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Sample records for 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

  1. Decontamination of 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide by Pulsed Corona Plasma

    Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES, CH3CH2SCH2CH2Cl) by pulsed corona plasma was investigated. The results show that 212.6 mg/m3 of 2-CEES, with the gas flow rate of 2 m3/h, can be decontaminated to 0.09 mg/m3. According to the variation of the inlet and outlet concentration of 2-CEES vapor with retention time, it is found that the reaction of 2-CEES in a pulsed corona plasma system follows the first order reaction, with the reaction rate constant of 0.463 s−1. The decontamination mechanism is discussed based on an analysis of the dissociation energy of chemical bonds and decontamination products. The C–S bond adjacent to the Cl atom will be destroyed firstly to form CH3CH2S· and ·CH2CH2Cl radicals. CH3CH2S· can be decomposed to ·C2H5 and ·S. ·S can be oxidized to SO2, while ·C2H5 can be finally oxidized to CO2 and H2O. The C–Cl bond in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can be destroyed to form ·CH2CH2. and ·Cl, which can be mineralized to CO2, H2O and HCl. The H atom in the ·CH2CH2Cl radical can also be substituted by ·Cl to form CHCl2–CHCl2. (plasma technology)

  2. Rotational spectra, nuclear quadrupole hyperfine tensors, and conformational structures of the mustard gas simulent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Tubergen, M. J.; Lesarri, A.; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, A. C.; Jensen, J. O.; Ellzy, M. W.; Lochner, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    Rotational spectra have been recorded for both the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopic forms of two structural conformations of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The rotational constants of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopomers were used to identify the conformational isomers. A total of 236 hyperfine transitions have been assigned for 47 rotational transitions of the 35Cl isotope of a GGT conformer, and 146 hyperfine have been assigned for 37 rotational transitions of the 37Cl isotopomer. For the second conformer, a total of 128 (110) hyperfine and 30 (28) rotational transitions have also been assigned to the 35Cl ( 37Cl) isotopes of a TGT conformation. The extensive hyperfine splitting data, measured to high resolution with a compact Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, were used to determine both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors in the inertial tensor principal axis system. The experimental rotational constant data, as well as the 35Cl and 37Cl nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors, were compared to the results from 27 optimized ab initio (HF/6-311++G ∗∗ and MP2/6-311++G ∗∗) model structures.

  3. A Role for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Sulfur Mustard Analog 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide-Induced Lung Cell Injury and Antioxidant Protection

    Gould, Neal S; White, Carl W; Day, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur mustards (SMs) have been used as warfare agents since World War I and still pose a significant threat against civilian and military personnel. SM exposure can cause significant blistering of the skin, respiratory injury, and fibrosis. No antidote currently exists for SM exposure, but recent studies, using the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), have focused on the ability of antioxidants to prevent toxicity. Although antioxidants can prevent CEES-induc...

  4. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100...

  5. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  6. Protective Effects of Recombinant Kunitz-Domain 1 of Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-2 Against 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide Toxicity In Vitro

    Moonsuk S. Choi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard is a well-known blistering chemical warfare agent that has been investigated for its toxicological mechanisms and an efficacious antidote. Since sulfur mustard injury involves dermal:epidermal separation, proteolytic enzymes were suspected to be involved for this separation and eventual blister development. Therefore, protease inhibitors could be of therapeutic utility against sulfur mustard injury. In this study, the effects of Kunitz-domain 1 of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 were evaluated against the toxic effects of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a surrogate agent of sulfur mustard. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 is a 32-kDa serine protease inhibitor produced by a variety of cell types including human epidermal keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. It consists of 3 Kunitz-domains and the first Kunitz-domain contains the putative P1 residue (arginine at position 24 responsible for protease inhibitory activity. Methods: Recombinant wild-type and R24Q mutant Kunitz-domain 1s were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified proteins were refolded, and their effects were tested in an in vitro human epidermal keratinocyte cell wounding assay. Results: Wild-type but not R24Q Kunitz-domain 1 inhibited the amidolytic activity of trypsin and plasmin. Wild-type Kunitz-domain1 was stable for 4 weeks at 42°C and for more than 8 weeks at room temperature. Wild-type Kunitz-domain 1 significantly improved wound healing of unexposed and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide–exposed cells without influencing cell proliferation. Although R24Q Kunitz-domain 1 lacked trypsin and plasmin inhibitory activity, it promoted wound closure of untreated and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide–treated cells but to a much lesser degree. Conclusion: These data suggest that wild-type Kunitz-domain 1 of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 can be developed as a medical countermeasure against sulfur mustard cutaneous injury.

  7. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FTTM, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE2 synthases, leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  8. Role of TNFR1 in lung injury and altered lung function induced by the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Lung toxicity induced by sulfur mustard is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. To elucidate mechanisms mediating pulmonary damage, we used 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. Male mice (B6129) were treated intratracheally with CEES (3 or 6 mg/kg) or control. Animals were sacrificed 3, 7 or 14 days later and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue collected. Treatment of mice with CEES resulted in an increase in BAL protein, an indication of alveolar epithelial damage, within 3 days. Expression of Ym1, an oxidative stress marker also increased in the lung, along with inducible nitric oxide synthase, and at 14 days, cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inflammatory proteins implicated in tissue injury. These responses were attenuated in mice lacking the p55 receptor for TNFα (TNFR1-/-), demonstrating that signaling via TNFR1 is key to CEES-induced injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation. CEES-induced upregulation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MnSOD was delayed or absent in TNFR1-/- mice, relative to WT mice, suggesting that TNFα mediates early antioxidant responses to lung toxicants. Treatment of WT mice with CEES also resulted in functional alterations in the lung including decreases in compliance and increases in elastance. Additionally, methacholine-induced alterations in total lung resistance and central airway resistance were dampened by CEES. Loss of TNFR1 resulted in blunted functional responses to CEES. These effects were most notable in the airways. These data suggest that targeting TNFα signaling may be useful in mitigating lung injury, inflammation and functional alterations induced by vesicants.

  9. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 μM) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

  10. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  11. Zinc oxide nanocubes as a destructive nanoadsorbent for the neutralization chemistry of 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide: A sulfur mustard simulant.

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanocubes were surveyed for their destructive turn-over to decontaminate 2-chloro ethyl phenyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. Prior to the reaction, nanocubes were prepared through sol-gel method using monoethanolamine, diethylene glycol, and anhydrous citric acid as the stabilizing, cross linking/structure directing agents, respectively. The formation of nanoscale ZnO, the cubic morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical-adsorptive characteristics were certified by FESEM-EDS, TEM-SAED, XRD, FTIR, BET-BJH, H2-TPR, and ESR techniques. Adsorption and destruction reactions were tracked by GC-FID analysis in which the effects of polarity of the media, reaction time, and temperature on the destructive capability of the surface of nanocubes were investigated and discussed. Results demonstrated that maximum neutralization occurred in n-heptane solvent after 1/2h at 55°C. Kinetic study construed that the neutralization reaction followed the pseudo-second order model with a squared correlation coefficient and rate constant of 0.9904 and 0.00004gmg(-1)s(-1), respectively. Furthermore, GC-MS measurement confirmed the formation of 2-hydroxy ethyl phenyl sulfide (2-HEPS) and phenyl vinyl sulfide (PVS) as neutralization products that together with Bronsted and Lewis acid/base approaches exemplify the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the surface of zinc oxide nanocubes. PMID:27309947

  12. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 ± 2°C ). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t1/2 were calculated to be 0.026 h-1, 26.6 h for CEES and 0.052 h-1, 13.24 h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure.

  13. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450’s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroe...

  14. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide isotopologues: a route toward their astrophysical detection

    Puzzarini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, " Giacomo Ciamician," Università diBologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Institsuto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Domínguez-Gómez, R. [Doctora Vinculada IEM-CSIC, Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Hochlaf, M. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Al-Mogren, M. Mogren, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it, E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es, E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: majdi.hochlaf@u-pem.fr, E-mail: mmogren@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-11-20

    Using state-of-the-art computational methodologies, we predict a set of reliable rotational and torsional parameters for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide monosubstituted isotopologues. This includes rotational, quartic, and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, torsional levels, and torsional splittings. The accuracy of the present data was assessed from a comparison to the available experimental data. Generally, our computed parameters should help in the characterization and the identification of these organo-sulfur molecules in laboratory settings and in the interstellar medium.

  15. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene catalyzed by EtAlCl 2/Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether soluble complex in hexanes

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda

    2014-03-25

    The polymerization of isobutylene (IB) to yield highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with high exo-olefin content using GaCl3 or FeCl3·diisopropyl ether complexes has been previously reported.1 In an effort to further improve polymerization rates and exo-olefin content, we have studied ethylaluminum dichloride (EADC) complexes with diisopropyl ether, 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether (CEEE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (CEE) as catalysts in conjunction with tert-butyl chloride as initiator in hexanes at different temperatures. All three complexes were readily soluble in hexanes. Polymerization, however, was only observed with CEE. At 0 °C polymerization was complete in 5 min at [t-BuCl] = [EADC·CEE] = 10 mM and resulted in PIB with ∼70% exo-olefin content. Studies on complexation using ATR FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that at 1:1 stoichiometry a small amount of EADC remains uncomplexed. By employing an excess of CEE, exo-olefin contents increased up to 90%, while polymerization rates decreased only slightly. With decreasing temperature, polymerization rates decreased while molecular weights as well as exo-olefin contents increased, suggesting that isomerization has a higher activation energy than β-proton abstraction. Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the Lewis acid·ether binding energies indicated a trend consistent with the polymerization results. The polymerization mechanism proposed previously for Lewis acid·ether complexes1 adequately explains all the findings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Effect of cycocel [(2, chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] on growth and nutrition of jute

    Studies were conducted on the effect of cycocel [(2, chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] on the growth and nutrition of two jute varieties. C. capsularis (JRC 212) and C. olitorius (JRO 632). In general, the soil application was found to be superior to foliar application. The latter method yielded significant results when applied at 30 days to C. capsularis whereas C. olitorius responded well at 45 days of spray. Out of the N, P and K application, P was applied as 32P-superphosphate. (author)

  17. Aminoalkylated Merrifield Resins Reticulated by Tris-(2-chloroethyl Phosphate for Cadmium, Copper, and Iron (II Extraction

    Mokhtar Dardouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to synthesize novel substituted polymers bearing functional groups to chelate heavy metals during depollution applications. Three polyamine functionalized Merrifield resins were prepared via ethylenediamine (EDA, diethylenetriamine (DETA, and triethylenetetramine (TETA modifications named, respectively, MR-EDA, MR-DETA, and MR-TETA. The aminoalkylated polymers were subsequently reticulated by tris-(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP to obtain new polymeric resins called, respectively, MR-EDA-TCEP, MR-DETA-TCEP, and MR-TETA-TCEP. The obtained resins were characterized via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis (EA, and thermogravimetric (TGA, thermodynamic (DTA, and differential thermogravimetric (DTG analysis. The synthesized resins were then assayed to evaluate their efficiency to extract metallic ions such as Cd2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ from aqueous solutions.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide production during yeast fermentation causes the accumulation of ethanethiol, S-ethyl thioacetate and diethyl disulfide.

    Kinzurik, Matias I; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Gardner, Richard C; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced by yeast during winemaking and possesses off-flavors reminiscent of rotten eggs. The production of H2S during fermentation has also been associated in the finished wine with the rise of additional volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) with strong aromas of cooked onions and vegetables. To characterize these more complex VSCs produced from H2S, we performed fermentations in synthetic grape juice. H2S production was manipulated experimentally by feeding increasing concentrations of sulfate to mutant strains that are unable to incorporate H2S efficiently as part of the sulfur assimilation pathway. In finished wines from these mutants, three VSCs - ethanethiol, S-ethyl thioacetate and diethyl disulfide - increased proportionally to H2S. (34)S-labeled sulfate fed to the MET17-deleted strain was incorporated into same three VSCs, demonstrating that they are formed directly from H2S. PMID:27173572

  19. N2,N2,N5,N5-Tetrakis(2-chloroethyl-3,4-dimethylthiophene-2,5-dicarboxamide

    Yi-Dan Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H22Cl4N2O2S, the two imide groups adopt a trans arrangement relative to the central thienyl ring, so the four terminal 2-chloroethyl arms adopt different orientations. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  20. Potentiation in the intact rat of the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea.

    Nakae, D; Oakes, J W; Farber, J L

    1988-12-01

    Studies of the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen indicate that the cells are injured by an oxidative stress that accompanies the metabolism of the toxin (J. L. Farber et al. (1988) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 267, 640-650). The present report documents that the essential features of the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen are reproduced in the intact animal. Male rats had no evidence of liver necrosis 24 h after administration of up to 1000 mg/kg of acetaminophen. Induction of mixed function oxidase activity by 3-methylcholanthrene increased the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen. Inhibition of glutathione reductase by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) potentiated the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in male rats induced with 3-methylcholanthrene. Whereas the pretreatment with BCNU reduced the GSH content by 40%, a comparable depletion of GSH by diethylmaleate did not potentiate the toxicity of acetaminophen. The antioxidant diphenylphenylenediamine (25 mg/kg) and the ferric iron chelator deferoxamine (1000 mg/kg) prevented the liver necrosis produced by 500 mg/kg acetaminophen in rats pretreated with BCNU. Neither protective agent prevented the fall in GSH produced by acetaminophen. It is concluded the conditions of the irreversible injury of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen previously reported are not necessarily different from those that obtain in the intact rat with this toxin. PMID:3214175

  1. In vivo potentiation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea by the radiation sensitizer benznidazole

    Recent studies in mouse tumor systems have indicated a potential therapeutic advantage in combining the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO) with cancer chemotherapy drugs. One agent the antitumor activity of which has been enhanced to a greater extent than its hematological or gastrointestinal toxicities is the nitrosourea, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). Recently, sensitizers more lipophylic than MISO have been reported to give greater tumor response enhancement when combined with CCNU. The present studies compared the potential therapeutic benefit of combining MISO (partition coefficient, 0.43) or benznidazole (BENZO) (partition coefficient, 8.5) in KHT sarcoma or RIF-1 tumor-bearing C3H mice. Both sensitizers were administered i.p. and given either 30 min before (BENZO) or simultaneously with (MISO) the chemotherapeutic agent. Survival of clonogenic tumor cells assessed 22 to 24 hr after treatment or in situ tumor growth delay were used as assays of tumor response. Normal tissue toxicity was determined using the drug dose yielding 50% animal lethality in 30 days end point. When combined with CCNU, doses of MISO (5.0 mmol/kg) or BENZO (0.3 mmol/kg) were found to yield approximately equivalent increases in both the tumor effect (enhancement ratio, approximately 1.8 to 2.0) and normal tissue toxicity (enhancement ratio approximately 1.3 to 1.4). Both sensitizers therefore led to a therapeutic benefit. However, although a approximately 10-fold lower dose of the more lipophylic sensitizer BENZO proved to be as effective as MISO at enhancing the tumoricidal effects of CCNU, this dose reduction did not result in a greater therapeutic gain for BENZO

  2. Enhancement of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea resistance by gamma-irradiation or drug pretreatment in rat hepatoma cells

    Treatment of rat hepatoma cells (H4 cells) with various DNA-damaging agents increases the number of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (transferase) molecules per cell. Because the cellular resistance to chloroethylnitrosoureas depends on the number of transferase molecules, we studied the influence of pretreatment with gamma-irradiation, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II), or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium on the sensitivity of H4 cells to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). The BCNU resistance depends on the gamma-ray dose and increases with time after irradiation: it is maximum when the drug is added 48 h after irradiation, which corresponds to the maximum enhancement of the transferase activity in the cells. Pretreatment with a single dose of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium also increases the cellular resistance to BCNU. This resistance is not due to a modification of the alkylation of the cellular DNA in the pretreated cells but is related to the increased transferase activity, as it is no longer observed when this activity is depleted by incubating the pretreated cells with the free base O6-methylguanine before BCNU treatment. These results suggest that tumor cells surviving after gamma-irradiation or drug treatment may become resistant to chemotherapy with chloroethylnitrosoureas

  3. Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate-induced cell growth arrest via attenuation of SIRT1-independent PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Youjian; Wang, Zhiyuan; Xu, Tian; Huang, Cheng; Yin, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Xiong, Wei; Lu, Wenhong; Zheng, Hongyan; Yuan, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) as an organophosphorus flame retardant and plasticizer has been widely used in industrial and household products. It not only was detected in residential indoor air and dust, surface and drinking water, but also in human plasma and breast milk, and tissue samples of liver, kidneys and brain from rodents. TCEP is classified as carcinogenic category 2 and toxic for reproduction category 1B. Sufficient evidence from experimental animals indicated carcinogenicity of TCEP in the liver, and kidneys as well as cell loss in the brain. However, the underlying mechanisms of TCEP-induced hepatotoxicity are mostly unknown. We investigated the in vitro effects of TCEP as well as TCEP-induced cell growth in the L02 and HepG2 cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We found that TCEP reduced cell viability of these cell lines, induced the cell growth arrest, upregulated mRNA and protein levels of SIRT1, and attenuated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. However, growth arrest of the L02 and HepG2 cells were aggravated after inhibiting the SIRT1 expression with EX-527. The findings above suggested that TCEP induced the cell growth arrest of L02 and HepG2 cells via attenuation of the SIRT1-independent PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26378621

  4. Factors influencing the survival of rat brain tumor cells after in vitro treatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Wheeler, K.T.; Tel, N.; Williams, M.E.; Sheppard, S.; Levin, V.A.; Kara, P.M.

    1975-06-01

    The shape of dose-response curves obtained for asynchronous, exponential growing 9L rat brain tumor cells treated in vitro with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea changed as a function of the drug exposure time. For short treatment times (<1 hr), the dose-response curves had shoulders, indicating that the cells may accumulate sublethal damage; however, after longer treatments (>1 hr), little if any shoulder was apparent. The slope of the exponential portion of the dose-response curve increased progressively with treatment periods from 15 min to 2 hr. Longer exposure times (up to 24 hr) produced no further changes in the cell-kill kinetics. Cell survival was directly related to the BCNU exposure dose and to the amount of bound BCNU per cell. Extrapolation of the curves for these two variables indicated that some BCNU damage accumulates before death occurs. The amount of serum and cell products available in the medium to bind BCNU affected the level of survival; however, there was no evidence that extracellular spontaneous breakdown products or chemical transformation products were involved in the cell-killing mechanism. (auth)

  5. O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity correlates with the therapeutic response of human rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Immune-deprived female CBA/CaJ mice bearing xenografts of six different human rhabdomyosarcoma lines were treated with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU). Tumor responses were compared with levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity because of evidence indicating that repair of DNA interstrand cross-link precursors, mediated by the transferase, may be an important determinant of MeCCNU cytotoxicity. Levels of methyltransferase in tumor extracts were measured by determining the loss of O6-methylguanine from 3H-labeled methylated DNA. Five of the six tumor lines examined showed either no response to MeCCNU or regrowth after an incomplete response. In each instance, the extent of tumor regression correlated with the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in tumor extracts. These results suggest that O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase levels in human tumor cells may be a clinically useful predictor of sensitivity to the chloroethylnitrosoureas

  6. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  7. Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography

    Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using [14C]alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and [18F]fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with [18F]fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy

  8. Neurotoxicity after intracarotid 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea administration in the rat: Hemodynamic changes studied by double-tracer autoradiography

    Nagahiro, S.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Diksic, M.; Mitsuka, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Feindel, W. (Cone Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-07-01

    Changes in blood-brain (BBB) permeability and local cerebral blood flow after intracarotid administration of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) were examined quantitatively in rats with double-tracer autoradiography using (14C)alpha-amino-isobutyric acid and (18F)fluoroantipyrine. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The control group (Group 1) received 1 ml of 5% dextrose. The other three groups received three different doses of BCNU dissolved in 5% dextrose: Group 2 rats received 1 mg, Group 3 3 mg, and Group 4 10 mg. The tracer study was performed on Day 1 or Days 4 to 12 after intracarotid administration of BCNU. In 11 rats in Group 2, there were no changes of BBB permeability. Transient BBB permeability changes were seen in the striatum or hippocampus in 3 of the 5 rats (60%) in Group 3 within 24 hours. In 8 of 9 rats (89%) in the same group, late BBB permeability changes were observed in the hypothalamus with or without histological changes. BBB permeability changes were seen in all rats of Group 4. Focal increase of local cerebral blood flow on the infused side compared with the non-infused side of the brain was observed, although not at a significant level, in 5 of 25 rats examined with (18F)fluoroantipyrine. The results of BBB permeability and histological examinations and study of heterogenous distribution by (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose indicated that the ipsilateral subcortical structures such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, internal capsule, and caudate putamen have the highest incidence of neurotoxicity, which are closely related to histopathological damage seen in human BCNU leucoencephalopathy.

  9. HILIC-MS Determination of Genotoxic Impurity of 2-Chloro-N-(2-Chloroethyl)Ethanamine in the Vortioxetine Manufacturing Process.

    Douša, Michal; Klvaňa, Robert; Doubský, Jan; Srbek, Jan; Richter, Jindřich; Exner, Marek; Gibala, Petr

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, pharmaceutical regulatory agencies are focused on monitoring and evaluation of trace-level genotoxic impurities (GTIs) in drug substances, which requires manufacturers to deliver innovative approaches for their analysis and control. GTIs in the low p.p.m. level rising from the process of drug production have to be positively identified and quantified. Therefore, sensitive and selective analytical methods are necessary for required quantification level of these GTIs. Unfortunately, general guidance on how to develop strategy of the analysis and control of GTIs is currently missing in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, practical example of the analytical control of 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)ethanamine GTI in the vortioxetine (VOR) manufacturing process was demonstrated in this work. QDa mass detection with electrospray ionization in selected-ion recording mode was utilized for quantitation of GTIs. The method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (HILIC-MS) was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and was able to quantitate GTIs at 75 p.p.m. with respect to VOR. The HILIC-MS method was achieved using a Primesep B column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 µm; Sielc, USA) using mobile phase consisting of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (5 : 95, v/v) at 0.8 mL/min flow rate. The QDa mass detector was operated in the positive ion mode. Quadrupole mass analyzer was employed in selected-ion monitoring mode using target ion at m/z 142 as [M+H](+). PMID:26223463

  10. In vitro release of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained-release microspheres and the distribution in rat brain tissues

    Xia Li; Liping Guo; Qin Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The implantation of released chemotherapeutic drugs, which takes biodegradable polymer as vector, into the tumor site can get high concentration and release the drug for a long time, it can directly act on the tumor cells, and reduce the general toxicity.OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vitro and in vivo course of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) sustained-release from BCNU-loaded polylactide (PLA) microspheres (MS) and location in rat brain tissue.DESIGN: A repetitive measurement.SETTING: Central Pharmacy, General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.MATERIALS: Thirty male SD rats were used. PLA (Mr5000, batch number: KSL8377) was produced by Wako Pure Chemical Inc.,Ltd. (Japan); BCNU (batch number: 021121) by Tianjin Jinyao Amino Acid Co., Ltd.;BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation and pressed into tablets (10 mg/tablet).High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Agilent 1100 (USA); LS9800 liquid-scintillation radiometric apparatus (Beckman). Chromatographic conditions: Elite Hypersil ODS2 C18 chromatographic column (5 μm,4.6 mm ×150 mm); Mobile phase: methanol: water (50:50), flow rate was 1.0 mL per minute, wave length of ultraviolet detection was 237 nm, and the inlet amount of samples was 10 μL.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the experimental animal center of the General Hospital of Chinese Armed Police from May 2004 to July 2005. ① In vitro BCNU-PLA-MS release test: BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation, then placed in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered solution (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 ℃), part of MS were taken out at 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 15 days respectively, and the rest amount of BCNU in MS was determined by HPLC, then the curve of BCNU-PLA-MS release was drawn. ②In vivo BCNU-PLA-MS release and distribution test: The rats were anesthetized, then BCNU-PLA-MS were implanted to the site 1 mm inferior to the cortex of frontal lobe. Five rats were killed postoperatively

  11. A dominated and resistant subpopulation causes regrowth after response to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea treatment of a heterogeneous small cell lung cancer xenograft in nude mice

    Aabo, K; Roed, H; Vindeløv, L L;

    1994-01-01

    In order to address the question of the influence of a primarily chemoresistant tumor cell subpopulation on the progression of a heterogeneous tumor after cytotoxic therapy, in vitro established human small cell lung cancer cell lines of a 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU)-sensitive (592......) and a resistant (NYH) tumor were used to produce mixed solid tumors in nude mice. Mixtures of 592/NYH (9:1 and 1:1) were inoculated s.c. After 3-4 weeks of tumor growth, the mice were stratified according to tumor size and randomized to treatment with BCNU 40 mg/kg i.p. (10% of lethal dose) or no...

  12. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure determination and computational study of a new Cu(II) complex of bis [2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl)imino]methyl}phenolato)] copper(II) Schiff base complex

    Grivani, Gholamhossein; Vakili, Mohammad; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Taghavi, Maedeh

    2016-07-01

    The copper (II) Schiff base complex of [CuL2] (1), HL = 2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl) imino]methyl}phenol, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental (CHN) analysis, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The conformational analysis and molecular structures of CuL2 were investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP/6-311G* level. An excellent agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental results. The Schiff base ligand of HL acts as a chelating ligand and coordinates via one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom to the metal center. The copper (II) center is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms from two Schiff base ligands in an approximately square planar trans-[MN2O2] coordination geometry. Thermogravimetric analysis of CuL2 showed that it was decomposed in five stages. In addition, the CuL2 complex thermally decomposed in air at 660 °C and the XRD pattern of the obtained solid showed the formation of CuO nanoparticles with an average size of 34 nm.

