 p = 0.03. Increasing age at the time of exposure was associated with reduced FEV1 %predicted (p = 0.001, whereas gender was not (p = 0.43. Conclusion The ACE D allele is associated with higher FEV1 % predicted when assessed 18 years after high exposure to mustard gas.

  19. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S. K.; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming sta...

  20. Clinical, High Resolution Computed Tomography and Pulmonary Function in Sulphur Mustard Victims

    Javad Moghimi; Armita Valizadeh; Habib Heybar; Mahdi Yadollahzadeh; Ahmad Ahmadzadeh; Esmaeil Idani

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate clinical, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings after 18-23 years of exposure in veterans of sulphur mustard (SM) exposure. We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 patients. Inclusion criteria were 1: documented exposure to SM as confirmed by toxicological analysis of their urine and vesicular fluid after exposure 2: single exposure to SM that cause skin blisters and subsequent transient or permanent sequel. Cigarette sm...

  1. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    Seema Singh; Vimal Malviya; Anshoo Gautam; Ram Singh; Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate) and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide) are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent) toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostin...

  2. Effect of high temperature stress on photosynthesis and partitioning of 14C in Indian mustard

    The influence of high temperature stress on 14Co2 assimilation and partitioning of 14C by photosynthetically active parts of Indian mustard is investigated. It is observed that heat stressed plants have low rates of 14Co2 assimilation which leads to low rates of 14C export from source organs. Heat stress is also found to inhibit translocation of 14C-assimilates into sink organs. (M.G.B.). 21 refs., 4 figs

  3. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T.; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin JT

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs betwee...

  4. UTILIZATION OF MUSTARD OIL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Hasnain Javed; Nazia Jamil

    2015-01-01

    With the unnecessary use of plastics and cumulative pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Bioplastic production from mustard oil was considered relatively cheap, easily available, included in vegetable oil and don’t having much volatile characteristics. Total of 67 bacterial strains were isolated and purified from different regio...

  5. Nitric Oxide Alleviates Salt Stress Inhibited Photosynthetic Performance by Interacting with Sulfur Assimilation in Mustard

    Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur (S) on stomatal responses and photosynthetic performance was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 μM NO (as sodium nitroprusside) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (S) more prominently influenced stomatal behavior, photosynthetic and growth performance both in the absence and presence of salt stress. The chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized chloroplast thylakoids, but com...

  6. Sulfur mustard induces expression of metallothionein-1A in human airway epithelial cells

    Nourani MR; Ebrahimi M; Roudkenar MH; Vahedi E; Ghanei M; AA Imani Fooladi

    2011-01-01

    Mohammad Reza Nourani1, Majid Ebrahimi1, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar3, Ensieh Vahedi1, Mostafa Ghanei1, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi21Chemical Injury Research Center; 2Microbial Product Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences; 3Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, IranBackground: Sulfur mustard can cause several long-term complications in the organs of individuals exposed to this toxic gas, and among these, pulmonary sequelae are the most important. Mo...

  7. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn75 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn37U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  8. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates. PMID:23575118

  9. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  10. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  11. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied

  12. The Effect of the Vesical Adaptation Response to Diuresis on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: A Pilot Proof of Concept Study

    Haga, Nobuhiro; Aikawa, Ken; Hoshi, Seiji; Yabe, Michihiro; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Soichiro; Ishibashi, Kei; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background When urine output increases, voided volume at each voiding also increases in normal subjects. This is generally understood as a vesical adaptation response to diuresis (VARD). Because lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are supposed to be improved by the change in bladder function after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP), the aim of the present study was to investigate whether VARD is involved in the improvement of LUTS after RARP. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent RARP and had the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) index, a frequency-volume chart (FVC), uroflowmetry, and post-voided residual urine (PVR) available were evaluated before and after RARP. This cohort was divided into patients with and without preoperative LUTS according to the preoperative IPSS total score. VARD was defined as the presence of a significant correlation between the urine output rate and voided volume at each voiding (R2>0.2). Results In patients with preoperative LUTS, the IPSS total, storage, and voiding symptom scores were significantly improved after RARP (all P<0.001). The QOL index was also significantly improved after RARP (P<0.05). Although VARD was not seen before RARP (R2 = 0.05), it was seen after RARP (3 months R2 = 0.22, 12 months R2 = 0.23). PVR was significantly reduced after RARP (P = 0.004). Conclusions Improvement of LUTS was seen with acquisition of VARD after RARP. As a result, urinary QOL was also improved in patients with preoperative LUTS. RARP might be an effective procedure for amelioration of LUTS by the acquisition of VARD. PMID:27447829

  13. Development and characterization of Brassica juncea – fruticulosa introgression lines exhibiting resistance to mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt

    Atri Chhaya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard aphid is a major pest of Brassica oilseeds. No source for aphid resistance is presently available in Brassica juncea . A wild crucifer, Brassica fruticulosa is known to be resistant to mustard aphid. An artificially synthesized amphiploid, AD-4 (B. fruticulosa × B. rapa var. brown sarson was developed for use as a bridge species to transfer fruticulosa resistance to B. juncea. Using the selfed backcross we could select a large number of lines with resistance to mustard aphid. This paper reports cytogenetic stability of introgression lines, molecular evidence for alien introgression and their reaction to mustard aphid infestation. Results Majority of introgression lines had expected euploid chromosome number(2n= 36, showed normal meiosis and high pollen grain fertility. Well-distributed and transferable simple-sequence repeats (SSR markers for all the 18 B. juncea chromosomes helped to characterize introgression events. Average proportions of recipient and donor genome in the substitution lines were 49.72 and 35.06%, respectively. Minimum alien parent genome presence (27.29% was observed in the introgression line, Ad3K-280 . Introgressed genotypes also varied for their resistance responses to mustard aphid infestations under artificial release conditions for two continuous seasons. Some of the test genotypes showed consistent resistant reaction. Conclusions B.juncea-fruticulosa introgression set may prove to be a very powerful breeding tool for aphid resistance related QTL/gene discovery and fine mapping of the desired genes/QTLs to facilitate marker assisted transfer of identified gene(s for mustard aphid resistance in the background of commercial mustard genotypes.

  14. Smad Molecules Expression Pattern in Human Bronchial Airway Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    Maryam Adelipour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Airway remodelling is characterized by the thickening and reorganization of the airways seen in mustard  lung patients. Mustard lung is the  general description  for  the  chronic obstructive  pulmonary  disease induced  by  sulfur  mustard(SM. Pulmonary  disease was diagnosed as the most important  disorder in individuals that had been exposed to sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent developed during Wars. Iraqi forces frequently used it against Iranian during Iran –Iraq in the 1980–1988. Peribronchial fibrosis result  from  airway remodeling  that  include  excess  of  collagen of  extracellular matrix deposition  in  the  airway wall. Some of  Smads families in  association with TGF-β  are involved in airway remodeling due to lung fibrosis. In the present study we compared the mRNA expression of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 and Smad7 genes in airway wall biopsies of chemical-injured patients with non-injured patients as control.We used airway wall biopsies of ten unexposed patients and fifteen SM-induced patients. Smads expression was evaluated by RT-PCR followed by bands densitometry.Expression levels of Smad3 and Smad4 in SM exposed patients were upregulated but Smad2 and Smad7 was not significantly altered.Our results revealed that Smad3, and 4 may be involved in airway remodeling process in SM induced  patients  by  activation of  TGF-β.  Smad pathway is  the  most  represented signaling mechanism for  airway remodeling and  peribronchial fibrosis. The  complex of Smads in the nucleus affects a series of genes that results in peribronchial fibrosis in SM- induced patients.

  15. Progress in the improvement of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern and Coss.) with yellow seed coat colour

    The main objectives in the mustard breeding programme at BARC are to evolve high yielding strains with yellow seed coat colour. Two of the Trombay mustard (TM) selections, TM-2 and TM-4 have been released for commercial cultivation in Assam State. In 1991-92 crop season, these two cultures were also evaluated in 60 and 200 minikit trials respectively at the farmers fields in Rajasthan State. The mean yield of TM-2 and TM-4 was however lower than the improved cultivar grown as the check. In the trials conducted at 3-4 locations by the Punjabrao Agricultural University for the past four years, TM-9 gave the highest mean yield of 840 kg/ha. TM-9 and TM-21 were the top yielders in the non-traditional mustard growing areas in Maharashtra State. TM-18 is presently the earliest maturing mustard available in the country. Such early cultures have the potential to replace toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) in the multiple cropping system. Simple and reliable methods for screening mustard germplasm for aphid tolerance at three different stages of plant growth have been developed. Using these methodologies, selections showing tolerance against crucifer aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) have been identified. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum Opiz ex Junell) resistant selection have been isolated from a cross between TM-18 and Brassica carinata. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 10 tabs

  16. Development and validation of a triplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species and three celery varieties in food.

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents a triplex real-time PCR assay allowing the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (white, black and brown mustard) and three celery varieties (celery roots, celery stalks and leaf celery) in foodstuffs. The triplex assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae. Low cross-reactivities were observed with fenugreek, cumin, ginger, caraway, turmeric, lovage and rye, the ΔCt values were, however, ⩾ 12 compared to positive controls. The triplex assay allows the detection of traces of DNA of the allergenic components in spite of an excess of the other DNA templates. Analysis of extracts from model sausages containing defined concentrations of mustard and celery showed that the triplex assay is applicable to both raw and processed foods. It was found to allow the detection of 1 ppm black/brown mustard and 50 ppm white mustard and celery in raw and brewed sausages with a probability ⩾ 95%. PMID:25872425

  17. Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la esquistosomiasis vesical desde la atención primaria penitenciaria: a propósito de un caso Diagnosis and treatment of bladder schistosomiasis from penitentiary primary care: case report

    A. Bedoya del Campillo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso clínico de un paciente procedente de Senegal con síndrome miccional y hematuria microscópica que fue diagnosticado y tratado de esquistosomiasis vesical en los servicios médicos del Centro Penitenciario de Jóvenes de Barcelona. Según nuestra información en la base de datos Medline no existen casos de esquistosomiasis vesical abordados en atención primaria fuera de áreas endémicas. Los pacientes pueden diagnosticarse y tratarse antes de ser derivados a la asistencia especializada para continuar estudio de posibles complicaciones.We describe a case of a patient from Senegal with voiding symptoms and microscopic hematuria diagnosed and treated for bladder schistosomiasis in the medical services of the Youth Prison in Barcelona. According to our information in the Medline database no bladder schistosomiasis cases have been seen in primary care outside endemic areas. Patients can be diagnosed andtreated before referral to specialized care for further study of possible complications.

  18. PerformanceAndEmissionCharacteristicsOfAVariableCo mpressionRatio Diesel Engine Using Methyl Esters Of Mustard Biodiesel Blends

    K.Basavaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use ofbiodiesel inconventional diesel engines resultsinsubstantialreductionof unburnedhydrocarbon,carbon monoxideand particulatematters. The performance, emission and characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multi fuel engine when fueled with mustard oil methyl ester and its 10%, 20%, and blends with diesel (on a volume basis are investigated and compared with standard diesel. Bio diesel produced from mustard oil by transesterificationprocess has been used in this study. Experiment has been conducted a compressionratios of 14:1, 16:1and 18:1 The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The blends when used as fuel results in reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides emissions. It is concluded that mustard oil ester can be used as fuel in diesel engine by blending it with diesel fuel.

  19. Use of nuclear techniques to increase fertilizer nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies in mustard and wheat in rainfed conditions

    Field experiments were conducted for three years from 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute farm with mustard (Brassica juncea 'T-59') and wheat (Triticum aestivum 'WH-147) during the winter season under rainfed conditions and with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 'V 890') during the monsoon season. Three levels of N and P were applied (0, 30 and 60 kg N ha-1 and 0, 15 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 for mustard; 0, 40 and 80 kg N ha-1 and 0, 20 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 for wheat). In treatments N1 and N2, 15N-urea was applied to micro-plots. Also in treatments P1 and P2, 32P-labelled single superphosphate was applied to micro-plots. During the monsoon season in the same layouts cowpea was grown with 20 kg N ha-1 and maize as the reference crop for measuring biological N2 fixation using the 15N-dilution technique. Wide variation amongst replicates in germination and dry matter yield was recorded at the Z30 stage in wheat. Nitrogen and P contents were higher in N- and P-fertilized plots during the first two years. However, during the third and fourth years these differences were very much less as the wheat was sown without tillage to conserve moisture. The highest wheat-grain yield of 1.89 Mg ha-1 was obtained with 80 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the third year (2000-2001); this treatment gave only 1.21 Mg ha-1 in the second year (1999-2000). The highest mustard-seed yield of 1.59 Mg ha-1 was obtained with the highest applications of N and P in the third year (2000-2001). Both in mustard and in wheat, increases in yields were more pronounced with N application than with P. Fertilizer-N use efficiency in mustard during the four years ranged from 31 to 72%. Wheat utilized fertilizer N less efficiently. In both mustard and wheat, nearly 90% of the applied fertilizer N could be recovered in either the crop or soil. Fertilizer-P recovery in mustard was nearly twice that in wheat. Mustard extracted more water from the soil than did wheat. The δ13C data in

  20. Fatores associados à bacteriúria após sondagem vesical na cirurgia ginecológica Factors associated with bacteriuria after indwelling urethral catheterization in gynecologic surgery

    Sonia Cristina Araújo Hinrichsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a frequência e os principais fatores associados à bacteriúria após a sondagem vesical em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo coorte em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica após sondagem vesical no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, no período de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas até 24 horas após a retirada da sonda e 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical. A análise estatística bivariada e multivariada foi realizada calculando-se a razão de risco e os seus intervalos de confiança a 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 249 mulheres. A frequência de uroculturas positivas até 24 horas depois da retirada da sonda foi de 23,6%, diminuindo para 11,1% 7/10 dias após a sondagem. Destas, apenas 2,4% eram sintomáticas. Verificou-se menor risco de bacteriúria com 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical quando a paciente referiu vulvovaginite tratada nos últimos três meses, não permanecendo estatisticamente significativa após a análise multivariada. Não houve associação significativa com idade, escolaridade, número de gestações, paridade, fase da vida reprodutiva, tipo e duração da cirurgia, tipo da anestesia, uso de antibiótico profilático, profissional que colocou a sonda e o tempo de permanência da sonda vesical. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de bacteriúria foi de 23,6% e 11,1% com 24 horas e 7/10 dias, respectivamente. Não se encontrou associação significativa das variáveis pesquisadas com a bacteriúria evidenciada na urocultura com 7/10 dias.OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and risk factors associated to bacteriuria after urinary catheterization in women submitted to elective gynecological surgery. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out among women submitted to gynecological surgery after urinary catheterization. This study took place at the "Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor

  1. The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by indian mustard

    Vassil; Kapulnik; Raskin; Salt

    1998-06-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants exposed to Pb and EDTA in hydroponic solution were able to accumulate up to 55 mmol kg-1 Pb in dry shoot tissue (1.1% [w/w]). This represents a 75-fold concentration of Pb in shoot tissue over that in solution. A threshold concentration of EDTA (0.25 mm) was found to be required to stimulate this dramatic accumulation of both Pb and EDTA in shoots. Below this threshold concentration, EDTA also accumulated in shoots but at a reduced rate. Direct measurement of a complex of Pb and EDTA (Pb-EDTA) in xylem exudate of Indian mustard confirmed that the majority of Pb in these plants is transported in coordination with EDTA. The accumulation of EDTA in shoot tissue was also observed to be directly correlated with the accumulation of Pb. Exposure of Indian mustard to high concentrations of Pb and EDTA caused reductions in both the transpiration rate and the shoot water content. The onset of these symptoms was correlated with the presence of free protonated EDTA (H-EDTA) in the hydroponic solution, suggesting that free H-EDTA is more phytotoxic than Pb-EDTA. These studies clearly demonstrate that coordination of Pb transport by EDTA enhances the mobility within the plants of this otherwise insoluble metal ion, allowing plants to accumulate high concentrations of Pb in shoots. The finding that both H-EDTA and Pb-EDTA are mobile within plants also has important implications for the use of metal chelates in plant nutritional research. PMID:9625697

  2. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  3. Nitrogen mustard (Chlorambucil) has a negative influence on early vascular development

    The sulphur and nitrogen mustards are strong alkylating agents, which induces inflammations of the skin including blistering right up to ulcerations. Depending on the severity, the wounds may need weeks to heal. In the past it was shown that sulphur mustard has a destructive effect on endothelial precursor cells, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the wound healing reaction by inducing neovascularisation. However, for these alkylating agents as well as for sulphur mustard nothing is known about their effects on endothelial precursors. Therefore, we investigated and compared the influence of Chlorambucil on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of endothelial cells in intact mouse embryoid bodies (EB). EBs were treated at different developmental stages and with different periods of Chlorambucil treatment. It was found that in each developmental stage and under each treatment period's Chlorambucil has an extremely negative effect on the vascularisation with a vessel reduction of around 99%. Of particular importance was the negative effect of treatment around day 3 of the development. On this day we found 377 vessels under control conditions but only 1.6 vessels under 24 h treatment of Chlorambucil. At this point in time many endothelial precursors can be found in the EB. Moreover, a negative effect on all stem cells was evident at this point in time, shown by an extreme reduction in EB size with 17.9 mm2 for the control and only 1.55 mm2 under Chlorambucil treatment. This negative effect on the vascularisation, on endothelial precursors but also on stem cells in general is of possible importance for impaired wound healing.

  4. Study On The Growth Promotion Effect Of Grapefruit Oligopectin Prepared By Radiation Processing On Mustard Greens

    Nowadays, oligosaccharides such as oligochitosan, oligoalginate, and oligopectin, etc. were asserted as natural active compounds. These products not only showed the plant growth promoter effect, but also stimulated the phytoalexin induction that helped plant against the diseases cause by microorganisms. The process for extraction of pectin from discard-waste grapefruit peels with a high pectin content and a shorter extraction time has been set up. The degradation of pectin solutions with the concentrations of 1-4% by Co-60 gamma irradiation was studied. The obtained results on the characterization of irradiated products including molecular weight (Mw), IR-spectra and UV-spectra indicated that gamma-rays induced the degradation of pectin and slightly reduced the methyl ester degree in the molecular structure of radiation-degraded oligopectin. The results also showed that oligopectin with molecular weight about 3.53 kDa prepared by irradiation of 2% pectin solution at 75 kGy displayed a good effect on the growth and development of mustard greens (Brassica junco Vary rugs) cultivated in hydroponics system. The optimal concentration of radiation-degraded oligopectin for treatment of mustard greens was found at 75 ppm. The treatment with 75 ppm radiation-degraded oligopectin increased the plant height, root length and fresh biomass of mustard green in 6.5, 4.8 and 17.7%, respectively. The above results indicated that produced natural product, i.e. oligopectin, may potentially to apply in high-tech agriculture for increase of safe-agro-products and for environment protection. (author)

  5. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of the Nitrogen Mustards and Local Anesthetics.