  13. Coupling of Alcohols over Alkali-Promoted Cobalt-Molybdenum Sulfide

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Schiødt, N.C.;

    2010-01-01

    Double or nothing: Higher alcohols are produced by the hydrogenation of CO with a K-promoted Co-MoS2/C catalyst. Ethanol, which is passed over the sulfide catalyst along with CO and H2, is mainly converted into 1-butanol, which indicates that alcohol condensation contributes to the build-up of...... higher alcohols over the sulfide catalyst. In a nitrogen atmosphere, ethanol is also in part converted into 1-butanol, although ethyl acetate is the major product....

  14. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Victor Paromov; Sudha Kumari; Marianne Brannon; Kanaparthy, Naga S.; Hongsong Yang; Smith, Milton G.; Stone, William L

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD) and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-sol...

  15. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  16. Mesostructured metal germanium sulfides

    MacLachlan, M.J.; Coombs, N.; Bedard, R.L.; White, S.; Thompson, L.K.; Ozin, G.A.

    1999-12-29

    A new class of mesostructured metal germanium sulfide materials has been prepared and characterized. The synthesis, via supramolecular assembly of well-defined germanium sulfide anionic cluster precursors and transition-metal cations in formamide, represents a new strategy for the formation of this class of solids. A variety of techniques were employed to examine the structure and composition of the materials. Structurally, the material is best described as a periodic mesostructured metal sulfide-based coordination framework akin to periodic hexagonal mesoporous silica, MCM-41. At the molecular scale, the materials strongly resemble microstructured metal germanium sulfides, in which the structure of the [Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10}]{sup 4{minus}} cluster building-blocks are intact and linked via {mu}-S-M-S bonds. Evidence for a metal-metal bond in mesostructured Cu/Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10} is also provided.

  17. Use of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate in forensic toxicology

    2009-01-01

    List of papers I. Høiseth G, Karinen R, Christophersen AS, Olsen L, Normann PT, Mørland J. (2007) A study of ethyl glucuronide in post-mortem blood as a marker of ante-mortem ingestion of alcohol. Forensic Sci Int 165:41-45 II. Høiseth G, Karinen R, Johnsen L, Normann PT, Christophersen AS, Mørland J. (2008) Disappearance of ethyl glucuronide during heavy putrefaction. For Sci Int. 176:147-51 III. Høiseth G, Kristoffersen L, Larssen B, Arnestad M, Hermansen NO, Mørland J.(2008) ...

  18. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  19. Ethyl diazoacetate synthesis in flow

    Mariëlle M. E. Delville

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl diazoacetate is a versatile compound in organic chemistry and frequently used on lab scale. Its highly explosive nature, however, severely limits its use in industrial processes. The in-line coupling of microreactor synthesis and separation technology enables the synthesis of this compound in an inherently safe manner, thereby making it available on demand in sufficient quantities. Ethyl diazoacetate was prepared in a biphasic mixture comprising an aqueous solution of glycine ethyl ester, sodium nitrite and dichloromethane. Optimization of the reaction was focused on decreasing the residence time with the smallest amount of sodium nitrite possible. With these boundary conditions, a production yield of 20 g EDA day−1 was achieved using a microreactor with an internal volume of 100 μL. Straightforward scale-up or scale-out of microreactor technology renders this method viable for industrial application.

  20. Titanocene sulfide chemistry

    Horáček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 314, MAY 2016 (2016), s. 83-102. ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanocene sulfide chemistry * photolysis * titanocene hydrosulfides Ti-(SH)n Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.239, year: 2014

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of ethyl xanthate oxidation products and analysis by ion interaction chromatography

    Hao; Silvester; Senior

    2000-10-15

    An ion interaction chromatographic separation method, coupled with UV spectroscopic detection, has been developed for the analysis of ethyl xanthate (O-ethyl dithiocarbonate) and its oxidative decomposition products in mineral flotation systems. The effects of the ion-pairing agent (tetrabutylammonium ion), pH modifier (phosphoric acid), and organic modifier (acetonitrile) in the eluant upon the retention characteristics of the ethyl xanthate oxidation products have been determined. The optimized separation procedure has been successfully applied to the analysis of ethyl xanthate and its oxidation products in a nickel-iron sulfide mineral suspension containing a number of other anionic species, including cyanide complexes of nickel and iron, as well as sulfur-oxy anions. The ethyl xanthate oxidation products investigated in this study have been isolated as pure compounds and characterized by UV-visible, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopies. The UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopic properties of these species are discussed in terms of the chemical modifications of the thiocarbonate group. PMID:11055697

  2. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Dezhao, Liu; Hansen, Michael Jørgen;

    oxidizing bacteria but several fungal families including Trichocomaceae. A positive correlation was found between the presence of mold and sulfide uptake. However there have been no reports on fungi metabolizing hydrogen sulfide. We hypothesize that the mold increases the air exposed surface, enabling...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  3. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Liu, Dezhao; Hansen, Michael Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    oxidizing bacteria but several fungal families including Trichocomaceae. A positive correlation was found between the presence of mold and sulfide uptake. However there have been no reports on fungi metabolizing hydrogen sulfide. We hypothesize that the mold increases the air exposed surface, enabling...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  4. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  5. Field method for sulfide determination

    Wilson, B L; Schwarser, R R; Chukwuenye, C O

    1982-01-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed for determining the total sulfide concentration in water in the field. Direct measurements were made using a silver/sulfide ion selective electrode in conjunction with a double junction reference electrode connected to an Orion Model 407A/F Specific Ion Meter. The method also made use of a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer (SAOB II) which consists of ascorbic acid, sodium hydroxide, and disodium EDTA. Preweighed sodium sulfide crystals were sealed in air tight plastic volumetric flasks which were used in standardization process in the field. Field standards were prepared by adding SAOB II to the flask containing the sulfide crystals and diluting it to the mark with deionized deaerated water. Serial dilutions of the standards were used to prepare standards of lower concentrations. Concentrations as low as 6 ppB were obtained on lake samples with a reproducibility better than +- 10%.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  7. A novel method for improving cerussite sulfidization

    Feng, Qi-cheng; Wen, Shu-ming; Zhao, Wen-juan; Cao, Qin-bo; Lü, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of flotation behavior, solution measurements, and surface analyses were performed to investigate the effects of chloride ion addition on the sulfidization of cerussite in this study. Micro-flotation tests indicate that the addition of chloride ions prior to sulfidization can significantly increase the flotation recovery of cerussite, which is attributed to the formation of more lead sulfide species on the mineral surface. Solution measurement results suggest that the addition of chloride ions prior to sulfidization induces the transformation of more sulfide ions from pulp solution onto the mineral surface by the formation of more lead sulfide species. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy indicate that more lead sulfide species form on the mineral surface when chloride ions are added prior to sulfidization. These results demonstrate that the addition of chloride ions prior to sulfidization can significantly improve the sulfidization of cerussite, thereby enhancing the flotation performance.

  8. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  9. Pyrophoric nature of iron sulfides

    Walker, R. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Steele, A.D.; Morgan, D.T.B. [Shell Research Centre Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom). Thornton Research Centre

    1996-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, often present in crude oil tankers, can react with rust to form various sulfides including mackinawite (FeS), greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}), and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). The tendency for these compounds to react with oxygen in air to form potentially explosive mixtures depends upon their morphology and the environmental conditions. The experimentally determined heat of oxidation of finely divided mackinawite was {minus}7.45 kJ/g. For samples with a larger particle size and smaller surface area the values measured were lower due to incomplete oxidation of the sulfide. All the sulfides produced, whether from magnetite or acicular, prismatic or spherical geothite, were approximately spherical in form. The heat of oxidation of greigite was found to be approximately {minus}2100 kJ/mol, and the heat of formation of greigite is approximately {minus}320 kJ/mol.

  10. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Soika, V.; Luxova, M.

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min of...... milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  11. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NOx showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NOx emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  12. The cyanogen-ethyl ethers of glycerin

    The cyanogen-ethylation is one of the characteristic reaction of hydroxyl comprising compounds and run with addition them to acryl nitride. The catalysis of process are substances, which have basic character

  13. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH, β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group. β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  14. Synthesis of furan from allenic sulfide derivatives

    PENG LingLing; ZHANG Xiu; MA Jie; ZHONG ZhenZhen; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Yan; WANG JianBo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of furan derivatives from allenic sulfides. By the reaction with NaH.,β-Hydroxyl allenic sulfides were found to generate furan products in excellent yields with the removal of phenylthio group.β-Aldehyde allenic sulfides were found to give similar furan products with one more substituent when treated with additional nucleophilic reagents. β-ketone allenic sulfides can also cyclize to give furan derivatives with the promotion of P2O5.

  15. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of...

  16. 30 CFR 250.490 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.490 Section 250.490... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Hydrogen Sulfide § 250.490 Hydrogen... black lettering as follows: Letter height Wording 12 inches Danger. Poisonous Gas. Hydrogen Sulfide....

  17. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or...

  18. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or...

  19. STUDY OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER

    T. Lupascu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the underground water of the Hancesti town has been investigated. By oxygen bubbling through the water containing hydrogen sulfide, from the Hancesti well tube, sulfur is deposited in the porous structure of studied catalysts, which decreases their catalytic activity. Concomitantly, the process of adsorption / oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate take place. The kinetic research of the hydrogen sulfide removal from the Hancesti underground water, after its treatment by hydrogen peroxide, proves greater efficiency than in the case of modified carbonic adsorbents. As a result of used treatment, hydrogen sulfide is completely oxidized to sulfates

  20. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  1. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...

  2. Solid acid catalysed formation of ethyl levulinate and ethyl glucopyranoside from mono- and disaccharides

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalised SBA-15 (SO3H-SBA-15), sulfated zirconia and beta, Y, ZSM-5 and mordenite zeolite catalysts have been applied for the dehydration of sugars to ethyl levulinate and ethyl-D-glucopyranoside (EDGP) using ethanol as solvent and reactant. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst showed a...... high catalytic activity for the selective conversion of fructose to ethyl levulinate (57%) and glucose to EDGP (80%) at 140 °C, whereas the disaccharide sucrose yielded a significant amount of both products. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalysts were found to be highly active compared to the zeolites under...

  3. Study of the Reaction Cl + Ethyl Formate at 700-950 Torr and 297 to 435 K: Product Distribution and the Kinetics of the Reaction C2H5OC(═O) → CO2 + C2H5.

    Kaiser, E W

    2016-05-26

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of atomic chlorine with ethyl formate [Cl + CH3CH2O(C═O)H, reaction 1] have been examined. These experiments were performed at pressures of 760-950 Torr and temperatures from 297 to 435 K. Reactants and products were quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC/FID) analysis. The initial mixture contained ethyl formate, Cl2, and N2. Cl atoms were generated by UV photolysis of this initial mixture at 360 nm, which dissociates Cl2. The rate constant of reaction 1 was measured at 297 K relative to that of the reaction Cl + C2H5Cl (reaction 2), yielding the rate constant ratio k1/k2 = 1.09 ± 0.05. The final products formed from reaction 1 are ethyl chloroformate, 1-chloroethyl formate, and 2-chloroethyl formate. These products result from the reactions with Cl2 of the three free radicals formed by H atom abstraction from ethylformate in reaction 1. Based on the molar yields of these three chlorinated products, the yields of the three radicals formed from reaction 1 at 297 K are (25 ± 3) mole percent of CH3CH2O(C═O); (67 ± 5) mole percent of CH3CHO(C═O)H; and (8 ± 2) mole percent of CH2CH2O(C═O)H. A second phase of this experiment measured the rate constant of the decarboxylation of the ethoxy carbonyl radical [CH3CH2O(C═O) → CO2 + C2H5, reaction 4] relative to the rate constant of its reaction with Cl2 [CH3CH2O(C═O) + Cl2 → CH3CH2O(C═O)Cl + Cl, reaction 3a]. Over the temperature range 297 to 404 K at 1 atm total pressure, this ratio can be expressed by k4/k3a = 10(23.56±0.22) e(-(12700±375)/RT) molecules cm(-3). Estimating the value of k3a (which has not been measured) based on similar reactions, the expression k4 = 5.8 × 10(12) e(-(12700)/RT) s(-1) is obtained. The estimated error of this rate constant is ± a factor of 2 over the experimental temperature range. This rate expression is compared with recent ab initio calculations of the decarboxylation of the analogous methoxy

  4. Redox Biochemistry of Hydrogen Sulfide*

    Kabil, Omer; Banerjee, Ruma

    2010-01-01

    H2S, the most recently discovered gasotransmitter, might in fact be the evolutionary matriarch of this family, being both ancient and highly reduced. Disruption of γ-cystathionase in mice leads to cardiovascular dysfunction and marked hypertension, suggesting a key role for this enzyme in H2S production in the vasculature. However, patients with inherited deficiency in γ-cystathionase apparently do not present vascular pathology. A mitochondrial pathway disposes sulfide and couples it to oxid...

  5. 2-Ethyl-6-methylanilinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate

    Jiao Ye

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H14N+·C7H7SO3−, contains a 2-ethyl-6-methylanilinium cation and a 4-methylbenzenesulfonic anion. The cations are anchored between the anions through N—H...O hydrogen bonds. Electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, as well as hydrogen bonds, maintain the structural cohesion.

  6. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    R.C. Werlang; Silva, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamen...

  7. Kinetic Studies of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation and Xanthate Adsorption

    Mendiratta, Neeraj K.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfide minerals are a major source of metals; however, certain sulfide minerals, such as pyrite and pyrrhotite, are less desirable. Froth flotation is a commonly used separation technique, which requires the use of several reagents to float and depress different sulfide minerals. Xanthate, a thiol collector, has gained immense usage in sulfide minerals flotation. However, some sulfides are naturally hydrophobic and may float without a collector. Iron sulfides, such as pyrite and pyrrho...

  8. Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation

    SUN Yan; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved.Data sources The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and ""vascular relaxation".Study selection Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected.Results H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone.The vasomodulatory effects of H2S depend on factors including concentration,species and tissue type.The H2S donor,sodium hydrosulfide (NarS),causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner.This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings.The expression of KATP channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings.H2S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases.Downregulation of the endogenous H2S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.The vasorelaxant effects of H2S have been shown to be mediated by activation of KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the CI/HCO3 exchanger.It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H2S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation.Conclusion H2S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.

  9. Clean production of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Methyl ethyl ketone oxime (MEKO) was obtained by reaction of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) with ammonia and hydrogen peroxide using titanium silicalite-1 (TS-1) as catalyst. The effect of reaction temperature, type of solvent, molar ratios of NH3/MEK, H2O2/MEK and mg catalyst/mmol MEK ratio was studied. Water was the most appropriate solvent to obtain high selectivity to oxime. 100% selectivity to MEKO and 60% conversion of MEK was obtained at 70 Celsius degrade using the following parameters: H2O2/MEK = 0,7 and NH3/MEK = 1,12. mg.catalyst/mmol MEK = 10,5. Little decrease in the catalytic activity was observed after reusing the catalysts twice suggesting that incorporated Ti in the MFI structure is rather stable under the studied conditions

  10. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  11. Thermal decomposition of 1-ethyl-5-iodotetrazole

    Thermal decomposition of 1-ethyl-5-iodotetrazole in a melt and in solutions has been studied using thermogravimetry, manometry, pyrolytic mass spectrometry, and IR spectroscopy. Kinetic and activation parameters of the process, as well as the nature of decomposition products have been determined. Supposed mechanism of the reaction involves the equilibrium tantomeric rearrangement of tetrazole to azidoazomethyne form followed by homolytic scission of C-I bond. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... percent in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6), hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25), and...

  13. Variation in sulfide tolerance of photosystem II in phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria from sulfidic habitats

    Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.

    2004-01-01

    Physiological and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate variation among 12 cyanobacterial strains in their tolerance of sulfide, an inhibitor of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria from sulfidic habitats were found to be phylogenetically diverse and exhibited an approximately 50-fold variation in photosystem II performance in the presence of sulfide. Whereas the degree of tolerance was positively correlated with sulfide levels in the environment, a strain's phenotype could not be predicted from the tolerance of its closest relatives. These observations suggest that sulfide tolerance is a dynamic trait primarily shaped by environmental variation. Despite differences in absolute tolerance, similarities among strains in the effects of sulfide on chlorophyll fluorescence induction indicated a common mode of toxicity. Based on similarities with treatments known to disrupt the oxygen-evolving complex, it was concluded that sulfide toxicity resulted from inhibition of the donor side of photosystem II.

  14. New biologically active hydrogen sulfide donors.

    Roger, Thomas; Raynaud, Francoise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Ransy, Céline; Simonet, Serge; Crespo, Christine; Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Artaud, Isabelle; Galardon, Erwan

    2013-11-25

    Generous donors: The dithioperoxyanhydrides (CH3 COS)2 , (PhCOS)2 , CH3 COSSCO2 Me and PhCOSSCO2 Me act as thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donors in aqueous buffer solution. The most efficient donor (CH3 COS)2 can induce a biological response in cells, and advantageously replace hydrogen sulfide in ex vivo vascular studies. PMID:24115650

  15. Sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steels

    The problem of the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels and their welded joints have been presented for pipeline steels. Results of hydrogen sulfide stress cracking inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors of three types protective actions on pipeline steels of two grades petroleum range of products are given. (author)

  16. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  17. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  18. Weathering of sulfides on Mars

    Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produce degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy and terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni sulfides on Mars has generated secondary sulfides (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni, and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato-and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossan above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite), and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates, and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.

  19. Measurement of dissolved sulfide in geothermal condensate

    Chang, D.P.Y.; Corsi, R.L.; McNeece, C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a reliable method for determining the concentration of sulfide ions in laboratory solutions and in field samples containing geothermal condensate. A method based upon a sulfide selective ion electrode has been tested successfully on both. The method is straightforward to apply, involving collection of filtered samples into a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer (SAOB), subsequent measurement by electrodes and comparison with a calibration curve prepared from solutions containing known concentrations of sulfide ions. The importance of filtering the samples was demonstrated by a marked reduction of electrode potential after sample filtration. For replicate solutions of known composition containing greater than 1 x 10/sup -6/ M (0.032 ppm) of dissolved sulfide the estimated accuracy of the method was about 5%. For geothermal condensate of unknown composition, the mean of replicate samples was estimated to be within about 20% of the true value.

  20. Primordial Xenon in Allende Sulfides

    Lee, J. T.; Manuel, O. K.

    1995-09-01

    The Allende C3V carbonaceous chondrite incorporated isotopically anomalous components of several medium-heavy elements (Z=36-62) from nucleosynthesis [1]. Isotopically distinct Xe (Z=54) has been found in grains ranging from several _ to a few mm in size. Diamond [2] is the host of Xe that is enriched in isotopes produced by the very rapid p- and r-processes in a supernova explosion [3]. Silicon carbide [4] is the host of Xe that is enriched in the middle isotopes, 128-132Xe, produced by slow neutron capture [3] before a star reaches the supernova stage. The present study was undertaken to identify the isotopic composition of primitive Xe initially trapped in sulfides of the Allende meteorite. Two FeS mineral separates were analyzed by stepwise heating. One sample was first irradiated in a neutron flux to generate a tracer isotope, 131*Xe, by the 130Te(n, gamma beta-)131*Xe reaction. The release pattern of this tracer isotope, 131*Xe, closely paralleled the release of primordial 132Xe up to 950 degrees C, when the sulfide melted and released the bulk of its trapped Xe (Figure 1). The Xe released from both samples at 950 deg C was terrestrial in isotopic composition, except for enrichments from spallogenic and radiogenic components (Figure 2). From the results of this and earlier analyses of Xe in meteoritic FeS [5, 6, 7], we conclude that terrestrial-type Xe was dominant in the central region of the protoplanetary nebula, and it remains a major component in the FeS of diverse meteorites and in the terrestrial planets that are rich in Fe, S [8]. References: [1] Begemann F. (1993) Origin and Evolution of the Elements (N. Prantzos et al., eds.), 518-527, Cambridge Univ. [2] Lewis R. S. and Anders E. (1988) LPS XIX, 679-680. [3] Burbidge et al. (1957) Rev. Modern Phys., 29, 547-650. [4] Tang M. and Anders E. (1988) GCA, 52, 1235-1244. [5] Niemeyer S. (1979) GCA, 43, 843-860. [6] Lewis et al. (1979) GCA, 43, 1743-1752. [7] Hwaung G. and Manuel O. K. (1982) Nature, 299

  1. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  2. Pelletizing of sulfide molybdenite concentrates

    Palant, A. A.

    2007-04-01

    The results of a pelletizing investigation using various binding components (water, syrup, sulfite-alcohol distillery grains, and bentonite) of the flotation sulfide molybdenite concentrate (˜84% MoS2) from the Mongolian deposit are discussed. The use of syrup provides rather high-strength pellets (>3 N/pellet or >300 g/pellet) of the required size (2 3 mm) for the consumption of 1 kg binder per 100 kg concentrate. The main advantage of the use of syrup instead of bentonite is that the molybdenum cinder produced by oxidizing roasting of raw ore materials is not impoverished due to complete burning out of the syrup. This fact exerts a positive effect on the subsequent hydrometallurgical process, decreasing molybdenum losses related to dump cakes.

  3. Adequate hydrogen sulfide, healthy circulation

    DU Jun-bao; CHEN Stella; JIN Hong-fang; TANG Chao-shu

    2011-01-01

    Previously,hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was considered to be a toxic gas.However,recently it was discovered that it could be produced in mammals and even in plants,throughtheproductionandmetabolismof sulfur-containing amino acids.In mammals,H2S is mainly catalyzed by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE),cystathionin-β-lyase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) with the substrate of L-cysteine.Endogenous H2S exerts many important physiological and pathophysiological functions,including hypotensive action,vasorelaxation,myocardial dilation,inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation,and antioxidatve actions.Importantly,it plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of systemic hypertension,pulmonary hypertension,atherosclerosis,myocardialinjury,angiogenesis,hyperhomocysteinemi aandshock.Therefore,H2S is now being considered to be a novel gasotransmitter after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the regulation of circulatory system.

  4. How selection offsets sulfide corrosion

    Steels in Girdler heavy water plants are generally required to withstand wet hydrogen sulfide or its aqueous solution. The reasons for selecting various grades for various locations are explained. Information on welding methods is given, and the codes applicable are listed. Carbon steel can be used only where fluid velocity is low. Sections which fail completely if pitted are made of AISI 316 stainless steel. Diaphragms and other very thin parts located in the stagnant fluid are made of Inconel 625. Where solution-annealing of stainless steels at 1000 deg C after welding is not feasible, low-carbon grades (304L, 316L) are used. Some failures are depicted. All castings are completely radiographically examined. (N.D.H.)

  5. Structural studies in limestone sulfidation

    Fenouil, L.A.; Lynn, S.

    1993-05-01

    This study investigates the sulfidation of limestone at high temperatures (700--900{degree}C) as the first step in the design of a High-Temperature Coal-Gas Clean-Up system using millimeter-size limestone particles. Several workers have found that the rate of this reaction significantly decreases after an initial 10 to 15% conversion of CaCO{sub 3} to CaS. The present work attempts to explain this feature. It is first established that millimeter-size limestone particles do not sinter at temperatures up to the CaCO{sub 3} calcination point (899{degree}C at 1.03 bar CO{sub 2} partial pressure). It is then shown that CaS sinters rapidly at 750 to 900{degree}C if CO{sub 2} is present in the gas phase. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data reveal that the CaS product layer sinters and forms a quasi-impermeable coating around the CaCO{sub 3} grains that greatly hinders more H{sub 2}S from reaching the still unreacted parts of the stone. Moreover, most of the pores initially present within the limestone structure begin to disappear or, at least, are significantly reduced in size. From then on, subsequent conversion is limited by diffusion of H{sub 2}S through the CaS layer, possibly by S{sup 2{minus}} ionic diffusion. The kinetics is then adequately described by a shrinking-core model, in which a sharp front of completely converted limestone is assumed to progress toward the center of the pellet. Finally, experimental evidence and computer simulations using simple sintering models suggest that the CaS sintering, responsible for the sharp decrease in the sulfidation rate, is surface-diffusion controlled.

  6. Biotransformation and Production from Hansenula Anomala to Natural Ethyl Phenylacetate

    Tian Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl phenylacetate can be widely applied in many industries, such as food, medicines, cosmetics and medicinal herbs. At the moment, the production of natural ethyl phenylacetate is very limited. However, the biotransformation production of natural ethyl phenylacetate has an very extensive application prospect. This paper is written by taking the phenylacetic acid tolerance and the esterifying enzyme activity as the two indexes for screening the HA14 strain of hansenula anomala mutagenic which is regarded as the microorganism of ethyl phenylacetate production through biotransformation. By optimizing the production condition of phenylacetic acid and the esterification condition of ethyl phenylacetate, the production of ethyl phenylacetate accomplished through biotransformation within 72 hours can reach 864mg/L which is 171% of that of the initial bacterial strain.

  7. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  8. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    Mutlu, Z; Wu, RJ; Wickramaratne, D.; Shahrezaei, S; Liu, C; Temiz, S; Patalano, A; M Ozkan; Lake, RK; Mkhoyan, KA; Ozkan, CS

    2016-01-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2...

  9. The sulfide oxidation in an electrolytic sulfide oxidizing bioreactor using graphite anode

    The goal of the present research was the direct conversion of sulfide (an important contaminant in various industrial wastewaters) to sulfate, whose discharge limits are much less stringent than those for sulfide. The electrolysis of sodium sulfide was investigated under different conditions such as: ph, current density and working area etc. along with cyclic voltammetry. By the use of a graphite anode, we achieved near-quantitative electrochemical conversion of sulfide ions to sulfate with current efficiency of 88%. Kinetically, the reaction is first order in current density. The experimental results revealed that the sulfide removal rate of more than 88% could be achieved under the conditions T=30 deg. C, ph = 7, current density of 1 mA/cm/sup 2/ at anode area of 225 cm/sup 2/.The process can be practically coupled with bioreactor for an effective sulfide removal. (author)

  10. Formation of Copper Sulfide Artifacts During Electrolytic Dissolution of Steel

    Tan, Jia; Pistorius, P. Chris

    2013-06-01

    Based on equilibrium considerations, copper sulfide is not expected to form in manganese-containing steel, yet previous workers reported finding copper sulfide in transmission electron microscope samples which had been prepared by electropolishing. It is proposed that copper sulfide can form during electrolytic dissolution because of the much greater stability of copper sulfide relative to manganese sulfide in contact with an electrolyte containing copper and manganese cations. This mechanism has been demonstrated with aluminum-killed steel samples.