    Buess, Michael Lee

    The density matrix description of pulsed nitrogen -14 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-echoes is presented. The parallel between this problem, when formulated in terms of the fictitious spin- 1/2 operators, and that of spin - 1/2 NMR spin-echoes in liquids is discussed along with the complications which arise in multiple-pulse NQR experiments in powders due to the random orientation of the electric field gradient tensors. The equipment and procedures involved in searching for, detecting and identifying NQR resonances using pulsed techniques are described. The ('14)N NQR spectra of several nitrogen mustard compounds in the solid state are reported and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. For the aniline derivatives, a correlation exists between l -(sigma), l being the nitrogen lone-pair electron density and (sigma) the average N-C sigma bond electron density, and the enhanced Hammett sigma constant (sigma)('-). An improved correlation is obtained between l-(sigma) and (sigma)(,R)('-), which emphasizes the importance of resonance effects in determining l-(sigma). The increase of hydrolysis and alkylation rates with increasing values of l-(sigma) is in agreement with the identification of the cyclic immonium ion as the intermediate in the hydrolysis and alkylation processes of the aromatic nitrogen mustards. A possible correlation is noted between the ('35)Cl NQR spectra for some of the mustards and measures of toxic and antitumor activity. ('14)N NQR spectra for several local anesthetics in the solid state are also reported and analyzed using the Townes and Dailey approach. The changes in the electron distributions at various nitrogen sites, produced by protonating the tertiary amino nitrogen, are discussed and shown to be in general agreement with expectations bases on the increased electrophilic character of the protonated amino group.

  6. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO2 (NO3)2 . 6H2O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  7. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  8. Genetics of alternaria leaf blight resistance in Indian mustard [Brassica Juncea (L. Czern & Coss.

    R. K. Chaurasia and Ram Bhajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight disease in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss was carried-out using generation mean analysis. Results based on generation mean analysis of per cent disease index (PDI showed significant estimates of additive [d] and dominance [h] effects as well as all the three types of epistasis in all the three crosses. The opposite signs of [h] and [l] indicated that duplicate epistasis was operative in the inheritance of Alternaria leaf blight in the material studied.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  10. Therapeutic Efficacy of Saline and Glucose Saline against Dermally applied Sulphur Mustard Intoxication in Mice

    K. Sugendran

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose of saline or glucose-saline (5 mg glucose/kg offered similar protection to mice against sulphur mustard intoxication, the extent of survival being 83 per cent as against 33 per cent without treatment. All the animals were protected when the treatment was extended by another two consecutive days in the glucose-saline treated group. Both saline and glucose-saline treatments could ameliorate the haemoconcentration as well as normalise pO/sub 2/ and % oxygen saturation. The protection conferred is attributed to the probable replenishment of fluid loss.

  11. Effects of process variables and additives on mustard oil hydrolysis by porcine pancreas lipase

    D. Goswami; De, S.; Basu, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Selective hydrolysis of brown mustard oil (from Brassica juncea) with regioselective porcine pancreas lipase was studied in this work. Buffer and oil phase were considered as the continuous and dispersed phases, respectively. Effects of speed of agitation, pH of the buffer phase, temperature, buffer-oil ratio and enzyme concentration on hydrolysis were observed. The best combination of process variables was: 900 rpm, pH 9, 35 ºC, buffer-oil ratio of 1:1 and enzyme concentration of 10 mg/g oil...

  12. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    Prachi Srivastava; Singh, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Refined rice bran oil (RBO) was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO), MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO) and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO) to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), Total p...

  13. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Shu; Chen; Wang; Chen; Kai; Chang; Shu; Chang; Chan; Jiunn; Shiuh; Shieh; Chih; Kwang; Chiu; Pin-Der; Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria(LAB)strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method.The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt.Strains with lowering cholesterol activity,were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells.Results:Strain B0007,B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC17010.The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains,with more than 10~s CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS.In addition,strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterollowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  14. Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity

    Chen-Kai; Chang; Shu-Chen; Wang; Chih-Kwang; Chiu; Shih-Ying; Chen; Zong-Tsi; Chen; Pin-Der; Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity Methods: One hundred and fifty nine strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Taiwan fermented mustard were evaluated for their immunopotentiating activity on a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.Results: Of the strains, pronounced increases in the levels of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were observed in strains B0040, B0110 and B0145. Among them,strain B0145 had the highest NO and tumor necrosis factor-α generation in RAW 264.7 cells;strains B0040 and B0110 were also superior to that of Lactobacillus casei. These results demonstrated that NO and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial stimulants were treated with macrophages. In addition, strains B0040 and B0110 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and B0145 as Weissella cibaria using 16 S rDNA analysis.Conclusions: The results implicated selected strains may be regarded as a biological response modifier and had a broad application prospects in exploiting new functional food or as a feed additive.

  15. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays, EMS and their combination in Indian mustard

    Rapeseed-mustard, the second most important oilseed crop after groundnut has shown considerable progress in terms of productivity. However, the potential yield still could not be realised due to susceptibility of released varieties to Alternaria blight. Mutation breeding is an important means for developing resistance as well as for extending the range of plant architecture. Four varieties of Indian mustard viz.. RH 30, RH 819, Varuna and Kranti were exposed to four doses of gamma rays, four doses of EMS and four doses of both gamma rays and EMS. Pollen sterility was estimated in the M1 generation and was used to calculate the mutagenic efficiency. The chlorophyll mutation frequency in M2 was highest in variety RH 819 and among the treatments it was maximum in 80 kR of gamma ray. Total mutation frequency was highest in the combination treatments. Over the varieties 60 kR of gamma rays was most effective and EMS was more efficient than gamma rays and combination treatment. RH 819 and Varuna appeared to be suitable base for improvement in quantitative traits where as Kranti and RH 30 are better bases for induction of Alternaria blight resistance through mutations. (author)

  16. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent. PMID:27295923

  17. Effect of method and time of application on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    Radiophosphorus(32p) employed in a two years field study to evaluate some techniques of phosphate application in relation to P utilization by mustard as a test crop on I.A.R.I. Farm alluvial soil revealed that split application of phosphate proved superior to other methods of P fertilization as judged by significantly higher values for per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization. Band placement of plain single suprphosphate(SSP) as well as slurry blended SSP 3 to 4 cm below the seed were at par but both were superior to broadcast application of slurry blended SSP in terms of different P uptake parmeters. Fertilizer applied as a traditional practice, i.e, to broadcast it at seeding was least efficiently utilized. Moreover, alternate tagging technique conclusively indicated that mustard crop derived relatively more P from the basal dose than that of side dressed 25 days after seeding. The grain yield response per unit quantity of added P was much higher in favour of split application followed by comparable response of band placement of blended SSP and unblended fertilizer. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

  18. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  19. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern cv. WNFP, Varuna and Barton, were investigated in/under hydroponic conditions during a 4-week experiment. Cadmium and chromium were provided since germination as cadmium nitrate Cd(NO32 and chromium bichromate K2Cr2O7 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M. Plant biomass growth measured at the end of the experiments varied with the different metal concentrations in the nutrient solution and the accumulation of the elements in the plant fractions differed significantly among/between cultivars. Ability in the uptake of metals and their mobilization and storage in the aerial plant biomass, expressed by the bioconcentration factor (BCF and translocation factor (TF, respectively, are the most important traits of plants with phytoextraction potential. Brassica juncea was confirmed as being a highly tolerant species, but poor metal translocation values were registered, therefore the high amount of Cd and Cr concentrated in the root systems did not migrate to the aerial, harvestable, part of the plant.

  20. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury

  1. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  2. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  3. Pilot-scale ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography: purification of sinalbin from white mustard seeds.

    Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Pinel, Benoît; Boudesocque, Leslie; Lafosse, Michel; De La Poype, François; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2009-06-01

    The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) on a multigram scale from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba var. concerta) was successfully achieved by scaling up a strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC) laboratory procedure. Thus, the one-step sinalbin purification was performed with 2.35 g of crude extract in approximately 170 min (830 mg/h) up to 70.3 g in approximately 160 min (26.3 g/h) by switching from a 200 mL laboratory scale column to a 5.7 L pilot-scale column. The required biphasic solvent system contained ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in 3:2:5 v/v/v proportions, Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride) was added to the organic stationary phase (80 mM) and acted as ion-exchanger. Potassium iodide in the aqueous mobile phase (80 mM) was used as sinalbin displacer. The 28.5 mass scale factor arose from the increase in mobile phase flow-rate (from 2 to 50 mL/min), from the higher mass of injected white mustard seed extract (from 12 to 350 g), and from the calculated productivity (from 830 mg to 26.3 g). These results demonstrate that industry scale production of glucosinolates is easily performed by SIXCPC, thus providing pure reference standards for pharmacology studies. PMID:19479767

  4. Development of Improved Varieties of Rapeseed and Mustard through In Vivo Mutagenesis and Hybridization in Pakistan

    Rapeseed and mustard are the second most important source of vegetable oil in Pakistan. However, due to low productivity, these crops have been pushed to marginal lands, which resulted in a narrow genetic base. Mutation breeding research in conjunction with classical breeding techniques were therefore initiated at NIFA in 1989 to induce useful genetic variability in characters of economic importance in Oilseed Brassicas. The research efforts have resulted in the development of three varieties, namely Abasin-95 in 1996, NIFA-Raya in 2003 and Durr-e-NIFA in 2005. These varieties were approved by Seed Council of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) for commercial cultivation in the irrigated and rainfed areas of the province. Abasin-95 and NIFA-Raya are the first ever mutant varieties respectively of rapeseed and mustard in Pakistan. Durr-e-NIFA was developed from a hybridized population of a cross between 'Dunkeld' and 'Abasin-95'. All the three varieties possess high yield potential, medium-to-high oil content, early maturity and broader adaptability to rainfed and irrigated environments in comparison with the local check varieties and respective parents. These varieties are being cultivated by growers on appreciable areas. This paper reports the developmental history and performance of these varieties. (author)

  5. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Shu Chen Wang; Chen Kai Chang; Shu Chang Chan; Jiunn Shiuh Shieh; Chih Kwang Chiu; Pin-Der Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results: Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  6. Study of selective metals accumulation in green mustard (Brassica rapa var. parachinesis L.) from Cameron Highlands farmlands, Pahang

    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. However, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green mustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor (EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selected vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The green mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior to analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the concentration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentration in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows. (Author)

  7. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  8. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Colautti, R. I.; Franks, S. J.; Hufbauer, R. A.; Kotanen, P. M.; Torchin, M.; Byers, J. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Bossdorf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 29-47. ISSN 1619-0033 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : garlic mustard * citizen science * model system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  10. High resolution computed tomography findings and pulmonary function tests among mustard gas exposed patients: is there a remarkable relationship

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) are the two main methods, currently used for investigation of pulmonary complications in sulfur mustard gas exposed patients. According to different types of injuries in mustard gas exposed individuals, we decided to test the correlation between PFT and HRCT in these victims. Methodology: Fifty one randomly selected cases from 12000 mustard gas exposed patients during Iran-Iraq war (1983-1989) were studied. HRCT and PFT were conducted based on standard protocols. HRCT scores were tested for correlation to PFT measures. Results: A significant differences between PFT findings were found within HRCT groups (score=3, score 4-6 and score =7). There was a significant correlation between HRCT scores and FEV1, MMEF and FEV1: FVC ratio (P<0.05) in all subjects. Conclusion: HRCT and PFT results showed an acceptable correlation in mustard gas exposed patients. It seems to be useful to use each of these two diagnostic tools based on clinical judgment and feasibility. (author)

  11. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    GOSWAMI Bijoy Kumar; PANDEY Rajesh Kumar; RATHOUR Kabindra Singh; BHATTACHARYA Chaitali; SINGH Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  13. Perfil dos microrganismos isolados no trato urinário após sondagem vesical em cirurgia ginecológica Profile of microorganisms found in urocultures after urinary catheterization in patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery

    Sônia Cristina Hinrichsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar os microrganismosfreqüentemente encontrados nas uroculturas apóssondagem vesical e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica com sondagem vesical, no Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP, em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas em dois períodos: até 24h da retirada do cateter e após sete/10 dias. RESULTADOS: amostras de urina foram colhidas em 249 mulheres. Encontrouse 23,6% (n=46 de uroculturas positivas com até 24h da retirada da sonda e 11,1% (n=25 com sete/10 dias após sondagem vesical. Não foi observada diferença significativa em relação aos microrganismos, quando se compararamas duas uroculturas. A Klebsiella spp. foi o principal microrganismo em ambas uroculturas (até 24h=47,8% vs sete/10 dias=44,0%; p=0,76, seguido de Escherichia coli e outros Gram-negativos. Os antibióticos amicacina, cefepima, ciprofloxacina, meropenem e ticarcilina-clavulanato foram os que apresentaram sensibilidade igual ou superior a 75%para os principais microrganismos isolados. CONCLUSÕES: Klebsiella spp. foi o microrganismo mais encontrado nas uroculturas após sondagem vesical em cirurgias ginecológicas e o antibiótico com sensibilidade igual ou maior a 95% com via de administração oral foi a ciprofloxacina.OBJECTIVES: to determine the microorganisms mostfrequently found in urocultures after urinary catheterization and their antibiotic sensitivities in women undergoing elective gynecological surgery. METHODS: the study was carried out at theInstituto de Medicina Integral Professor FernandoFigueira, IMIP, in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, between January and May 2007. Urine cultures wereobtained from these patients on two occasions subsequent to the removal of the catheter: within the first 24h and 710 days

  14. 28-homobrassinolide Protects Photosynthetic Machinery in Indian mustard Under High Temperature Stress

    Qazi Fariduddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated with double distilled water or 0.01 µM of 28-homobrassinolide. Treated plants, after 24 h, were exposed to 30°C or 40°C for 48 h. One set of plants were kept at ambient temperature, 25°C, as the control. Plants were harvested at 30 days stage of growth to assess the various parameters. Plants exposed to 40°C had a decline in growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, and activities of carbonic anhydrase (E.C.4.2.1.1 and nitrate reductase (E.C.1.6.1.1. The 28-homobrassinolide alone improved growth and photosynthesis responses along with various enzymes activities. Treatment of plants with HBL prior to exposure to 40°C, partially reduced damage and completely controlled damage when exposure was to 30°C. Levels of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (E.C.1.11.1.6, peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and superoxide dismutase (E.C.1.15.1.1, and the level of proline increased in response to 30 or 40°C and were further enhanced in the presence of 28-homobrassinolide. Plants grown under high temperature had increased levels of H2O2; application of HBL before temperature treatment decreased H2O2 content compared to the control. Elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes and proline might be responsible for conferring tolerance to high temperature stress in Indian mustard and overcome the loss of productivity of the crop.

  15. Improvement of rapeseed and mustard by induced mutations and in vitro techniques

    Research on the improvement of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea Czern and Coss.) was initiated during 1995-96 with the objective to develop genotypes with high yield potential, high oil content, canola quality and improved polyenoic fatty acid composition or high erucic acid for industrial applications, and tolerance to different stresses. The results of the M1 and M2 generations have been reported in the second RCM at Giessen, Germany. Stable mutants (M5) of a photo period sensitivity exotic juncea genotype (DLJ-3) were assessed in preliminary yield trials (PYT) in the field for yield and other agronomic characteristics in comparison with the parent (P) variety. The mutants performing better in PYTs were further assessed in advanced yield trials (AYT) in comparison with P and a local commercial cultivar (LC). Fatty acid composition of promising mutants and interspecific hybrid lines was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and total seed glucosinolates by spectrophotometry. The quality analyses showed that 50 mutants had low erucic acid contents and 10 of them showed 0%. Two mutants were isolated for high oleic acid (∼50%), 16 mutant plants had more than 35% linoleic acid and one mutant had the desirable low linolenic acid content, 3%. No mutant with more than 60% erucic acid for industrial uses was found. The yield tests indicated that significant variability existed among the mutant lines with regards to different traits. 58 mutants flowered significantly earlier, reducing their growing period by 17 to 55% as compared to P (control), 43 were significantly shorter than P (7-30% reduction in height), and 32 mutants out yielded the parent line significantly by a margin of 26-71% during two years of field testing. Some of the mutants exhibited better performance than P and LC under local short photo period environment, indicating adaptability and great potential to replace the indigenous non-canola genotypes. Induced mutations appear to

  16. Mutation induction, evaluation and utilization for development of high yielding varieties in Indian mustard and sunflower: an overview of BARC work

    Mutation breeding programme in Indian mustard and sunflower at BARC has resulted into the development of wide spectrum of mutations for seed coat colour, chlorophyll, plant height, maturity, flower morphology, seed weight and oil content. In Indian mustard, TM1 and TM50 are high yielding yellow seed coat mutants, which were exploited in hybridisation to develop bold, yellow seed coat and high yielding genotypes. Light green leaf and variegated leaf are novel mutation in mustard. Putative mutants for drought tolerance have been isolated. Variability for zero erucic acid and zero glucosinolates genotypes have been developed in B. napus and B. juncea. In sunflower, high yielding black seed coat mutant were isolated. Extreme dwarf measuring only 11 cm is novel. Three high yielding varieties namely TM2, TM4, and TPM1 in mustard and one i.e.TAS82 in sunflower have been released for cultivation in collaboration with state agricultural universities. (author)

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard

    Khan, M. I. R.; Khan, Nafees A; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown witho...

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes from Meghalaya, India against mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    Yadav, Arun K; Lalramliana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) from Meghalaya, India, namely Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David, Steinernema thermophilum Ganguly and Singh, and Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) against the last instar larva of mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug, a serious pest of mustard and radish in India. The larvae of A. lugens proxima were exposed to 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles ...

  19. HO1 mRNA and Protein do not Change in Parallel in Bronchial Biopsies of Patients After Long Term Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    Mohammad Reza Nourani; Samaneh Yazdani; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Majid Ebrahimi; Raheleh Halabian; Leila Mirbagheri; Mostafa Ghanei; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), is an alkylating agent and has been emerged as a chemical weapon in various battlefields. More recently, SM was employed in the Iraq conflict against Iranian military forces and civilians. Nowadays there are more than 40,000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to mustard gas in Iran. SM causes the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzyme for heme ...

  20. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Mohammad Hossein Emami; Mohammad Talaei; Yunes Panahi; Amin Saburi; Mostafa Ghanei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks) and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 m...

  1. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affe...

  2. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops.

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set. PMID:27066163

  3. evaluation of best planting time of mustard (brassica juncea) strains in southern punjab

    The study was conducted to find out the proper planting time of newly evolved mustard (Brassica juncea) strains at Regional Agriculture Research Institute, Bahawalpur during the year 2000-2002. The study included 4 planting dates from 1st October to November 15th and three strains i.e. BRS-2 and BRS-10 and KH- 74 along with check RL-18. The 1st fortnight of October proved to be the best sowing time. KH-74 and BRS-2 gave significantly higher yield in wide range of sown period i.e. 1st October to 15th November. The highest grain yield of 2435 and 2341 Kgs, ha were obtained when crop was planted on 1st October and 15th October respectively. (author)

  4. Induced mutagenesis for the development of high yielding varieties in mustard

    Variation for resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. was induced in the oleiferous Brassica campestris cultivar yellow sarson, 'YS 52' using gamma rays. Variations were identified and isolated from the M2 population. Screening in the subsequent generations (M3-M4) confirmed the varying degrees of field resistance of the mutants. A total of 8 mutants of mustard developed by gamma irradiation was compared with the parental line and a released variety 'Sampad' as a check. Maximum plant height, highest number of pods and primary branches/plant were recorded in mutant '17-5-83'. The mutants '17-5-83' and '70-7-82' gave 45 and 21 per cent more grain yield respectively than the parent cultivar 'YS 52'. The mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant while the mutants '70-7-82' and '53-11-82' were found to be moderately resistant against the disease. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  5. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Govind Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389 and P. moraviensis (JX149542. Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.

  6. The Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Interferon in Chronic Bronchiolitis Due to Mustard Gas

    Yunes Panahi

    2005-06-01

    In the two groups, FEV1 did not have statistical differences at base line (49.3±2.9 and 48.7±4.1, respectively, p = 0.6, whereas after treatment the data for FEV1 showed a significant increase in the case group (66.3±5.4 when compared with those in the control group (57.3±8.6, p=0.001. The findings of this study indicate that a 6-month treatment with interferon gamma -1b plus a low-dose of prednisolone is associated with the improvement of the lung function in mustard gas exposed patients with bronchiolitis

  7. Adsorption of copper from aqueous solution on Brassica cumpestris (mustard oil cake)

    The adsorption behavior of various heavy metals on mustard oil cake (MOC) was studied. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) was observed followed by Zn(II), Cr(VI), Mn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II). The adsorption of Cu(II) was found to be dependent on initial concentration of solution, pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and contact time. The adsorption followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics but pseudo-second-order kinetic model was better obeyed since experimental data agreed well with theoretical data. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Attempts were also made to desorb Cu(II) from the adsorbent and regeneration of the spent adsorbent. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 10 mg g-1, respectively

  8. Development of improved varieties of rapeseed and mustard through in vivo mutagenesis and hybridization in Pakistan

    Pakistan is facing edible oil shortage for the past many years despite modest progress made in the development of agriculture sector. More than a billion US $ are being spent annually to meet the domestic requirement of edible oil of the country. This huge import bill can be reduced considerably by increasing the domestic oilseed production. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and Brassica campestris L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea L.) are the second important oilseed crops of Pakistan and their share in total area and production of all oilseed crops grown in the country is over 31% and 28% respectively. However, these crops have been pushed to marginal lands due to their low productivity that resulted in narrow genetic base. Mutation breeding research in conjunction with classical breeding techniques was, therefore, initiated at NIFA in 1989 to induce useful genetic variability in characters of economic importance in Oilseed Brassicas. The research efforts of NIFA Scientists resulted in the development of three varieties namely Abasin-95 in 1996, NIFA-Raya in 2003 and Durr-e-NIFA in 2005. These varieties were approved by Seed Council of North West Frontier Province for commercial cultivation in the irrigated and rainfed areas of the province. Abasin-95 and NIFA-Raya are the first ever-mutant varieties respectively of rapeseed and mustard in Pakistan. Durr-e-NIFA was developed from hybridized population of a cross between Australian canola variety 'Dunkeld' and NIFA mutant variety 'Abasin-95' . All the three varieties possess high yield potential, medium to high oil content, early maturity and broader adaptability to rainfed and irrigated environments in comparison with the local check varieties and respective parents. These varieties are being cultivated by growers on appreciable areas. The paper reports the developmental history and performance of these varieties. (author)

  9. Epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity; hypothesis and preliminary results

    The pathogenesis of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is not fully understood, although it is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative stress, DNA damage, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation within the affected cell. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of SM poisoning in rats' lung. A total of 40 male SD rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only; group 3 received histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (Trichostatine A) (1 mg/kg) and group 4 received DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitor (5-Azacytidine) (0.02 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes as well as mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. In group 3, the HDAC inhibitor significantly reduced interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, we have observed severe lung damage by using DNMT inhibitor (group 4). In HDAC inhibitor group, the results were close to sham group. In DNMT inhibitor group, however, lungs were worse than MEC group results. These preliminary results revealed that, SM itself and/or its intracellular metabolites may perturb the epigenetic environment of the affected cell in lung tissue. Hypothetically, MEC may cause HDAC induction leading to a variety of gene silencing. Trichostatine A can reduce the active enzyme level and can reactivate the already silenced genes. Further studies are needed to clarify the involvement of epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity.(author)

  10. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  11. Impact of mixed low-molecular-weight organic acids on uranium accumulation and distribution in a variant of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    The impact of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) composed of CA/MA/OA/LA with a molar ratio of 2.5:2.31:1.15:0.044 on uranium (U) accumulation and distribution in mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida) was studied in this paper in order to understand the mechanism of rhizosphere-exudation assisted phytoremediation by hydroponic and pot culture experiments. The impact of the mixture of LWMOAs (Mix) on U accumulation showed that in hydroponic conditions Mix could enhance U translocation from root-to-shoot in mustard, but inhibit U uptake in root. In pot experiments, Mix enhanced both root and shoot U accumulation in mustard. The time-dependent kinetics of U uptake in mustard on Mix treatment showed that U content in plant shoots and roots increased with time increasing, and the steady state conditions were obtained at the 8th and 5th day with the U content of 1,528 and 2,300 mg/kg, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis for mustard roots showed that U was mainly observed on cell membrane of mustard roots on Mix treatment. This study would provide new insights for the mixture of LWMOAs-assisted phytoremediation of U-contaminated soil. (author)

  12. 一种即食芥菜加工技术的研究%Processing Technology of Instant Mustard

    任文彬; 陈聪宇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究不同加工工艺参数对芥菜加工产品的影响.[方法]以芥菜为原料,以芥菜感官评价为考察指标,通过单因素试验和L9(33)正交试验优化并确定了芥菜腌制及干燥的最佳工艺条件.[结果]研究表明,芥菜最佳的腌制及干燥工艺参数为:腌制盐浓度3%,腌制糖浓度6%,CaCl2添加量0.15%,腌制时间24h,干燥温度60℃,干燥时间6h.在此工艺条件下腌制的即食芥菜亚硝酸盐含量远低于国家标准,干燥后保持了良好的芥菜特性.[结论]研究可为工业化生产芥菜干提供理论依据.%[Objective] To study effects of different processing technique parameters on mustard products.[Method] With mustard as material,sensory evaluation as investigation indicators,the optimum conditions for mustard salting and drying were optimized by single-factor test and L9 (33)orthogonal test.[Result] The optimum parameters are:salt 3%,sugar 6%,CaCl2 dosage 0.15%,salted for 24 hours,drying temperature 60 ℃ and drying time 6 hours.It is suggested that the nitrite content in pickled mustard was much lower than the national standard,and maintained good characteristics of mustard after drying.[Conclusion] The study will provide theoretical basis for industrial production of mustard.

  13. Nitrogen Mustards

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  14. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus)

    Sarat Babu Imandi; Sita Kumari Karanam; Hanumantha Rao Garapati

    2014-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been acco...

  15. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment. PMID:27229135

  16. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    B. Gej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  17. Biosorption potential of moss (Funaria Hygrometrica), banana (Musa Acuminata), mustard (Brassica Juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) for uranium

    Extracts of sunflower, moss, banana and Indian mustard plants were investigated for the uptake of uranium using EDXRF and tracer studies. Out of these, only banana and mustard exhibited 100% uptake of the radionuclide. After further fractionation, only water fraction of banana pith extract showed maximum U uptake. High content of the polysaccharides and protein found in the active fraction may be responsible for U uptake. FTIR spectrometry of the active fraction indicated the presence of organic molecules bearing hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups. Present study suggests that banana pith waste could be potentially utilised for the remediation of uranium from the contaminated sites by exploring the active molecules responsible for the radionuclide uptake. (author)

  18. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Razavi Seyed Mansour; Ghanei Mostafa; Salamati Payman; Safiabadi Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complicat...

  19. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS): challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Robert Colautti; Franks, Steven J.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Kotanen, Peter M.; Mark Torchin; Byers, James E.; Petr Pyšek; Oliver Bossdorf

    2014-01-01

    To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single inv...

  20. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  1. Efficacy of Tiotropium Bromide and Rehabilitation Treatment on Pulmonary Function of Patients With Sulfur Mustard Lung Injury

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary complication is the most common delayed toxic effect of sulfur mustard (SM) and it has no treatment so far. Objectives: To evaluate short-term therapeutic effects of inhaled tiotropium bromide and pulmonary rehabilitation on pulmonary function of patients with SM induced lung injury. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, using convenient sampling method, 54 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM exposure were recruited in Baqiyatallah Genera...

  2. Effect of doxycycline on sulfur mustard-induced respiratory lesions in guinea pigs. : Doxycycline Prevents SM-Induced Respiratory Lesions

    Guignabert, Christophe; Taysse, Laurent; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Planus, Emmanuelle; Delamanche, Séraphin; Galiacy, Stéphane; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory tract lesions induced by the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) are characterized by epithelial damages associated with inflammatory cell infiltration. Here we evaluated the imbalance between gelatinase and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and we tested pretreatment with the protease inhibitor doxycycline. Guinea pigs were intoxicated intratracheally with SM and evaluated 24 h after exposure. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gelatinase activity of bronchial l...

  3. Study the density, ultrasonic and compressibility of binary mixture of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol and mustard oil

    Monupal, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The ultrasonic velocities, compressibility and bulk modulus of binary mixtures of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol with mustard oil have been measured at different concentrations at room temperature. The results are varied with the concentration in such a way i.e. ultrasonic velocity and Bulk Modulus is decreases with the increase in concentration and compressibility is increases with the increase in concentration of aqueous isopropyl alcohol. It is due to molecular interactions present in the mixtures.

  4. Augmentation of potential phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) stimulate growth of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.) in marginal soil

    SULIASIH; SRI WIDAWATI

    2006-01-01

    The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB (Bacillus megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Chromobacterium lividum and Klebsiella aerogenes) were used as biofertilizer to increase the fresh leaf production of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.). An experiment was conducted at green house condition. The experiment were used 18 treatments such as single isolate of potential PSB (A,B,C,D), inoculants contain two isolates of potential PSB (E,F,G,H,I,J), inoculants contain three isolates of p...

  5. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher conc...

  6. Epidermal hydration and skin surface lipids in patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning

    Pouran Layegh; Masoud Maleki; Seyed Reza Mousavi; Hadis Yousefzadeh; Akram Momenzadeh; Shiva Golmohammadzadeh; Mahdi Balali-Mood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite almost the three decades passed since the chemical attacks of Iraqi′s army against the Iranian troops, some veterans are still suffering from long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning, including certain skin complaints specially dryness, burning, and pruritus. We thus aimed to evaluate the skin′s water and lipid content in patients with a disability of >25% due to complications of SM poisoning and compare them with a matched control group. Materials and Meth...

  7. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  8. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. PMID:23735551

  9. Potassium and calcium application ameliorates growth and oxidative homeostasis in salt-stressed indian mustard (brassica juncea) plants

    The effect of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on growth and antioxidant defence system of salt-stressed Indian mustard plants was studied. Twenty-day-old Indian mustard plants grown hydroponically in Hoagland growth medium were randomly divided into five groups. To served as control and did not receive any additional K or Ca (except that present in Hoagland solution), T1 received 150 mM NaCl, T2 was given an additional doze of 6 mM K, T3 was given 5.6 mM Ca as additional doze, while as T4 received a combination of 150 mM NaCl + 6 mM K + 5.6 mM Ca. The response of the plants was studied ten days after treatment. Salt stress inhibited growth parameters including biomass, chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity. Membrane damage was induced by the salt treatment with a concurrent increase in antioxidant defence system and proline content. Individual application of K and Ca mitigated the negative influence of the stress with the maximum alleviating potential exhibited by the combined application of these nutrients. Results obtained on real time expression of genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT and GR), NR and proline supported our findings with biochemical assays. We conclude from the study that maintaining high K and Ca levels may serve as an effective means for regulating the growth and productivity of Indian mustard plants under saline conditions. (author)

  10. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg-1 dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years

  11. GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL AND OIL QUALITY TRAITS IN INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. CZERN & COSS

    BINOD KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of diverse parents in any crop species like Indian mustard is the pre-requisite and in any cropimprovement programme aimed to obtain the desirable recombinants in segregating generations. Greatercontribution of additive genetic component was reflected by main shoot length, siliqua on main raceme, siliqualength, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid with pronounced range of variation, high heritability coupledwith high genetic advance under selection, which may be exploited in early segregating generations for yield andquality enhancement of Indian mustard. Amongst eight, five mono-genotype and clusters III, IV, I with 18, 12 and11 genotypes, respectively, maximum divergence exhibiting mono-genotype clusters (VII and VIII may be utilizedthrough inter varietal hybridization to exploit high degree of genetic diversity between them. Noteworthy is thatcluster VII exhibiting high genetic diversity for siliqua length, 1000 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield perplant; cluster II and VII for secondary branches per plant, siliqua on main raceme, 1000 seed weight andbiological yield per plant heritability coupled with high heritability and genetic gain under selection, may provetheir worth in genetic enhancement of mustard for yield and oil quality.

  12. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Department of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  13. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years. PMID:19054545

  14. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  15. Prostatic hyperplasia and congenital bladder diverticulum. A case report Hiperplasia de próstata y divertículo vesical congénito. Presentación de un caso

    María Raquel Abreu Santana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diverticula in adults are typically associated with bladder outlet obstruction and their manifestation is most commonly by urinary sepsis. The case of a 69 years old male patient who attended consultation because of nocturia, thin urine stream, pushing, urgent urination and sense of incomplete emptying is presented. Through rectal examination grade I prostate with discrete grade I asymmetry consistent with right nodular lobe that did not rise to the surface was detected. During the physical examination tumor mass was palpated in the lower abdomen region. It was painless. Ultrasound and cystography showed giant bladder diverticulum with a narrow neck into the right lateral wall of the bladder. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was treated trough surgery. Histology revealed mucosal layers and muscle and adventitia in the wall, thus confirming congenital origin. Recovering after surgery was satisfactor.Los divertículos congénitos en el adulto se detectan normalmente asociados a factores obstructivos a la salida vesical, se manifiestan mayormente por sepsis urinarias. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 69 años que asistió a consulta por nocturia, chorro fino, pujo, urgencia miccional y sensación de vaciamiento incompleto. Mediante tacto rectal se detectó próstata en grado I con asimetría discreta de la consistencia del lóbulo derecho en forma nodular que no se levantaba de la superficie; al examen físico se palpó masa tumoral en la región de hipogastrio, no dolorosa. El ultrasonido y la cistografía mostraron divertículo vesical gigante de cuello estrecho hacia la pared lateral derecha de la vejiga. Se confirmó mediante la cistoscopia y se procedió a la intervención quirúrgica. La histología reveló la existencia de capas mucosas, muscular y adventicia en su pared, corroborándose su origen congénito. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente después de la operación.

  16. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  17. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  18. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C. [Laboratório de Radiobiologia Molecular (Brazil); Lage, C., E-mail: claudia_lage_dna@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Radiações em Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe{sup 2+} ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains

  19. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H2O2, resulting in lower H2O2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian mustard, a

  20. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  1. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population. average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005-06 which were 2005-06 which were 31 and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004,05) and 817.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained non significant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  2. Evolution of improved varieties of rapeseed/mustard through induced mutation

    Mutation breeding using gamma rays led to the development and release of two high yielding yellow sarson mustard mutant varieties, 'Safal' and 'Agrani' which are now commercially cultivated by the farmers of Bangladesh. Further studies with Brassica napus created a lot of variabilities in M2 with the selection of eight early maturing mutants which took 82 - 85 days to mature compared to 105 days by the original cultivar. The mutants bred true in M3 for earliness. A few indehiscent and semi-indehiscent mutants were also developed. Seed yields of the early mutants were about 2,000 kg per hectare which was comparable to the original cultivar. The mutants have 44-45% oil content in the seed compared to previously released varieties with 42-43% oil content. Mutants are moderately resistant to Alternaria blight in field condition. Other mutants segregated in M3 in different ratios and further selection was made. Evaluation of yellow sarson mutant BINA 2 along with other high yielding varieties in three saline zones of Bangladesh revealed that BINA 2 is more tolerant to salinity compared to existing high yielding varieties with an average yield of 1,888 kg followed by 1,758 kg by 'Agrani' and 1,699 kg by 'Safal', per ha. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Pepsin and bile acid concentrations in sputum of mustard gas exposed patients

    Ashraf Karbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM exposed cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. Result: The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23 compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003. Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls ( P = 0.5. Conclusion: Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients.

  4. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    Seema Singh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostine and DRDE-07 were carried out in rats using a bodyplethysmograph fitted with a volumetric pressure transducer for sensing the respiratory flowsignals. The signals were amplified, digitised, and stored on a personal computer for furtheranalysis. After taking control recordings of respiratory signals, different doses (0.5 LD50, 1.0 LD50and 2.0 LD50 of amifostine and DRDE-07 were administered orally (LD50 amifostine = 2262 mg/kg; DRDE-07 = 1599 mg/kg, and the respiratory changes were monitored for 4 h. Amifostine andDRDE-07 showed a uniform breathing pattern even in 2.0 LD50 dose. However, a significant dosedependentdecrease in respiratory frequency was observed following amifostine administration.DRDE-07 did not show any significant change. The tidal volume was not altered significantlyboth in amifostine and DRDE-07 administered animals. The study shows that DRDE-07, even inlethal doses, may not affect the respiration immediately, whereas, amifostine may decrease therespiratory frequency.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble carbon nanotubes from mustard soot

    Prashant Dubey; Devarajan Muthukumaran; Subhashis Dash; Rupa Mukhopadhyay; Sabyasachi Sarkar

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been synthesized by pyrolysing mustard oil using an oil lamp. It was made water-soluble (wsCNT) through oxidative treatment by dilute nitric acid and was characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesized wsCNT showed the presence of several junctions and defects in it. The presence of curved graphene structure (sp2) with frequent sp3 hybridized carbon is found to be responsible for the observed defects. These defects along with the presence of di- and tri-podal junctions showed interesting magnetic properties of carbon radicals formed by spin frustration. This trapped carbon radical showed ESR signal in aqueous solution and was very stable even under drastic treatment by strong oxidizing or reducing agents. Oxidative acid treatment of CNT introduced several carboxylic acid group functionalities in wsCNT along with the nicking of the CNT at different lengths with varied molecular weight. To evaluate molecular weights of these wsCNTs, an innovative method like gel electrophoresis using high molecular weight DNA as marker was introduced.

  6. Chronic health effects of sulphur mustard exposure with special reference to Iranian veterans

    B Balali-Mood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of sulphur mustard (SM as an incapacitating chemical warfare agent in the past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. It may also be used as a chemical terrorist agent. Therefore, all health professionals should have sufficient knowledge and be prepared for any such chemical attack. SM exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, immunological, haematological, digestive, and reproductive systems. SM is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis, and, thus, delayed complications have been seen since the First World War. Cases of malignancies in the target organs, particularly in haematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systems, have been reported. Important delayed respiratory complications include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deteriorate with time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction of natural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infections and malignancies are also among the most distressing long-term consequences of SM intoxication. However, despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunction, as well as the relationship between SM exposure and mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity are important fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranian veterans with chronic health effects of SM poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on the medical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of SM poisoning—a subject that greatly challenges health care specialists.