  11. Going the distance with ethyl alcohol

    If all had gone according to plan, ethyl alcohol would be in the driver's seat now, cruising down the highway and getting ready to speed into high gear. Instead, this renewable fuel, chemical reagent and solvent is navigating a complex obstacle course, watching warily for sharp turns and mixed signals. Globally, the supply and demand for all grades of ethyl alcohol is awry. Production of industrial-grade material is running at full throttle and prices are going up. Much of the upheaval over ethanol can be traced to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) of the Clean Air Act. Under ROS, 15% of oxygenates used in gasoline sold this year was to be derived from a renewable source. Next month, that percentage was to have been doubled to 30%. Enticed by projections of upwards of 2 billion gal/yr of fermentation alcohol to comply with ROS, producers rushed to expand capacity. But to the producers' dismay, EPA was forced to backpedal on ROS. When representatives of the petroleum industry filed suit and won a stay, EPA rescinded its ROS regulation and ethanol producers were left in the lurch. High prices for corn is also putting the squeeze on inventories of industrial alcohol. Synthetic ethanol production, from ethylene for example, is booming, however. This paper discusses the ethanol market factors

  12. High temperature sulfide corrosion and transport properties of transition metal sulfides

    An overview is presented of the role of the defect and transport properties of transition metal sulfides on the kinetics and mechanism of high-temperature sulfide corrosion of metals and alloys. It has been shown that due to the very high concentration of defects in common metal sulfides, not only pure metals but also conventional high-temperature alloys (chromia and alumina formers) undergo very rapid degradation in highly sulfidizing environments. Refractory metals (Mo, Nb), on the other hands, are highly resistant to sulfide corrosion, their sulfidation rates being comparable with the oxidation rate of chromium. Also, alloying of common metals by niobium and molybdenum improve considerably corrosion resistance with respect to highly sulfidizing atmospheres. It has demonstrated that Al.-Mo and Al.-Mo-Si alloys shown excellent resistant to sulfidizing environments, these materials being also simultaneously oxidation resistant. Thus, new prospects have been created for the development of a new generation of coating materials, resistant to multicomponent sulfidizing-oxidizing atmospheres, often encountered in many branches of modern technology. (author)

  13. Crystal structure of 6-chloro-5-(2-chloroethyl-3-(propan-2-ylideneindolin-2-one

    K. R. Roopashree

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H13Cl2NO, has a 3-(propan-2-ylideneindolin-2-one core with a Cl atom and a chloroethyl substituent attached to the aromatic ring. Two atoms of the aromatic ring and the chloroethyl substituent atoms are disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.826 (3:0.174 (3. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 ring motif.

  14. 2-Chloroethyl 2-(5-bromo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Uk Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H12BrClO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. There is a mean deviation of 0.016 (4 Å from the least-squares plane defined by the nine constituent benzofuran atoms. The crystal structure is stabilized by aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.689 (7 Å]and by a weak C—H...π interaction between an H atom of the methylene group bonded to the carboxylate O atom and the benzene ring of an adjacent molecule. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak non-classical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The chloroethyl group is disordered over two positions, with refined site-occupancy factors of 0.767 (6 and 0.233 (6.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION GC/FT-IR

    Gas chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/FT-IR) is rapidly becoming an accepted analytical technique complementary to GC/mass spectroscopy for identifying organic compounds in mixtures at low to moderate concentrations. irect aqueous injection (DA...

  16. Managing hydrogen sulfide the natural way

    Beasley, T.; Abry, R.G.F. [New Paradigm Gas Processing Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper explores the benefits and costs associated with acid gas injection versus flaring and venting. It provides an update of Shell Paques biological gas desulfurization technology and the world's first high pressure application of the technology at the EnCana Bantry Project. The process is particularly well suited to treat sour (acid) natural gases that are currently being flared. It can also be used as an alternative to acid gas injection. Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide can be achieved by selective biotechnological conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. Compared to conventional processes, this breakthrough technology achieves greater savings in terms of capital and operational costs. The Shell-Paque process produces up to 50 tonnes of sulfur per day with virtually complete conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, resulting in no hydrogen sulfide based airborne emissions. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 35 figs.

  17. Inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide

    Present work is devoted to application of inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide. The elaboration of method is conducted under controlled concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from 1.00 til 0.01 mg/l.

  18. The Search for Interstellar Sulfide Grains

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Messenger, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The lifecycle of sulfur in the galaxy is poorly understood. Fe-sulfide grains are abundant in early solar system materials (e.g. meteorites and comets) and S is highly depleted from the gas phase in cold, dense molecular cloud environments. In stark contrast, sulfur is essentially undepleted from the gas phase in the diffuse interstellar medium, indicating that little sulfur is incorporated into solid grains in this environment. It is widely believed that sulfur is not a component of interstellar dust grains. This is a rather puzzling observation unless Fe-sulfides are not produced in significant quantities in stellar outflows, or their lifetime in the ISM is very short due to rapid destruction. Fe sulfide grains are ubiquitous in cometary samples where they are the dominant host of sulfur. The Fe-sulfides (primarily pyrrhotite; Fe(1-x)S) are common, both as discrete 0.5-10 micron-sized grains and as fine (5-10 nm) nanophase inclusions within amorphous silicate grains. Cometary dust particles contain high abundances of well-preserved presolar silicates and organic matter and we have suggested that they should contain presolar sulfides as well. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of abundant Fe-sulfides grains in dust around pre- and post-main sequence stars inferred from astronomical spectra showing a broad 23 micron IR feature due to FeS. Fe-sulfide grains also occur as inclusions in bona fide circumstellar amorphous silicate grains and as inclusions within deuterium-rich organic matter in cometary dust samples. Our irradiation experiments show that FeS is far more resistant to radiation damage than silicates. Consequently, we expect that Fe sulfide stardust should be as abundant as silicate stardust in solar system materials.

  19. Mechanism of mechanical activation for sulfide ores

    HU Hui-ping; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; HE Yue-hui; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Structural changes for mechanically activated pyrite, sphalerite, galena and molybdenite with or without the exposure to ambient air, were systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD), particle size analysis, gravimetrical method, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy(XPS) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. Based on the above structural changes for mechanically activated sulfide ores and related reports by other researchers, several qualitative rules of the mechanisms and the effects of mechanical activation for sulfide ores are obtained. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and incomplete cleavage plane or extremely incomplete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed, and lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with excellent thermal stability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For sulfide ores with high toughness, good thermal stability and very excellent complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation, but the lattice deformation ratio is very small. The effects of mechanical activation are worst.

  20. Air-water transfer of hydrogen sulfide

    Yongsiri, C.; Vollertsen, J.; Rasmussen, M. R.;

    2004-01-01

    The emissions process of hydrogen sulfide was studied to quantify air–water transfer of hydrogen sulfide in sewer networks. Hydrogen sulfide transfer across the air–water interface was investigated at different turbulence levels (expressed in terms of the Froude number) and pH using batch...... experiments. By means of the overall mass–transfer coefficient (KLa), the transfer coefficient of hydrogen sulfide (KLaH2S), referring to total sulfide, was correlated to that of oxygen (KLaO2) (i.e., the reaeration coefficient). Results demonstrate that both turbulence and pH in the water phase play...... a significant role for KLaH2S. An exponential expression is a suitable representation for the relationship between KLaH2S and the Froude number at all pH values studied (4.5 to 8.0). Because of the dissociation of hydrogen sulfide, KLaH2S increased with decreasing pH at a constant turbulence level. Relative...

  1. 2,6-Bis(9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2,6-bis(ethyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone has been synthesized by condensation of 9-ethylcarbazole-3-aldehyde and cyclohexanone in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  2. Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors.

    Villa-Gomez, D K; Cassidy, J; Keesman, K J; Sampaio, R; Lens, P N L

    2014-03-01

    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4(2-) ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters. The experiments were performed in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with automated operation using the LabVIEW software version 2009(®). A rapid response and high sulfide increment was obtained through a stepwise increase in the CODin concentration, while a stepwise decrease to the HRT exhibited a slower response with smaller sulfide increment. Irrespective of the way the OLR was decreased, the pS response showed a time-varying behavior due to sulfide accumulation (HRT change) or utilization of substrate sources that were not accounted for (CODin change). The pS electrode response, however, showed to be informative for applications in sulfate reducing bioreactors. Nevertheless, the recorded pS values need to be corrected for pH variations and high sulfide concentrations (>200 mg/L). PMID:24361702

  3. Calorimetric study of methyl and ethyl 2-thiophenecarboxylates and ethyl 2- and 3-thiopheneacetates

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departament of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departament of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the condensed phase, of the liquids methyl 2-thiophenecarboxylate, ethyl 2-thiophenecarboxylate, ethyl 2-thiopheneacetate, and ethyl 3-thiopheneacetate, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, to yield CO{sub 2} (g) and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} . 115H{sub 2}O (aq), measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. For these four compounds, the standard molar enthalpies of vaporization, {delta}{sub l}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0}, at T = 298.15 K, were obtained by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, were derived from the experimental results and they are interpreted in terms of enthalpic increments of the introduction of a methylene group to the substituent chain. Moreover, the results are compared with the analogue benzene derivative.

  4. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  5. Stratospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) burden

    Kloss, Corinna; Walker, Kaley A.; Deshler, Terry; von Hobe, Marc

    2015-04-01

    An estimation of the global stratospheric burden of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) calculated using satellite based measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) will be presented. OCS is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the atmosphere in the absence of volcanic eruptions. With a long lifetime of 2-6 years it reaches the stratosphere where it is photolyzed and the sulfur oxidized and condensed to aerosols, contributing to the stratospheric aerosol layer. The aerosol layer is the one factor of the middle-atmosphere with a direct impact on the Earth's climate by scattering incoming solar radiation back to space. Therefore it is crucial to understand and estimate the different processes and abundances of the species contributing to the aerosol layer. However, the exact amount of OCS in the stratosphere has not been quantified yet. A study on the OCS mixing ratio distribution based on ACE-FTS data has already been made by Barkley et al. (2008), also giving an estimation for the total atmospheric OCS mass. ACE-FTS is an infrared solar occultation spectrometer providing high- resolution profile observations since 2004. In the scope of this work the focus lies on the stratospheric OCS burden, calculated by integrating the ACE profiles. A global overview on the stratospheric OCS amount in the past and present based on the ACE data as well as a look at regional and seasonal variability will be given. Furthermore, the results of this work will be useful for further studies on OCS fluxes and lifetimes, and in quantifying the contribution of OCS to the global stratospheric sulfur burden. Barkley et al., 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14810.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide and Urogenital Tract.

    di Villa Bianca, Roberta d'Emmanuele; Cirino, Giuseppe; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter the role played by H2S in the physiopathology of urogenital tract revising animal and human data available in the current relevant literature is discussed. H2S pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in the mechanism underlying penile erection in human and experimental animal. Both cystathionine-β synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) are expressed in the human corpus cavernosum and exogenous H2S relaxes isolated human corpus cavernosum strips in an endothelium-independent manner. Hydrogen sulfide pathway also accounts for the direct vasodilatory effect operated by testosterone on isolated vessels. Convincing evidence suggests that H2S can influence the cGMP pathway by inhibiting the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) activity. All these findings taken together suggest an important role for the H2S pathway in human corpus cavernosum homeostasis. However, H2S effect is not confined to human corpus cavernosum but also plays an important role in human bladder. Human bladder expresses mainly CBS and generates in vitro detectable amount of H2S. In addition the bladder relaxant effect of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil involves H2S as mediator. In conclusion the H2S pathway is not only involved in penile erection but also plays a role in bladder homeostasis. In addition the finding that it involved in the mechanism of action of PDE-5 inhibitors strongly suggests that modulation of this pathway can represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and bladder diseases. PMID:26162831

  7. Terahertz spectroscopy of hydrogen sulfide

    Pure rotational transitions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in its ground and first excited vibrational states have been recorded at room temperature. The spectrum comprises an average of 1020 scans at 0.005 cm−1 resolution recorded in the region 45–360 cm−1 (1.4 to 10.5 THz) with a globar continuum source using a Fourier transform spectrometer located at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron. Over 2400 rotational lines have been detected belonging to ground vibrational state transitions of the four isotopologues H232S, H233S, H234S, and H236S observed in natural abundance. 65% of these lines are recorded and assigned for the first time, sampling levels as high as J=26 and Ka=17 for H232S. 320 pure rotational transitions of H232S in its first excited bending vibrational state are recorded and analysed for the first time and 86 transitions for H234S, where some of these transitions belong to new experimental energy levels. Rotational constants have been fitted for all the isotopologues in both vibrational states using a standard effective Hamiltonian approach. Comprehensive comparisons are made with previously available data as well as the data available in HITRAN, CDMS, and JPL databases. The 91 transitions assigned to H236S give the first proper characterization of its pure rotational spectrum. -- Highlights: • Over 2400 lines are measured and assigned in the 45–360 cm−1 region. • New rotational transitions are assigned for four isotopologues of H2S. • Rotational transitions within the first excited state of H2S are assigned for the first time. • An improved rotational line list is presented

  8. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  9. Biodegradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by Acinetobacter sp. CW17.

    Wang, Yanhui; Du, Liangwei; Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Xiaomao; Tan, Huihua; Bai, Lianyang; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2012-03-01

    The pyrazosulfuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, designated as CW17, was isolated from contaminated soil near the warehouse of the factory producing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in Changsha city, China. The strain CW17 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. based on analyses of 94 carbon source utilization or chemical sensitivity in Biolog microplates, conventional phenotypic characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was provided as the sole carbon source, the effects of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl concentration, pH, and temperature on biodegradation were examined. The degradation rates of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at initial concentrations of 5.0, 20.0, and 50.0 mg/L were 48.0%, 77.0%, and 32.6%, respectively, after inoculation for 7 days. The growth of the strain was inhibited at low pH buffers. The chemical degradation occurs much faster at low pH than at neutral and basic pH conditions. The degradation rate of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 30°C was faster than those at 20 and 37°C by CW17 strains. Two metabolites of degradation were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Based on the identified products, strain CW17 seemed to be able to degrade pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge. PMID:22388979

  10. Ethylated Urea - Ether - Modified Urea - Formaldehyde Resins,

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available First, phenol - formaldehyde (PF and urea - formaldehyde (UFII resins were separately conventionally prepared in our laboratory. Also, UF resin synthesized from the acid modified synthesis procedure was synthesized in a purely acid medium of pH 1.0, FU molar ratio of 1.0 and at 50oC (one-stage acid modified-synthesis procedure. Subsequently, the UF resin II was modified during synthesis by incorporating ethylated urea-ether (EUER (i.e. UFIII and glycerol (GLYC (i.e. UFV cured with and without acid curing agent. The structural and physicochemical analyses of the various resin samples were carried out.The results showed that the unmodified UF resin (UF II synthesized in acid medium of pH 1.0, F/U molar ratio 1.0, and at 50oC, cured in absence of acid curing catalyst, showed features in their spectra which are consistent with a tri-, and/or tetra-substituted urea in the reaction to give a 3 - dimensional network cured UF resin. Modification of the UF resin(UF II with ethylated urea-ether and glycerol to produce UF resins III and respectively V prominently increased the absorbance of methylene and ether groups in the spectra which are consistent with increased hydrophobicity and improved hydrolytic stability. For the conventional UF resin (UF I, the only clear distinction between spectra for the UF resin II and UF resins (III/V is the presence of diminished peaks for methylene groups at 2.2 ppm. The relationship between the logarithmic viscosity of cured PF resin with time showed continuos dependence of viscosity with time during cure up to 70 minutes. Similar trends were shown by UF resins (III/V, cured in absence of acid catalyst. In contrast, the conventional UF resins I and UF IV (i.e. UF II cured with NH4CL showed abrupt discontinuity in viscosity with time just after about 20 minutes of cure.

  11. Functional consortium for denitrifying sulfide removal process

    Chen, Chuan [Harbin Inst. of Technology (CN). State Key Lab. of Water Resource and Environment (SKLWRE); Harbin Inst. of Technology (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie [Harbin Inst. of Technology (CN). State Key Lab. of Water Resource and Environment (SKLWRE); Liu, Lihong [Harbin Inst. of Technology (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering; Lee, Duu-Jong [Harbin Inst. of Technology (CN). State Key Lab. of Water Resource and Environment (SKLWRE); National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-03-15

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process simultaneously converts sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewaters to elemental sulfur, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. This investigation utilizes a dilution-to-extinction approach at 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -6} dilutions to elucidate the correlation between the composition of the microbial community and the DSR performance. In the original suspension and in 10{sup -2} dilution, the strains Stenotrophomonas sp., Thauera sp., and Azoarcus sp. are the heterotrophic denitrifiers and the strains Paracoccus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. are the sulfide-oxidizing denitrifers. The 10{sup -4} dilution is identified as the functional consortium for the present DSR system, which comprises two functional strains, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain Paracoccus sp. At 10{sup -6} dilution, all DSR performance was lost. The functions of the constituent cells in the DSR granules were discussed based on data obtained using the dilution-to-extinction approach. (orig.)

  12. Transition Metal Catalyzed Synthesis of Aryl Sulfides

    Chad C. Eichman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of aryl sulfides in biologically active compounds has resulted in the development of new methods to form carbon-sulfur bonds. The synthesis of aryl sulfides via metal catalysis has significantly increased in recent years. Historically, thiolates and sulfides have been thought to plague catalyst activity in the presence of transition metals. Indeed, strong coordination of thiolates and thioethers to transition metals can often hinder catalytic activity; however, various catalysts are able to withstand catalyst deactivation and form aryl carbon-sulfur bonds in high-yielding transformations. This review discusses the metal-catalyzed arylation of thiols and the use of disulfides as metal-thiolate precursors for the formation of C-S bonds.

  13. Solar thermal extraction of copper from sulfides

    Winkel, L.; Guesdon, C.; Sturzenegger, M.

    2003-03-01

    With the aim to develop a solar-driven process for the extraction of copper from sulfide concentrates re-search on the decomposition of copper sulfides under inert atmospheres has been initiated. Thermogravimetric measurements on chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) revealed that copper is formed already at 1823 K. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) also disintegrates at this temperature, although at a lower rate. Copper and iron have been identified in the solid residue. The results confirm the feasibility of copper extraction by direct decomposition of sulfides under atmospheric pressure. The decomposition under inert atmosphere prevents generation of SO{sub 2}, and is beneficial to the removal of volatile impurities. Chemical equilibrium calculations for CuFeS{sub 2} contaminated with enargite (Cu{sub 3}AsS{sub 4}) have shown that the absence of an oxidic slag allows for a complete evaporation of arsenic and subsequent separation. (author)

  14. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals......, it was deduced that they were not deposited but instead grew within the deposit. The presence of unburned char particles within the deposits supports the concept that a reducing environment existed in the deposits. Two processes are proposed for explaining the existence of pyrrhotite crystals within...... a deposit: (1) impact of low viscous droplets of iron sulfide; and (2) sulfur diffusion. Previous research on the influence of pyrite on slagging focused on the decomposition of pyrite into pyrrhotite and especially on the oxidation stage of this product during impact on the heat transfer surfaces...

  15. Modeling of Sulfide Microenvironments on Mars

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Bridges, J. C.; McAdam, A.; Steer, E. D.; Conrad, P. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Grotzinger, J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Sutter, B.

    2016-01-01

    Yellowknife Bay (YKB; sol 124-198) is the second site that the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity investigated in detail on its mission in Gale Crater. YKB represents lake bed sediments from an overall neutral pH, low salinity environment, with a mineralogical composition which includes Ca-sulfates, Fe oxide/hydroxides, Fe-sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral phyllosilicates. We investigate whether sulfide alteration could be associated with ancient habitable microenvironments in the Gale mudstones. Some textural evidence for such alteration may be pre-sent in the nodules present in the mudstone.

  16. Sol-gel processing of metal sulfides

    Stanic, Vesha

    Metal sulfides were synthesised via a sol-gel process using various metal alkoxides and hydrogen sulfide in toluene. Colloidal gels were prepared from germanium ethoxide, germanium isopropoxide, zinc tert-butoxide and tungsten (VI) ethoxide, whereas colloidal powder was produced from tungsten (V) dichloride ethoxide. Special precautions were necessary to protect the reaction mixture from water contamination which produced metal oxides. Results indicated that the main source of water is the hydrogen sulfide gas. In addition, synthesis of metal sulfides from a mixture of metal oxide and sulfide was demonstrated by the example of monoclinic germanium disulfide. It was produced by reaction of the sol-gel product with sulfur. Heat treatment of the sol-gel product and sulfur yielded single phase GeSsb2. The sol-gel prepared materials and their heat treated products were characterized by various methods. A chemical kinetics study of the functional groups -OR, -SH and Ssp{2-} was carried out for the sol-gel processing of GeSsb2 from of hydrogen sulfide and two different alkoxides, germanium ethoxide and germanium isopropoxide. The study was performed for different concentrations of precursors at different molar ratios and temperatures. The results indicate that the proposed reaction mechanism was simplified under appropriate reaction conditions. Experimentally determined rate constants of thiolysis and condensations demonstrate that thiolysis is slow and that condensations are fast steps, regardless of the studied reaction conditions. A study of the temperature effect on the reaction rate constant shows that it increases with temperature in accord with both Arrhenius law and transition-state theory. Activation energies, Esba, and activation parameters DeltaSsp{ddagger}, DeltaHsp{ddagger} and DeltaGsp{ddagger}, were determined for thiolysis and condensation reactions. The potentiometric tiration method was used for quantitative determination of germanium sulfide and

  17. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  18. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  19. Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil

    Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

  20. The effect of sulfide inhibition on the ANAMMOX process.

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Chun; Yu, Jin-Jin; Xing, Bao-Shan

    2013-03-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process to treat wastewaters containing sulfide was studied in this work. Serum bottles were used as experimental containers in batch tests to analyze the short-term response of the ANAMMOX process under sulfide stress. The IC(50) of sulfide-S for ANAMMOX biomass was substrates-dependent and was calculated to be 264 mg L(-1) at an initial total nitrogen level of 200 mg L(-1) (molar ratio of ammonium and nitrite was 1:1). The long-term effects and the performance recovery under sulfide stress were continuously monitored and evaluated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The performance of the ANAMMOX system was halved at an sulfide-S level of 32 mg L(-1) within 13 days; however, the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) decreased by only 17.2% within 18 days at an sulfide-S concentration of 40 mg L(-1) after long-time acclimatization of sludge in the presence of sulfide. The ANAMMOX performance recovered under sulfide-S level of 8 mg L(-1) with a steady NRR increasing speed, linear relationship between the NRR and operation time. The synchronic reduce in the specific ANAMMOX activity and the biomass extended the apparent doubling time of the nitrogen removal capacity and decreased biomass growth rate. PMID:23273856

  1. T.O.C.S. : Hydrogen Sulfide Remission System

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    BioEnviroTech, Inc., (BET) developed Toxicity Odor Corrosion Sulfides (T.O.C.S.) Remission System for hydrogen sulfide reduction in municipal and industrial wastewater sewer, lift stations and force mains. This safe and cost effective biotreatment technology uses safe and natural bacteria to interrupt sulfide generation.

  2. Bile-acid-activated farnesoid X receptor regulates hydrogen sulfide production and hepatic microcirculation

    Barbara Renga; Andrea Mencarelli; Marco Migliorati; Eleonora Distrutti; Stefano Fiorucci

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates expression of liver cystathionase (CSE), a gene involved in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation. METHODS: The regulation of CSE expression in response to FXR ligands was evaluated in HepG2 cells and in wild-type and FXR null mice treated with 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6E-CDCA), a synthetic FXR ligand. The analysis demonstrated an FXR responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of the human CSE gene. The function of this site was investigated by luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Livers obtained from rats treated with carbon tetrachloride alone, or in combination with 6-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid, were studied for hydrogen sulphide generation and portal pressure measurement. RESULTS: Liver expression of CSE is regulated by bile acids by means of an FXR-mediated mechanism. Western blotting, qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, as well as immunohistochemical analysis, showed that expression of CSE in HepG2 cells and in mice is induced by treatment with an FXR ligand. Administration of 6E-CDCA to carbon tetrachloride treated rats protected against the down-regulation of CSE expression, increased H2S generation, reduced portal pressure and attenuated the endothelial dysfunction of isolated and perfused cirrhotic rat livers. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that CSE is an FXR-regulated gene and provide a new molecular explanation for the pathophysiology of portal hypertension.

  3. Binding Affinity of Novel Cyclodextrin Dimers to Ethyl Orange

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between ethyl orange (Eto, guest) and β-cyclodextrin dimers (1a~d, host) bridged with 2-t-butoxycarbonyl(Boc)-amino diacid was investigated. A remarkable synergic complexation of two cavities in host molecule was observed.

  4. [Reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate].

    Livi, O; Ferrarini, P L; Bertini, D; Tonetti, I

    1975-12-01

    The reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate leads to the formation of 2-pyrazolines instead of 1,2,3-triazolines. Some of the compounds obtained have undergone pharmacological and microbiological (antibacterial) testing. PMID:1204828

  5. A newly discovered xenobiotic metabolic pathway: Ethyl ester formation

    Chou, R.C.; Wyss, R.; Huselton, C.A.; Wiegand, U.W. (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-01-01

    Formation of etretinate, ethyl ester of acitretin, can be confirmed in vitro and in vivo using acitretin as the substrate. Etretinate was identified by LC/MS. The in vitro incubation was performed using rat and human liver 12000 g supernatant, and the in vivo experiment was conducted in rats after oral dosing of acitretin. The ethyl ester formation was greatly enhanced by addition of or dosing with ethanol.