  7. Mustard tuber wastewater treatment and simultaneous electricity generation using microbial fuel cells.

    Guo, Fei; Fu, Guokai; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Chunling

    2013-05-01

    Mustard tuber wastewater (MTWW) was utilized as fuel in the typical dual-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to recover bio-energy and to obtain effluent treatment simultaneously. The whole experiment was divided into four phases characterized by increasing contents of primary clarifier effluent (PCE). Results showed substrate1, with which MFC generated a maximum power density of 246 mW/m(2), was the most appropriate fuel in terms of power recovery and the internal resistance and columbic efficiency were 121 Ω and 67.7±1%, respectively. When feeding MFCs with substrate4, 85±0% of COD could be removed, which was the highest COD removal, however, the power retrieve efficiency was much lower. Interestingly, significantly negative correlation (P<0.01, F-test) between contents of PCE and maximum cell voltages and positive correlation between the contents and internal resistances were found. It was the complexity and colloidal particulates present in PCE that gradually increased internal resistance and accordingly decreased power-generating performance. PMID:23567712

  8. Acute and chronic respiratory lesions induced by sulfur mustard in guinea pigs: Role of tachykinins

    Calvet, J.H.; Trouiller, G.; Harf, A.

    1993-05-13

    We investigated in anesthetized guinea pigs the involvement of tachykinins in respiratory alterations after an airway intoxication by sulfur mustard (SM). Early lesions were evaluated after 5h. Respiratory system resistance (R) and compliance were measured by the occlusion method and airway microvascular permeability by measuring the Evans Blue dye concentration in the trachea and main bronchi. Two groups of animals were studied treated with capsaicin (which induces a tachykinin depletion) or by its vehicle. Capsaicin pretreatment had no effect on the measured parameters. We also measured 14 J after the intoxication tracheal epithelium neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (the main enzyme which degrades tachykinins). In addition bronchial responsiveness to exogenous substance P was studied in two groups of animals intoxicated with SM or not. Tracheal epithelium NEP activity was decreased from 0.448 + or 0.027 nmol.min- 1.mg protein- 1 in controls to 0. 182 + or 0.038 in intoxicated animals. Response to substance P was greater in intoxicated animals with R=2.98 + or - 1.57 cmH20.MI-1.s versus 0.35 + or 0.02 in controls, after 5.10-5 M aerosolized substance P These results suggest tachykinins are not preponderant in the early stage lesions but that bronchial hyperactivity is present at recovery, related to epithelium NEP depletion.

  9. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  10. Relationship of oxidative stress with male infertility in sulfur mustard-exposed injuries

    Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a cytotoxic and chemical agent that targets different tissues such as reproductive system. SM causes a wide variety of pathological effects on reproductive system such as disturbance in reproductive hormones, testis atrophy, spermatogenesis deficiency, low quality of sperm and fertility problem. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms of its adverse effects are still not well known. General events such as tissue damage, inflammation, DNA alkylation, cell membrane defects, apoptosis and cell death are observed frequently in SM-exposed subjects. Oxidative stress (OS and antioxidants depletion induced by SM seem to be one of the main factors that lead to low sperm quality and male infertility among exposed patients. It is believed that SM can trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation in reproductive system that can cause impaired spermatogenesis, sperm apoptosis and poor sperm quality as well as loss of tissue structure and function. Identification of these signaling pathways and molecules gives us valuable information regarding the mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive dysfunction and the way for developing a better clinical treatment. Therefore, in this review we aimed to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive system, the significance of oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which SM induces OS and antioxidants depletion in SM exposed men.

  11. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  12. Nitric oxide alleviates salt stress inhibited photosynthetic response by interacting with sulfur assimilation in mustard

    Mehar eFatma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nitric oxide (NO and/or sulfur (S on stomatal and photosynthetic responses was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L. in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 µM NO (as sodium nitroprusside and 200 mg S kg-1 soil (excess-S more prominently influenced stomatal behaviour, photosynthetic and growth responses in the absence of salt stress and alleviated salt stress effects on photosynthesis. Plants receiving combined treatment of NO plus excess-S showed well-developed thylakoid membrane and properly stacked grana lamellae under salt stress, while the chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized thylakoids. Moreover, the leaves from the NO and excess-S treated plants exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress, induced activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys and glutathione (GSH reduced. These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation.The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic responses of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received excess-S. Thus, excess-S conditions may be adopted for higher impact of NO in the reversal of salt stress effects on photosynthesis.

  13. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings.

    Lai, Jin-Long; Tao, Zong-Ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2016-08-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. PMID:27156168

  14. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  15. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  16. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a crucial mediator of the noxious effects of mustard oil.

    Everaerts, Wouter; Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Farre, Ricard; Leten, Cindy; Apetrei, Aurelia; Dewachter, Ilse; van Leuven, Fred; Vennekens, Rudi; De Ridder, Dirk; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2011-02-22

    Mustard oil (MO) is a plant-derived irritant that has been extensively used in experimental models to induce pain and inflammation. The noxious effects of MO are currently ascribed to specific activation of the cation channel TRPA1 in nociceptive neurons. In contrast to this view, we show here that the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 has a surprisingly large contribution to aversive and pain responses and visceral irritation induced by MO. Furthermore, we found that this can be explained by previously unknown properties of this compound. First, MO has a bimodal effect on TRPA1, producing current inhibition at millimolar concentrations. Second, it directly and stably activates mouse and human recombinant TRPV1, as well as TRPV1 channels in mouse sensory neurons. Finally, physiological temperatures enhance MO-induced TRPV1 stimulation. Our results refute the dogma that TRPA1 is the sole nocisensor for MO and motivate a revision of the putative roles of these channels in models of MO-induced pain and inflammation. We propose that TRPV1 has a generalized role in the detection of irritant botanical defensive traits and in the coevolution of multiple mammalian and plant species. PMID:21315593

  17. Comparison of the Lonidamine Potentiated Effect of Nitrogen Mustard Alkylating Agents on the Systemic Treatment of DB-1 Human Melanoma Xenografts in Mice

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Putt, Mary E.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Garman, Bradley; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Glickson, Jerry D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous NMR studies demonstrated that lonidamine (LND) selectively diminishes the intracellular pH (pHi) of DB-1 melanoma and mouse xenografts of a variety of other prevalent human cancers while decreasing their bioenergetic status (tumor βNTP/Pi ratio) and enhancing the activities of melphalan and doxorubicin in these cancer models. Since melphalan and doxorubicin are highly toxic agents, we have examined three other nitrogen (N)-mustards, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and bendamustine, to determine if they exhibit similar potentiation by LND. As single agents LND, melphalan and these N-mustards exhibited the following activities in DB-1 melanoma xenografts; LND: 100% tumor surviving fraction (SF); chlorambucil: 100% SF; cyclophosphamide: 100% SF; bendamustine: 79% SF; melphalan: 41% SF. When combined with LND administered 40 min prior to administration of the N-mustard (to maximize intracellular acidification) the following responses were obtained; chlorambucil: 62% SF; cyclophosphamide: 42% SF; bendamustine: 36% SF; melphalan: 10% SF. The effect of LND on the activities of these N-mustards is generally attributed to acid stabilization of the aziridinium active intermediate, acid inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, which acts as a scavenger of aziridinium, and acid inhibition of DNA repair by O6-alkyltransferase. Depletion of ATP by LND may also decrease multidrug resistance and increase tumor response. At similar maximum tolerated doses, our data indicate that melphalan is the most effective N-mustard in combination with LND when treating DB-1 melanoma in mice, but the choice of N-mustard for coadministration with LND will also depend on the relative toxicities of these agents, and remains to be determined. PMID:27285585

  18. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mostafa Ghanei; Payman Salamati; Mehdi Safiabadi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone IraqIran war.Electronic databases of Scopus,Medline,ISI,IranMedex,and Irandoc sites.were searched.We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators.Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%.The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea.Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchiectasis,and asthma.Spirometry resuits can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease.Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases.High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi.There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung.The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration,use of vaporized moist air,respiratory physiotherapy,administration of mucolytic agents,bronchodilators,corticosteroids,and long-acting beta-2 agonists,antioxidants,surfactant,magnesium ions,therapeutic bronchoscopy,laser therapy,placement of respiratory stents,early tracheostomy in laryngospasm,and ultimately lung transplantation.High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi.The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic,upper or lower respiratory tract involvement).There are various treatment protocols,but unfortunately none of them is defmitely curable.

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL from 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.07 mg/kg for the proposed use on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. An adequate analytical enforcement method is available to control the residues of bixafen in oilseeds. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bixafen on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. This risk assessment has to be regarded as provisional since the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment in oilseeds are provisional and pending the need for MRLs in rotational crops and the definitive MRLs in animal origin commodities.

  20. [Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish to prevent asthma].

    Du, Li-Na; Zhu, Wei-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yang; Yu, Xiang; Li, Miao; Jin, Yi-Guang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the manuscript was to optimize formulations and preparation technologies of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish, and to evaluate its anti-asthma effect on rats. The single factor experiments included spreading thickness, types of crosslinking agents, dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate amount, sodium polyacrylate amount, types of adhesive agents with human sense as the evaluation index. Blank cataplasm matrix was optimized by the orthogonal experiment with the amount of glycerine, citric acid, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the major influential factors. Initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense were as the evaluation index. The optimized formulation of blank cataplasm were as followings: glycerine-water-ethanol-PEG400-dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate-citric acid-sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2 : 8 : 0.8 : 0.4 : 0.07: 0.15 : 0.1 : 0.5. The active ingredients of white mustard seed, corydalis, and gansui root were extracted by alcohol extraction method. Asiasarum volatile oil was extracted by oil extractor. The optimized drug loading amount was 11% with initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense as the evaluation index. Asthma rats model were established by sensitized with ovalbumin and nose-scratching time as the evaluation index. High dose (17%) group of drug-loaded cataplasm had the obvious inhibition effect on nose-scratching time of rats (P = 0.037 < 0.05). In comparison, middle dose (11%), low dose (4%) and positive-control groups had no obvious inhibitive effect on rats. White mustard seed cataplasm supplied a novel choice for anti-asthma therapy. And the overall pharmacodynamics assessment will be carried out on molecular level in near future. PMID:25911808

  1. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

    Leila Mirbagheri; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi; Mostafa Ghanei; Mohammad Reza Nourani

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs,  and  respiratory  tract  in  Iranian  veterans.  The  most  common  disease  is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO)). SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are kn...

  2. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target

    Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Zhu, Angela Y.; Young, Kellie S.; Hillier, Shawn M.; Proffitt, Kyle D.; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action...

  3. The Short-Term Effect of Mustard Gas on the Serum Immunoglobulin Levels

    Abdolhossein Keyhani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas (MG, as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto antigenic stimulation of the patients’ immune systems.

  4. Evaluation of CC2 as a Decontaminant in Various Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Formulations Against Sulphur Mustard

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate CC2 (N, N' -dichloro-bis [2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl] urea) in various hydrophilic and lipophilic formulations as a personnel decontaminant for sulphur mustard (SM). Methods Twenty percent of CC2 was prepared as a suspension or ointment with various chemical agents and its stability was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated in mice by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM (LD50 =8.1 mg/kg dermally) and decontaminating it after 2 min with 200 mg of the formulation.Studies were also carried out with 10% and 20% CC2 in acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose,and the suspensions were stored in polyethylene containers. The stability of the suspensions was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM in mice and 12 LD50 of SM in rats (LD50 = 2.4 mg/kg dermally), and decontaminating it with the formulations. LD50 by different routes and primary skin irritation test of CC2 were also carried out. Results CC2 reacted with peanut oil and neem oil, and was unstable in povidone iodine and Fuller's earth. Good stability was achieved with petroleum jelly, honey, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, calamine lotion, acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Though CC2 was stable in lipophilic formulations, it did not protect the animals. The hydrophilic formulations particularly acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose gave very good protection and was stable in the polyethylene containers for a period of 1 year. The efficacy of 20% CC2 was better than 10% CC2. The oral and dermal LD50 of CC2 was found to be above 5.0 g/kg. CC2 was also found to be nonirritant.Conclusion Twenty percent of CC2 in hydroxypropyl cellulose is better with respect to stability, efficacy and ease of decontamination. CC2 is also a safe chemical.

  5. The Short-Term Effects of Sulfur Mustard Gas on the Complement System

    AH Keyhani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The serum levels of C3, C4, and the total hemolytic activity of complement system (CH50 of patients ex­posed to mustard gas (MG in the battlefield were measured in this study. Methods: C3 and C4 were measured by single radial immunodifusion and CH50 was evaluated according to total hemolytic activ­ity of the serum. Results:  The serum levels of C3 showed a significant increase on day 3 after exposure to MG. The serum levels of C3 in the sera of patients collected during 4-18 and 19-31 days after exposure to MG were also found to have increased significantly com­paring to those of the controls. The levels of C4 in the sera of patients collected from the patients during 4-18 and 19-31 days after exposure were also found to be significantly higher than those of the controls. However the increase in the serum lev­els of C4 were not in the same magnitude as those of the C3. The serum CH50, which is a measure of the total hemolytic activ­ity of classical complement system also showed a significant increase in patients' sera on day 3 and in the sera collected dur­ing 4-18 days after exposure. However, the CH50 in the sera of patients showed a decrease in the sera collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG. Conclusion: Since C3 is an acute phase protein as well as a complement component, these results are discussed in terms of a vigorous acute phase response and activation of the complement system.

  6. Whole cell Deinococcus radiodurans ameliorates salt stress in Indian mustard through pyrroloquinoline quinone

    Salinity stress is considered as one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity. A variety of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria are currently being used worldwide with the aim to boost built-in defense system in plants. Deinococcus radiodurans is a highly desiccation and radiation tolerant bacterium which synthesizes PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) that has been shown to have a versatile role in crop productivity and as a general stress response regulator in bacteria and mammals. PQQ also acts as scavenger of reactive oxygen species and hence, can module redox signaling, one of the major regulator of stress tolerance in plants. In view of this, present research was conducted to evaluate the potential of whole cell D. radiodurans for ameliorating salt stress in plants. The soil colonization with wild-type cells led to partial amelioration of salt stress. The PQQ mutant showed an intermediate phenotype between wild-type seedlings and those grown on non-colonized soils which confirmed that the effects are largely associated with PQQ. The differential phenotype was also correlated with ROS level and ABA accumulation. The flame photometry data showed that there was no significant reduction in water soluble Na+ level in control plant and those treated with either wild-type or PQQ mutant. Further, the elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced ascorbate in the plants treated with bacterial cells indicated its positive role in oxidative stress management. Although, the exact molecular basis to these effects is yet to be understood, present findings support the use of whole cell D. radiodurans for managing the growth and productivity of Indian mustard in salt affected fields. (author)

  7. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles

  8. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  9. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  10. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  11. Chronic alteration in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate levels regulates capsaicin and mustard oil responses.

    Patil, Mayur J; Belugin, Sergei; Akopian, Armen N

    2011-06-01

    There is an agreement that acute (in minutes) hydrolysis and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2) ) modulate TRPV1 and TRPA1 activities. Because inflammation results in PIP(2) depletion, persisting for long periods (hours to days) in pain models and in the clinic, we examined whether chronic depletion and accumulation of PIP(2) affect capsaicin (CAP) and mustard oil (MO) responses. In addition, we wanted to evaluate whether the effects of PIP(2) depend on TRPV1 and TRPA1 coexpression and whether the PIP(2) actions vary in expression cells vs. sensory neurons. Chronic PIP(2) production was stimulated by overexpression of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase, and PIP(2) -specific phospholipid 5'-phosphatase was selected to reduce plasma membrane levels of PIP(2) . Our results demonstrate that CAP (100 nM) responses and receptor tachyphylaxis are not significantly influenced by chronic changes in PIP(2) levels in wild-type (WT) or TRPA1 null-mutant sensory neurons as well as CHO cells expressing TRPV1 alone or with TRPA1. However, low concentrations of CAP (20 nM) produced a higher response after PIP(2) depletion in cells containing TRPV1 alone but not TRPV1 together with TRPA1. MO (25 μM) responses were also not affected by PIP(2) in WT sensory neurons and cells coexpressing TRPA1 and TRPV1. In contrast, PIP(2) reduction leads to pronounced tachyphylaxis to MO in cells with both channels. Chronic effect of PIP(2) on TRPA1 activity depends on presence of the TRPV1 channel and cell type (CHO vs. sensory neurons). In summary, chronic alterations in PIP(2) levels regulate magnitude of CAP and MO responses as well as MO tachyphylaxis. This regulation depends on coexpression profile of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and cell type. PMID:21337373

  12. Comparative evaluation of some flavonoids and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity induced by sulphur mustard

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective value of quercetin, gossypin, Hippophae rhamnoides (HR flavone and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity of percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM in mice. Materials and Methods: Quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg, i.p. were administered just before percutaneous administration of SM and protection against the SM lethality was evaluated. In another experiment quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate were administered against 2 LD 50 SM. The animals were sacrificed seven days post SM administration and various biochemical parameters were estimated. Results: The protection against the lethality of SM was very good with the flavonoids (quercetin = 4.7 folds; gossypin = 6.7 folds and HR flavone = 5.6 folds, compared to no protection with tocopherol acetate (0.7 fold. SM (2 LD 50 showed decrease in reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG levels, and an increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA. Oxidative stress enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. The total antioxidant status was also significantly decreased. Additionally, there was a significant increase in red blood corpuscles and hemoglobin content. All the flavonoids significantly protected the GSH, GSSG and MDA, and also the hematological variables. Tocopherol acetate failed to offer any protection in those parameters. Gossypin protected glutathione peroxidase, while HR flavone protected both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase significantly. The decrease in body weight induced by SM and the histological lesions in liver and spleen were also significantly protected by the flavonoids but not by tocopherol acetate. Conclusion: The present study supports that SM induces oxidative stress and flavonoids are promising cytoprotectants against this toxic effect.

  13. Differential toxicity of sulfur mustard administered through percutaneous, subcutaneous, and oral routes

    Sulfur mustard (SM), chemically 2,2'-dichloro diethyl sulphide, is an incapacitating and extremely toxic chemical warfare agent. It causes serious blisters on contact with human skin. While screening various antidotes against its toxicity, we observed that SM was more toxic through percutaneous (p.c.) route compared to oral (p.o.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes. The LD50 of SM in female mice was found to be 5.7, 8.1 and 23.0 mg/kg through p.c., p.o., and s.c. routes, respectively. The body weight of the animals was monitored and it was found that percentage body weight loss was more in the p.c. route. There was significant DNA fragmentation in liver in all the three routes evaluated at 19.3 mg/kg dose of SM. The depletion of hepatic GSH content was found to be more in the p.c. route of exposure compared to s.c. route. There was significant reduction in WBC count in all the three routes of exposure. Histopathological evaluation of lung, liver, and spleen also showed that the damage was more in the p.c. route and severity of lesions was dependent on the dose of exposure. The most affected organ was liver by all the three routes. LD50 was also determined in male rats and it was found to be 2.4, 2.4, and 3.4 mg/kg through p.c., p.o. and s.c. routes respectively. Since skin contains maximum number of metabolically active and rapidly dividing cells, differential metabolism of SM cannot be ruled out. Probably, this is the first report of a chemical showing more toxicity through p.c. route compared to s.c. route

  14. Evaluation of agonist-antagonist properties of nitrogen mustard and cyano derivatives of delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Wiley, J L; Compton, D R; Gordon, P M; Siegel, C; Singer, M; Dutta, A; Lichtman, A H; Balster, R L; Razdan, R K; Martin, B R

    1996-01-01

    delta 8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 8-THC) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid with a characteristic pharmacological profile of in vivo effects. Previous studies have shown that modification of the structure of delta 8-THC by inclusion of a nitrogen-containing functional group alters this profile and may alkylate the cannabinoid receptor, similar to the manner in which beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) alkylates the micro-opioid receptor. Two novel analogs of delta 8-THC were synthesized: a nitrogen mustard analog with a dimethylheptyl side chain (NM-delta 8-THC) and a cyano analog with a dimethylpentyl side chain (CY-delta 8-THC). Both analogs showed high affinity for brain cannabinoid receptors and when administered acutely, produced characteristic delta 9-THC-like effects in mice, including locomotor suppression, hypothermia, antinociception and catalepsy. CY-delta 8-THC shared discriminative stimulus effects with CP 55,940; for NM-delta 8-THC, these effects also occurred, but were delayed. Although both compounds attenuated the effects of delta 9-THC in the mouse behavioral tests, evaluation of potential antagonist effects of these compounds was complicated by the fact that two injections of delta 9-THC produced similar results, suggesting that acute tolerance or desensitization might account for the observations. NM-delta 8-THC, but not CY-delta 8-THC, attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of CP 55,940 in rats several days following injection. Hence, addition of a nitrogen-containing functional group to a traditional cannabinoid structure does not eliminate agonist effects and may produce delayed attenuation of cannabinoid-induced pharmacological effects. PMID:9076759

  15. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content

  16. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  17. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    Dunagan, Sarah C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: sdunagan@wesleyan.edu; Gilmore, Martha S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: mgilmore@wesleyan.edu; Varekamp, Johan C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: jvarekamp@wesleyan.edu

    2007-07-15

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content.