  6. Process intensification for the ethyl lactate synthesis : integrated pervaporation reactor

    Pereira, C.S.M.; Silva, V.M.T.M.; Pinho, Simão; A. E. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl lactate is an important organic ester, which is biodegradable, produced by renewable resources and can be used as food additive, perfumery, flavor chemicals, solvent and pharmaceutical preparations[1]. It is a green solvent and could replace a range of environment-damaging halogenated and toxic solvents (for example: Nmethylpyrrolidone, toluene)[2]. The conventional way to produce ethyl lactate is the esterification of lactic acid with ethanol in the presence of an acid cata...

  7. Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices

    Tangerman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the measurement of the volatile Sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices of rats and humans (blood, serum, tissues, urine, breath, feces and flatus). Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol both contain the active thiol (-SH

  8. The diagenesis of carbohydrates by hydrogen sulfide

    Mango, Frank D.

    1983-08-01

    Carbohydrates react with hydrogen sulfide under low temperature (100° to 200°C) yielding a variety of organosulfur compounds including thiophenes, thiols, sulfides and sulfones. A polymer is also produced, whose elemental composition is within the range of natural coals. When reductive dehydration is carried out in the presence of hydrocarbon, organosulfur compounds are formed in the carbon number range of the hydrocarbon used. In these processes, an active hydrogen transfer catalyst is produced which facilitates the passage of hydrogen between normal paraffins and saccharide units, distributing sulfur between these two families primarily in the form of thiophene rings. The simplicity of these systems - H 2S, carbohydrates, H 2O, hydrocarbon - and the facility of the chemistry would suggest that the carbohydrates and hydrogen sulfide may be important agents in the diagenetic processes leading to petroleum and coal. Carbohydrate reduction by hydrogen sulfide may constitute an important route through which certain organosulfur compounds found in petroleum and coal entered these materials in early diagenesis.

  9. Support Effect in Hydrodesulfurization over Ruthenium Sulfide

    Gulková, Daniela; Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    Prague : JHI, 2008, s. 58-s. 59. [Symposium on Catalysis /40./. Prague (CZ), 03.11.2008-05.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ruthenium sulfide * hydrodesulfurization * support Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. Support Effect in Hydrodesulfurization over Ruthenium Sulfide

    Gulková, Daniela; Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2009), s. 146-149. ISSN 1337-7027 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ruthenium sulfide * hydrodesulfurization * support effect Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  12. Reaction between Hydrogen Sulfide and Limestone Calcines

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Trnka, Otakar; Čermák, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 10 (2002), s. 2392-2398. ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072711; GA AV ČR IAA4072801 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * limestone calcines * desulfurization Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2002

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism of Anilinolyses of Ethyl Methyl, Ethyl Propyl and Diisopropyl Chlorothiophosphates in Acetonitrile

    Barai, Hasi Rani; Lee, Hai Whang [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ehtesham Ul Hoque, Md. [Govt. Brojomohun College, Barisal (Bangladesh)

    2013-12-15

    Nucleophilic substitution reactions of ethyl methyl (2), ethyl propyl (4) and diisopropyl (7) chlorothiopho-sphates with substituted anilines and deuterated anilines are investigated kinetically in acetonitrile at 55.0 .deg. C. A concerted mechanism is proposed based on the selectivity parameters. The deuterium kinetic isotope effects (DKIEs; k{sub H}/k{sub D}) are secondary inverse (k{sub H}/k{sub D} = 0.66-0.99) with 2, primary normal and secondary inverse (k{sub H}/k{sub D} = 0.78-1.19) with 4, and primary normal (k{sub H}/k{sub D} = 1.06-1.21) with 7. The primary normal and secondary inverse DKIEs are rationalized by frontside attack involving hydrogen bonded, four-center-type transition state, and backside attack involving in-line-type transition state, respectively. The anilinolyses of ten chloro-thiophosphates are examined based on the reactivity, steric effect of the two ligands, thio effect, reaction mechanism, DKIE and activation parameter.

  14. Microbial oxidation of mixtures of methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide.

    Subramaniyan, A; Kolhatkar, R; Sublette, K L; Beitle, R

    1998-01-01

    Refinery spent-sulfidic caustic, containing only inorganic sulfides, has previously been shown to be amenable to biotreatment with Thiobacillus denitrificans strain F with complete oxidation of sulfides to sulfate. However, many spent caustics contain mercaptans that cannot be metabolized by this strict autotroph. An aerobic enrichment culture was developed from mixed Thiobacilli and activated sludge that was capable of simultaneous oxidation of inorganic sulfide and mercaptans using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methylmercaptan (MeSH) gas feeds used to simulate the inorganic and organic sulfur of a spent-sulfidic caustic. The enrichment culture was also capable of biotreatment of an actual mercaptan-containing, spent-sulfidic caustic but at lower rates than predicted by operation on MeSH and H2S fed to the culture in the gas phase, indicating that the caustic contained other inhibitory components. PMID:18576062

  15. Continuous production of palm biofuel under supercritical ethyl acetate

    Highlights: • Continuous synthesized biofuel from palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate was examined. • Mass flow rate of palm oil and ethyl acetate mixture influent to biofuel production in continuous system. • Water addition to reacting mixture improves the production of fatty acid ethyl esters and triacetin. • The generated acetic acid from ETA hydrolysis can protect the products from thermal decomposition. - Abstract: The interesterification of palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate (ETA) to produce fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEEs) or biofuel was conducted in a continuous tubular reactor. The density of the mixtures in the system was estimated using the Peng–Robinson equation of state process simulator, and the residence time was calculated. The effects of the reaction conditions, including the molar ratios of palm oil to ethyl acetate, the temperature, and the pressure, were investigated under various mass flow rates of the mixtures and optimized. The results showed that reaction temperatures above 653 K and long residence times affected the content of FAEEs and triacetin, a valuable by-product. The addition of water to the mixture in a 1:30:10 M ratio of palm oil to ethyl acetate to water at 653 K, 16 MPa, and a mixture mass flow rate of 1.5 g/min increased the total production of FAEEs and triacetin from 90.9 to 101.5 wt% in 42.4 min. The main finding of the present study is that triglyceride associated with ETA hydrolysis used to form acetic acid protected the products from decomposition at high temperatures and long residence times. The results will aid the selection of an efficient and economical process for alternative biofuel production from palm oil in supercritical ETA

  16. Solubility of Omeprazole Sulfide in Different Solvents at the Range of 280.35–319.65 K

    Li, Yihua; Yang, Wenge; Zhang, Tuan; Wang, Chaoyuan; Wang, Kai; Hu, YongHong

    2013-01-01

    Solubility data were measured for omeprazole sulfide in ethanol, 95 mass-% ethanol, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, methanol, acetone, n-butanol and n-propanol in the temperature range from 280.35 to 319.65 K by employing the gravimetric method. The solubilities increase with temperature and they are in good agreement with the calculated solubility of the modified Apelblat equation and the λh equation. The experimental solubility and correlation equation in this work can be used as essential data...

  17. Experimental study of the density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate

    Highlights: ► Density of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO4]. ► Viscosity of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO4]. ► Thermodynamic properties of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO4]. ► Equation of state of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO4]. - Abstract: Density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate [EMIM][EtSO4] have been measured over the temperature range from (283.15 to 413.15) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa and in the temperature range from (283.15 to 373.15) K at 0.1 MPa, respectively. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and viscosity measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be (0.01 to 0.08)%, 0.1%, 15 mK, and 0.35%, respectively. The measurements were carried out with an Anton–Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter and a fully automated SVM 3000 Anton–Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer. The vibration-tube densimeter was calibrated using various reference fluids, double-distilled water, methanol, toluene, and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empiric equation of state for [EMIM][EtSO4] has been developed using the measured (p, ρ, T) data. This equation was used to calculate the various thermodynamic properties of the IL and for compare with measured properties (speed of sound and enthalpy). Theoretically based Arrhenius–Andrade and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher type equations were use to describe of the temperature dependence of measured viscosities for [EMIM][EtSO4]. All measured properties were detailed compared with the reported data by other author.

  18. [Formation of ethyl carbamate in umeshu (plum liqueur)].

    Suzuki, K; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Tabata, S; Yasuda, K; Nishijima, M

    2001-12-01

    Samples of umeshu, a Japanese plum liqueur made from unripe plums, shochu and crystal sugar, were stored under fluorescent light, in the dark and in the refrigerator. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu exposed to light or room temperature was larger than that in the dark or at low temperature. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu to which cyanide had been added was larger than that in the absence of added cyanide. Thus, the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the umeshu was increased by not only light and higher temperature, but also cyanide. Samples of model alcoholic beverages were stored under various conditions using red, yellow and blue cellophanes. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage with blue cellophane was larger than in the cases of red and yellow cellophanes. It was found that the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage was increased by light in the wavelength range of 375-475 nm. PMID:11875819

  19. Density, viscosity, and saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    Highlights: • Density of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and its thermal expansion coefficient was determined. • Viscosity of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and fitted to the Andrade equation. • Saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate was reported. • The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the molar evaporation enthalpy of ethyl trifluoroacetate. - Abstract: The properties of ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF3COOCH2CH3) were measured as a function of temperature: density (278.08 to 322.50) K, viscosity (293.45 to 334.32) K, saturated vapor pressure (293.35 to 335.65) K. The density data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation, and the viscosity data were regressed to the Andrade equation. The correlation coefficient (R2) of equations for density and viscosity are 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The correlation between saturated vapor pressures and temperatures was achieved with a maximum absolute relative deviation of 0.142%. In addition, the molar evaporation enthalpy in the range of T = (293.35 to 335.65) K was estimated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation

  20. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina.

    Harald Hasler-Sheetal

    Full Text Available Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, and stable isotope tracing coupled with a mass balance of sulfur compounds. We found that Z. marina detoxified gaseous sediment-derived sulfide through incorporation and that most of the detoxification occurred in underground tissues, where sulfide intrusion was greatest. Elemental sulfur was a major detoxification compound, precipitating on the inner wall of the aerenchyma of underground tissues. Sulfide was metabolized into thiols and entered the plant sulfur metabolism as well as being stored as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments.

  1. The Evolution of Sulfide Tolerance in the Cyanobacteria

    Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how the function of extant microorganisms has recorded both their evolutionary histories and their past interactions with the environment is a stated goal of astrobiology. We are taking a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the diversification of sulfide tolerance mechanisms in the cyanobacteria, which vary both in their degree of exposure to sulfide and in their capacity to tolerate this inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. Since conditions were very reducing during the first part of Earth's history and detrital sulfides have been found in Archean sediments, mechanisms conferring sulfide tolerance may have been important for the evolutionary success of the ancestors of extant cyanobacteria. Two tolerance mechanisms have been identified in this group: (1) resistance of photosystem II, the principal target of sulfide toxicity; and (2) maintenance of the ability to fix carbon despite photosystem II inhibition by utilizing sulfide as an electron donor in photosystem I - dependent, anoxygenic photosynthesis. We are presently collecting comparative data on aspects of sulfide physiology for laboratory clones isolated from a variety of habitats. These data will be analyzed within a phylogenetic framework inferred from molecular sequence data collected for these clones to test how frequently different mechanisms of tolerance have evolved and which tolerance mechanism evolved first. In addition, by analyzing these physiological data together with environmental sulfide data collected from our research sites using microelectrodes, we can also test whether the breadth of an organism's sulfide tolerance can be predicted from the magnitude of variation in environmental sulfide concentration it has experienced in its recent evolutionary past and whether greater average sulfide concentration and/or temporal variability in sulfide favors the evolution of a particular mechanism of sulfide tolerance.

  2. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  3. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    Xia, Guanguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2016-06-14

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  4. Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Species: Carbonyl Sulfide

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts satisfact......A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts...... satisfactorily oxidation of OCS over a wide range of stoichiometric air–fuel ratios (0.5 ≤λ≤7.3), temperatures (450–1700 K), and pressures (0.02–3.0 atm) under dry conditions. The governing reaction mechanisms are outlined based on calculations with the kinetic model. The oxidation rate of OCS is controlled...

  5. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide prodrugs-a review.

    Zheng, Yueqin; Ji, Xingyue; Ji, Kaili; Wang, Binghe

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as one of three gasotransmitters together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). As a signaling molecule, H2S plays an important role in physiology and shows great potential in pharmaceutical applications. Along this line, there is a need for the development of H2S prodrugs for various reasons. In this review, we summarize different H2S prodrugs, their chemical properties, and some of their potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26579468

  7. Hydrogen sulfide prodrugs—a review

    Yueqin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is recognized as one of three gasotransmitters together with nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. As a signaling molecule, H2S plays an important role in physiology and shows great potential in pharmaceutical applications. Along this line, there is a need for the development of H2S prodrugs for various reasons. In this review, we summarize different H2S prodrugs, their chemical properties, and some of their potential therapeutic applications.

  8. Efficiently Dispersing Carbon Nanotubes in Polyphenylene Sulfide

    Sommer, Kevin M; Pipes, R. Byron

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plastics are replacing conventional metals in the aerospace, sporting, electronics, and other industries. Thermal plastics are able to withstand relatively high temperatures, have good fatigue properties, and are lighter than metals. Unfortunately, they are not very electrically conductive. However, adding carbon nanotubes to thermal plastics such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) can drastically increase the plastic's conductivity at a low weight percent of nanotubes called the percolat...

  9. Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal in UASB reactor.

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Bartacek, Jan; Kolesarova, Nina; Jenicek, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas by microaeration was studied in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating synthetic brewery wastewater. A fully anaerobic UASB reactor served as a control while air was dosed into a microaerobic UASB reactor (UMSB). After a year of operation, sulfur balance was described in both reactors. In UASB, sulfur was mainly presented in the effluent as sulfide (49%) and in biogas as hydrogen sulfide (34%). In UMSB, 74% of sulfur was detected in the effluent (41% being sulfide and 33% being elemental sulfur), 10% accumulated in headspace as elemental sulfur and 9% escaped in biogas as hydrogen sulfide. The efficiency of hydrogen sulfide removal in UMSB was on average 73%. Microaeration did not cause any decrease in COD removal or methanogenic activity in UMSB and the elemental sulfur produced by microaeration did not accumulate in granular sludge. PMID:25270045

  10. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate: Kinetic modeling

    Biological removal of sulfide, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) simultaneously from industrial wastewaters to elementary sulfur (S0), N2, and CO2, or named the denitrifying sulfide (DSR) process, is a cost effective and environmentally friendly treatment process for high strength sulfide and nitrate laden organic wastewater. Kinetic model for the DSR process was established for the first time on the basis of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). The DSR experiments were conducted at influent sulfide concentrations of 200-800 mg/L, whose results calibrate the model parameters. The model correlates well with the DSR process dynamics. By introducing the switch function and the inhibition function, the competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers is quantitatively described and the degree of inhibition of sulfide on heterotrophic denitrifiers is realized. The model output indicates that the DSR reactor can work well at 0.5 1000 mg/L influent sulfide, however, the DSR system will break down.

  11. Study on the sulfidation behavior of smithsonite

    Wu, Dandan; Wen, Shuming, E-mail: shmwen@126.com; Deng, Jiushuai, E-mail: dengshuai689@163.com; Liu, Jian; Mao, Yingbo

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Zeta potential showed that the pH{sub IEP} of smithsonite decreased from 7.7 to 6. • ICP test showed the gradual reduction of C{sub S} in the solution. • SEM showed that the mineral surface was partially changed to ZnS film. • XPS indicated that the presence of a characteristic signal peak of sulfur ions. - Abstract: Zinc extraction from low-grade mineral resources of oxidized zinc has recently become a focus of study. Sulfidation is an important process in oxidized ore flotation. In this study, the influence of sulfur ion adsorption on smithsonite surface was investigated with the use of zeta potential, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Zeta potential measurements of sodium sulfide showed that sulfur ions were adsorbed onto the surface of pure smithsonite, as evidenced by the increased negative charge and the decrease in the pH{sub IEP} of smithsonite from 7.7 to 6 after sodium sulfide treatment. The ICP test revealed the gradual reduction in sulfur ion adsorption onto the surface of smithsonite in pulp sulfur. After 30 min of absorption, C{sub S} in the solution declined from 1000 × 10{sup −6} mol/L to 1.4 × 10{sup −6} mol/L. SEM results showed that the mineral surface was partially changed to ZnS film after sodium sulfide treatment, whereas EDS analysis results showed that 2% S is contained on the smithsonite surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated the presence of a characteristic signal peak of sulfur ions after sulfidation. Sulfur concentration increased to 11.89%, whereas oxygen concentration decreased from 42.31% to 13.74%. Sulfur ions were not only present during chemical adsorption, but were also incorporated into the crystal lattices of minerals by the exchange reaction between S{sup 2−} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions.

  12. Spectroscopic characterization and detection of Ethyl Mercaptan in Orion

    Kolesniková, L; Cernicharo, J; Alonso, J L; Daly, A M; Gordon, B P; Shipman, S T

    2014-01-01

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH$_{3}$CH$_{2}$SH, in the millimeter and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of $gauche$-CH$_3$CH$_2$SH towards Orion KL. 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz support this identification. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH$_{3}$SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is $\\simeq$ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  13. Effects of dispersed sulfides in bronze under line contact conditions

    Tomohiro Sato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintered bronze system is applied to plane bearings with some lubricants. A bronze-based, sulfide-dispersed Cu alloy was developed via sintering. Sulfides had some functions, reduction of friction resistance, preventing scoring and seizure. Effects of the developed sulfide-containing bronze were investigated using a journal-type testing apparatus in wet conditions; results indicate that the developed bronze may have some anti-scoring properties.

  14. Extraction of Nanosized Cobalt Sulfide from Spent Hydrocracking Catalyst

    Samia A. Kosa; Hegazy, Eman Z.

    2013-01-01

    The processes used for the extraction of metals (Co, Mo, and Al) from spent hydrotreating catalysts were investigated in this study. A detailed mechanism of the metal extraction process is described. Additionally, a simulation study was performed to understand the sulfidizing mechanism. The suggested separation procedure was effective and achieved an extraction of approximately 80–90%. In addition, the sulfidization mechanism was identified. This sulfidizing process for Co was found to involv...

  15. Assistance of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in the interpretation of postmortem ethanol findings.

    Krabseth, Hege; Mørland, Jørg; Høiseth, Gudrun

    2014-09-01

    Postmortem ethanol formation is a well-known problem in forensic toxicology. The aim of this study was to interpret findings of ethanol in blood, in a large collection of forensic autopsy cases, by use of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS). In this study, according to previously published literature, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in EtS-negative cases. Among 493 ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, collected during the study period, EtS was not detected in 60 (12 %) of the cases. Among cases with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of ≤ 0.54 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 38 % of the cases, while among cases with a BAC of ≥ 0.55 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 2.2 % of the cases. For all cases where ethanol was measured at a concentration >1.0 g/kg, EtS was detected. The highest blood ethanol concentration in which EtS was not detected was 1.0 g/kg. The median concentrations of EtG and EtS in blood were 9.5 μmol/L (range: not detected (n.d.) 618.1) and 9.2 μmol/L (range: n.d. 182.5), respectively. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between concentration levels of ethanol and of EtG (Spearman's rho=0.671, p<0.001) and EtS (Spearman's rho=0.670, p<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that in a large number of ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, ethanol was not ingested before the time of death, particularly among cases where ethanol was present in lower blood concentrations. Routine measurement of EtG and EtS should therefore be recommended, especially in cases with BAC below 1 g/kg. PMID:24935750

  16. (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the binary systems {water + glycerol} and {ethanol + glycerol, ethyl stearate, and ethyl palmitate} at low pressures

    Highlights: → We measured VLE for the binary system {ethyl stearate and palmitate + ethanol}. → The boiling temperatures were obtained using Othmer-type ebuliometer. → The experimental data were modeled using NRTL, UNIQUAC, and UNIFAC models. - Abstract: This work reports the experimental measurements {(vapor + liquid) equilibrium} for the systems {water(1) + glycerol(2)}, {ethanol(1) + glycerol(2)}, {ethanol(1) + ethyl stearate(2)}, and {ethanol(1) + ethyl palmitate(2)}. Boiling temperatures were measured using an Othmer-type ebulliometer over a pressure range of 14 kPa to 96 kPa. The experimental data were well correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The performance of the UNIFAC-Dortmund model in relation to predicting the phase equilibrium of the systems was also studied.

  17. Investigation into leaching of indium-containing sulfide cake

    Data are given of laboratory investigations into indium leaching from commercial-grade sulfide cake. Two indium extraction methods are studied: exchange sulfide decomposition by blue vitriol treatment, sulfide destruction by means of an oxidizer where manganese ore containing manganese dioxide and zinc cake containing zinc ferrite have been used. The influence of the reagent consumption temperature, duration of leaching on the indium extraction is estimated as well as into on the Copper and arsenic transport into the solution. Optimal conditions for the indium extraction from sulfide cake under salt leaching and oxidizing treatment are established

  18. Limitation of Sulfide Capacity Concept for Molten Slags

    Jung, In-Ho; Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira

    2016-04-01

    The sulfide capacity concept has been widely used in pyrometallurgy to define sulfur removal capacities of slags. Typically, the sulfide capacity is considered to be a unique slag property depending only on temperature regardless of partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur. In the present study, it is demonstrated that sulfide capacities of slags in particular those of Na2O-containing slags can vary with partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur due to large solubility of sulfide in Na2O-containing slag systems.

  19. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Sulfide buildup in sewer networks is associated with several problems, including health impacts, corrosion of sewer structures and odor nuisance. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks have been made. This paper...... summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  20. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical coherence tomography

    Hammer-Wilson, Marie J.; Nguyen, Vi; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Ahn, Yehchen; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide [CEES, half-mustard gas (HMG)] at a concentration of 0.4, 2.0, or 5.0 mg/ml for 1 or 5 min. Twenty-four hours post-HMG exposure, tissue damage was assessed by both stereomicrography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Damage that was not visible on gross visual examination was apparent in the OCT images. Tissue changes were found to be dependent on both HMG concentration and exposure time. The submucosal and muscle layers of the cheek pouch tissue showed the greatest amount of structural alteration. Routine light microscope histology was performed to confirm the OCT observations.

  1. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation conditions. Pt. 1

    An ASTM A 516 degree 60 carbon steel superficial protection technique submitted to a hydrogen-water sulfide corrosive medium at 2 MPa of pressure and 40-125 deg C forming on itself an iron sulfide layer was tested. Studies on pH influence, temperature, passivating mean characteristics and exposure time as well as the mechanical resistance of sulfide layers to erosion are included. (Author)

  2. MEASURING METAL SULFIDE COMPLEXES IN OXIC RIVER WATERS WITH SQUARE WAVE VOLTAMMETRY. (R825395)

    A sulfide identification protocol was developed to quantify specific metal sulfides that could exist in river water. Using a series of acid additions, nitrogen purges, and voltammetric analyses, metal sulfides were identified and semiquantified in three specific gr...

  3. (Z-Ethyl 2-(3-nitrobenzylidene-3-oxobutanoate

    Xiaopeng Shi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C13H13NO5, adopts a Z conformation at the C= C double bond. The ethoxy atoms of the ethyl ester group are disordered over two orientations in a 3:2 ratio. Weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing.

  4. Synthesis and degradation behavior of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate)

    Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) was synthesized using N, N'-dimethyl-p-toulidine (DMPT) as an initiator through anionic/zwitterionic pathway. The degradability and the degradation mechanism of the prepared polymers were carefully examined from various points of views. It was found that the polymers were...

  5. Synthesis of Poly(2-Chloro Ethyl Vinylether) and Its Derivatives

    Nuyken, O.; Rieß, G.; Loontjens, J.A.; Linde, R. van der

    1995-01-01

    The cationic polymerization of 2-chloro ethyl vinylether (CEVE) is initiated by 1-iodo-1-(2-methylpropyloxy)ethane/(n-Bu)4NClO4. The monomer is consumed following first order kinetics. Molar masses are controlled by the ratio [M]:[I]. A rather narrow molar mass distribution is obtained. These observ

  6. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  7. The ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene in rats

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Groot, J.C.M.J. de; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been shown to be ototoxic in animals and there is evidence that these solvents can induce hearing loss in humans. In this study, the effects of inhalation of the possibly ototoxic solvent ethyl benzene on the cochlear function and morphology were evaluated using thre

  8. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of styrene to ethyl cellulose

    In this research, graft copolymer was formed by pre-irradiation method to study the kinetics of radiation grafting method. The copolymer was characterized. The influences of dose, dose rate and solvent on the grafting reaction were studied. Commercial ethyl cellulose was purified by precipitation method. A few fractions were obtained. The fractions were irradiated in air with gamma-ray from a 60Co source. The styrene solution of ethyl cellulose fraction of 4 percent concentration was heated at 65 degree C for 6 hours to form copolymer. The subsequent reaction kinetics were complicated. The reaction medium is very particular. This is constituted by the solution of two newly formed polymers, and the incompatibility of these different polymers leads to phase separation in micro scale. Separation and grafting site characterization of the copolymer were carried out. The polystyrene content in the copolymer was determined from the weight change before and after the reaction. Chain length and the number of branches of the graft copolymer were obtained. Decrease of the molecular weight of ethyl cellulose (number average molecular weight) in the presence of air was measured. The G (break) value calculated was 1.23. Polymerization of styrene in the presence of irradiated ethyl cellulose was carried out, and the rate of polymerization as functions of polymerization time was shown in a figure. Dependence of the polymerization rate on the dose of pre-irradiation was observed. (Kato, T.)

  9. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values…

  10. 1-Ethyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    Jin-Tao Guan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H19N2+·BF4−, was obtained by reaction of 1-ethyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with sodium tetrafluoroborate. The imidazole ring makes a dihedral angle of 78.92 (13° with the benzene ring.

  11. Normal State of the Metallic Hydrogen Sulfide

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Kutukov, Alexander A.; Mazur, Evgeny A.

    2016-01-01

    Generalized theory of the normal properties of the metal in the case of the electron-phonon (EP) systems with not constant density of electronic states is used to examine the normal state of the SH3 and SH2 phase of the hydrogen sulfide at different pressures. The frequency dependence of the real and imaginary part of the self-energy part (SP) of the electron Green's function, the real and imaginary part of the complex renormalization of the electron mass, the real and imaginary part of the c...

  12. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in water

    The solubility of hydrogen sulfide in water, which is of importance in the design and analysis of the dual temperature process for the production of heavy water, has been measured in the temperature range 100 - 1800C at pressures up to 6670 kPa or the hydrate/H2S-rich liquid locus, whichever is lower at the particular temperature. Limited vapor phase data at 900, 1200, and 1500C were also obtained. Henry's coefficients have been determined from the experimental data. (orig./HK)

  13. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Tetsuo Umegaki; Yusuke Yamada; Atsushi Ueda; Nobuhiro Kuriyama; Qiang Xu

    2009-01-01

    We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-prod...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    2010-04-01

    ... coloring externally applied facial makeup preparations and nail polish included under § 720.4(c)(7)(ix) and... zinc sulfide in facial makeup preparations shall not exceed 10 percent by weight of the final product. (2) Facial makeup preparations containing luminescent zinc sulfide are intended for use only...

  15. Effect of Soluble Sulfide on the Activity of Luminescent Bacteria

    Feng Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide is an important water pollutant widely found in industrial waste water that has attracted much attention. S2−, as a weak acidic anion, is easy hydrolyzed to HS and H2S in aqueous solution. In this study, biological tests were performed to establish the toxicity of sulfide solutions on luminescent bacteria. Considering the sulfide solution was contained three substances—S2−, HS and H2S—the toxicity test was performed at different pH values to investigate which form of sulfide increased light emission and which reduced light emission. It was shown that the EC50 values were close at pH 7.4, 8.0 and 9.0 which were higher than pH 5 and 10. The light emission and sulfide concentrations displayed an inverse exponential dose-response relationship within a certain concentration range at pH 5, 6.5 and 10. The same phenomenon occurred for the high concentration of sulfide at pH 7.4, 8 and 9, in which the concentration of sulfide was HS >> H2S > S2−. An opposite hormesis-effect appeared at the low concentrations of sulfide.

  16. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. 425.03 Section 425.03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 425.03 Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration...

  17. First detection of doubly deuterated hydrogen sulfide

    Vastel, C; Ceccarelli, C; Pearson, J

    2003-01-01

    This work was carried out with using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and presents the observational study of HDS and D2S towards a sample of Class 0 sources, and dense cores. We report the first detection of doubly deuterated hydrogen sulfide (D2S) in two dense cores and analyze the chemistry of these molecules aiming to help understand the deuteration processes in the interstellar medium. The observed values of the D2S/HDS ratio, and upper limits, require an atomic D/H ratio in the accreting gas of 0.1-1. The study presented in this Letter supports the hypothesis that formaldehyde, methanol and hydrogen sulfide are formed on the grain surfaces, during the cold pre-stellar core phase, where the CO depleted gas has large atomic D/H ratios. The high values for the D/H ratios are consistent with the predictions of a recent gas-phase chemical model that includes H3+ and its deuterated isotopomers, H2D+, D2H+ and D3+ (Roberts et al. 2003).

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfides as Biological Mediators

    Hideo Kimura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is recognized as a biological mediator with various roles such as neuromodulation, regulation of the vascular tone, cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, oxygen sensing, angiogenesis, and generation of mitochondrial energy. It is produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST. The activity of CBS is enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM and glutathionylation, while it is inhibited by nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. The activity of CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT, which produces the 3MST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP, is regulated by Ca2+. H2S is oxidized to thiosulfate in mitochondria through the sequential action of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR, sulfur dioxygenase, and rhodanese. The rates of the production and clearance of H2S determine its cellular concentration. Polysulfides (H2Sn have been found to occur in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 channels, facilitate the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 to the nucleus, and suppress the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN by sulfurating (sulfhydrating the target cysteine residues. A cross talk between H2S and NO also plays an important role in cardioprotection as well as regulation of the vascular tone. H2S, polysulfides, and their cross talk with NO may mediate various physiological and pathophysiological responses.

  19. Hierarchical Architecturing for Layered Thermoelectric Sulfides and Chalcogenides

    Priyanka Jood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfides are promising candidates for environment-friendly and cost-effective thermoelectric materials. In this article, we review the recent progress in all-length-scale hierarchical architecturing for sulfides and chalcogenides, highlighting the key strategies used to enhance their thermoelectric performance. We primarily focus on TiS2-based layered sulfides, misfit layered sulfides, homologous chalcogenides, accordion-like layered Sn chalcogenides, and thermoelectric minerals. CS2 sulfurization is an appropriate method for preparing sulfide thermoelectric materials. At the atomic scale, the intercalation of guest atoms/layers into host crystal layers, crystal-structural evolution enabled by the homologous series, and low-energy atomic vibration effectively scatter phonons, resulting in a reduced lattice thermal conductivity. At the nanoscale, stacking faults further reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. At the microscale, the highly oriented microtexture allows high carrier mobility in the in-plane direction, leading to a high thermoelectric power factor.

  20. Physical and microstructural aspects of iron sulfide degradation in concrete

    The microstructural aspects of iron sulfide degradation in dam concrete were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in both dam concrete samples and laboratory concrete. The results show that iron sulfide inclusions with a diameter of a few micrometers in the aggregates are reactive and appear to generate expansion first in the aggregates and consequently in the cement paste. The expansion from the iron sulfides is a consequence of the increase in volume of the reaction products formed. The types of iron sulfide present in the aggregate, mainly pyrrhotite (FeS) and pyrite (FeS2), show similar reaction behavior in the aggregates. The released sulfate can lead to a secondary ettringite formation in the concrete matrix, but the degradation associated with this appears to be minor. The reaction of the iron sulfides was found to be very slow even when laboratory samples were exposed to elevated temperatures.

  1. Influence of Water Salinity on Air Purification from Hydrogen Sulfide

    Leybovych L.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of «sliding» water drop motion in the air flow was performed in software package FlowVision. The result of mathematical modeling of water motion in a droplet with diameter 100 microns at the «sliding» velocity of 15 m/s is shown. It is established that hydrogen sulfide oxidation occurs at the surface of phases contact. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup for studying air purification from hydrogen sulfide is shown. The results of the experimental research of hydrogen sulfide oxidation by tap and distilled water are presented. The dependence determining the share of hydrogen sulfide oxidized at the surface of phases contact from the dimensionless initial concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air has been obtained.

  2. The Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide at Low Temperature: A Review

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shanxue; Gao, Fengyu; Zhang, Bowen; Zuo, Yanran; Wang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrolysis technology of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature was reviewed, including the development of catalysts, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanism of COS hydrolysis. It was indicated that the catalysts are mainly involved metal oxide and activated carbon. The active ingredients which can load on COS hydrolysis catalyst include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal oxides, rare earth metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, and nanometal oxides. The catalytic hydrolysis of COS is a first-order reaction with respect to carbonyl sulfide, while the reaction order of water changes as the reaction conditions change. The controlling steps are also different because the reaction conditions such as concentration of carbonyl sulfide, reaction temperature, water-air ratio, and reaction atmosphere are different. The hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide is base-catalyzed reaction, and the force of the base site has an important effect on the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide. PMID:23956697

  3. Sulindac Sulfide, but Not Sulindac Sulfone, Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth

    Christopher S. Williams

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide, a metabolite of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac sulfoxide, is effective at reducing tumor burden in both familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in animals with colorectal cancer. Another sulindac sulfoxide metabolite, sulindac sulfone, has been reported to have antitumor properties without inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Here we report the effect of sulindac sulfone treatment on the growth of colorectal carcinoma cells. We observed that sulindac sulfide or sulfone treatment of HCA-7 cells led to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited HCA-7 and HCT-116 cell growth in vitro. Sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of either HCA-7 or HCT-116 xenografts, whereas the sulfide derivative inhibited HCA-7 growth in vivo. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth and prostaglandin production in vitro, but sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice.

  4. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

  5. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Pressure influence on iron sulfide scales formation. Pt. 5

    In order to protect carbon steel towers and piping of Girlder sulfide (G.S.) experimental heavy water plants against corrosion produced by the action of aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, a method, previously published, was developed. Carbon steel, exposed to saturated aqueous solutions of hydrogen sulfide, forms iron sulfide scales. In oxygen free solutions evolution of corrosion follows the sequence: mackinawite → cubic ferrous sulfide → troilite → pyrrotite → pyrite. Scales formed by pyrrotite-pyrite or pyrite are the most protective layers (these are obtained at 130 deg C, 2MPa, for periods of 14 days). Experiments, at 125 deg C and periods of 10-25 days, were performed in two different ways: 1- constant pressure operations at 0.5 and 1.1 MPa. 2- variable pressure operation between 0.3-1 MPa. In all cases pyrrotite-pyrite scales were obtained. (Author)

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH3CH2SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH3CH2SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH3SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL

  7. Reactions of methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride

    Lyman, John L.; Laguna, Glenn

    1985-01-01

    We have measured the rates of reaction of both methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride (UF6) in the gas phase. The method we used was to photolyze samples of UF6 in the presence of either methane or ethane. The radicals produced by reaction of fluorine atoms with these species then react with either themselves or with UF6. We inferred the rate constants from ratios of the reaction products and the published rate constants for radical recombination. The diagnostic technique was gas chromatography. The resulting rate constants for reaction with UF6 were (1.6±0.8)×10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for methyl radicals and (4±2)×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for ethyl radicals.

  8. Transfer Reactions in Phenyl Carbamate Ethyl Acrylate Polymerizations

    Bennet, Francesca; Roelle, Thomas; Faecke, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Junkers, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The transfer reactions occurring during polymerization of 2-(phenylcarbamoyloxy)ethyl acrylate (PhCEA) were studied by a detailed product mapping with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Unlike postulated before, PhCEA exhibits the same characteristic transfer reactions as other acrylic monomers at elevated temperatures, resulting in vinyl-terminated and saturated products. Transfer to monomer via abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the ester side chain as suggested before is ...

  9. Synthesis of new radiotracers based of Ethyl Ester

    The in vivo study of a biochemical or physiological process requires the synthesis of specific radiotracers but also the targeting of these compounds so that they can reach their target tissue. Methodologies original synthesis associated with radioisotopes used, the quantities and chemical forms often have to be available developed. The chemistry of metal complexes booming, we were able to use the ethyl ester combined with technetium, forming a stable radiotracer. Finally, a counting of radioactivity in different rat's organs completed our study. (Author)

  10. Mouse Mutagenesis Using N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU)

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Andrew P. Salinger and Monica J. Justice1 Corresponding author ([]()) ### INTRODUCTION This protocol describes chemical mutagenesis of male mice using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), which is the most efficient method for obtaining mouse mutations in phenotype-driven screens. A fractionated dose of ENU, an alkylating agent, can produce a mutation rate as high as 1.5 × 10e−3 in male mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Treatment with ENU pr...

  11. Measurement and Correlation of Solubilityof Ethyl Nitrite in Mixed Solvent

    2000-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was used to measure the solubility of ethylnitrite in mixedsolvents under the lower pressure and higher temperature. The solubilitiesof ethyl nitrite inmixed solvents of ethanol-water at 15° C---40° C and ethanol-diethyloxalate at 20° C---40° C weredetermined. A Henry constant model has been improved, and the interaction parameters havebeen fitted from experimental data. The calculation results have been compared withexperimental data; the results obtained are satisfactory.

  12. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether

    Andrews, Ian P.; Kwon, Ohyun

    2008-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethy...

  13. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200 °C. Growth rate of 1.3 Å per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films

  14. Physical Properties of Ethyl Methacrylate as a Bolus in Radiotherapy

    Bolus is a soft and resilient material which is used for increasing skin dose or to even out the irregular patient contour. The main property of various materials used presently as bolus is the water-equivalent electron density. Ethyl methacrylate is used as a soft-liner in dentistry and its physical and chemical properties are proved to be nontoxic for human body. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of using this material as bolus in radiotherapy and also evaluating some parameters such as mass, electron densities, and transmission factors. Computed tomography data from the sample material were acquired to assess mass and electron densities with various techniques (mA and kVp). Circular ROIs were delineated on CT DICOM images and densities were calculated using CT numbers. Transmission factors were calculated for 6 and 18 MV. Evaluation of our results are evident that showed that mass and electron densities of ethyl methacrylate are similar to those of water and soft tissue. Furthermore, transmission factors are close to those of water. According to the results of this study and other properties such as flexibility and harmlessness, it seems that ethyl methacrylate is a suitable material to be used as bolus in radiotherapy.

  15. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  16. Banded sulfide-magnetite ores of Mauk copper massive sulfide deposit, Central Urals: Composition and genesis

    Safina, N. P.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Kotlyarov, V. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Large, R. R.; Blinov, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    The results of investigation of metamorphosed sulfide-magnetite ores from the Mauk deposit located within the Main Ural Fault at the junction of Tagil and Magnitogorsk massive sulfide zones are discussed. The ore-hosting sequence comprises metamorphic rocks formed from basalt, carbonaceous and carbonaceous-cherty siltstone, and lenticular serpentinized ultramafic bodies. The ores of the deposit are represented by banded varieties and less frequent breccia. The clastic origin of the banded ore is indicated by load casts at the bottom of sulfide beds, alternation of sulfide and barren beds, and the truncation of the growth zones of pyrite crystals. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite are the major minerals of the banded ores. The internal structure of the listed minerals testifies to the deep metamorphic recrystallization of primary hydrothermal-sedimentary ores accompanied with deformation. Cubanite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, greigite, and gold are enclosed in metacrysts of pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite. The accessory minerals of the Pb-Bi-Te, Bi-Te, and Ag-Te systems as well as uraninite have been found at the Mauk deposit for the first time. Magnetite predominantly replaces pyrite and less frequently chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and gangue minerals. It was established that the major carriers of As and Co are crystals of metamorphic pyrite. Chalcopyrite is the major carrier of Zn, Sn, Te, Pb, Bi, and Ag. Admixture of Fe and Cu is typical of sphalerite, and Se and Ni are characteristic of pyrrhotite. Ti, V, Mn, Sb, As, Ba, and U are concentrated in magnetite. The banded ores of the Mauk deposit are suggested as having been transformed in several stages: diagenesis, anadiagenesis, epidiagenesis ( t 500°C).

  17. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  18. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection

  19. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments

    Yanchen Liu; Chen Wu; Xiaohong Zhou; David Z.Zhu; Hanchang Shi

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards,and requires expensive programs for its prevention.The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments.The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated.The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment.The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide)ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions ofefficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss.The opth-nal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems.

  20. On the pelletizing of sulfide molybdenite concentrate

    Investigation results are discussed on the process of pelletizing with the use of various binders (water, syrup, sulfite-alcoholic residue and bentonite) for flotation sulfide molybdenite concentrate (∼84 % MoS2) of the Mongolian deposit. It is established that with the use of syrup rather strong pellets (>300 g/p) of desired size (2-3 mm) can be obtained at a binder flowrate of 1 kg per 100 kg of concentrate. The main advantage of using syrup instead of bentonite lies in the fact that in this instance no depletion of a molybdenum calcine obtained by oxidizing roasting of raw ore takes place due to syrup complete burning out. This affects positively subsequent hydrometallurgical conversion because of decreasing molybdenum losses with waste cakes

  1. Role of iron sulfides in uranium deposition

    The role of iron mono- and disulfides in uranium infiltrated orogenesis is considered on the basis of the results of experimental and mineral-geochemical investigations. it is shown that pyrrhotite decomposing in a weak-acid medium with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen emission precipitates actively uranium from oxygen-containing waters. Pyrrhotite in oxygen-free medium - when hydrogoethite is absent (probably due to partial proportionalization of Fe2+, SO42- and H2S and electron release causes Eh decrease at the mineral solution boundary up to values - 250 mV and correspondingly recovery uranium deposition. Regions of near-the fracture and over-the-break rock pyritization are of great importance when forecasting and prospecting infiltrated uranium deposits

  2. Chemical foundations of hydrogen sulfide biology.

    Li, Qian; Lancaster, Jack R

    2013-11-30

    Following nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (or its newer systematic name sulfane, H2S) became the third small molecule that can be both toxic and beneficial depending on the concentration. In spite of its impressive therapeutic potential, the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects remain unclear. Any novel mechanism has to obey fundamental chemical principles. H2S chemistry was studied long before its biological relevance was discovered, however, with a few exceptions, these past works have received relatively little attention in the path of exploring the mechanistic conundrum of H2S biological functions. This review calls attention to the basic physical and chemical properties of H2S, focuses on the chemistry between H2S and its three potential biological targets: oxidants, metals and thiol derivatives, discusses the applications of these basics into H2S biology and methodology, and introduces the standard terminology to this youthful field. PMID:23850631

  3. Responsive lanthanide coordination polymer for hydrogen sulfide.

    Liu, Baoxia; Chen, Yang

    2013-11-19

    Metal organic coordination polymers have received great attention because of their flexible compositions and architecture. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a responsive lanthanide coordination polymer (LCP) for hydrogen sulfide (H2S), utilizing self-assembling of biomolecule nucleotide with luminescent terbium ion (Tb(3+)) and sensitizing silver ion (Ag(+)) in aqueous solution. LCP is highly fluorescent due to the inclusion of Ag(+) ions, which sensitized the fluorescence of Tb(3+) ions. H2S can strongly quench the fluorescence of LCP through its high affinity for Ag(+) ions. Such configurated LCP material from initial building blocks showed high sensitivity and selectivity for H2S and was applied to the determination of H2S in human serum. LCP with Tb(3+) ions also has a long fluorescence lifetime, which allows for time-resolved fluorescence assays, possessing particular advantages to probing H2S in biological systems with autofluorescence. PMID:24191713

  4. Modulation of hydrogen sulfide by vascular hypoxia

    Osmond JM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jessica M Osmond, Nancy L KanagyVascular Physiology Group, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USAAbstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has emerged as a key regulator of cardiovascular function. This gasotransmitter is produced in the vasculature and is involved in numerous processes that promote vascular homeostasis, including vasodilation and endothelial cell proliferation. Although H2S plays a role under physiological conditions, it has become clear in recent years that hypoxia modulates the production and action of H2S. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that H2S is cytoprotective in the face of hypoxic insults. This review focuses on the synthesis and signaling of H2S in hypoxic conditions in the vasculature, and highlights recent studies providing evidence that H2S is a potential therapy for preventing tissue damage in hypoxic conditions.Keywords: H2S, cystathionine γ-lyase, vascular smooth muscle, endothelium

  5. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. PMID:25280920

  6. The electrochemical behavior of sulfide ions in molten cryolite

    The electrochemical behavior of sulfide ions in molten cryolite (Na3A1F6) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry using graphite electrodes at 1323 K. The oxidation of sulfide ions is found to proceed via a quasi-reversible mechanism, i.e., one in which the current is controlled by both diffusion and charge transfer kinetics. The transfer coefficient BETA and the standard rate constant k /SUB s/ are estimated to be 0.5 and 0.0042 cm/sec, respectively. The apparent diffusion coefficient for sulfide ions in cryolite at 1323 K is about 3.93 x 10-5 cm2/sec

  7. Effect of Soluble Sulfide on the Activity of Luminescent Bacteria

    Feng Wang; Ling-Ling Wu; Hong-Wen Gao; Ying Shao

    2012-01-01

    Sulfide is an important water pollutant widely found in industrial waste water that has attracted much attention. S2−, as a weak acidic anion, is easy hydrolyzed to HS and H2S in aqueous solution. In this study, biological tests were performed to establish the toxicity of sulfide solutions on luminescent bacteria. Considering the sulfide solution was contained three substances—S2−, HS

  8. Optimization of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide

    The electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of electron and phonon states of the SH3 phase and the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH2, are calculated for the pressure interval 100–225 GPa. It is found that the I4/mmm phase can be responsible for the superconducting properties of metallic hydrogen sulfide along with the SH3 phase. Sequential stages for obtaining and conservation of the SH2 phase are proposed. The properties of two (SH2 and SH3) superconducting phases of hydrogen sulfide are compared

  9. Optimization of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Masur, E. A., E-mail: eugen-mazur@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of electron and phonon states of the SH{sub 3} phase and the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH{sub 2}, are calculated for the pressure interval 100–225 GPa. It is found that the I4/mmm phase can be responsible for the superconducting properties of metallic hydrogen sulfide along with the SH{sub 3} phase. Sequential stages for obtaining and conservation of the SH{sub 2} phase are proposed. The properties of two (SH{sub 2} and SH{sub 3}) superconducting phases of hydrogen sulfide are compared.

  10. Adsorbate thermodynamics as a determinant of reaction mechanism: Pentamethylene sulfide on Mo(110)

    Wiegand, B.C.; Friend, C.M.; Roberts, J.T. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    The reactions of the totally unstrained, six-membered cyclic sulfide pentamethylene sulfide on Mo(110) have been investigated by using temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in an effort to identify the roles of ring size and strain in dictating reaction selectivity. Four gases products are detected in the temperature-programmed reaction of pentamethylene sulfide: dihydrogen at 380 and 590 K, pentane at 350 K, pentene at 345 K, and pentamethylene sulfide at 190 and 280 K. The kinetics for hydrocarbon production from pentamethylene sulfide are qualitatively different than for the four- and five-membered cyclic sulfides, trimethylene sulfide and tetrahydrothiophene.

  11. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with...... well as being stored as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic...

  12. Determination of low concentrations of the flotation reagent ethyl xanthate by sampled DC polarography and flow injection with amperometric detection.

    Hidalgo, P; Gutz, I G

    2001-04-12

    A polarographic DC(tast) method with the static mercury drop electrode, SMDE, was developed for determination of the flotation collector ethyl xanthate (EtX) in the concentration range from 1x10(-5) to 8x10(-5) M. The potentiality of the method was demonstrated by evaluating the capacity of powdered galena ore (PbS) to adsorb EtX in a titration-like procedure. Sulfide could be determined simultaneously with EtX because in NaOH electrolyte their anodic waves are well separated (E(1/2) congruent with-0.72 and -0.42 V versus Ag/AgCl, respectively). In addition, a new FIA method was developed by adapting a simple device to the tip of the glass capillary of a mercury electrode and doing amperometric detection at a fixed potential of -0.1 V, always in the DC(tast) mode. No oxygen removal was required. Reproducible results were obtained at a frequency of 72 injections per h, with automatic renewal of the SMDE every second. The calibration curve for freshly prepared EtX standards rendered a straight line from 5x10(-6) to 8x10(-5) M with correlation coefficient of 0.997, suitable for real applications in flotation processes and its effluents. PMID:18968265

  13. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  14. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh; Fatemeh Al Sadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, Ni-Cu and PGE magmatic sulfide deposits are confined to the lower parts of stratiform mafic and ultramafic complexes. However, ophiolite mafic and ultramafic complexes have been rarely explored for sulfide deposits despite the fact that they have been extensively explored and exploited for chromite. Sulfide saturation during magmatic evolution is necessary for sulfide mineralization, in which sulfide melts scavenge chalcophile metals from the parent magma and conc...

  15. Sulfide oxidizing activity as a survival strategy in mangrove clam Polymesoda erosa (Solander, 1786)

    Clemente, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Sumati, M.; Goltekar, R.

    strategies of sulfide detoxification appear to be common in animals in normoxia. First, sulfide can be bound to blood proteins (Bagarinao and Vetter 1992). Second, sulfide is frequently oxidized to less toxic or nontoxic sulfur compounds, either... with the help of bacterial symbionts (Wilmot and Vetter 1990) or in the animal tissue (Vetter et al. 1987). As a group, thiotrophic (sulfide-utilizing) bacteria employ various enzymatic pathways for conversion of sulfide into energy, including the oxidation...

  16. Functional Analysis of Three Sulfide:Quinone Oxidoreductase Homologs in Chlorobaculum tepidum▿ †

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Hanson, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) catalyzes sulfide oxidation during sulfide-dependent chemo- and phototrophic growth in bacteria. The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum (formerly Chlorobium tepidum) can grow on sulfide as the sole electron donor and sulfur source. C. tepidum contains genes encoding three SQR homologs: CT0117, CT0876, and CT1087. This study examined which, if any, of the SQR homologs possess sulfide-dependent ubiquinone reduction activity and are required for gro...