  18. Efficiency influence of exogenous betaine on anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater.

    He, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Chai, Hong-Xiang; Fan, Ming-Yu; Du, Jun

    2012-01-01

    When treating a composite mustard tuber wastewater with high concentrations of salt (about 20 g Cl(-) L(-1)) and organics (about 8000 mg L(-1) COD) by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) in winter, both high salinity and low temperature will inhibit the activity of anaerobic microorganisms and lead to low treatment efficiency. To solve this problem, betaine was added to the influent to improve the activity of the anaerobic sludge, and an experimental study was carried to investigate the influence of betaine on treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater by the ASBBR. The results show that, when using anaerobic acclimated sludge in the ASBBR, and controlling biofilm density at 50% and water temperature at 8-12 degrees C, the treatment efficiency of the reactor could be improved by adding the betaine at different concentrations. The efficiency reached the highest when the optimal dosage ofbetaine was 0.5 mmol L(-1). The average effluent COD, after stable acclimation, was 4461 mg L(-1). Relative to ASBBR without adding betaine, the activity of the sludge increased significantly. Meanwhile, the dehydrogenase activity of anaerobic microorganisms and the COD removal efficiency were increased by 18.6% and 18.1%, respectively. PMID:22988630

  19. EVALUATIO OF MICROBIAL AGENTS AND BIO-PRODUCTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MUSTARD APHID, LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI (KALT.

    RAJENDRA NAGAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial agents (Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water,plant products (Tobacco, onion and neem seed kernel extract @ 5%, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha and dimethoate30EC @ 300 g a.i/ha were evaluated against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt. and their safety to naturalenemies and pollinators. Significantly higher aphid reduction was recorded under these treatments over thecontrol without any phytotoxic effect and found safe to natural enemies of mustard aphid and honeybee. Mostfavourable cost-benefit ratio was obtained under the treatment i.e. dimethoate 30 EC @ 300 g a.i/ha (1:38followed by neem seed kernel extract @ 5% (1:18, onion extract @ 5% (1:17, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha (1:11,Beauveria bassiana @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Verticillium lecanii @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Metarhiziumanisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water (1:8, tobacco extract @ 5% (1:6 and water spray (1:2.

  20. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Thiophene-derived Amido Bis-nitrogen Mustard and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    唐一丹; 张景勍; 张少林; 耿蓉霞; 周成合

    2012-01-01

    The thiophene-derived amido bis-nitrogen mustard N2,N2,N5,N5-tetrakis(2-chloroethyl)-3,4-dimethylthio- phene-2,5-dicarboxamide was designed and synthesized via five-step reactions from commercially available 2-chloroacetonitrile. This target compound was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, IR spectra and elemental analyses, and its structure was further characterized by X-ray single-crystal analysis. The biological activities for the title compound and some intermediates were evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The preliminary results showed that the title compound could inhibit efficiently the growth of the tested microorganisms including drug-resistant bacteria MRSA to some extent. Moreover, the target compound was found to be effective against prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3), breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), colon carcinoma (LoVo) and lung cancer (A549). Especially, it gave selective antitumor efficacy against prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3) at a low dose. Keywords nitrogen mustard, thiophene, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxicity

  2. RESPONSE OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. CZERNJ. & COSSON TO POTASSIUM WITH OTHER NUTRIENTS ON YIELD AND QUALITY

    ARUNIMA PALIWAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment to evaluate response of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj. and Cosson to potassium in combination with other nutrients on yield and quality was conducted at N. E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand during rabi season of 2012-13. The experiment, comprising of twelve treatments was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results revealed that higher seed yield per hectare (1817 kg ha-1 was obtained at 150% NPK due to higher values of yield attributing characters viz. number of siliquae per plant (324.5, length of siliqua (4 cm, 1000- seed weight (3.7 g and seed weight per plant (13.9 g. Protein yield (306 kg ha-1 and oil yield (736 kg ha- 1 was also recorded maximum at 150% NPK level. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of 150% NPK should be used for improvement of yield and quality of mustard under tarai condition of Uttarakhand.

  3. Estudio epidemiológico y modelo pronóstico de supervivencia libre de progresión y cáncer específica en tumor vesical sometido a cistectomía radical en el sector II del Servicio Aragonés de Salud

    Mallén Mateo, Eva; Gil Sanz, María Jesús; Gil Martínez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    1. INTRODUCCION La incidencia del cáncer vesical en nuestro país es de las más altas del mundo, y la más alta de Europa. Dentro de nuestra comunidad aragonesa, en el Sector Sanitario II de Zaragoza, la incidencia en varones presenta una tasa superior a la media europea. En lo que respecta a mortalidad, España ocupa un lugar muy elevado en el ranking europeo de mortalidad por tumores de vejiga, siendo en 2008 la cuarta causa de muerte por cáncer en varones en España. En Aragón, la tasa de mort...

  4. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.;

    2013-01-01

    did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P = 0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P = 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic...

  5. Reduction of Synthetic Fertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture: Influence of Organic and Nitrogen Fertilizer Combination on Growth and Yield of Green Mustard

    Zainal Muktamar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Organic fertilizer is capable to decrease the use of synthetic fertilizer due to release of plant nutrients and improvement of other soil properties. The objective of this experiment was to compare the growth and yield of green mustard as affected by cattle manure and litter compost. The experiment was conducted employing Completely Randomized Design with 8 treatments. Treatments included litter compost and cattle manure at rate of 25 Mg ha-1 and 15, 20, 25 Mg ha-1 with addition of 1.85 g nitrogen fertilizer per plant, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Soil used in this experiment was Ultisol collected at depth of 0-20 cm. Five kg of soil was mixed with organic fertilizer according to each treatment and placed in 10 kg polybag. Green mustard was planted to each polybag. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied a week after planting. The experiment revealed that application of litter compost and cattle manure at rate 25 Mg ha-1 with additional nitrogen fertilizer resulted in higher green mustard fresh weight per plant and number of leaves. On the other hand, application of both organic fertilizers at rate of 25 Mg ha-1 without addition nitrogen fertilizer as other treatments did not provide significant differences on most variables observed. This indicated that application of organic fertilizer is able to reduce synthetic nitrogen fertilizer for green mustard production.  

  6. Analysis of towed camera images to determine the effects of disposed mustard-filled bombs on the deep water benthic community off south Oahu

    Kelley, Christopher; Carton, Geoffrey; Tomlinson, Michael; Gleason, Arthur

    2016-06-01

    Still images from a towed camera sled were used to evaluate the potential ecological effects of M47A2 mustard-filled (1,1‧-thiobis[2-chloroethane]) bombs disposed of in over 500 m of water off the south coast of Oahu in 1944. The types of munitions and munitions debris in the images were identified by an ordnance and explosives safety specialist. To the extent feasible, non-munitions related debris were also identified. Biologists then examined the images and identified the types and numbers of animals: (1) on or near (differences between the biota inhabiting the three substrates. The analysis indicated that the types and numbers of animals associated with the M47A2 bombs were not significantly different from those observed on other types of munitions and other manmade debris; however they were significantly different from the animals found only on the natural sediment. Based on these results, it appears that the mustard-filled bombs are providing hard substrate similar to other disposed objects, attracting "hard substrate species" that would not have otherwise colonized the area. Even though it is apparent that many of the mustard-filled bombs have breached and their contents exposed, the analysis did not find any evidence of animals avoiding the mustard-filled bombs.

  7. Inter and intra row spacing effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard (sinapis alba l.) under rainfed conditions

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha/sup -1/) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  8. Inter and intra row spring effects on growth, seeds yield and oil contents of white mustard (snapis alba L.) under rainfed conditions

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm/sup -1/ spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  9. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:22104123

  11. Investigation of the nutraceutical potential of monofloral Indian mustard bee pollen

    Sameer S.Ketkar; Atul S.Rathore; Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan; Lakshmi Rao; Anant R.Paradkar; Kakasaheb R.Mahadik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the nutraceutical potential of monolforal Indian mustard bee pollen (MIMBP). METHODS: The nutritional value of MIMBP was examined in terms of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and energy value. Its chemical composition in terms of total polyphenol and lfavonoid content was determined. MIMBP was screened for free lfavonoid aglycones by developing and validating a high-performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA) method. MIMBP was analyzed forin vitro antioxidant effect in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. RESULTS: MIMBP was found to be comprised of proteins ((182.2±5.9) g/kg), fats ((137.7±6.8) g/kg) and carbohydrates ((560.6±17.4) g/kg), which result in its high energy value ((17 616.7±78.6) kJ/kg). MIMBP was found to contain polyphenols ((18 286.1±374.0) mg gallic acid equivalent/kg) and lfavonoids ((1 223.5±53.1) mg quercetin equivalent/kg). The HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the presence of kaempferol ((65.4±0.5) mg/kg) and quercetin ((51.4±0.4) mg/kg) in MIMBP, which can be used as markers for determining the quality of bee pollen. The MIMBP extract showed DPPH free radical-scavenging activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 54.79 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: The MIMBP was found to be a rich source of nutrients providing high caloric value, which makes it a candidate for a potential nutraceutical agent. The study also illustrated the high antioxidant content of MIMBP, especially in the principle polyphenols and lfavonoids, which suggests its potential role in the prevention of free radical-implicated diseases. The DPPH-scavenging effect of MIMBP further conifrmed its antioxidant potential. Additionally, we developed a simple, speciifc and accurate HPLC-PDA method for the identiifcation and quantiifcation of free lfavonoid aglycones. This can be applied in future screenings of the quality of pollen collected by honeybees.

  12. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken. PMID:25790995

  13. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  14. Hardal Yağından Biyodizel Üretiminin Optimizasyonu ve Motor Performans Testleri (025901) (1-9) Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Mustard Oil and Engine Performance Tests DOI:10.5578/fmbd.7669

    Aysal, Faruk Emre; AKSOY, Fatih; ŞAHİN, Adil; AKSOY, Laçine; YILDIRIM, Harun

    2014-01-01

    In this study mustard oil produced from biodiesel production process are optimized. Parameters such as methanol / oil ratio, the catalyst concentration, reaction time and temperature have been investigated in the optimization process. Mustard oil-diesel fuel consisting of blends at the different proportions has been examined effects on engine performance and exhaust emissions. While proportion of biodiesel rising, power and torque of the internal combustion engine are reduced and specific fue...

  15. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    E Al-Sherif; A.K. Hegazy; N.H. Gomaa; Hassan, M O

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytoto...

  16. Isolation and characterization of useful mutants induced by gamma irradiation in 'Kranti' indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    Genetic variability was induced, in the 'Kranti' Indian mustard [Brassica/juncea (L.) Czemj. & Cosson]. utilizing 30,40 and 50 kr doses of gamma-ray Irradiation. 'In M 3 generation, compared with the econtrol, substantial decrease was observed in the mean value of various quantitative characters in the mutagen-treated populations. More variation was induced at 30 kr compared with that at 40 or 50 kr dose. Four mutants were identified ar 30 kr dose, which besides being early in maturity, gave better yield also-compared with the control. The better seed yield of the transmutated plants was due either to increase in seed weight or to increase in number of siliquae/plant

  17. Assessment of apoptosis occurring in spleen cells from nitrogen mustard-treated or gamma-irradiated mice.

    Hugel, B; Weltin, D; Holl, V; Marchal, J; Dufour, P; Freyssinet, J M; Bischoff, P L

    1998-01-01

    The short-term consequences on spleen cells of the intraperitoneal administration of nitrogen mustard (HN-2) to mice or of a whole-body gamma irradiation have been evaluated. Experiments were designed to assess the induction of apoptosis in spleen cells following exposure to these agents. The occurrence of this type of cell death was analysed by several methods, in particular the quantification in the blood of phosphotidylserine-bearing microparticles shed by apoptotic cells. In response to HN-2 or radiations, spleens undergo a rapid involution of their weight and cellularity. Ex vivo apoptosis occurs within 24 hours in cultured lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner after both treatments. As compared with untreated controls, circulating microparticles increased 3-fold after the injection of 5 mg/kg of HN-2. PMID:9858897

  18. Assessment of Genetic Variation Within Indian Mustard(Brassica juncea) Germplasm Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    Muhammad Ayub Khan; Malik Ashiq Rabbani; Muharnmad Munir; Saifullah Khan Ajmal; Muhammad Azim Malik

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity among 45 Indian mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) genotypes comprising 37 germplasm collections, five advance breeding lines and three improved cultivars was investigated at the DNA level using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Fifteen primers used generated a total of 92 RAPD fragments, of which 81 (88%) were polymorphic. Of these, 13 were unique to accession 'Pak85559'. Each primer produced four to nine amplified products with an average of 6.13 bands per primer. Based on pairwise comparisons of RAPD amplification products, Nei and Li's similarity coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationships among the accessions. Pairwise similarity indices were higher among the oilseed accessions and cultivars showing narrow ranges of 0.77-0.99. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages cluster analysis based on these genetic similarities placed most of the collections and oilseed cultivars close to each other, showing a low level of polymorphism between the accessions used. However, the clusters formed by oilseed collections and cultivars were comparatively distinct from that of advanced breeding lines. Genetically, all of the accessions were classified into a few major groups and a number of individual accessions. Advanced breeding lines were relatively divergent from the rest of the accessions and formed independent clusters. Clustering of the accessions did not show any pattern of association between the RAPD markers and the collection sites. A low level of genetic variability of oilseed mustard was attributed to the selection for similar traits and horticultural uses. Perhaps close parentage of these accessions further contributed towards their little diversity. The study demonstrated that RAPD is a simple and fast technique to compare the genetic relationship and pattern of variation among the gene pool of this crop.

  19. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

    Leila Mirbagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs,  and  respiratory  tract  in  Iranian  veterans.  The  most  common  disease  is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Superoxide dismutases (SODs are known as protective antioxidants against the harmful effects of ROS.Twenty exposed SM individuals (43.2±6.4 years, and 10 normal controls (41.3±2.5 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of SODs was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and mmunohistochemistry.Our  results  demonstrated  that  CuZnSOD   and  MnSOD  mRNA  were  up-regulated 2.79±1.09  and  2.49±1.11  folds, respectively in SM-injured patients  in comparison  with control  levels. In  contrast,  Immunohistochemistry  results  showed  downregulation  of CuZnSOD protein expression in SM injured patients.Our results revealed that SODs may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress due to mustard gas toxicity in airway wall of SM exposed patients.

  20. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  1. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  2. Comparing the therapeutic efficiency of aminoguanidine and 3-aminobenzamide in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and peroxynitrite are responsible for sulfur mustard (SM) induced toxicity. Since endogenous production of peroxynitrite is known to lead to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and sometimes ultimately cell death, in this study, it was aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiencies of aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor) and 3 aminobenzamide (PARP inhibitor) in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only, group 3 received selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) (100 mg/kg i.p.) and, group 4 received PARP inhibitor 3 aminobenzamide (3-AB) (20 mg/kg i.p.). MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes, Mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. MEC injection also caused mucosal thinning, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, ischemic changes and multifocal, superficial ulcerations (erosions) in small intestine. In AG group, interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage slightly reduced in lung comparing to MEC group. Inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal, septal thickening was similar to MEC group at densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas. In 3 AB group, edematous and hemorrhagic areas were very small, inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal and there were no densly densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas in lung. The results were better than AB group. In intestine, results of AG group were better than MEC group but worse than 3 AB group. These results suggest that both iNOS and PARP inhibitors are effective but PARP inhibitors may be more promising for treatment of SM induced early lung and intestinal toxicity.(author)

  3. Dinitrobenzamide mustard prodrugs - hypoxic cytotoxins and dual substrates for E.coli nitroreductase

    Conditional replicating adenoviral vectors (CRAds) have received considerable attention as therapeutic tools in combination with radiotherapy. Viral distribution and micro-regional geometry are likely to be important issues in the treatment of human solid tumours with gene therapy, particularly following intravenous virus administration. The use of CRAds that are 'armed' with enzyme/prodrug systems may overcome some of the perceived limitations; CRAds can redistribute and self-amplify in a cytolytic fashion whilst prodrug metabolites may elicit a local bystander effect. Either or both of these cytotoxic properties could have favourable interactions with radiotherapy (IR). Nevertheless, they may be insufficient to avoid pockets of vector-naive tumour cells beyond the diffusion limits of cytotoxic prodrug metabolites, such as when perivascular seeding occurs. Under such circumstances hypoxic tumour cells may represent the least accessible compartment for vector transfection; the same tumour subpopulation that is likely to be radioresistant. E.coli nitroreductase (NTR) can bioactivate dinitrobenzamide mustards (DNBMs) and is a promising enzyme/prodrug system for 'arming' CRAds. Notably DNMBs can also be activated by endogenous human reductases under low oxygen conditions providing an opportunity to identify dual hypoxic cytotoxins/NTR substrates that may circumvent some of the geometry issues and provide complementarity with IR. To identify a prodrug for NTR that is also active as a hypoxic cytotoxin in vivo. From a set of 164 DNB prodrugs, 19 with favourable activity in vitro against a panel of four NTR-expressing cancer cells were selected and screened for activity as hypoxic cytotoxins in vitro. Measured E17 values ranged from -444 to -366 mV. Seven DNBMs possessed acceptable hypoxic selectivity against the human NSCLC cell line A549WT or clones engineered to overexpress either a human single-electron reductase, cytochrome P450 reductase (A549P450R), or oxic

  4. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-07-15

    Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

  5. Urethral catheter removal 7 or 14 days after radical retropubic prostatectomy: clinical implications and complications in a randomized study Sete ou quatorze dias para a retirada da sonda vesical de demora após prostatectomia radical retropúbica: implicações clínicas e complicações em um estudo randomizado

    Carlos Ary Vargas Souto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the hypothesis that a 7-day period of indwelling catheter after radical retropubic prostatectomy is effective and safe without the need of performing cystography. METHODS: In the period from January of 2000 to July of 2002, 73 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy, and these patients were prospectively randomized in 2 groups: Group 1-37 patients who had the urethral catheter removed 7 days after the procedure, and Group 2-36 patients who had the catheter removed 14 days after the surgery. The 2 groups were similar, the surgeons and the technique were the same, and no cystography was performed to evaluate the presence of leaks. RESULTS: Two patients in Group 1 had bleeding and clot retention after having the catheter taken out in the seventh postoperative day and were managed by putting the catheter back in for 7 more days. Two patients in Group 2 developed bladder neck stricture and were treated by bladder neck incision with success. The continence rate was the same, with 2 cases of incontinence in each group. About 2 pads a day were used by the patients with incontinence. The average follow-up was 17.5 months (12-36 months. No urinary fistula, urinoma, or pelvic abscesses developed after catheter removal. Two patients were excluded from the analysis of this series: 1 died with a pulmonary embolus in the third postoperative day, and 1 developed a urinary suprapubic fistula before catheter withdrawal, which was maintained for 16 days. CONCLUSION: Withdrawal of the urethral catheter 7 days after radical retropubic prostatectomy, without performing cystography, has a low rate of short-term complications that are equivalent to withdrawal 14 days after the surgery.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hipótese de que um período de sete dias de sonda vesical de demora após prostatectomia radical retropúbica é efetivo e seguro, sem a necessidade da realização de cistografia. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 2000 e julho de 2002

  6. The Protective and Therapeutic Roles of Hexamethylenetetramine and N-Acetyl-Cysteine on Sulfur Mustard-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Serum

    Jafari, M; SH Sadraie; GR Kaka; Z Abdi; R. Rezaie; M Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sulfur mustard(SM) is a strong alkylating agent that increases the formation of free radicals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the protective and therapeutic roles of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and N-acetyl-cysteine(NAC) in reduction of SM-induced oxidative stress in rat serum. Methods: In the present experimental study, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups including: control group, SM group (an endotracheal injection of SM 0.5%/kg only once), HM...

  7. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and ...

  8. Putative sugar transporters of the the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae: their phylogeny and role for nutrient supply in larval defensive glands

    Magdalena Stock; René R Gretscher; Marco Groth; Simone Eiserloh; Wilhelm Boland; Antje Burse

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytophagous insects have emerged successfully on the planet also because of the development of diverse and often astonishing defensive strategies against their enemies. The larvae of the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae, for example, secrete deterrents from specialized defensive glands on their back. The secretion process involves ATP-binding cassette transporters. Therefore, sugar as one of the major energy sources to fuel the ATP synthesis for the cellular metabolism and...

  9. Protection by antioxidants against toxicity and apoptosis induced by the sulphur mustard analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in Jurkat T cells and normal human lymphocytes

    Han, Suhua; Espinoza, Luis A; Liao, Hongling; Boulares, A Hamid; Smulson, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of sulphur mustard was investigated by examining the biochemical effects of the analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in both human Jurkat cells as well as normal human lymphocytes.Exposure of both types of cells to CEES resulted in a marked decrease in the intracellular concentration of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), and CEES-induced cell death was potentiated by L-buthionine sulphoximine, an inhibitor of GSH synthesis.CEES increased the endogenous produ...

  10. Evaluation of Plant Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Chick Pea (Cicer arietinum) Seeds

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) and chick pea (Cicer arietinum) for their growth, yield, and yield attributes. Both the samples were divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group (both seed and plot) was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated. The result showed the plant height of musta...

  11. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    Yunes Panahi; Zohreh Poursaleh; Ali Amini-Harandi; Amin Saburi; Majid Shohrati; Mostafa Ghanei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM) induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR) theophylline, salmetrol, flux...

  12. Loss of expression of TGF-βs and their receptors in chronic skin lesions induced by sulfur mustard as compared with chronic contact dermatitis patients

    Panahi Yunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM is a blister-forming agent that has been used as a chemical weapon. Sulfur mustard can cause damage in various organs, especially the skin, respiratory system, and eyes. Generally, the multiple complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency; it reacts with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipid membranes. TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine with multiple biological effects ranging from cell differentiation and growth inhibition to extracellular matrix stimulation, immunosuppression, and immunomodulation. TGF-β has 3 isoforms (TGF-β 1, 2, 3 and its signaling is mediated by its receptors: R1, R2 and intracellular Smads molecules. TGF-β has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF-βs and their receptors also have an important role in modulation of skin inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells, and wound healing, and they have been implicated in different types of skin inflammatory disorders. Methods Seventeen exposed SM individuals (48.47 ± 9.3 years, 17 chronic dermatitis patients (46.52 ± 14.6 years, and 5 normal controls (44.00 ± 14.6 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of TGF-βs and their receptors expressions was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Only TGF1was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results Our results showed significant decreases in the expression percentages of TGF-β 1, 2 and R1, R2 in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal subjects and significant decreases in the intensity of R1 and R2 expressions in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal controls. (P value Conclusions TGF-βs and their receptors appear to have a noticeable role in chronic inflammatory skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard.

  13. The effects of the presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations on the rhizosphere nematode and microbial communities.

    Liu, Yongbo; Li, Junsheng; Stewart, C Neal; Luo, Zunlan; Xiao, Nengwen

    2015-10-15

    The adventitious presence of transgenic crops in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern. In this context, their effects on non-target, below-ground organisms are not well understood. Here, we introduced, at various frequencies, Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations in the presence and absence of the target herbivore (Plutella xylostella). The impacts on soil nematode and microbial communities were assessed in this system. There were no significant changes on the number of nematode genera and abundance in proportions of OSR with mustard. Nonetheless, the Shannon-Wiener and Pielou evenness index was lowest in plant stands containing 50% of Bt-transgenic OSR. Among treatments, there was no significant variation for culturable soil microbes. There was a positive association between foliar herbivory and the abundance of plant parasitic (PP) and cp-3 nematodes, whereas there was no association between herbivory and soil microbial populations. There was no direct effects of the presence of Bt-transgenic OSR in wild mustard populations on the rhizosphere nematode and microbial communities, whereas its indirect effects via aboveground herbivory might be important to consider for biosafety assessments. PMID:26047860

  14. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  15. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen.

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y; Ganie, Arshid H; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard. PMID:27524987

  16. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  17. 酸辣芥末凤爪的加工工艺研究%Study on processing technology of hot and sour mustard chicken feet

    陈兴; 盛本国; 李海龙; 柳春光

    2014-01-01

    试验以凤爪为研究对象,通过添加不同比例的芥末提取物、芥末粉,采用感官评定法,测定不同添加量对凤爪风味的影响。试验结果表明:当凤爪基本配方确定时,添加比例(芥末提取物添加量为1%、芥末粉添加量为6%),辣味适中,外观,适口性最佳。%chicken feet were taken as the research object. By adding different proportions of wasabi extract and mustard powder, the sensory evaluation method was used to test the efect of different addition of wasabi extract and mustard powder on chicken feet flavor. The results showed that when the basic for⁃mula was determined, the addition of wasabi extract and mustard powder content was 1% and 6% re⁃spectively, the products with moderately spicy, optimum appearance and palatability were obtained.

  18. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  19. Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Kozłowska, Halina

    2008-10-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark. PMID:18771273

  20. Chemoprophylaxis in the vesical tumoral recurrence

    The superficial bladder tumors are characterized by a high rate of recurrence taking place especially within the first two years that is even higher in the high risk groups. There is an agreement in the usefulness of the Calmette-Guerin Bacillus (CGB) to diminish the tumoral recurrence. The intravesical chemotherapy with other medications have demonstrated its profit or not in decreasing the recurrence of these bladder tumors. Between 1999 and 2008 we studied and treated 110 patients (96 men and 14 women), aged in average 63 years old. They were divided into three groups for the treatment of the tumoral recidivism after the transurethral resection or partial cystectomy, using three different chemoprophylactic agents and inmunomodulators (Thio-Tepa, BCG+Transference Factor, Doxorubicin +Interferon Alpha 2b). The objective of this research was presenting our experience in the treatment of these patients during five years, obtaining better results in the group treated with doxorubicin + interferon alpha 2b, followed by the group treated by means of BCG + transference factor, with a remarked decrease of the recurrence and a limitation in the long term progression of the disease

  1. Megabladder in experimental Chagas disease: pathological features of the bladder wall Mega bexiga na Doença de Chagas experimental. Caracteristicas patológicas da parede vesical

    Luciano Henrique Gazoni Scremin

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mega-organs, primarily in the digestive tract, are well known to occur in chronic Chagas disease. Acute experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi results in parasitism of a wide range of cells, tissues, and organs, including the urinary bladder. Infection of BALB/c mice with 100,000 bloodstream forms of the Y strain of T. cruzi induced acute infection with intense parasitism of all layers of the urinary bladder. Parasites were found in the mucosa, lamina propria, muscular, adventitial connective, and fat tissue. Desquamate epithelial cells with amastigotes in the bladder lumen were also found. After 60 days of infection, mice inoculated with 50 bloodstream forms developed dilated, thin-walled bladders that had inflammatory infiltrates and foci of fibrosis replacing areas of damaged muscular layer. These lesions result from direct damage to the muscle fibers by the T. cruzi, leading to myosites, muscle damage, and scarring. Direct damage of paraganglia cells secondary to parasitism, leading to dilatation, damage of muscle fibers, and scarring with replacement of muscular tissue with connective tissue, should also be considered as a cause of functional disturbance of the urinary bladder.Os "mega-órgãos" na Doença de Chagas são bem conhecidos, especialmente os desenvolvidos no sistema digestivo. A infecção aguda apresenta parasitismo de diversas células, tecidos e órgãos, dentre eles a bexiga urinária. Camundongos Balb/c infectados com 100.000 formas sanguíneas de cepa Y de T. cruzi mostraram intenso parasitismo de todas camadas da bexiga urinária na fase aguda. Os parasitas foram encontrados na mucosa, submucosa, lâmina própria, muscular, adventícia e tecido adiposo, além das células descamadas para a luz do órgão. Para produzir a fase crônica, os animais foram inoculados com a mesma cepa, porém apenas inóculo com 50 formas sangüíneas. Após sessenta dias de infecção, detectamos dilatações da parede vesical, assim

  2. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

    Saeed Naghibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  3. Relative efficiency of mustard (Brassica juncea l.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus l.) in utilizing soil phosphorous in presence of P, 2n and FYM under normal and saline soil conditions

    Studies with 32P labelled fertilizer on mustard and sunflower showed a marked reduction in drymatter accumulation, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization at 10.6 dSm-1 level of salinity over normal one. Except drymatter accumulation, the extent of reduction in total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization was of higher magnitude in sunflower as compared to mustard. Application of P either alone or in conjunction with Zn/FYM gave significantly higher values of drymatter yield, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization in both the crops. Data further, revealed that application of P in conjunction with FYM was found more beneficial as compared to zinc. It was also observed that the per cent P utilization of applied fertilizer in these crops decreased at higher (80 kg P2O5/ha) level of P. Amongst the varieties of mustard and sunflower, tested, PR-45 of mustard and EC-69874 of sunflower showed higher yield potential and utilization of native soil phosphorus more efficiently, while Pusa Bold of mustard and Surya of sunflower utilized fertilizer phosphorus more efficiently. (author). 24 refs., 2 tables

  4. Infecção do trato urinário relacionada com a utilização do catéter vesical de demora: resultados da bacteriúria e da microbiota estudadas Urinary tract infection related to the use of catheter-delay bladder: results of bacteriuria and microbiota studied

    João Leão e Souza Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o momento do início da bacteriúria e o germe mais freqüentemente relacionado à infecção urinária nos pacientes submetidos à sondagem vesical de demora. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2003 a outubro de 2004, foram avaliados os pacientes com 13 anos ou mais, submetidos à operações eletivas com cateterismo vesical de demora. Na inserção do cateter foi colhida a primeira amostra de urina, denominada Amostra 1, e outras seqüencialmente a cada 12 horas. Estas foram analisadas quanto a bacteriúria, leucocitúria, e cultura. A infecção do trato urinário foi definida como a presença de 100.000 unidades formadoras de colônias ou mais, após o isolamento da mesma bactéria ou fungo em culturas de urina de amostras distintas, desde a inserção até a remoção do cateter urinário; a leucocitúria como contagem de leucócitos igual ou superior a 10.000 leucócitos/mm³; e bacteriúria como presença de bactéria de uma única espécie na amostra analisada. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 63 pacientes, 46 sexo masculino (73% e 17 sexo feminino (27%. Apenas três deles apresentaram leucocitúria na primeira coleta. Nas Amostras 1 houve variação de 1.000 a 20.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com cultura negativa. O número de amostras variou de 1 a 8 (84h após a realização do cateterismo vesical. As leucocitúrias nas amostras finais variaram de 1.000 a 204.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com urocultura e bacteriúria negativa. 62 pacientes (98,4% utilizaram antibioticoterapia de curta duração para o sítio cirúrgico. CONCLUSÃO: Até 84h - 3,5 dias - não houve Infecção em nenhuma das amostras coletadas e cultivadas. A antibioticoterapia de curta duração pode ter contribuído para o resultado observado.BACKGROUND: To evaluate the moment of the beginning of bacteriuria and the most frequently germ related to the urinary infection in patients submitted to delayed vesical catheterization. METHODS: During

  5. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  6. Hybridization study of developmental plastid gene expression in mustard (Sinapsis alba L.) with cloned probes for most plastid DNA regions.

    Link, G

    1984-07-01

    An approach to assess the extent of developmental gene expression of various regions of plastid (pt)DNA in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is described. It involves cloning of most ptDNA regions. The cloned regions then serve as hybridization probes to detect and assess the abundance of complementary RNA sequences represented in total plastid RNA. By comparison of the hybridization pattern observed with plastid RNA from either dark-grown or light-grown plants it was found that many ptDNA regions are constitutively expressed, while several 'inducible' regions account for much higher transcript levels in the chloroplast than in the etioplast stage. The reverse situation, i.e. 'repressed' regions which would account for higher transcript levels in the etioplast, was not observed. The hybridization results obtained with RNA from 'intermediatetype' plastids suggest that transient gene expression is a common feature during light-induced chloroplast development. The time-course of gene expression differs for various ptDNA regions. PMID:24310436

  7. [Research on parching procedure of white mustard seed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy].

    Yu, Lu; Sun, Su-qin; Zhou, Qun; Qin, Zhu

    2006-12-01

    Using multi-steps macro-fingerprint infrared (IR) spectroscopy, which combines three steps: conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), second derivative spectroscopy, and two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation spectroscopy, the authors tracked dynamically the parching procedure of mustard seed to analyze the main transformation during the process. Compared with conventional IR spectra of samples parched for different time, the authors found that the characteristic peaks of protein decreased gradually, indicating the reduction of protein with the parching process, maybe because under a longtime parching procedure the heat denaturation occurred in protein compound. In addition, the essence of enzyme was protein, therefore, its transformation trend was closely related to that of protein, which also underwent heat denaturation. The absorption peak around 1 055 cm(-1), which was due to the vibrations of fibred saccharides, began to minish rapidly at early time, then vanished after ten minutes because of the decomposition of fibred saccharides at the beginning of the process. Moreover the results of second derivative spectroscopy and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy validated that of conventional IR spectroscopy, which also indicated the heat denaturation of enzyme and decomposition of saccharides. This multi-steps macro-fingerprint IR spectroscopy method can track dynamically the processing procedure of medicinal herbs and reveal the main transformations; it must play an important role in studying medicinal herbs in the future. PMID:17361704

  8. The effect of vitamin E on pathological changes in kidney and liver of sulphur mustard-exposed guinea pigs.

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Tabatabayee, Abbas; Amiri, Sediqa; Vahedi, Nasim

    2012-04-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) gas is a poisonous chemical agent causing various systemic action in laboratory animals. There is no definite treatment for disorders induced by SM. In this study, the effect of vitamin E alone and in combination with dexamethasone on the pathological changes in the kidney and liver of SM-exposed (SME) guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs were divided into five groups (n = 5 in each). These groups were exposed to ethanol (control group), 100 mg/m(3) inhaled SM (SME group), SME treated with vitamin E, 600 mg/kg (SME + E), SME treated with dexamethasone, 5 mg/kg (SME + D), and SME treated with both drugs (SME + E + D), respectively. Pathological evaluation of the kidneys and livers was done 14 days post exposure. There were statistically significant pathological changes in the liver and kidney of SME group compared to control animals (p livers and kidneys (p liver and more prominently in the kidneys of SME guinea pigs. PMID:21967843

  9. The effects of sulfur mustard exposure and freezing on transdermal penetration of tritiated water through ex vivo pig skin.

    Payne, O J; Graham, S J; Dalton, C H; Spencer, P M; Mansson, R; Jenner, J; Azeke, J; Braue, E

    2013-02-01

    The percutaneous absorption of tritiated water ((3)H(2)O) through sulfur mustard (SM) exposed abdominal pig skin was measured using in vitro Franz-type static diffusion cells. The barrier function to water permeation following exposure to liquid SM for 8 min and excision 3h later did not change significantly. A small, but statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in steady state penetration (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp) and lag time (t(L)) of (3)H(2)O was observed between fresh skin and skin stored frozen (-20 °C) for up to two weeks. Steady-state penetration and Kp values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in skin stored frozen compared with fresh skin. Fresh naïve skin had an average Kp of 1.65 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen naïve skin was 2.04 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Fresh SM exposed skin had a mean Kp of 1.72 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen SM exposed skin was 2.31 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Lag times were also shorter (P<0.05) in skin that had been stored frozen. Frozen, SM-exposed porcine abdominal skin may be used for in vitro penetration studies, but effects of treatment and storage on the barrier layer should be taken into account. PMID:23041075

  10. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  11. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success

  12. Ultraviolet light inhibition of phytochrome-induced flavonoid biosynthesis and DNA photolyase formation in mustard cotyledons (Sinapis alba L.)

    In cotyledons of etiolated mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, phytochrome-far-red-absorbing form-induced flavonoid biosynthesis was found to be inhibited by short-term ultraviolet (UV) irradiations. UV inhibition was shown for the synthesis of quercetin, anthocyanin, and also for the accumulation of the mRNA for chalcone synthase, the key enzyme of this pathway. The UV effect was more pronounced on flavonoid biosynthesis, a process that selectively occurs in the epidermal layers, than on the synthesis of mRNA for chlorophyll a/b-binding protein localized in the mesophyll tissue. These UV inhibitory effects were accompanied by cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation showing a linear fluence-response relationship. CPD formation and UV inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis was found to be partially reversible by blue/UV-A light via DNA photolyase (PRE), allowing photoreactivation of the DNA by splitting of CPDs, which are the cause of the UV effect. Like flavonoid formation PRE was also induced by the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome and induction was inhibited by UV. A potential risk of inhibition, in response to solar UV-B irradiation, was shown for anthocyanin formation. This inhibition, however, occurred only if photoreactivation was experimentally reduced. The PRE activity present in the etiolated seedlings (further increasing about 5-fold during light acclimatization) appears to be sufficient to prevent the persistence of CPDs even under conditions of high solar irradiation

  13. 3-D QSAR CoMFA study of nitrogen mustards possessing new chemical entities as possible anticancer agents

    Anand R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work is an investigation of anticancer activities of the nitrogen mustards possessing quinazolinone, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole nuclei by the three-dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity paradigm, Comparative Molecular Field Analysis. A total of 39 compounds were modelled in SYBYL 6.7 (Tripos, USA. The molecules were aligned by root-mean-square fit of atoms and field fit of the steric and electrostatic molecular fields and the resulting databases analysed by partial least squares analysis with cross-validation, leave-one-out and no validation to extract the optimum number of components. The analysis was then repeated with bootstrapping to give the final Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship models. Eight compounds, which were kept separately as test set, were used to test the predictive ability of the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis models. Out of the two models generated, one was found to be useful. The predicted activities of the test set were in good agreement with experimentally determined values.