  17. Co-settling of Chromite and Sulfide Melt Droplets and Trace Element Partitioning between Sulfide and Silicate Melts

    Manoochehri, S.; Schmidt, M. W.; Guenther, D.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational settling of immiscible, dense sulfide melt droplets together with other cumulate phases such as chromite, combined with downward percolation of these droplets through a cumulate pile, is thought to be one of the possible processes leading to the formation of PGE rich sulfide deposits in layered mafic intrusions. Furthermore some chromitite seams in the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex) are considered to be acting as a filter or barrier for further downward percolation of sulfide melts into footwall layers. To investigate the feasibility of such mechanical processes and to study the partitioning behavior of 50 elements including transition metals and REEs (but not PGEs) between a silicate and a sulfide melt, two separate series of high temperature (1250-1380 °C) centrifuge-assisted experiments at 1000 g, 0.4-0.6 GPa were conducted. A synthetic silicate glass with a composition representative of the parental magma of the Bushveld Complex (~ 55 wt% SiO2) was mixed with pure FeS powder. For the first series of experiments, 15 or 25 wt% natural chromite with average grain sizes of ~ 5 or 31 μm were added to a mixture of silicate glass and FeS (10 wt%) adding 1 wt% water. For the second series, a mixture of the same glass and FeS was doped with 50 trace elements. These mixtures were first statically equilibrated and then centrifuged. In the first experimental series, sulfide melt droplets settled together with, but did not segregate from chromite grains even after centrifugation at 1000 g for 12 hours. A change in initial chromite grain size and proportions didn't have any effect on segregation. Without chromite, the starting mixture resulted in the formation of large sulfide melt pools together with finer droplets still disseminated through the silicate glass and both at the bottom of the capsule. The incomplete segregation of sulfide melt is interpreted as being due to high interfacial energies between sulfide and silicate melts/crystals which hinder

  18. A Novel Colorimetric Sensing Material, Poly(γ-Glutamic acid)-graft-3, 4-Dihydro-3-(2'-ethyl hydroxyl)-6-Ethyl-1,3,2H-Benzoxazine (γ-PGA-graft-ethyl-Bx), for Iron (III) Ions

    A novel rapid ion colorimetric sensing material for iron (III) ions was developed from poly(γ-glutamic acid) and 3,4-dihydro-3-(2'-ethyl hydroxyl)-6-ethyl-1,3,2H-benzoxazine (ethyl-Bx). The benzoxazine as an ionophore segment was grafted into γ-PGA backbone via the esterification reaction, which is a simple and effective reaction. The structure of γ-PGA-graft-ethyl-Bx was characterized by using FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The most attainable degree of conversion was 25 %. The γ-PGA-graft-ethyl-Bx showed a highly selective and sensitive recognition toward iron (III), which was clearly observable with the naked eye. The iron (III) ions sensing property of γ-PGA-graft-ethyl-Bx was further examined by using photometric titration method. After the interaction between the γ-PGA-graft-ethyl-Bx and iron (III) ions was formed, the solution of the polymer in dimethyl sulfoxide was changed from clear and colorless to red color, resulting in the shift of the maximum wavelength from UV to visible range. (author)

  19. Preliminary air pollution survey of hydrogen sulfide: a literature review

    Miner, S.

    1969-10-01

    This is a preliminary literature review representing present knowledge of hydrogen sulfide and its effects on humans, animals, plants and materials. Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless gas that has an obnoxious odor at low concentrations. The odor threshold is in the g/cu m range. In higher concentrations, the gas is toxic to humans and animals and corrosive to many metals. It will tarnish silver and react with heavy metals in points to discolor the paint. In humans, it will cause headache, conjunctivitis, sleeplessness, pain in the eyes, and similar symptoms at low air concentrations and death at high air concentrations. However, the majority of the complaints arising from hydrogen sulfide air pollution are due to its obnoxious odor in extremely low air concentrations. Air pollution by hydrogen sulfide is not a widespread urban problem but is generally localized in the vicinity of an emitter such as kraft paper mills, industrial waste disposal ponds, sewage plants, refineries, and coke oven plants.

  20. [Activity of hydrogen sulfide production enzymes in kidneys of rats].

    Mel'nyk, A V; Pentiuk, O O

    2009-01-01

    An experimental research of activity and kinetic descriptions of enzymes participating in formation of hydrogen sulfide in the kidney of rats has been carried out. It was established that cystein, homocystein and thiosulphate are the basic substrates for hydrogen sulfide synthesis. The higest activity for hydrogen sulfide production belongs to thiosulfate-dithiolsulfurtransferase and cysteine aminotransferase, less activity is characteristic of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathio-nine gamma-lyase. The highest affinity to substrate is registered for thiosulfate-dithiolsulfurtransferase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. It is discovered that the substrate inhibition is typical of all hydrogen sulfide formation enzymes, although this characteristic is the most expressed thiosulfat-dithiolsulfurtransferase. PMID:20387629

  1. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Micro-Sensor for Biomass Fouling Detection Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)is the leading chemical agent causing human fatalities following inhalation exposures. The overall aim of this project is to develop and...

  3. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools.

  4. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    Nielsen, A. H.

    are integrated at a more detailed level in the extended WATS model. This allows effects of pH, temperature and hydraulic conditions on the individual processes to be accounted for. For several of the processes, model parameters were found to be highly site specific. A sound and reliable use of complex models....... The effect of temperature on oxidation kinetics was described by the widely used Arrhenius equation. Rates of chemical and biological sulfide oxidation in the wastewater were found to double with temperature increases of 10 and 7C, respectively. The biofilm experiments indicated a smaller dependency...... on temperature in that the biofilm sulfide oxidation rate was found to double with a temperature increase of approximately 23C. The pH dependency of chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater represented the dissociation of sulfide, with the hydrosulfide ion being more rapidly oxidized than molecular hydrogen...

  5. A new mechanism for the aerobic catabolism of dimethyl sulfide.

    Visscher, P T; Taylor, B F

    1993-01-01

    Aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), previously described for thiobacilli and hyphomicrobia, involves catabolism to sulfide via methanethiol (CH3SH). Methyl groups are sequentially eliminated as HCHO by incorporation of O2 catalyzed by DMS monooxygenase and methanethiol oxidase. H2O2 formed during CH3SH oxidation is destroyed by catalase. We recently isolated Thiobacillus strain ASN-1, which grows either aerobically or anaerobically with denitrification on DMS. Comparative experimen...

  6. DLC coatings in high temperature hydrogen sulfide environment

    Liskiewicz, T; Al-Borno, A; A. Neville; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    Surface protection in high temperature hydrogen sulfide environment remains a significant challenge with limited number of materials providing adequate protection. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are recognized across different sectors as a promising way of controlling wear and the corrosion performance of components. The aim of this paper is to test the hypothesis that thin DLC coatings may act as an efficient corrosion barrier for steel components in high temperature hydrogen sulfide e...

  7. Biogeographic congruency among bacterial communities from terrestrial sulfidic springs

    BrendanHeadd

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not ...

  8. Alternating current electroluminescent properties of zinc sulfide powders

    Salimian, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the alternating current electroluminescent properties of zinc sulfide powders the following experiments were conducted: synthesis of zinc sulfide phosphors (comprised of zinc, sulfur and copper dopant); thermal shocking of phosphor materials (sudden cooling, using liquid nitrogen, of phosphor particles heated up to 500oC) and analysis of their alternating current electroluminescent properties as well as studies of particle crystal structures by synchrotron and conventi...

  9. No facilitator required for membrane transport of hydrogen sulfide

    Mathai, John C.; Missner, Andreas; Kügler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Lee, John K.; Pohl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a new and important member in the group of gaseous signaling molecules. However, the molecular transport mechanism has not yet been identified. Because of structural similarities with H2O, it was hypothesized that aquaporins may facilitate H2S transport across cell membranes. We tested this hypothesis by reconstituting the archeal aquaporin AfAQP from sulfide reducing bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus into planar membranes and by monitoring the resulting fa...

  10. INVESTIGATIONS ON BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF GROUND WATER FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Yu. P. Sedlukho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems and features of biochemical removal of hydrogen sulfide from ground water. The analysis of existing methods for purification of ground water from hydrogen sulfide has been given in the paper. The paper has established shortcomings of physical and chemical purification of ground water. While using aeration methods for removal of hydrogen sulfide formation of colloidal sulfur that gives muddiness and opalescence to water occurs due to partial chemical air oxidation. In addition to this violation of sulfide-carbonate equilibrium taking place in the process of aeration due to desorption of H2S and CO2, often leads to clogging of degasifier nozzles with formed CaCO3 that causes serious operational problems. Chemical methods require relatively large flow of complex reagent facilities, storage facilities and transportation costs.In terms of hydrogen sulfide ground water purification the greatest interest is given to the biochemical method. Factors deterring widespread application of the biochemical method is its insufficient previous investigation and necessity to execute special research in order to determine optimal process parameters while purifying groundwater of a particular water supply source. Biochemical methods for oxidation of sulfur compounds are based on natural biological processes that ensure natural sulfur cycle. S. Vinogradsky has established a two-stage mechanism for oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoa. The first stage presupposes oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulfur which is accumulating in the cytoplasm in the form of globules. During the second stage sulfur bacteria begin to oxidize intracellular sulfur to sulfuric acid due to shortage of hydrogen sulfide.The paper provides the results of technological tests of large-scale pilot plants for biochemical purification of groundwater from hydrogen sulfide in semi-industrial conditions. Dependences of water quality

  11. An eco-friendly oxidation of sulfide compounds

    RAVINDRA B WAGH; SITARAM H GUND; JAYASHREE M NAGARKAR

    2016-08-01

    An improved green route has been developed for the oxidation of sulfide compounds. Albendazole is converted to ricobendazole or albendazole sulfone using H₂O₂ as an oxidant and H₂O as the solvent. High yields of the corresponding products were obtained by carrying out the reaction at room temperature. This synthetic method is environmentally clean and safe, operationally simple for the oxidation of other benzimidazole anthelmintics and various sulfide compounds.

  12. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    Bassam Lajin; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ion...

  13. Lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries

    Henriksen, G. L.; Vissers, D. R.

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide batteries have been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1972. ANL's technology employs a two-phase Li alloy negative electrode, low-melting point LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr molten salt electrolyte, and either an FeS or an upper-plateau (UP) FeS 2 positive electrode. These components are assembled in an 'electrolyte-starved' bipolar cell configuration. Use of the multi-phase Li alloy ((α+β)-Li-Al and Li 5Al 5Fe 2) negative electrode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that renders the bipolar design viable. Employing LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte is 'electrolyte-starved" cells achieves low-burdened cells that possess low area-specific impedance, comparable with that of flooded cells using LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte. The combination of dense UP FeS 2 electrodes and low-melting electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, achieving over 1000 cycles in flooded cells, with high power capabilities. In addition, a new class of stable chalcogenide ceramic/sealant materials was developed. These materials produce high-strength bonds between a variety of metals and ceramics, which make fabrication of lithium/iron sulfide bipolar stacks practical. Bipolar Li-Al/FeS and Li-Al/FeS 2 cells and four-cell stacks using these seals have been built and tested for electric vehicle (EV) applications. When cell performance characteristics are used to model full-scale EV ad hybrid vehicle (HV) batteries, they are projected to meet or exceed the performance requirements for a large variety of EV and HV applications. In 1992, the US Advanced Battery Consortium awarded contracts to ANL and SAFT America to continue the development of the bipolar Li-Al/FeS 2 battery to meet their long-term criteria. Both ANL and sAFT are working together to refine this technology for EV applications and scale it up to larger stacks and fully integrated battery modules.

  14. MMT promises: how the Ethyl Corporation beat the federal ban

    The manganese-based MMT has been blended in gasoline fuel sold in Canada for almost 20 years. Invoking environmental health and consumer protection grounds, the federal government moved to prohibit the importation and inter-provincial trade of MMT in June 1997. Ethyl Corporation of Richmond, Virginia, the sole producers of MMT, claimed discriminatory treatment under NAFTA and sought $ 250 million in damages as compensation for alleged 'expropriation' of the company's investment interests. A stunning reversal of the Canadian government's decision occurred one year later. Canada agreed to pay Ethyl Corporation $ 13 million (representing legal fees and lost profits) and agreed to rescind the legislation and admit publicly that the use of MMT poses no environmental risk. The reversal was the result of the little-known Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT), a federal-provincial government agreement, intended to reduce 'non-tariff' barriers to inter-provincial trade and create greater economic union. The AIT is modelled on NAFTA and the Uruguay-round GATT, and treats relations between the Canadian provinces as if they were relations among sovereign states. In cases of conflict, provinces are entitled to seek resolution of complaints before dispute resolution panels. Some of the provinces voiced objection to the MMT legislation and Alberta, supported by three other provinces, filed an AIT complaint against the federal government for prohibiting the inter-provincial trade of MMT. The AIT dispute panel upheld Alberta's complaint. The decision was hailed as a 'triumph of principle over bad science'. It was an unmitigated success for Ethyl Corporation, and a humiliating defeat for the federal government. In this author's view, the MMT story is a clear example of yet another instrument by which corporate power can limit the capacity of democratically elected governments to act on behalf of the public good

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the ethyl cyanoacrylate anion

    Zhang, Xinxing; Tang, Xin; Bowen, Kit

    2013-09-01

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory have been utilized to study the parent, ethyl cyanoacrylate molecular anion, ECA-. The measured electron affinity (0.9 ± 0.2 eV), vertical detachment energy (1.3 ± 0.1 eV), and anion-to-triplet neutral, photodetachment transition energies (4.0 ± 0.1 eV and 4.5 ± 0.1 eV) all compare well with their calculated values. The relatively high electron affinity of the ECA monomer is responsible for the fact that its “anionic” polymerization mechanism proceeds even with weak nucleophiles, such as water.

  16. Ethyl­enediaminium hemioxalate thio­cyanate

    Narimani, Leila; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C2H10N2 2+·0.5(C2O4)2−·NCS−, the ethyl­enediaminium dication adopts a (+)-synclinal conformation with an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 62.64 (15)°. The oxalate dianion lies across an inversion centre. In the crystal structure, the ions are linked through N—H⋯N, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  17. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells.

    Birkenmeier, Gerd; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Pieroh, Philipp; Debebe, Tewodros; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  18. Anisotropic Optical Properties of Layered Germanium Sulfide

    Tan, Dezhi; Wang, Feijiu; Mohamed, Nur Baizura; Mouri, Shinichiro; Sandhaya, Koirala; Zhang, Wenjing; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohfuchi, Mari; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have attracted much interest from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and device applications. The establishment of new functionalities in anisotropic layered 2D materials is a challenging but rewarding frontier, owing to their remarkable optical properties and prospects for new devices. Here, we report the anisotropic optical properties of layered 2D monochalcogenide of germanium sulfide (GeS). Three Raman scattering peaks corresponding to the B3g, A1g, and A2g modes with strong polarization dependence are demonstrated in the GeS flakes, which validates polarized Raman spectroscopy as an effective method for identifying the crystal orientation of anisotropic layered GeS. Photoluminescence (PL) is observed with a peak at around 1.66 eV that originates from the direct optical transition in GeS at room temperature. Moreover, determination of the polarization dependent characteristics of the PL and absorption reveals...

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide and Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxation

    Jerzy Bełtowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, synthesized enzymatically from l-cysteine or l-homocysteine, is the third gasotransmitter in mammals. Endogenous H2S is involved in the regulation of many physiological processes, including vascular tone. Although initially it was suggested that in the vascular wall H2S is synthesized only by smooth muscle cells and relaxes them by activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels, more recent studies indicate that H2S is synthesized in endothelial cells as well. Endothelial H2S production is stimulated by many factors, including acetylcholine, shear stress, adipose tissue hormone leptin, estrogens and plant flavonoids. In some vascular preparations H2S plays a role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by activating small and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Endothelial H2S signaling is up-regulated in some pathologies, such as obesity and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, H2S activates endothelial NO synthase and inhibits cGMP degradation by phosphodiesterase 5 thus potentiating the effect of NO-cGMP pathway. Moreover, H2S-derived polysulfides directly activate protein kinase G. Finally, H2S interacts with NO to form nitroxyl (HNO—a potent vasorelaxant. H2S appears to play an important and multidimensional role in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW CHITOSAN-O-ETHYL PHOSPHONATE

    GLORIA PALMA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chitin is a natural polymer that is extracted commercially from the shells of crustaceans generated as raw material from the fishing industry. Their chemical structure is constituted by residual units of N-acetyl glucosamine linked by b (1 ® 4 and its derivatives can be obtained from alkaline chitosan. The chitin, chitosan and their derivatives present very good perspectives to be used in agriculture. These derivatives are biodegradable and they exhibit fungicides, germicides, nemacides properties and natural defensive mechanisms of the plants. The chlorophosphonic-2-acid (Ethephon® is a commercial product employed for the early maturation of fruits. The objective of the present work is the synthesis and characterization of chitosan-O-ethyl phosphonate chitosan to obtain a controlled released system with potential plant growth regulation properties. Alkaline chitosan was obtained; and then reacted with the 2-chlorophosphonic acid. The synthesis of new chitosan derivatives and its complete characterization by FT-IR, 13C, ¹H and 31P NMR is described and gas chromatographic, the effects on field blueberries are also tested. A chitosan 99 % deacetylated and Mv = 89,000 g/mol is prepared. The O-(ethyl phosphonic chitosan (QOEP with a degree of substitution of 58% is obtained

  1. Electrical transport in ethyl cellulose–chloranil system

    P K Khare; R K Pandey; P L Jain

    2000-08-01

    The charge-transport behaviour in pure and chloranil (Chl) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) system has been studied by measuring the dependence of current on field, temperature, electrode material and dopant concentration. The role of doping molecular concentration in the polymer matrix and modification in the conduction characteristics are studied. Lowering of the activation energy due to doping was observed. The current was found to increase with an increase in the chloranil concentration. An explanation for this has been attempted on the basis of formation of molecular aggregates between chloranil molecules and ethoxy groups of ethyl cellulose. It is suggested that chloranil occupies interstitial positions between the polymer chains and assists in carrier transportation by reducing the hopping barriers. The current–voltage characteristics of different samples are analyzed using space charge limited current theory and quantitative information about the transport parameters is derived. The values of effective drift mobility and trapped charge carrier concentration which result in the build up of space charge have been calculated.

  2. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  3. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  4. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect

  5. Hydrogen sulfide and nervous system regulation

    ZHOU Cheng-fang; TANG Xiao-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in regulation of neurotoxicity,neuroprotection,and neuromodulator,as well as its therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2001 to August 2011.The search terms were “hydrogen sulfide”,“neuron”,and “neurodegenerative disorders”.Study selection Articles regarding the regulation of neuronal function,the protection against neuronal damage and neurological diseases,and their possible cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with H2S were selected.Results The inhibited generation of endogenous H2S is implicated in 1-methy-4-phenylpyridinium ion,6-OHDA,and homocysteine-triggered neurotoxicity.H2S elicits neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease models as well as protecting neurons against oxidative stress,ischemia,and hypoxia-induced neuronal death.H2S offers anti-oxidant,anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects,as well as activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channels.H2S regulates the long-term potentiation (LTP) and GABAB receptors in the hippocampus,as well as intracellular calcium and pH homeostasis in neurons and glia cells.Conclusions These articles suggest that endogenous H2S may regulate the toxicity of neurotoxin.H2S not only acts as a neuroprotectant but also serves as a novel neuromodulator.

  6. Electrochemical Behavior Of Copper Electrode In Potassium Sulfide Solutions

    I. Zaafarany

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The electro chemical behavior of copper electrode in 2M potassium sulfide solution was studied using cyclic voltammograms and potentiostatic polarization techniques. The morphology studies were applied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX and X-ray powder diffraction. Three anodic peaks were observed in the anodic scan of cyclic voltammograms. SEM and EDAX analysis show the formation of an anodic copper sulfide layer on the surface of copper. Chemical sulfidization of the copper shown to be an important layer growth pathway. The sulfide layers do not passivate copper and the formation of passivating oxide layer is suppressed. The sulfide layer on copper has a Cu2S stoichiometry with roxybyite and digenite structure and it grows by a nucleation. A small patches were consistent with a CuS composition. The formation of KCu7S4 or any other ternary compound could not be observed. Only a presumable polysulfide phase very similar to KCuS4 could be detected.

  7. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate under denitrifying sulfide removal condition: Modeling and experimental validation

    Xu, Xijun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Aijie; Guo, Wanqian; Zhou, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: djlee@ntu.edu.tw [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Ren, Nanqi, E-mail: rnq@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Model evaluation applied to case study 1: (A-G) S{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N, NO{sub 2}{sup −}-N, and Ac{sup −}-C profiles under initial sulfide concentrations of 156.2 (A), 539 (B), 964 (C), 1490 (D), 342.7 (E), 718 (F), and 1140.7 (G) mg L{sup −1}. The solid line represents simulated result and scatter represents experimental result. -- Highlights: • This work developed a mathematical model for DSR process. • Kinetics of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between denitrifiers were studied. • Kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting. • The model described kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric range. -- Abstract: Simultaneous removal of sulfide (S{sup 2−}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) and acetate (Ac{sup −}) under denitrifying sulfide removal process (DSR) is a novel biological wastewater treatment process. This work developed a mathematical model to describe the kinetic behavior of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between autotrophic denitrifiers and heterotrophic denitrifiers. The kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting considering the effects of initial S{sup 2−} concentration, S{sup 2−}/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N ratio and Ac{sup −}-C/NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N ratio. Simulation supported that the heterotrophic denitratation step (NO{sub 3}{sup −} reduction to NO{sub 2}{sup −}) was inhibited by S{sup 2−} compared with the denitritation step (NO{sub 2}{sup −} reduction to N{sub 2}). Also, the S{sup 2−} oxidation by autotrophic denitrifiers was shown two times lower in rate with NO{sub 2}{sup −} as electron acceptor than that with NO{sub 3}{sup −} as electron acceptor. NO{sub 3}{sup −} reduction by autotrophic denitrifiers occurs 3–10 times slower when S{sup 0} participates as final electron donor compared to the S{sup 2−}-driven pathway. Model simulation on continuous-flow DSR reactor suggested that the adjustment of

  8. Solubility of CO2 and H2S in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

    Highlights: • Measurement solubility of single gases CO2 and H2S in [C2mim][eFAP] ionic liquid. • Evaluation of Henry’s constants for solubility of CO2 and H2S in [C2mim][eFAP]. • Correlation of experimental data by the Redlich–Kwong equation of State. • Correlation of experimental data by the extended Henry’s law and Pitzer model. • Comparison of [C2mim][eFAP] with other ILs for gas sweetening and separation. -- Abstract: The solubility of two single gases carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([C2mim][eFAP]) was experimentally determined at temperatures from (303 to 353) K and pressures up to about 2.0 MPa. Results show that hydrogen sulfide is more soluble in that particular ionic liquid than carbon dioxide. At fixed temperature and pressure, the amount of dissolved H2S is more than twice the amount of CO2. The new experimental data were used to determine the Henry’s law constants, which again were used to derive some thermodynamic functions of the gas/solvent systems, such as, for example, the change of the partial molar Gibbs free energy of the gases upon solution in the ionic liquid. Two models were used to correlate the new experimental data: (1) a model comprised of the extended Henry’s law and Pitzer's virial expansion for the excess Gibbs free energy, and (2) a generic Redlich–Kwong (RK) cubic equation of state recently proposed for gas-ionic liquid systems. Both models are equally suited to correlate the experimental results. The (CO2 + H2S) selectivity of [C2mim][eFAP] was calculated from the RK EoS at various temperatures, pressures and CO2/H2S feed ratios and compared with the recently reported results for the selectivity of other ionic liquids

  9. Correlation and prediction of mixing thermodynamic properties of ester-containing systems: Ester + alkane and ester + ester binary systems and the ternary dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate

    Highlights: ► Excess enthalpies and volumes were measured for ester–ester–alkane. ► Mixing behaviour for ester–ester, ester–alkane and ester–ester–alkane are analyzed. ► Correlations with a new polynomial model reproduce well the mixing properties. ► UNIFAC predictions for hE result acceptable excluding the ester–ester mixtures. - Abstract: Excess thermodynamic properties VmE and HmE, have been measured for the ternary mixture dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate and for the corresponding binaries dodecane + ethyl pentanoate, dodecane + ethyl ethanoate, ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate at 298.15 K. All mixtures show endothermic and expansive effects. Experimental results are correlated with a suitable equation whose final form for the excess ternary quantity ME contains the particular contributions of the three binaries (i–j) and a last term corresponding to the ternary, all of them obtained considering fourth-order interactions. The fit goodness for all mixtures is good and comparable to others equations taken from the literature. In this work the dissolution model for the binaries and ternary is analyzed with a special attention to ester–ester binaries whose behaviour is discussed. The application of the UNIFAC group contribution model to estimate the HmE yields acceptable results for the binaries (with the exception of ester–ester) and for the ternary mixture.

  10. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  11. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  12. 77 FR 20721 - 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2012-04-06

    ... September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55329) (FRL- 8886-7), EPA issued a notice pursuant to FFDCA section 408, 21 U.S.C... 2-ethyl-1-hexanol has low potential for toxicity. The major target organ for 2-ethyl-1- hexanol is.... EPA will not register any pesticide for sale or distribution that contains greater than 10% of...

  13. Colorimetric determination of uranium using ammonium thiocyanate in a medium of ethyl acetate, acetone and water

    The method consists of colorimetrically analyzing uranium using ammonium sulfo-cyanide in the solvent phase. The optimum conditions for extracting uranium by ethyl acetate have been studied. A precise colorimetric method was established which depends on the extracted phase and on the behavior of the ethyl acetate-acetone medium. (author)

  14. Synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex

    Present article is devoted to synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex. The synthesis method of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex is elaborated. The kinetics of its thermolysis process is studied. The thermodynamic functions of thermolysis process are evaluated.

  15. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    Cappaert, NLM; Klis, SFL; Muijser, H; Kulig, BM; Ravensberg, LC; Smoorenburg, GF

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was foun

  16. 40 CFR 180.212 - S-Ethyl cyclohexylethylthio-carbamate; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false S-Ethyl cyclohexylethylthio-carbamate; tolerances for residues. 180.212 Section 180.212 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Tolerances § 180.212 S-Ethyl cyclohexylethylthio-carbamate; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  17. Synthesis and crystal structure of ethyl benzimidazole-2-yl phosphonate

    HU, Fang-Zhong; WENG, Lin-Hong; YANG, Hua-Zheng; ZOU, Xiao-Mao

    2000-01-01

    When N-cyanoimido- ( O, O-diethyl ) phosphonyl/ S-methyl thiocarbonate (1) was treated with o-phenylenediamine in the presence of Et3N in ethanol, diethyl benzimidazole-2-yl recrys phonate(2) was obtained and hydrolyzed during the recrys tallization in MeOH/H2O, generating ethyl benzimidazole-2-yl phosphonate(3). The crystal structure of compound 3 was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The crystals belong to monoclinic, space rgoup C2/c, a=1.78408(18), b=O. 83725(9), c=1.67401(18) nm, β= 118.997(2)°, v=2. 1870(4) nm3, z=8, Dc=1.374g/cm3, F(000)=944.The final R and wR are 0.0499 and 0.1436, respectively. The mechanism of the above reaction is also discussed.