  14. Bacterial diversity in Philippine fermented mustard (burong mustasa) as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Larcia, L L H; Estacio, R C; Dalmacio, L M M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies on the bacterial profile of burong mustasa, a traditional Philippine fermented food, had been conducted using culture-dependent techniques. Since these methods may underestimate the total microbiota of a sample, a culture-independent study was done to determine the bacterial diversity in burong mustasa through molecular biology techniques. Bacterial DNA was isolated from fermented mustard samples at different stages of fermentation. The isolated genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA). The 1.5 kb amplicons obtained were subjected to nested PCR using primers for the internal variable region of the 16S rDNA. The 585 bp nested PCR amplicons were then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to separate the different bacteria present in each sample. Distinct and unique bands in the DGGE profile were excised, reamplified, purified and sequenced for bacterial identification. Molecular cloning of the 1.5 kb 16S rDNA was also performed using the pGEM-T Easy Vector System. The cloned gene was sequenced for bacterial identification. The identified microbiota in burong mustasa at different stages of fermentation include lactic acid bacteria and several uncultured bacteria (initial up to the final stages); acetic acid bacteria (middle stage); and Streptobacillus and Fusobacterium species (initial stage). The potential probiotic bacteria found in burong mustasa are Weissella and Lactobacillus. PMID:22146686

  15. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in oilseed rape, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropScience Limited to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance bixafen in oilseed rape, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen in France, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL for these crops from the value of 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the available residues trials data are insufficient to propose MRLs for the proposed use in France on these oilseed crops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bixafen in plant matrices under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. EFSA concludes that the data available are insufficient to make a proposal to change any MRL.

  16. Design and synthesis of peptide conjugates of phosphoramide mustard as prodrugs activated by prostate-specific antigen.

    Wu, Xinghua; Hu, Longqin

    2016-06-15

    A series of Glutaryl-Hyp-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-4-aminobenzyl phosphoramide mustard conjugates (1a-e) was designed and synthesized as potential prodrugs for site-specific activation by PSA in prostate cancer cells. All conjugates were found to be substrates of PSA with cleavage occurring between Gln and the para-aminobenzyl (PAB) linker. Structure-activity relationship studies on these conjugates indicated that introduction of electron-withdrawing fluorine(s) on the phenyl ring in the PAB linker uniformly improved the chemical stability of the conjugates while the position of substitution affected differently the self-immolative process of conjugates upon proteolysis. Introduction of a fluorine at ortho position to benzylic phosphoramide as in 1b results in better stability of the conjugate prior to activation while maintaining its antiproliferative activity upon activation by PSA. The conjugate 1b with 2-fluoro substitution was identified as a promising lead for further evaluation and optimization in the development of prostate cancer-targeted prodrugs. PMID:27156193

  17. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  18. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event

  19. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  20. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  1. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  2. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard.

    Khan, M I R; Khan, Nafees A; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown without Ni stress. The H2O2 application also resulted in alleviation of photosynthetic inhibition induced by 200 mg Ni kg(-1) soil through increased photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), sulfur-use efficiency (SUE), and glutathione (GSH) reduced production together with decreased lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in both the cultivars. However, the effect of H2O2 was more pronounced in Varuna than RH30. The greater increase in photosynthetic-NUE and SUE and GSH production with H2O2 in Varuna resulted from higher increase in activity of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) assimilation enzymes, nitrate reductase and ATP-sulfurylase, respectively resulting in enhanced N and S assimilation. The increased N and S content contributed to the higher activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase under Ni stress. Application of H2O2 also regulated PS II activity and stomatal movement under Ni stress for maintaining higher photosynthetic potential in Varuna. Thus, H2O2 may be considered as a potential signaling molecule for augmenting photosynthetic potential of mustard plants under optimal and Ni stress conditions. It alleviates Ni stress through the regulation of stomatal and non-stomotal limitations, and photosynthetic-NUE and -SUE and GSH production. PMID:26870064

  3. Ação do citrato de sildenafil sobre a função uretral de ratas com desnervação vesical Effect of sildenafil citrate in the urethral function in rats with denervated bladder

    Haylton Jorge Suaid

    2003-01-01

    urethane at a dosage of 1.25mg/kg. All animals underwent cystostomy with a catheter P50 connected by a Y to an infusion pump and to a polygraph Narco-Biosystem. The cystometry was performed trice in each animal: right after the cystostomy, after surgical of bladder denervation and 1h after gastric infusion of 1mg/kg of sildenafil citrate. Maximum (MaP and minimum (MiP vesical pressure were compared in the following moments: I - before bladder denervation, II - after bladder denervation and III - after bladder denervation and sildenafil administration. Wilcoxon test was used for a level of significance of 5%. RESULTS: Mean values of MaP were: I - 86.6±10.1, II - 42.6±15.0 and III - 30.8±12.4. The corresponding values of MiP were: : I - 72.1±18.9, II - 31.1±9.8 and III - 14.5±9.5. The comparison between MaP and MiP in each moment showed difference only in moment III (p0.05 in IIxIII. For MiP the p values were <0.004 in IxII, <0.002 in IxIII and <0.01 in IIxIII. CONCLUSION: 1 Bladder denervation reduces maximum and minimum urethral pressure; 2 Sildenafil citrate reduces the minimum urethral pressure widening the interval between the peak and bottom pressures; and, 3 Sildenafil citrate does not interfere on the peak urethral pressure after bladder denervation.

  4. Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized oriental mustard extract.

    Olaimat, Amin N; Fang, Yuan; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-18

    Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against 4 Campylobacter jejuni strains in Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth at 4, 21, 37 and 42°C and to screen the C. jejuni strains for their ability to degrade sinigrin (which forms AITC) in pH7.0 MH broth at 35°C for 21d. Also evaluated was the antimicrobial activity of an edible 0.2% κ-carrageenan/2% chitosan-based coating containing AITC or deodorized oriental mustard extract against a 4 strain C. jejuni cocktail (6.2log10CFU/g) on vacuum-packaged fresh chicken breasts during 4°C storage. MIC values of AITC were 0.63 to 1.25ppm and 2.5 to 5ppm against tested strains at 37 and 42°C, respectively. However, the MBC was 2.5 and 5ppm at 37 and 42°C, respectively, and increased to a range of 40 to 160ppm at 4°C. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 50 or 100μl/g AITC reduced viable C. jejuni to undetectable levels on chicken breast after 5d at 4°C, while 25μl/g AITC or 200 to 300mg/g mustard extract in coatings reduced C. jejuni numbers by 1.75 to 2.78log10CFU/g more than control coatings without antimicrobial. Both oriental mustard extract (50 to 300mg/g) and AITC (≥25μl/g) reduced aerobic bacteria by 1.72 to 2.75log10CFU/g and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by 0.94 to 3.36log10CFU/g by 21d compared to the control coating. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing ≥50μl/g AITC or ≥300mg/g oriental mustard showed excellent potential to control C. jejuni viability on raw chicken. PMID:25058687

  5. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  6. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  7. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L.) over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.)

    Sorina CORBU; Monica SIPOS

    2006-01-01

    The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L.) over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.). We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter). The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments,...

  8. Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Transfer Overcomes the Inhibition of Wound Healing by Sulfur Mustard in a Human Keratinocyte In Vitro Model

    Hiroshi Ishida; Radharaman Ray; Jack Amnuaysirikul; Keiko Ishida; Prabhati Ray

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes extensive skin injury. Previously we reported that SM exposure resulted in suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression to inhibit the healing of scratch wounds in a cultured normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) model. Based on this finding, the present study was to use adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of iNOS to restore the nitric oxide (NO) supply depleted by exposure to SM and to evaluate the effect of N...

  9. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Mahima,; Vinod Kumar; Tomar, S. K.; Debashis Roy; Muneendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05)...

  10. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)–glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of...

  11. Treatment of Mustard Wastewater with Coagulation and Sedimentation%榨菜废水的混凝处理研究

    刘江国; 陈玉成; 杨志敏; 谢德体; 田伟

    2011-01-01

    An experiment, in which mustard tuber wastewater was treated with the coagulation method, showed that coagulant dosage and variety, agitation rate and sedimentation time all played an important role. Used as the coagulant, CaO gave better results than the other coagulants studied. Addition of CaO at 700mg/L in combination with PAM as coagulant aid at 5mg/L and agitation at 250 r/min for 30 min gave a removal efficiency of COD, TP and turbidity of 36. 54%, 52. 03% and 97. 85%, respectively, with a relatively low cost. The results in a pilot test were consistent with the test parameters of the small test. Combined treatment of mustard tuber wastewater with CaO and PAM could automatically adjust Ph of the wastewater, decrease the cost of the coagulants, reduce irritating odour of the wastewater and improve its biodegradability and lighten the burden of the follow-up treatment system. The floes formed by settlement were relatively large and, therefore, easy to recover for the manufacture of animal fodder or organic fertilizer.%采用混凝法对榨菜废水进行了处理试验.结果表明,混凝剂投加量、混凝剂种类、搅拌速率及沉降时间等对处理效果都起着重要作用.选用CaO作混凝剂,聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)作助凝剂,其处理效果明显优于其他几种混凝剂.当Ca(),PAM的投加量分别为700,5 mg/L,以250 r/min的速度搅拌30 min,则COD,TP,浊度的去除率分别为36.54%,52.03%和97.85%,处理成本较低,中试试验结果与小试试验参数相吻合;用CaO,PAM联合处理榨菜废水能自动调节废水pH值,节省混凝剂的用量、减轻废水的刺激性气味、提高榨菜废水的可生化性,减轻后续处理系统的负担,同时沉降形成的絮体较大,易于被回收开发成饲料或有机肥料,为榨菜废水的处理提供了依据.

  12. The effect of mustard gas on salivary trace metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Mo, Sr, Cd, Ca, Pb, Rb.

    Elham Zamani Pozveh

    Full Text Available We have determined and compared trace metals concentration in saliva taken from chemical warfare injures who were under the exposure of mustard gas and healthy subjects by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES for the first time. The influence of preliminary operations on the accuracy of ICP-OES analysis, blood contamination, the number of restored teeth in the mouth, salivary flow rate, and daily variations in trace metals concentration in saliva were also considered. Unstimulated saliva was collected at 10:00-11:00 a.m. from 45 subjects in three equal groups. The first group was composed of 15 healthy subjects (group 1; the second group consisted of 15 subjects who, upon chemical warfare injuries, did not use Salbutamol spray, which they would have normally used on a regular basis (group 2; and the third group contained the same number of patients as the second group, but they had taken their regular medicine (Salbutamol spray; group 3. Our results showed that the concentration of Cu in saliva was significantly increased in the chemical warfare injures compared to healthy subjects, as follows: healthy subjects 15.3± 5.45 (p.p.b., patients (group 2 45.77±13.65, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3 29 ±8.51 (P <0.02. In contrast, zinc was significantly decreased in the patients, as follows: healthy subjects 37 ± 9.03 (p.p.b., patients (group 2 12.2 ± 3.56, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3 20.6 ±10.01 (P < 0.01. It is important to note that direct dilution of saliva samples with ultrapure nitric acid showed the optimum ICP-OES outputs.

  13. Effect of fungicides on plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonasputida isolated from mustard (Brassica compestris) rhizosphere.

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2012-03-01

    This study was navigated to examine the effects of fungicide-stress on the activities of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonasputida with inherent phosphate solubilizing activity. The fungicide-tolerant and phosphate solubilizing P.putida strain PS9 was isolated from the mustard rhizosphere and tentatively identified following standard morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. To further consolidate the identity of the strain PS9, the 16S rDNA sequence analysis was performed. Following the BLAST program, the strain PS9 was identified as P.putida. In the presence of the varying concentrations (0-3200 μg mL(-1); at a two fold dilution interval) of four fungicides of different chemical families (tebuconazole, hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin) amended in minimal salt agar medium, the P.putida strain PS9 showed a variable tolerance levels (1400-3200 μg mL(-1)) against the tested fungicides. The strain PS9 produced plant-growth-promoting (PGP) substances in significant amount in the absence of fungicides. In general, fungicides applied at the recommended, two and three times of the recommended rates, decreased the PGP attributes of P.putida the strain PS9 and affected the PGP activities in concentration-dependent manner. Fungicides at the recommended dose had minor reducing effect while the doses higher than the recommended dose significantly reduced the PGP activities (phosphate solubilization, salicylic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid, and indole-3-acetic acid production except exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanate and ammonia production). Of the four fungicides, tebuconazole generally, showed maximum toxicity to the PGP activities of the strain PS9. This study inferred that fungicides must be examined in vitro for their possible adverse effects on soil micro flora before their application in agricultural fields. Moreover, the results also suggested the prerequisite of application of fungicide-tolerant PGPR strains as bioinoculants so that

  14. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials. PMID:22319878

  15. Bioinoculants: A sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways. PMID:24097367

  16. Protective effects of the thiol compounds GSH and NAC against sulfur mustard toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Balszuweit, Frank; Menacher, Georg; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent causing blistering, inflammation and ulceration of the skin. Thiol compounds such as glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been suggested as potential antidotes. We investigated SM toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and used GSH and NAC to counteract its cytotoxic effects. Cells were treated with 1, 5 or 10mM GSH or NAC and exposed to 30, 100 or 300μM SM. Different treatment regimens were applied to model extra- and intra-cellular GSH/NAC effects on SM toxicity. Necrosis, apoptosis and interleukin-6 and -8 levels were determined 24h post-exposure. Necrosis and apoptosis increased with SM dose. Interleukin-6 and -8 production peaked at 100μM and decreased at 300μM probably due to reduced ability for interleukin biosynthesis. Intracellular GSH/NAC diminished necrosis induced by 100μM SM. Extracellular GSH/NAC protected against necrosis and apoptosis induced by 100 and 300μM SM. Interleukin-6 and -8 production, induced by 100μM SM was reduced by GSH/NAC. However, low-dose GSH/NAC treatment of cells exposed to 300μM SM led to increased interleukin production. Thus, moderately poisoned cells are mostly responsible for SM-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. GSH and NAC treatment can reduce SM-induced toxic effects. Protective effects were more pronounced by extracellular GSH or NAC administration. Rescue of severely poisoned cells may result in a strong secretion of pro- inflammatory cytokines. In summary, thiol compounds such as GSH or NAC constitute a promising approach to improve the therapy for SM injury. Additional intervention to prevent adverse effects of interleukin production might be beneficial. PMID:26361990

  17. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Ham, Hwa-Yong [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Won, E-mail: chyj7983@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research, The Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Nae [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Soo [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Ja [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong-Keun, E-mail: dksong@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  18. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  19. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Cynthia A Dick

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  20. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair

  1. Fibrinogen and inflammatory cytokines in spontaneous sputum of sulfur-mustard-exposed civilians--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

    Yaraee, Roya; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Rezaei, Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kazemi, Hadi; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Foroutan, Abbas; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) causes late complications in respiratory system of exposed individuals. In this preliminary study, the levels of IL-1α and β, TNF, IL-1Ra, IL-6 and fibrinogen in the spontaneous sputum of SM-exposed individuals were examined 20 years after exposure and the correlation with pulmonary function was tested. The participants were categorized into two major subgroups (hospitalized and non-hospitalized) based on the severity of the clinical complications immediately after exposure. Every participant was visited by a physician; the respiratory functions were checked using spirometry and were categorized as normal, mild, moderate or severe pulmonary complications. The levels of cytokines in the sputum and serum samples were measured using ELISA method. The mean values of TNF, IL-1α and IL-1β were 524.15, 115.15, 1951.33 pg/ml respectively, and the mean levels of IL-1Ra and IL-6 were 6410.52 and 124.44 pg/ml respectively; fibrinogen was 71.59 ng/ml and index of IL-Ra/IL-1β was 7.78. There was more TNF-α and IL-1β and less IL-1Ra and fibrinogen in the sputum of the hospitalized subgroup. The level of TNF-α and IL-1β also increased in moderate and severe pulmonary status comparing with the group with mild disorders, while fibrinogen was lower or decreased significantly in problematic patients. IL-1β and TNF showed positive correlation (r=0.5, and r=0.59, respectively); fibrinogen and IL1Ra/IL-1β have negative correlation with lung function according to the GOLD classification (r=-0.4, and r=-0.61, respectively). It is concluded that sputum cytokines and fibrinogen, reflect the degree of the severity of airway inflammation and the cytokine levels in the sputum might be completely different from the serum fluctuations. PMID:23375935

  2. Long term impact of sulfur mustard exposure on peripheral blood mononuclear subpopulations--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Kariminia, Amina; Yaraee, Roya; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Ardestani, Sussan K; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Mostafaie, Ali; Foroutan, Abbas; Rezaei, Abbas; Shams, Jalaleddin; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Soroush, Mohammad R; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammadreza; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Ajdary, Soheila; Darabi, Hiedeh; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Kazemi, Hadi; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2013-11-01

    The most important long-term morbidity problem of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is pulmonary complications but the pathogenesis of these complications is not clearly understood. This study evaluates the peripheral blood mononuclear sub-sets and their correlation with pulmonary function in SM exposed civilian cases 20 years post-exposure as gathered in the context of the Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS). Samples were randomly selected from two groups, SM-exposed (n=372) and control (n=128), with the same ethnicity, culture, and demography. Three color flow cytometry was applied for peripheral blood mononuclear sub-population determination. Results indicated a significant decrease in CD45+/CD3+, CD45+/CD3+/CD4+, and an increase in CD3+/CD16+56+ percentages. It was also found that absolute count of NK cells was highly increased in peripheral blood of exposed cases. There was a significant increase in NK cell count of SM exposed group with pulmonary problems as compared to the same group without pulmonary problems (p-value<0.04) based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). The findings showed a significant negative correlation between absolute numbers of T lymphocyte and FVC % and positive correlation with FEV1/FVC%. The results also demonstrated that absolute numbers of monocytes had a negative correlation with FVC %. We propose that NK and T cells are probably involved in the pathogenesis or immune reactions to the delayed pulmonary complications induced by SM. This hypothesis should be tested in a more severe pulmonary complicated group. PMID:23434855

  3. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, [D-Mel6]LH-RH (SB-05) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Arg5,D-Mel6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel6 analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells

  4. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca2+]i increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  5. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  6. Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products

    John Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR, has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50 for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  7. Mobilidade do Colo Vesical e Avaliação Funcional do Assoalho Pélvico em Mulheres Continentes e com Incontinência Urinária de Esforço, Consoante o Estado Hormonal Bladder Neck Mobility and Functional Pelvic Floor Evaluation in Women with and without Stress Urinary Incontinence, According to Hormonal Status