  18. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  19. Development of 68Ga ethyl cysteinate dimer for PET studies

    In this work development of 68Ga-ethyl cysteinate dimer (68Ga-ECD) a 68Ga tracer for possible cerebral blood flow based on 99mTc ECD homolog is reported. 68Ga-ECD was prepared using generator-based 68GaCl3 and ECD at optimized conditions. Quality control, stability, partition co-efficient and the biodistribution of the tracer (by tissue counting and PET/CT in rats) was studied. Significant metabolism of the lipophilic tracer into water soluble metabolite(s) led to urinary excretion of the tracer, un-comparable to that of homologous 99mTc-compound. Cardiac uptake of the complex suggests formation of a possible lipophil cationic complex and/or metabolite. (author)

  20. Re-Os geochronology on sulfides from the Tudun Cu-Ni sulfide deposit, Eastern Tianshan, and its geological significance

    Wang, Minfang; Wang, Wei; Gutzmer, Jens; Liu, Kun; Li, Chao; Michałak, Przemysław P.; Xia, Qinlin; Guo, Xiaonan

    2015-11-01

    The Tudun deposit is a medium-sized Cu-Ni sulfide deposit, located at the westernmost edge of the Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan, NW China. Sulfide separates including pentlandite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite from the Tudun deposit, contain Re, common Os and 187Os ranging from 40.46 to 201.2, 0.8048 to 6.246 and 0.1709 to 0.9977 ppb, respectively. They have very low 187Os/188Os ratios of 1.224-2.352. The sulfides yield a Re-Os isochron age of 270.0 ± 7.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.3), consistent within uncertainty with the SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age for the Tudun mafic intrusion (gabbro) of 280.0 ± 3.0 Ma. The calculated initial 187Os/188Os ratio is 0.533 ± 0.022, and γOs values range from 283 to 307, with a mean of 297, indicating significant crustal contamination of the parent melt prior to sulfide saturation. The Tudun deposit shares the same age and Re-Os isotopic compositions with other orthomagmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits in Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt, suggesting that they have formed in Early Permian.

  1. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    Fares H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Fares,1 Carl J Lavie,2,3 James J DiNicolantonio,4 James H O'Keefe,5 Richard V Milani2 1Department of Hospital Medicine, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, 4Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, MO, 5Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri–Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA Abstract: Hypertriglyceridemia is a highly prevalent lipid abnormality and it is associated with atherosclerosis, with a growing body of evidence linking elevated triglycerides (TGs with cardiovascular disease. The current major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA combination, lowers serum TGs while often increasing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Icosapent ethyl is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with a 96% pure ethyl ester of EPA that has been recently approved for lowering TG levels in patients with very high TGs (≥500 mg/dL, and it does so without significantly affecting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acid therapy for dyslipidemias will be discussed, including the potential pros and cons of EPA alone versus the more common and readily available EPA/DHA combination therapy. Keywords: triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  2. Sulfide Catalysts Supported on Porous Aromatic Frameworks for Naphthalene Hydroprocessing

    Eduard Karakhanov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first example of using porous aromatic frameworks as supports for sulfide catalysts for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthesis of bimetallic Ni-W and Ni-Mo sulfides was performed by in situ decomposition of [(n-Bu4N]2[Ni(MeS42] (Me = W, Mo complexes, supported on mesoporous aromatic framework with a diamond-like structure. It is shown that the highest naphthalene conversions were achieved in the case of additional sulfidation with sulfur. After the reaction, catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The activity of synthesized catalysts has been studied using naphthalene as a model substrate. The materials used in this study were substantially active in hydrogenation and slightly in hydrocracking of naphthalene.

  3. Investigation of chemical suppressants for inactivation of sulfide ores

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the effective control method of spontaneous combustion in the mining of sulfide ore deposits, This paper presents the testing results of several selected chemicals (water glass, calcium chloride, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide and their composites) as oxidation suppressants for sulfide ores. A weight increment scaling method was used to measure suppressant performance, and this method proved to be accurate, simple and convenient. Based on a large number of experiments, the test results show that four types of chemical mixtures demonstrate a good performance in reducing the oxidation rate of seven active sulfide ore samples by up to 27% to 100% during an initial 76 d period. The mixtures of water glass mixed with calcium chloride and magnesium oxide mixed with calcium chloride can also act as fire suppressants when used with fire sprinkling systems.

  4. Diverse sulfur metabolisms from two subterranean sulfidic spring systems.

    Rossmassler, Karen; Hanson, Thomas E; Campbell, Barbara J

    2016-08-01

    In sulfidic environments, microbes oxidize reduced sulfur compounds via several pathways. We used metagenomics to investigate sulfur metabolic pathways from microbial mat communities in two subterranean sulfidic streams in Lower Kane Cave, WY, USA and from Glenwood Hot Springs, CO, USA. Both unassembled and targeted recA gene assembly analyses revealed that these streams were dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, including groups related to Sulfurovum, Sulfurospirillum, Thiothrix and an epsilonproteobacterial group with no close cultured relatives. Genes encoding sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) were abundant at all sites, but the specific SQR type and the taxonomic affiliation of each type differed between sites. The abundance of thiosulfate oxidation pathway genes (Sox) was not consistent between sites, although overall they were less abundant than SQR genes. Furthermore, the Sox pathway appeared to be incomplete in all samples. This work reveals both variations in sulfur metabolism within and between taxonomic groups found in these systems, and the presence of novel epsilonproteobacterial groups. PMID:27324397

  5. Mechanism of sulfide effect on viscosity of HPAM polymer solution

    康万利; 周阳; 王志伟; 孟令伟; 刘述忍; 白宝君

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sulfide on HPAM solution viscosity was studied using BROOKFIELD DV-II viscometer,and the interaction mechanism was discussed.The HPAM solution viscosity was investigated through fully reducing sulfide by the addition of hydrogen peroxide oxidation,and the mechanism of increasing polymer viscosity was investigated.The experimental results also show that there is a critical concentration of 15 mg/L.Below it,the loss rate of HPAM solution viscosity increases more rapidly,but becomes slowly above the critical concentration.A theoretical guidance for oilfields to prepare polymer solution using sewage-water by eliminating sulfide,and it is also importance to prepare polymer solution using sewage-water and save fresh water.

  6. Extraction of Nanosized Cobalt Sulfide from Spent Hydrocracking Catalyst

    Samia A. Kosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes used for the extraction of metals (Co, Mo, and Al from spent hydrotreating catalysts were investigated in this study. A detailed mechanism of the metal extraction process is described. Additionally, a simulation study was performed to understand the sulfidizing mechanism. The suggested separation procedure was effective and achieved an extraction of approximately 80–90%. In addition, the sulfidization mechanism was identified. This sulfidizing process for Co was found to involve an intermediate, the structure of which was proposed. This proposed intermediate was confirmed through simulations. Moreover, the activities of the spent and the regenerated catalyst were examined in the cracking of toluene. The modification of the spent catalyst through the use of different iron oxide loadings improved the catalytic activity.

  7. Laser cleaning of sulfide scale on compressor impeller blade

    Tang, Q. H.; Zhou, D.; Wang, Y. L.; Liu, G. F.

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide scale on the surface of a compressor impeller blade can considerably reduce the impeller performance and its service life. To prepare for subsequent remanufacturing, such as plasma spraying, it needs to be removed completely. In the corrosion process on an FV(520)B stainless steel, sulfide scale is divided into two layers because of different outward diffusion rates of Cr, Ni and Fe. In this paper, the cleaning threshold values of the upper and inner layers and the damage threshold value of the substrate were investigated using a pulsed fiber laser. To obtain experimental evidence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and 3D surface profilometry were employed to investigate the two kinds of sulfide layers on specimens before, during, and after laser cleaning.

  8. Fungal degradation of an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in soil.

    Sondhia, Shobha; Waseem, Uzma; Varma, R K

    2013-11-01

    Owing to reported phytotoxicity of some sulfonylurea class of herbicides in number of sensitive crops and higher persistence in soil, present study was conducted to isolate and identify pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi from soil of rice field. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger, were isolated and identified from rhizospere soil of rice field, as potent pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi. Degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by P. chrysogenum and A. niger, yielded transformation products/metabolites which were identified and characterized by LC/MS/MS. The rate of dissipation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was found higher in soil of rice field and soil inoculated with P. chrysogenum. This showed important route of degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by microbes apart from chemical degradation. PMID:23993642

  9. Mathematical model for microbial oxidation of pure lead sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Kargi, F

    1989-08-01

    A shrinking-core mathematical model describing bioleaching of lead sulfide is developed considering the deposition of insoluble bio-oxidation products on metal sulfide particle surfaces. Variations in particle size are considered as it affects diffusion limitations. PMID:18588129

  10. Thermodynamics of Complex Sulfide Inclusion Formation in Ca-Treated Al-Killed Structural Steel

    Guo, Yin-tao; He, Sheng-ping; Chen, Gu-jun; Wang, Qian

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the morphology of the sulfide inclusion is of vital importance in enhancing the properties of structural steel. Long strip-shaped sulfides in hot-rolled steel can spherize when, instead of the inclusion of pure single-phase MnS, the guest is a complex sulfide, such as an oxide-sulfide duplex and a solid-solution sulfide particle. In this study, the inclusions in a commercial rolled structural steel were investigated. Spherical and elongated oxide-sulfide duplex as well as single-phase (Mn,Ca)S solid solution inclusions were observed in the steel. A thermodynamic equilibrium between the oxide and sulfide inclusions was proposed to understand the oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion formation. Based on the equilibrium solidification principle, thermodynamic discussions on inclusion precipitation during the solidification process were performed for both general and resulfurized structural steel. The predicted results of the present study agreed well with the experimental ones.

  11. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato-κS,S'-bis(N,N-dimethylthiourea-κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33-7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95-7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  12. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  13. Hydrogen evolution from water through metal sulfide reactions

    Transition metal sulfides play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal sulfide cluster anions M2SX− (M = Mo and W, X = 4–6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal sulfide anions have ground state isomers with two bridging sulfide bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal sulfide anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo2S4− isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W2S4− and M2S5− isomers. In all the lowest energy H2 elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H2 elimination step involve a thiol (–SH) and a hydroxyl (–OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo sulfide reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M2S4− and M2S5− clusters with water to liberate H2 are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M2S6− is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to saturation of the local bonding environment

  14. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term. PMID:27093236

  15. Distribution and organoleptic impact of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate enantiomers in wine.

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The enantiomers of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate were assayed in several wines using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Analyses of 37 commercial red wines from various vintages and origins revealed the almost exclusive presence of the S-enantiomeric form. The average concentration was ∼50 μg/L, but the oldest samples were found to contain higher ethyl 2-methylbutanoate levels than the youngest wines. The olfactory threshold of a racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (50:50, m/m) in dilute alcohol solution was 2.60 μg/L, almost twice that of the S-form, which was 1.53 μg/L. Ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and the racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate had different aromatic nuances: the former was mainly defined by fruity descriptors, such as green apple (Granny Smith) and strawberry, whereas the latter had an unspecific, caustic, fruity, solvent odor. Sensory analysis revealed an enhancing effect of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied: the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool, consisting of esters found in red wines, in dilute alcohol solution alone was higher than that of the same mixture supplemented with 50 μg/L ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate. The sensory profiles of these aromatic reconstitutions highlighted the contribution of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate to black-berry-fruit descriptors. PMID:24844693

  16. Experimental constraints on gold and silver solubility in iron sulfides

    Pal' yanova, Galina [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Russia, 2, Pirogova, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Mikhlin, Yuri [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, 50/24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Kokh, Konstantin, E-mail: k.a.kokh@gmail.com [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Russia, 2, Pirogova, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Siberian Physical–Technical Institute of Tomsk State University, 1, Novosobornaya, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Karmanov, Nick [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Seryotkin, Yurii [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Russia, 2, Pirogova, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Experiments were performed to determine crystallization of Fe,S-melts (pyriti≿ and troilitic with molar ratio S/Fe ratios of 2 and 1, respectively) containing traces of gold and silver at (Ag/Au){sub wt} ratios varying from 10 to 0.1. The solid products were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to reveal the concentration limits of “invisible” gold and silver in magmatic iron sulfides, and to determine the influence of sulfur on forms of precious metals in the Fe–S system with different Ag/Au ratios. Au–Ag phases do not form inclusions but instead concentrate on the grain boundaries in the synthetic pyrrhotite and troilite, while pyrite comprises micro- (1–5 μm) and macroinclusions of Au–Ag alloys and Au–Ag sulfides. In “pyriti≿” systems, the fineness of alloys increases from 650 to 970‰ and the composition of sulfides changes from acanthite (Ag{sub 2}S) to uytenbogaardtite (Ag{sub 3}AuS{sub 2}) and petrovskaite (AgAuS) as the Ag/Au ratio decreases. The concentrations of “invisible” precious metals revealed in troilite were 0.040 ± 0.013 wt.% Au and 0.079 ± 0.016 wt.% Ag. Measured concentrations in pyrite and pyrrhotite were <0.024 wt.% Au and <0.030 wt.% Ag. The surface layers of iron sulfides probed with XPS were enriched in the precious metals, and in silver relative to gold, especially in the systems with Fe/S = 1, probably, due to depletion of the metallic alloy surfaces with gold. Au- and Ag-bearing iron sulfides crystallized primarily from melts may be the source of redeposited phases in hydrothermal and hypergene processes. - Highlights: • The samples of Fe–S–Au–Ag system were synthesized. • Coupled solubility of gold and silver in iron sulfides was specified. • Ag–Au inclusions on surfaces of iron sulfides are likely to be enriched in silver. • Au–Ag sulfides can exist along with

  17. Kinetic studies of cadmium sulfide precipitation from aqueous thiourea solutions

    Kinetics of cadmium sulfide precipitation by thiourea from aqueous solutions containing ammonia complexes of cadmium(II) under conditions of spontaneous initiation of solid phase within solution volume at temperatures of 298-318 K was studied. It was ascertained that the process activation energy is 77843 J/mol, while the reaction order by initial cadmium complex equals unity. Kinetic equation, which permits control over cadmium sulfide precipitation and preparation of CdS films of desired morphology was derived on the basis of the experimental data

  18. Non-hydrolytic Sol-gel Synthesis of Tin Sulfides

    Kaur, Rajvinder

    The non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) process is an effective low temperature route well known for preparing homogeneous metal oxides. Thermodynamically as well as kinetically favored products, which cannot be prepared with the traditional solid-state routes, can be produced using NHSG. This project is focused on the exploration of NHSG synthesis of binary tin sulfides. In the past few years, metal sulfides have been the subject of significant interest. Much effort has been devoted to understand these materials because of their potential applications in electronic, optical, and superconductor devices.4 Among these materials, tin sulfides are materials of technological importance, which are being explored as semiconductors, anode materials for Li ion batteries, photoconductors, photocatalysts and absorber layer materials in photovoltaic solar cell devices. All of these applications depend upon features like homogeneity, oxidation state, high surface area and purity of the materials. These properties can be difficult to achieve by employing traditional synthetic routes, which require high temperatures due to slow diffusion, limiting the products to thermodynamically stable phases and prohibiting control over properties like particle size and surface area. A variety of low temperature methods are being explored due to the increased demand for such advanced materials. This project is focused on exploring the NHSG approach to synthesize binary tin sulfides, with the main goal of establishing conditions for the targeted synthesis of different tin sulfide polymorphs with controlled particle size. Being non-oxide materials, tin sulfides can be air sensitive, which requires special attention in handling. All reactions were carried out in absence of oxygen. This project explores the reaction of tin halides with thioethers in a dry solvent medium, leading to the formation of tin sulfides. There are a number of synthetic parameters that can be varied for the NHSG approach. A

  19. Experimental constraints on gold and silver solubility in iron sulfides

    Experiments were performed to determine crystallization of Fe,S-melts (pyriti≿ and troilitic with molar ratio S/Fe ratios of 2 and 1, respectively) containing traces of gold and silver at (Ag/Au)wt ratios varying from 10 to 0.1. The solid products were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to reveal the concentration limits of “invisible” gold and silver in magmatic iron sulfides, and to determine the influence of sulfur on forms of precious metals in the Fe–S system with different Ag/Au ratios. Au–Ag phases do not form inclusions but instead concentrate on the grain boundaries in the synthetic pyrrhotite and troilite, while pyrite comprises micro- (1–5 μm) and macroinclusions of Au–Ag alloys and Au–Ag sulfides. In “pyriti≿” systems, the fineness of alloys increases from 650 to 970‰ and the composition of sulfides changes from acanthite (Ag2S) to uytenbogaardtite (Ag3AuS2) and petrovskaite (AgAuS) as the Ag/Au ratio decreases. The concentrations of “invisible” precious metals revealed in troilite were 0.040 ± 0.013 wt.% Au and 0.079 ± 0.016 wt.% Ag. Measured concentrations in pyrite and pyrrhotite were <0.024 wt.% Au and <0.030 wt.% Ag. The surface layers of iron sulfides probed with XPS were enriched in the precious metals, and in silver relative to gold, especially in the systems with Fe/S = 1, probably, due to depletion of the metallic alloy surfaces with gold. Au- and Ag-bearing iron sulfides crystallized primarily from melts may be the source of redeposited phases in hydrothermal and hypergene processes. - Highlights: • The samples of Fe–S–Au–Ag system were synthesized. • Coupled solubility of gold and silver in iron sulfides was specified. • Ag–Au inclusions on surfaces of iron sulfides are likely to be enriched in silver. • Au–Ag sulfides can exist along with native gold in pyrite

  20. Dithiocarbamate Complexes as Single Source Precursors to Metal Sulfide Nanoparticles for Applications in Catalysis

    Roffey, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report the solvothermal decomposition of a range of metal dithiocarbamate complexes for the synthesis of metal sulfide nanoparticles. Metal sulfides exist in a variety of structural phases, some of which are known to be catalytically active towards various processes. The aim of this work was to synthesise a variety of different metal sulfide phases for future catalysis testing, particularly the iron sulfide greigite (Fe3S4, a thiospinel containing Fe2+ and Fe3+) which is to be teste...

  1. 9-Hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl Lactone: A New Sesquiterpene Isolated from the Tropical Marine Sponge Dysidea arenaria

    P. Karuso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene, 9-hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl lactone, has been isolated from a New Caledonian Dysidea arenaria, along with three known compounds. The possible incorporation of the ethyl ether from the extraction solvent is discussed.

  2. The solubility of iron sulfides and their role in mass transport in Girdler-Sulfide heavy water plants

    The solubilities of several iron sulfides, mackinawite FeSsub((1-x)), troilite FeS, pyrrhotite Fesub((1-x))S (monoclinic and hexagonal), and pyrite FeS2 have been determined in aqueous H2S solution at 0.1 MPa and 1.8 MPa H2S pressures between 25 deg and 125 deg C. The dependence of solubility on the pH of the medium has also been studied. It is concluded that since mackinawite is the most soluble of the iron sulfides, and has the highest dissolution rate and the steepest decline in solubility with temperature, its prolonged formation during plant operation should be avoided to minimize iron transport from lower to higher temperature areas in Girdler-Sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants. This can be achieved by a preconditioning of carbon steel surfaces to convert mackinawite to pyrrhotite and pyrite

  3. Identifying the Prospective Area of Sulfide Groundwater within the Area of Palvantash Oil and Gas Deposit

    M. R. Zhurayev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology of prospecting for sulfide groundwater in the area of Palvantash oil fields. In result of study allowed determining the favorable conditions for the sulfide waters formation, and mapping the areas of different sulfide water concentration. The relatively permeable areas were established and the water borehole positions were recommended.

  4. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1, respectiv

  5. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  6. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    2011-10-17

    ... rule (December 1, 1993, 58 FR 63500). Hydrogen sulfide was listed under the criteria of EPCRA section... EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) (see 59 FR 61432, 61433, 61440-61442). Hydrogen sulfide has also been... adding hydrogen sulfide to the EPCRA section 313 list of toxic chemicals (58 FR 63500) (effective...

  7. H2S exposure elicits differential expression of candidate genes in fish adapted to sulfidic and non-sulfidic environments.

    Tobler, Michael; Henpita, Chathurika; Bassett, Brandon; Kelley, Joanna L; Shaw, Jennifer H

    2014-09-01

    Disentangling the effects of plasticity, genetic variation, and their interactions on organismal responses to environmental stressors is a key objective in ecological physiology. We quantified the expression of five candidate genes in response to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure in fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae) from a naturally sulfide-rich environment as well as an ancestral, non-sulfidic population to test for constitutive and environmentally dependent population differences in gene expression patterns. Common garden raised individuals that had never encountered environmental H2S during their lifetime were subjected to short or long term H2S exposure treatments or respective non-sulfidic controls. The expression of genes involved in responses to H2S toxicity (cytochrome c oxidase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytochrome P450-2J6), H2S detoxification (sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase), and endogenous H2S production (cystathionine γ lyase) was determined in both gill and liver tissues by real time PCR. The results indicated complex changes in expression patterns that--depending on the gene--not only differed between organs and populations, but also on the type of H2S exposure. Populations differences, both constitutive and H2S exposure dependent (i.e., plastic), in gene expression were particularly evident for sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and to a lesser degree for cytochrome P450-2J6. Our study uncovered putatively adaptive modifications in gene regulation that parallel previously documented adaptive changes in phenotypic traits. PMID:24813672

  8. The structure of Aquifex aeolicus sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, a basis to understand sulfide detoxification and respiration

    Marcia, Marco; Ermler, Ulrich; Peng, Guohong; Michel, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a flavoprotein with homologues in all domains of life except plants. It plays a physiological role both in sulfide detoxification and in energy transduction. We isolated the protein from native membranes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, and we determined its X-ray structure in the “as-purified,” substrate-bound, and inhibitor-bound forms at resolutions of 2.3, 2.0, and 2.9 Å, respectively. The structure is composed of 2 Rossmann doma...

  9. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  10. Alloy selection for sulfidation: oxidation resistance in coal gasification environments

    Bradshaw, R.W.; Stoltz, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A series of iron-nickel-chromium and nickel-chromium alloys were studied for their combined sulfidation-oxidation resistance in simulated coal gasification environments. All alloys contained a minimum of 20 w/o chromium, and titanium and aluminum in the range 0 to 4 w/o. Corrosion resistance was evaluated at 1255/sup 0/K (1800/sup 0/F) in both high BTU and low BTU coal gasification atmospheres with 1 v/o H/sub 2/S. Titanium at levels greater than 1 w/o imparted significant sulfidation resistance due to an adherent, solid solution chromium-titanium oxide layer which prevented sulfur penetration. Aluminum was less effective in preventing sulfidation since surface scales were not adherent. Of the commercial alloys tested, Nimomic 81, Pyromet 31, IN801, and IN825 exhibited the best overall corrosion resistance. However, futher alloy development, tailored to produce solid solution chromium-titanium oxide scales, may lead to alloys with greater sulfidation-oxidation resistance than those investigated here.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of thiobacillus ferrooxidans on surface of sulfide minerals

    LIU Jian-she; XIE Xue-hui; LI Bang-mei; DONG Qing-hai

    2005-01-01

    By using thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T.f) from Qixiashan, Hubei Province, China, the adsorption characteristics of T.f on surface of sulfide mineral were studied. The influences of adsorption time, pH value, temperature, initial inoculated concentration of bacteria, concentration of sulfide mineral powder, and variety of minerals on the adsorption characteristics were firstly investigated by using the ninhydrin colorimetric method, and the changes of contact angles and Zeta potentials of mineral surface during the bacterial adsorption were then determined. The results show that when the leaching experiments are performed for a long time from several days to a month, the maximal quantity of adsorption of T.f on the surface of pyrite is obtained under the following conditions: leaching for 20 d, pH value in range of 1-2 and temperature at 30 ℃, respectively; when the bio-leaching experiments are performed for a shorter leaching time, the maximal quantity of adsorption is obtained under the conditions: bio-leaching for 2 h, at 2.4×10 7 cell/mL of initial inoculated bacteria concentration, and at 10% of mineral powder concentration; and the adsorption quantities are different form one sulfide mineral to another, and the adsorption of T.f on the surface of sulfide minerals includes three phases: increasing phase, stationary phase and decreasing phase.

  12. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    Wu, Yue; Wadia, Cyrus; Ma, Wanli; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A.Paul

    2008-06-24

    We present the rational synthesis of colloidal copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals and demonstrate their application as an active light absorbing component in combination with CdS nanorods to make a solution-processed solar cell with 1.6percent power conversion efficiency on both conventional glass substrates and flexible plastic substrates with stability over a 4 month testing period.

  13. 40 CFR 721.5075 - Mixed methyltin mercaptoester sulfides.

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfides (PMN P-92-177) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described.... Requirements as specified in § 721.85 (a)(1) and (a)(2) (only in a facility permitted to landfill Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous wastes with the landfill operated in accordance with subtitle...

  14. Solar thermal extraction of copper and zinc from sulfides

    Guesdon, C.; Sturzenegger, M.

    2002-03-01

    A novel approach for extracting metals from metal sulfides is proposed. Key feature is the use of concentrated solar radiation to directly convert metal sulfides into the metal and sulfur. Such processes have the potential to produce metals with virtually zero emission of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The feasibility of such a solar thermal extraction has been evaluated for zinc sulfide (Zn S) and copper(I)sulfide Cu{sub 2}S. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that for both processes heat recovery from the hot product is required to implement a viable process. Decomposition experiments have indicated that the high reactivity of Zn and S is not compatible with the energy requirement of heat recovery and that quenching will likely be needed to collect Zn. As an alternative, the addition of a mixture of O{sub 2} and steam (chemical quenching) is discussed. The extraction of Cu from Cu{sub 2}S appears less critical: Experiments under N{sub 2} revealed the formation of metallic Cu already at 1323 K. Natural separation of gaseous S from liquid Cu successfully prevents recombination of the two products and at least partial heat recovery can be envisaged. (author)

  15. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  16. A coumarin-based colorimetric fluorescent probe for hydrogen sulfide

    Yanqiu Yang; Yu Liu; Liang Yang; Jun Liu; Kun Li; Shunzhong Luo

    2015-03-01

    A coumarin-based fluorescent probe for selective detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is presented. This `off–on’ probe exhibited high selectivity towards H2S in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 30 nM. Notably, because of its dual nucleophilicity, the probe could avoid the interference of thiols and other sulfur containing compounds.