    Sonia Fátima da Silva Moreira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a mobilidade do colo vesical e a força da musculatura perineal em mulheres com e sem incontinência urinária de esforço, no menacme e na pós-menopausa. Métodos: foram avaliadas 61 pacientes, das quais 31 estavam no menacme, sendo 17 com incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE e 14 continentes, e 30 estavam na pós-menopausa, das quais 15 com e 15 sem IUE. Todas as incontinentes foram submetidas ao teste da coluna d'água e ao teste de esforço com bexiga vazia. A mobilidade do colo vesical foi avaliada pelo teste do cotonete e por ultra-sonografia e, para estudo da função da musculatura perineal, foram utilizados a palpação digital e cones vaginais. Resultados: a posição do colo vesical nas mulheres com incontinência urinária de esforço (grupos A e C, tanto pela ultra-sonografia quanto pelo teste do cotonete, foi mais baixa, sendo --11,8 cm no grupo A e --12,5 cm no grupo C, do que as mulheres continentes, nas quais o colo encontrava-se, em média, a +4,4 cm no grupo B e +2,3 cm no grupo D. Quanto à mobilidade do colo vesical, avaliada pela ultra-sonografia e pelo teste do cotonete, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos continentes no menacme (9,1 cm e na pós-menopausa (9,5 cm. Também não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos incontinentes entre si (17,1 cm para o grupo A e 16,6 cm para o C. No entanto, a mobilidade foi significativamente maior nos grupos com incontinência urinária de esforço (A e C do que nos grupos continentes (B e D Verificamos que, quanto à avaliação da musculatura do assoalho pélvico, o teste realizado com cones vaginais e a avaliação funcional do assoalho pélvico mostraram índice 4 no grupo B e 3,4 no grupo D, indicando maior força muscular nas mulheres continentes, quando comparadas às incontinentes (2,9 e 2,3, respectivamente no menacme e na pós-menopausa. Conclusão: a mobilidade do colo vesical, avaliada por meio do teste do cotonete e da

  8. Study on Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure,Abdominal Leak-point Pressure and Mobility of Vesical Cervix by Sonographic Urodynamics%超声尿动力学对尿道最大关闭压和腹压漏尿点压及膀胱颈移动度的研究

    胡兵; 应涛; 陈磊; 周永昌

    2001-01-01

    目的:应用超声尿动力学技术研究静态和动态尿道关闭压及膀胱颈移动度的关系。方法:对40例真性压力性尿失禁和22例正常入进行超声和尿动力学同步观察,标化测定静态最大尿道关闭压、腹压漏尿点压和膀胱颈移动度。结果:真性压力性尿失禁腹压漏尿点压与尿道最大关闭压呈明显的线性相关(r=0.49,P=0.001),其回归方程y=21.90+0.88x。压力性尿失禁尿道最大关闭压、腹压漏尿点压均值显著低于正常组(P<0.01)。膀胱颈部移动度显著高于正常组(P<0.01)。腹压漏尿点压>55cmH2O压力性尿失禁组中膀胱颈部移动度≤1.5cm病例占72%,腹压漏尿点压>55cmH2O压力性尿失禁组中颈部移动度>1.5cm病例占59%,两组比率存在显著差异(P<0.05)。结论:真性压力性尿失禁组同时存在尿道关闭功能不全和膀胱颈移动度的异常。腹压漏尿点压≤55cmH2O组以尿道关闭功能损害为主,>55cmH2O组以膀胱颈过度活动为主。尿道基础关闭功能不良者,尿道动态关闭功能将受到不同程度的损害。%Objective: To study maximum urethral closurepressure(MUCP),abdominal leak-point pressure (ALPP) and mobility of vesical cervix in female genuine stress incontinence (GSI) by sonographic urodynamic. Methods:Forty patients with GSI and 22 normal women underwent simultaneous sonographic urodynamic examinations.The MUCP,the ALPP and the mobility of vesical cervix were measured with the standardized method.Results:There was a marked linear correlation between the ALPP and the MUCP (r=0.49,P=0.001),the linear regression equation:y=21.90+0.88x(x:MUCP,y:ALPP).The ALPP and MUCP in GSI group were markedly lower than those in the control group(P<0.01).According to the ALPP.the GSI patients were devided into two subgroups,ALPP≤55cm H2O pressure group(A) and>55cm H2O pressure group(B).The rate of patients with the mobility of vesical cervix ≤1.5cm was 72

  9. Quantification, localization, and speciation of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed-meals produced by hydraulic press.

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Walse, Spencer S; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Freeman, John L

    2012-07-17

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se) especially in seeds when grown in soils laden with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard) and in their hydraulically pressed seed meals, which are used as a Se supplement in livestock animal feeds. Complementary techniques were used to measure total Se concentrations, to map the localization of Se, and to quantify different Se forms. Seeds and hydraulically pressed seed meals contained an average of 1.8 and 2.0 μg Se g(-1) DW, respectively. Selenium was primarily located in cotyledons and roots of seed embryos. Microfocused Se K-edge XANES and bulk XANES showed that seeds contained 90% of Se as C-Se-C forms. Hydraulically pressing seeds for oil caused changes in the forms of Se as follows: 40-55% C-Se-C forms, 33-42% selenocystine, 5-12% selenocysteine, and 11-14% trimethylselenonium ion. Aqueous extracts of seed and seed meals were also analyzed by SAX-HPLC/ICPMS and found to contain mainly the C-Se-C form SeMet, but also another C-Se-C form MeSeCys, which is of dietary pharmacological interest for cancer inhibition. In addition, SAX-HPLC/ICPMS also detected selenocystine and selenocysteine, further confirming the results obtained by XANES analyses. PMID:22747111

  10. Quantitative MRI comparison of pulmonary hemodynamics in mustard/senning-repaired patients suffering from transposition of the great arteries and healthy volunteers at rest

    In Mustard/Senning-repaired (MSR) patients, the right and left ventricles (RV, LV) act as the systemic and pulmonary ventricle, respectively. The purpose of the study was to compare non-invasively, at rest, pulmonary ventricle systolic function and hemodynamics in MSR patients with those of healthy volunteers. Velocity-encoded MR imaging was performed at the level of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) in ten male patients late after a Mustard/Senning correction performed early in infancy and in ten male volunteers. Both blood flow and MPA cross-sectional area variations were recorded over a complete cardiac cycle. MPA distensibility, body surface area (BSA)-normalized pulmonary ventricle systolic power and work were significantly lower in the MSR patients compared to volunteers. In particular, BSA-normalized LV systolic power and work in MSR patients were equal to 82 and 77% on average of those of the RV in volunteers (0.32 vs. 0.39 W/m2 and 0.10 vs. 0.13 J/m2), respectively. We conclude that in MSR patients at rest two unrelated findings were observed: (1) a reduced MPA distensibility and (2) a significantly lower systolic mechanical performance of the pulmonary LV compared to that of the RV in healthy volunteers. The latter quantification indirectly confirms the lowest systemic RV systolic mechanical performance previously published. (orig.)

  11. Alterations of RNA Editing for the Mitochondrial ATP9 Gene in a New orf220-type Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Line of Stem Mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    Jing-Hua Yang; Ming-Fang Zhang; Jing-Quan Yu

    2007-01-01

    RNA editing for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene of encoding regions has been observed in both cytoplasmic malesterile and maintainer lines of stem mustard, where its editing capacity varied spatially and temporally in the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line. There were four RNA editing sites for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene according to its normal editing sites in mustard, of which three sites occurred as C-to-U changes and one as a U-to-C change.As a result, the hydrophobicity of deduced ATP9 protein was reduced due to the conversions at its 17th, 45th and 64th positions. Meanwhile, the conservation of deduced ATP9 protein was enhanced by changes at the 56th position.Loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 was observed in juvenile roots, senile roots, senile leaves and floret buds of the CMS line. Comparatively, complete RNA editing for ATP9 gene was retained in juvenile roots, juvenile leaves and floret buds of its maintainer line; however, the loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 gene occurred at senile roots and senile leaves in its maintainer line. These observations allow us to produce a hypothesis that the dysfunction of a specific mitochondrisl gene arising from RNA editing could probably be a factor triggering CMS and organ senescence through unknown cross-talk pathways during development.

  12. Therapeutic effects of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and radiation on the rat glioma

    The effect of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) or x radiation on the rat glioma clone-6 cells (RG cells) was analyzed by colony formation assay in vitro. The surviving fraction after administration of ACNU 100 μg/ml showed a biphasic curve with a break point about 90 min and 50% survival at 15 min. The dose-survival curve for ACNU (120 min. exposure) showed the existence of a shoulder, at 0 - 25 μg/ml, with Do of 13 μg/ml. The dose-survival curve for x-rays showed Dq-490 rad, Do = 220 rad, and an extrapolation number (n) = 3.1. It was found that when x-rays were given more than 3 hours after ACNU administration, the surviving fraction was smaller than when ACNU and x-rays were given in quick succession, but the effectiveness of the combination was revealed to be additive of ACNU and radiation alone. The lethal effects of ACNU and radiation on normal glia like cells of new born rats were examined Do was 4 μg/ml for ACNU and 180 rad for x-rays, and Dq was 150 rad for x-rays, but not detected for ACNU. In vivo measurements using subcutaneous RG cell tumors showed synergistic increase in doubling time when the tumors were irradiated with x-rays (1000 rad) at 3 to 12 hours after ACNU administration (10 mg/kg), while no synergistic increase of survival was observed. These findings not only indicated that combinations of ACNU and radiation showed synergistic cell-killing effects on tumor growth but also suggested that the effects may have occurred in normal tissues. (Kondo, M.)

  13. Selection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and treatment regimen for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous lesions.

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Buccellato, Matthew A; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S

    2016-09-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in sulfur mustard (HD) injury and HD pathogenesis, suggesting that anti-inflammatory treatments applied as soon as possible following HD injury may reduce tissue damage and accelerate healing. This study used the HD dermal weanling swine model to investigate the efficacy of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin and diclofenac, when applied in combination with the steroid, clobetasol. The therapeutic regimen was also investigated with respect to initiation of treatment post-exposure, frequency and duration. Yorkshire-cross pigs were randomly assigned to experimental groups, corresponding to all combinations of treatment (capsaicin with clobetasol or diclofenac with clobetasol), onset time (1, 2 or 4 h post-exposure), treatment duration (1, 3 or 5 days) and frequency of applications (2, 3 or 4 per day). For each animal, two sites on the ventral abdomen were exposed to 400 μL of neat HD for 8 min to achieve superficial dermal (SD) lesions and two sites were exposed to 400 μL neat HD for 30 min to achieve deep dermal (DD) lesions. Each treatment regimen was tested against a SD and a DD injury. Untreated SD and DD lesion sites served as within-animal controls. Assessments, up to one week post-challenge, included digital photographs, clinical assessments (lesion size measurements and modified Draize scoring), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reflectance colorimetry and histopathologic evaluations that included an estimate for depth of injury and wound healing parameters. Diclofenac plus clobetasol treatment resulted in significant reductions in lesion contracture and modified Draize scores, increased barrier function (decreased TEWL), and increased healing as determined by histopathology for both SD and DD injury when compared with untreated sites and sites treated with capsaicin plus clobetasol. An increased duration of treatment from 1 to 5 days was most commonly associated with decreased

  14. A glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction of basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX from water.

    Tak, Vijay; Kabra, Ankur; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2015-12-24

    In this work, a glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction (μ-EME) was demonstrated for the first time. The device was made by connecting an auxillary borosilicate glass tubing (O.D. 3mm, I.D. 2mm) perpendicular to main borosilicate glass capillary just below one end of the capillary (O.D. 8mm, I.D. 1.2mm). It generated the distorted T-shaped device with inlet '1' and inlet '2' for the introduction of sample and acceptor solutions, respectively. At one end of this device (inlet '2'), a microsyringe containing acceptor solution along with hollow fiber (O.D. 1000μm) was introduced. This configuration creates the micro-channel between inner wall of glass capillary and outer surface of hollow fiber. Sample solution was pumped into the system through another end of glass capillary (inlet '1'), with a micro-syringe pump. The sample was in direct contact with the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisted of 20% (w/w) di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber. In the lumen of the hollow fiber, the acceptor phase was present. The driving force for extraction was direct current (DC) electrical potential sustained over the SLM. Highly polar (logP=-2.5 to 1.4) basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX were selected as model analytes. The influence of chemical composition of SLM, extraction time, voltage and pH of donor and acceptor phase were investigated. The model analytes were extracted from 10μL of pure water with recoveries ranging from 15.7 to 99.7% just after 3min of operation time. Under optimized conditions, good limits of detection (2-50ngmL(-1)), linearity (from 5-1000 to 100-1000ngmL(-1)), and repeatability (RSDs below 11.9%, n=3) were achieved. Applicability of the proposed μ-EME was proved by recovering triethanolamine (31.3%) from 10μL of five times diluted original water sample provided by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 28th official

  15. CD4/CD8 ratio and cytokine levels of the BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis caused by sulfur mustard gas inhalation

    Emad Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze cytokine levels in BAL fluid of patients with bronchiectasis due to mustard gas inhalation. Patients 29 victims with mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis and 25 normal veterans as control group. Intervention PFTs,, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, analyses of BAL fluids for five cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and flow-cytometric analysis of the phenotype of bronchoalveolar cells were performed in all cases. Results CD4 lymphocytes expressed as percentage or absolute number were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (32.17 ± 16.00 vs 23.40 ± 6.97%, respectively; p = 0.01; and 3.31 ± 2.03 vs 1.88 ± 0.83 × 103 cells/ml, respectively; p = 0.001. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (3.08 ± 2.05 vs 1.68 ± 0.78; p = 0.002. There were significant differences in cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 levels of BAL fluid between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy controls. A significant correlation was observed between the HRCT scores and both the percentage and the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes in BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis (r = -0.49, p = 0.009; r = -0.50, p = 0.008; respectively. HRCT scores showed a significant correlation with CD4/CD8 ratios (r = 0.54, p = 0.004 too. Of measured BAL cytokines, only IL-8 (r = -0.52, p = 0.005 and TNF-aα (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 showed significant correlations with the HRCT scores. Conclusion The increased levels of cytokines CD4 lymphocytes in the BAL fluid suggest the possible causative mechanism in the lung in sulfur mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung.

  16. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional irrigation and fertilizer applications were simulated. Shifting of sowing dates of wheat by 15

  17. The Usage of Rostow Criterion in the Fuling District Mustard Production on the Regional Economic Impact Assessment——Taking the deep-processing of Fuling Mustard, for instance%罗斯托准则在区域经济影响评价中的应用——以涪陵区榨菜深加工为例

    全露霞; 周锐; 冉芳青

    2012-01-01

    The organic composition of the natural environment and human environment of a region makes it different from the others, and forms the advantages and disadvantages of its own development. Fuling District, Chongqing city has unique favorable conditions for the production of mustard. Being a traditional pillar industry in the Fuling District, Fuling Mustard plays an extremely important role in its regional economic development. In this paper, three criteria of Rostow Effects are used to evaluate the deep-processing of Fuling Mustard' s impact on the economic development of the Fuling District. The results show that the production of mustard plays an important role in the regional economic development of Fuling District and greatly improves the economic development of Fuling District.%一个区域与其他区域的区别在于其自然环境与人文环境的有机结合而形成的其自身的整体性特征.区域特殊有利的自然与人文条件,使区域更富竞争力,从而使区域总体效益保持在较高水平,这种条件被称为区域优势.重庆市涪陵区具备榨菜生产得天独厚的区位优势.本文应用罗斯托准则对涪陵榨菜深加工对涪陵区域经济的影响进行评价,结果表明:涪陵区榨菜深加工的发展对扩大青菜头的种植面积和规模、榨菜半成品加工的规模、相关生产设备的发展、涪陵区的经济、当地人民的生活文化及榨菜产业的副产品的发展和壮大都有积极的推动作用.榨菜生产在涪陵区域经济发展中有着极其重要的地位,极大地推动了涪陵区经济的发展.

  18. Tratamento endoscópico das perfurações vesicais e uretrais devidas à utilização do suporte suburetral sintético para correção de incontinência urinária de esforço Endoscopic treatment of vesical and urethral perforations after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT® procedure for female stress urinary incontinence

    Fabio Baracat

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A incontinência urinária de esforço é um problema prevalente em mulheres. As opções para seu tratamento vêm aumentando nos últimos tempos, havendo um direcionamento para as técnicas minimamente invasivas, com auxílio de material sintético. Com a utilização desses procedimentos, surgiram complicações incomuns, como perfuração vesical e uretral. As complicações estudadas foram devido à utilização de material sintético no tratamento de incontinência urinária de esforço e o tratamento endoscópico empregado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Onze pacientes foram tratadas com complicações decorrentes do tension-free vaginal tape, seis com faixa de polipropileno dentro da bexiga e cinco com erosão para uretra. Foi realizada ressecção endoscópica em todas as pacientes. RESULTADOS: Uma paciente persistiu com a faixa de polipropileno e foi submetida à nova ressecção endoscópica e cistoscopia controle após três meses era normal. CONCLUSÃO: Realização de ressecção endoscópica de faixas sintéticas intravesicais e intra-uretrais deve ser considerada uma boa alternativa no tratamento dessas complicações.Stress urinary incontinence is a problem that is prevalent in women, and its treatment with minimally invasive techniques using synthetic materials has increased recently, although the procedure has also brought increased occurrence of specific complications such as vesical and urethral perforations. We describe 11 cases of endoscopic correction of vesical and urethral perforations due to the use of synthetic material for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Eleven patients were treated for complications after undergoing the TVT® (tension-free vaginal tape procedure; 6 of them had the polypropylene tape inside the bladder, and 5 had erosion of the urethra. Endoscopic resection of the polypropylene tapes was performed on all patients. RESULTS: A 6-month follow-up with cystoscopic control showed

  19. Estimation of Plant Growth Promoting Potential of Two Nickel Accumulating Morphotypes Isolated from River Hooghly on Indian Yellow Mustard (Brassica hirta

    Tanoy Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Present study was conducted with an aim to estimate the PGPB potential of two nickel tolerant bacterial isolates from river Hooghly. Isolates (I-3 (Gram negative coccobacilli and (II-1 (Gram positive rods were observed, among a total of 22 other isolates, to tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of nickel and also have multiple Plant Growth Promoting (PGP activities like IAA production and phosphate solubilization. Present study also shows that seeds of yellow mustard (Brassica hirta inoculated with both the test isolates individually, significantly enhanced root and shoot growth and also protected the plant from the various phytotoxic effects of nickel.

  20. Transfer factor of heavy metals from soil to mustard and wheat crop grains with in 30 km radius of the proposed nuclear power plant at Gorakhpur, Haryana, India

    The transfer of heavy metals in crops is of increasing concern due to potential health risks and food safety regulations. Regulatory frameworks and guidelines for heavy metals in the environment and foodstuffs have been developed in many countries around the world which may affect international trade of crop products. Further soil-to-food crops transfer of heavy metals is the major pathway of human exposure to soil contamination. In this study, transfer factors of six heavy metals, viz., Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Ni have been studied in mustard and wheat crops. The grains and corresponding soil samples were collected from different sampling locations within 30 km radius of the proposed nuclear power plant at Gorakhpur in Haryana state