  17. Potential Applications of Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Suspended Animation

    H. Aslami; M.J. Schultz; N.P. Juffermans

    2009-01-01

    A suspended animation-like state has been induced in rodents with the use of hydrogen sulfide, resulting in hypothermia with a concomitant reduction in metabolic rate. Also oxygen demand was reduced, thereby protecting against hypoxia. Several therapeutic applications of induction of a hibernation-l

  18. Carbon-supported iron and iron-molybdenum sulfide catalysts

    The main objective was to describe the relations between the characteristics (composition and dispersion) of the actual sulfide phase and the catalytic activity. Attention was also paid to the influence of preparational aspects on these characteristics. The catalysts were characterized using in-situ Moessbauer spectroscopy down to 2.0 K. 254 refs.; 47 figs.; 22 tabs

  19. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  20. Luminescence in Sulfides: A Rich History and a Bright Future

    Philippe F. Smet

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide-based luminescent materials have attracted a lot of attention for a wide range of photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with Ce3+ and Eu2+, the luminescence can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the sulfide host. Main application areas are flat panel displays based on thin film electroluminescence, field emission displays and ZnS-based powder electroluminescence for backlights. For these applications, special attention is given to BaAl2S4:Eu, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu. Recently, sulfide materials have regained interest due to their ability (in contrast to oxide materials to provide a broad band, Eu2+-based red emission for use as a color conversion material in white-light emitting diodes (LEDs. The potential application of rare-earth doped binary alkaline-earth sulfides, like CaS and SrS, thiogallates, thioaluminates and thiosilicates as conversion phosphors is discussed. Finally, this review concludes with the size-dependent luminescence in intrinsic colloidal quantum dots like PbS and CdS, and with the luminescence in doped nanoparticles.

  1. 40 CFR 425.04 - Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards. 425.04 Section 425.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.04 Applicability of...

  2. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Amina Basic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  3. Support Effect in the Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene over Rhodium Sulfide

    Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-72. ISSN 1878-5190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrodesulfurization * thiophene * rhodium sulfide Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. Sulfide Oxidation in the Anoxic Black-Sea Chemocline

    JØRGENSEN, BB; FOSSING, H.; WIRSEN, CO; JANNASCH, HW

    1991-01-01

    The depth distributions of O2 and H2S and of the activity of chemical or bacterial sulfide oxidation were studied in the chemocline of the central Black Sea. Relative to measurements from earlier studies, the sulfide zone had moved upwards by 20-50 m and was now (May 1988) situated at a depth of 81...... per day, occurred in anoxic water at the top of the sulfide zone concurrent with the highest rates of dark CO2 assimilation. The main soluble oxidized products of sulfide were thiosulfate (68-82%) and sulfate. Indirect evidence was presented for the formation of elemental sulfur which accumulated to a...... that the measured H2S oxidation rates were 4-fold higher than could be explained by the downward flux of organic carbon and too high to balance the availability of electron acceptors such as oxidized iron or manganese. A nitrate maximum at the lower boundary of the O2 zone did not extend down to the...

  5. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild;

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes major findings of a long-term study of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) adsorption and oxidation on concrete and plastic sewer pipe surfaces. The processes have been studied using a pilot-scale setup designed to replicate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a force...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-coated poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    ZHAO Jin-hua; SUN Duo-xian

    2001-01-01

    Injectable nanoparticle carrier, poly (ethylene glycol)-coated poly (ethyl cyanoacrylate) has been prepared by a simple method. At First, synthesizing PEG macromonomer of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether with acryloyl chlo ride, then graft copolymer of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) and poly(ethylene glycol)was yield by free radical polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate with PEG macromonomer in toluene solvent. Characterization of the copolymer has been per formed by FTIR, 1H-NMR and GPC analysis. Nanoparticles were easily prepared from the obtained amphiphilic copolymer.

  7. Molecular dosimetry of the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate

    Extending previous work with E. coli and mammalian cells in culture, forward-mutation frequencies induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were quantitatively compared in Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under standardized conditions. Concomitantly, the actual dose to DNA was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity bound to DNA after treatment with tritium-labeled EMS. After exposure to EMS (2.5-50 mM), alkylation levels in N. crassa and S. cerevisiae were similar to those previously determined in E. coli and cultured mammalian cells. Consistently, there was a slightly less than proportional increase of the DNA alkylation level with the exposure concentration of the mutagen. Forward mutagenesis induced in yeast and N. crassa showed exponential kinetics with exponents of 1.5 and 2.6, respectively. These results are similar to those previously reported with E. coli, which differed from the results with cultured mammalian cells, where a linear dose-effect relationship between exposure and genetic effect was observed. These differences may reflect differences in the fate of EMS-induced adducts by cellular DNA repair systems, but are not due to initial differences in DNA alkylation levels. The fate and persistence of specific DNA adducts potentially responsible for pre-mutagenic changes are under investigation. (orig.)

  8. Chloroform extraction of ethyl xanthate complexes from sulphuric acid media

    The chloroform extraction of 30 elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Ge, Sn, V, As, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Au, Mn, Re, Ga, In, Tl, Se, Te, Cr, Mo, U, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru and Ce) from 0.1 to 8 M sulphuric acid in the presence of potassium ethyl xanthate has been studied. Pd(II), Bi, As(III), Sb(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) are completely extracted and Au(III) is largely extracted over the range of acid concentration investigated. Fe(II), Tl(I), Rh(III) and Cr(VI) are only slightly extracted and Se(VI), Te(VI), Ru(III), Cr(III), Mn(II), Zn, Ce(IV), Ir(IV) and Ge(IV) are not extracted at all. Depending on the acid concentration, the remaining elements are all partly extracted. Results are compared with those obtained in an earlier study of the extraction of xanthate complexes from hydrochloric acid media. The processes involved in the formation of some xanthate complexes and potential analytical separations are discussed. (author)

  9. Membrane Separation of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Amine/1-Decene

    Bawareth, Bander

    2012-12-01

    1-Decene is a valuable product in linear alpha olefins plants that is contaminated with 2-EHA (2-ethyl hexyl amine). Using organic solvent nanofiltration membranes for this separation is quite challengeable. A membrane has to be a chemically stable in this environment with reasonable and stable separation factor. This paper shows that Teflon AF 2400 and cellulose acetate produced interesting results in 1-decene/2-EHA separation. The separation factor of Teflon AF 2400 is 3 with a stable permeance of 1.1x10-2 L/(m2·h·bar). Likewise, cellulose acetate gave 2-EHA/1-decene separation factor of 2 with a lower permeance of 3.67x10-3 L/(m2·h·bar). A series of hydrophilic membranes were tested but they did not give any separation due to high degree of swelling of 2-EHA with these polymers. The large swelling causes the membrane to lose its diffusivity selectivity because of an increase in the polymer\\'s chain mobility.

  10. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui

    2007-01-01

    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  11. Searching for Trans Ethyl Methyl Ether in Orion KL

    Tercero, B; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J -C

    2015-01-01

    We report on the tentative detection of $trans$ Ethyl Methyl Ether (tEME), $t-CH_3CH_2OCH_3$, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for $gauche$-$trans$-n-propanol, $Gt-n-CH_3CH_2CH_2OH$, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are $\\leq(4.0\\pm0.8)\\times10^{15} cm^{-2}$ and $\\leq(1.0\\pm0.2)\\times10^{15} cm^{-2}$ for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is $\\sim100 K$ for both molecules. We also provide maps of $CH_3OCOH$, $CH_3CH_2OCOH$, $CH_3OCH_3$, $CH_3OH$, a...

  12. BAND-LIKE TEXTURE OF ETHYL-CYANOETHYL CELLULOSE MESOPHASE

    HUANG Yong

    1991-01-01

    In the ethyl-cyanoethylcellulose ((E-CE)C)/dichloroacetic acid ( DCA ) cholesteric liquid crystalline solution, the band-like texture is formed when the mesophase aggregates with the disk-like texture grow to big enough and merge with each other with increasing concentration. The band-like texture is composed of parallel equidistant bright and dark alternative strips which are about 0.2-2.0 μm in width. In the band-like texture, the layers of ordered polymer chains are perpendicular to the solution film and the axes of helicoids are parallel to it. The width of the strips is different in different zones. Under the effect of an external magnetic field, the strips in the band-like texture first become wider and then narrower gradually. Moreover, the axes of helicoids in the (E-CE) C/DCA mesomorphic solution change from the direction normal to the magnetic field to the agreement with the magnetic field direction.

  13. Ethyl cyanide on Titan: Spectroscopic detection and mapping using ALMA

    Cordiner, M A; Nixon, C A; Irwin, P G J; Teanby, N A; Charnley, S B; Mumma, M J; Kisiel, Z; Serigano, J; Kuan, Y -J; Chuang, Y -L; Wang, K -S

    2014-01-01

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C$_2$H$_5$CN) in Titan's atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA). The presence of C$_2$H$_5$CN in Titan's ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C$_2$H$_5$CNH$^+$. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C$_2$H$_5$CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at $>3\\sigma$ confidence), in the frequency range 222-241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC$_3$N, CH$_3$CN and CH$_3$CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC$_3$N, CH$_3$CN and CH$_3$CCH, which peak in Titan's northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C$_2$H$_5$CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C$_2$H$_5$CN. Radiative transf...

  14. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase with hyaluronic acid-ionic liquid-cadmium sulfide nanorod composite material

    Zhu Zhihong [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li Xia; Wang Yan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zeng Yan [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sun Wei, E-mail: sunwei@qust.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Huang Xintang [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2010-06-18

    A new composite material consisted of hyaluronic acid (HA), ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF{sub 4}) and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorod was fabricated and used for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the surface of a carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE), which was prepared with 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM]EtOSO{sub 3}) as modifier. Spectroscopic results indicated that HRP remained its native structure in the composite film. Based on the synergistic effect of the materials used, an obvious promotion to the direct electron transfer efficient between HRP and CILE was achieved with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} phosphate buffer solution, indicating the realization of the direct electrochemistry of HRP. The immobilized HRP showed good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of trichloroacetic acid and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the electrochemical parameters calculated. Based on the fabricated electrode, a new third-generation electrochemical biosensor was constructed with good stability and reproducibility.

  15. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase with hyaluronic acid-ionic liquid-cadmium sulfide nanorod composite material

    A new composite material consisted of hyaluronic acid (HA), ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) and cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorod was fabricated and used for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the surface of a carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE), which was prepared with 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM]EtOSO3) as modifier. Spectroscopic results indicated that HRP remained its native structure in the composite film. Based on the synergistic effect of the materials used, an obvious promotion to the direct electron transfer efficient between HRP and CILE was achieved with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared in 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution, indicating the realization of the direct electrochemistry of HRP. The immobilized HRP showed good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of trichloroacetic acid and H2O2 with the electrochemical parameters calculated. Based on the fabricated electrode, a new third-generation electrochemical biosensor was constructed with good stability and reproducibility.

  16. Sulfide intrusion in the tropical seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Krause-Jensen, Dorte;

    2009-01-01

    sediment-derived sulfides. The sulfide intrusion was negatively correlated to the turnover of sulfides in the sediments regulated by both plant parameters and sediment sulfur pools. Sediment iron content played an indirect role by affecting sulfide turnover rates. Leaf production was negatively correlated...

  17. Blood parameters and metabolites in the teleost fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to sulfide or hypoxia.

    Affonso, E G; Polez, V L P; Corrêa, C F; Mazon, A F; Araújo, M R R; Moraes, G; Rantin, F T

    2002-11-01

    Juvenile tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, were exposed to sulfide and hypoxia for 12, 24, 48 and 96 h. Hemoglobin concentrations, red blood cell counts, and mean cell hemoglobin, were higher at 12 h in fish exposed to hypoxia. However, control fish and those exposed to sulfide and hypoxia had lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit at 96 h. Methemoglobin was higher than in the controls, probably due to the hypoxemia induced by these stressors. Sulfhemoglobin was not detected in significant amounts in the blood of fish exposed to sulfide (in vivo), yet hemoglobin converted into sulfhemoglobin at 1-15 mM sulfide in vitro. Anaerobic metabolism seemed to be an important mechanism for adapting to sulfide exposure and blood pH returned to control values after 24 h of sulfide, preventing acidosis. The high sulfide tolerance in tambaqui is associated with its high tolerance to hypoxia. PMID:12379422

  18. (Z-Ethyl 3-[bis(4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ylcarbonylamino]-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanopropanoate

    Dehua Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H25Cl3N6O4, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-ethyl 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 4-chloro-3-ethyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carbonyl chloride. The dihedral angles between the chlorobenzene and the two pyrazole rings are 59.8 (2 and 33.3 (2°. The two pyrazole rings are oriented to each other at a dihedral angle of 84.7 (2°. The crystal packing is governed by intermolecular C—H...O interactions, resulting in a three-dimensional network. The ethyl groups are disordered over two positions, with site-occupancy factors of 0.71/0.29 and 0.51/0.49.

  19. Alkylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    The ethyl phosphotriester of thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine, dTp((Et) dT, was identified as a product from the reaction of DNA with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Enzymic degradation to yield alkyl phosphotriesters from DNA alkylated by this carcinogen, and by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulphate and ethyl methanesulphonate was studied quantitatively, and the relative yields of the triesters dTp(Alk)dT were determined. The relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group dTpdT to each of the four carcinogens was thus obtained, and compared with that of DNA overall, or with that of the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. The results are related to steric factors, and the electrophilic character of each carcinogen. (author)

  20. Conversion kinetics for smelt anions: cyanate and sulfide

    DeMartini, N.

    2004-07-01

    Cyanate and sulfide are two anions found in the molten salts (smelt) from the kraft recovery boiler of the chemical recovery cycle. Their concentrations in smelt are significantly different, as are their origins. The concentration of cyanate in smelt ranges between 0.4 and 2.1 g OCN{sup -}/kg smelt while the concentration of sulfide ranges between 78 and 115 g S{sup 2-}/kg smelt. Cyanate is a by-product of black liquor combustion. It is formed from organic nitrogen compounds in black liquor during the char burning stage. The charge of the cyanate anion is balanced by the alkali metals found in smelt, namely sodium and potassium. It has been found that the nitrogen in cyanate represents about 30% of the nitrogen entering the recovery boiler with the black liquor. This flow is similar in magnitude to the flows of black liquor nitrogen exiting the recovery boiler as the gaseous compounds NO and N{sub 2}. The method for cyanate analysis used in this work is presented in the Methods chapter of this thesis and Paper I. The results from nitrogen balances at three European kraft pulp mills are discussed in this thesis and Papers II and III, with a focus on the fate of cyanate in the recovery boiler and recausticizing process. Cyanate exits the recovery boiler with the smelt and reacts to form ammonia in the recausticizing solutions of the chemical recovery cycle. Papers IV and V of this thesis focus on the rate of ammonia formation from cyanate in model solutions and in kraft green liquors. The experiments were carried out at temperatures of 80 to 95 deg C, which are temperatures similar to those found in the recausticizing process of a kraft pulp mill. The kinetic studies help clarify the catalytic effect of bicarbonate. A rate equation applicable for use in describing ammonia formation from cyanate in highly alkaline solutions such as pulp mill recovery streams is presented. The sulfide anion, on the other hand, is a desired product of black liquor combustion as the

  1. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate with alcohols at T = 323.15 K

    Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) and the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T = 323.15 K. Vapour pressure and activity coefficients of the studied systems were calculated from experimental data. The extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL model (MNRTL) were used to correlate the experimental data, obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.012 and 0.031, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy of the studied binary mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model of Archer.

  2. Coupling of activated esters to gramines in the presence of ethyl propiolate under mild conditions

    Jones, David T.; Artman, Gerald D.; Williams, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    The coupling of activated esters to gramine derivatives is described using ethyl propiolate. A series of substrates have been prepared using these mild conditions to provide a scope and limitations for this methodology.

  3. Synthesis and Anti-influenza Virus Activity of Ethyl 6-Bromo-5-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylate Derivatives

    Yan Fang ZHAO; Jin Hua DONG; Ping GONG

    2004-01-01

    A series of ethyl 6-bromo-5-hydroxyindole-3-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized and their in vitro anti-influenza virus activity was evaluated. All the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and MS.

  4. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements.

    Reddy, Kota J; Chowdhury, Sumita

    2016-05-01

    Managing dyslipidemia can be challenging in patients with statin intolerance. We describe the lipid effects of icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (high-purity prescription omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid) in two coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance who were self-treating with fish oil dietary supplements. After initiating icosapent ethyl, improvements were noted in the first and second patients, respectively, in total cholesterol (-12%; -21%), LDL cholesterol (-3%; -24%), triglycerides (-34%; -16%), non-HDL cholesterol (-12%; -22%), the omega-3 index (+42%; +8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (+275%; +138%). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. These cases demonstrated favorable lipid effects with prescription icosapent ethyl treatment that may help optimize the care of high-risk coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance. PMID:27070379

  5. Influence of ethyl xanthate on the wettability and surface free energy of galena

    Jańczuk, Bronisław; Zdziennicka, Anna; Wójcik, Wiesław

    1997-11-01

    The contact angles of water (W), glycerol (G), formamide (F), diiodomethane (D) and 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane (T) were measured on a non-oxidized and oxidized surface of galena previously covered with a potassium ethyl xanthate film formed from aqueous solutions at different concentrations. Then, using the obtained values of the contact angle, the Lifshitz-van der Waals component and electron-acceptor and electron-donor parameters of the Lewis acid-base component of the surface free energy of galena covered with ethyl xanthate film were calculated from the modified Young equation. It was found that the surface free energy of the galena/ethyl xanthate film depends on the way of galena surface treatment after adsorption of ethyl xanthate on its surface and results from both apolar and polar intermolecular interactions. The contribution of these interactions in the surface free energy of galena depends on the concentration of potassium ethyl xanthate solution used for film formation and the state of the galena surface (non-oxidized or oxidized). With the increase of ethyl xanthate concentration in the solution from which the film was formed, the Lifshitz-van der Waals component increases or decreases a little depending on whether or not the surface galena, after adsorption of ethyl xanthate, was washed by ethyl ether. In all cases, the electron-acceptor parameter of the acid-base component is considerably smaller than the electron-donor one and practically does not depend on the concentration of the potassium ethyl xanthate solution in contact with galena. The changes of the electron-donor parameter of the acid-base component depend on the state of the galena surface, the concentration of the potassium ethyl xanthate solutions and the way of galena surface treatment after adsorption. It is interesting that the total surface free energy, both of non-oxidized and oxidized galena, does not practically depend on the concentration of potassium ethyl xanthate in aqueous

  6. New HPLC method to determine ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages using fluorescence detection

    Herbert, P; Santos, L.; Bastos, M.; Barros, P.; Alves, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new methodology to the quantification of ethyl carbamate (EC) has been developed. This method allows the analysis by HPLC of ethyl carbarnate in samples of wine, fortified wine, and wine brandy, by a precolumn derivatization with 9-xanthydrol, and fluorescence detection. This does not require previous sample extraction or concentration. The method presents an average recovery of 96% among samples studied, a detection limit of 4.2 mug/L, and an average intermediate precision of 6.3%. The com...

  7. N-[(9-Ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine has been synthesized by reaction of 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with 5-amino-3,4-dimethylisoxazole in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  8. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  9. Determination of Bioactive Components of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Punica granatum Rind Extract

    J. Sangeetha; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Punica granatum belongs to a Punicaceae family. The Punica granatum is valued as a powerful medicinal plant and used in folk medicines. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract by GC-MS Technique. This analysis revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract contain Pyrogallol (41.88%), 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (14.10%), D-Allose (9.17%), 2-Methoxy-1, 4-Benzened...

  10. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, L. (Libuše); Jeřábek, K. (Karel); Ramírez, E.; Tejero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl octyl ether (EOE) can be obtained by the ethylation of 1-octanol by means of ethanol or diethyl carbonate over acidic ion-exchange resins. However, EOE formation has to compete with the less steric demanding formation of diethyl ether, by-product obtained from ethanol dehydration or diethyl carbonate decomposition. In the present work, the influence of the resin functionalization degree on EOE formation has been evaluated. A series of partially sulfonated resins were prepared by the sul...

  11. Measurement and Correlation of Solubility of Ethyl Nitrite in Mixed Solvent

    庞建媛; 刘国维; 马沛生; 方越

    2000-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was used to measure the solubility of ethyl nitrite in mixed solvents under the lower pressure and higher temperature. The solubilities of ethyl nitrite in mixed solvents of ethanol-water at 15℃-40℃ and ethanol-diethyl oxalate at 20℃--40℃ were determined. A Henry constant model has been improved, and the interaction parameters have been fitted from experimental data. The calculation results have been compared with experimental data; the results obtained are satisfactory.

  12. Ethyl pyruvate for the treatment of acetaminophen intoxication: alternative to N-acetylcysteine?

    Wagner, Florian; Asfar, Pierre; Georgieff, Michael; Radermacher, Peter; Wagner, Katja

    2012-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine is the classical antidote for acetaminophen overdose-induced hepatotoxicity, but its efficacy is limited by the need for early and only temporary treatment. Therefore, Yang and colleagues tested the hypothesis of whether ethyl pyruvate - another anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound, which they had previously shown to protect against liver injury of various other etiologies - may allow circumventing these limitations. While ethyl pyruvate improved liver regeneration when...

  13. Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate on bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Adam, M.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Industrial Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate (dodecanoic acid ethyl ester) as a representative model compound of vegetable oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite support material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, NiW, PtNiW) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the metal loading and reducibility influence product selectivity as well as deactivation behavior of catalyst samples. (orig.)

  14. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    O Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o. and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o. were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  15. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    Burney, K.; Bowker, K.; Reynolds, R.; Bradley, M

    2006-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures.

  16. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures

  17. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen’s Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikøw 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-S., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  18. Cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide quantum dots in glass: Processing, growth, and optical absorption

    Rao, Pratima Gattu Naga

    Glasses containing cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide particles were prepared, and their properties were studied. These particles exhibit quantum confinement behavior when they are smaller than their Bohr exciton radii. Quantum confinement leads to size dependence in the optical absorption of particles. This size dependence can tune the optical absorption of the material to a particular wavelength or energy and possibly enhances the nonlinear optical absorption of the particles. These properties have potential applications in photonic devices. To control the growth of these semiconductor particles in glass, the glass processing conditions were studied. CdS-doped glasses were initially prepared with CdO and ZnS. The sublimation temperature for ZnS is at 1185°C; whereas, CdO sublimes at 1559°C, and CdS at 980°C. Loss of both cadmium and sulfur was observed in open crucible melts, even when CdO and ZnS were used. Improvements in glass processing were made by use of preheat and a cover during the glass melting, resulting in better retention of both dopants. Direct CdS addition to the glasses was possible with these improvements, thus eliminating complications of zinc incorporation during the growth of the semiconductor particles. These methods were successfully applied to the synthesis of PbS-doped glasses. CdS and PbS particles were grown in alkali borosilicate glasses, and their optical absorption spectra were measured as a function of heat treatment temperature and time. The position of the absorption peak and edge shifted to longer wave-lengths, or lower energies, with longer heat treatments at a constant temperature. Both CdS and PbS particles exhibited quantum confinement. These measurements were used to calculate particle sizes from quantum confinement models. Comparisons with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the 1-term effective-mass approximation was appropriate for estimating CdS particle sizes. A sophisticated four-band envelope

  19. N-Acetylcysteine ethyl ester (NACET): a novel lipophilic cell-permeable cysteine derivative with an unusual pharmacokinetic feature and remarkable antioxidant potential.

    Giustarini, Daniela; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Rossi, Ranieri

    2012-12-01

    Recent large clinical trials failed to confirm the supposed beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in preventing oxidative stress-related diseases. This may be due to its low bioavailability. We thought that esterification of the carboxyl group of NAC to produce N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester (NACET) would drastically increase the lipophilicity of NAC, thus greatly improving its pharmacokinetics. In the present work, we report on representative chemical, pharmacological and anti-oxidant properties of NACET, especially in direct comparison with its congener NAC. We found that NACET is rapidly absorbed in rats after oral administration but reaches very low concentrations in plasma. This is due to a unique feature of NACET: it rapidly enters the cells where it is trapped being transformed into NAC and cysteine. After oral treatment, NACET (but not NAC) was able to increase significantly the glutathione content of most tissues examined, brain included, and to protect from paracetamol intoxication in the rat. NACET has also the unique feature to accumulate in human erythrocytes where it behaves as a potent protector against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage. Our study shows that being able to enter cells and to produce NAC and cysteine, NACET increases circulating hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), thus representing a good candidate for the oral use as an H(2)S producer, with clear advantages over NAC. NACET has the potential to substitute NAC as a mucolytic agent, as a paracetamol antidote and as a GSH-related antioxidant. PMID:23000913

  20. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part II. the regeneration of copper sulfide to copper oxide - An experimental study

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for a selective and efficient method to convert copper(II) sulfide (CuS) into copper(II) oxide (CuO). The oxidation of copper sulfide has been studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 450 to 75

  1. Structure and reactivity of zinc sulfide precipitates formed in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Highlights: → Biogenic zinc sulfides exhibit short-range structural order. → This structural order increases resistance to re-oxidation. → Dissolved Fe and Zn formed distinct sulfide phases. - Abstract: The biologically mediated formation of metal sulfide precipitates in anoxic sediments represents a potentially important mechanism for the sequestration of toxic metals. Current knowledge of the structure and reactivity of these biogenic metal sulfides is scarce, limiting the ability to effectively assess contaminant sequestration in, and remobilization from, these solids. In this study, SO4-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were grown for 5 days in a high-SO4, minimal metal media amended with Zn at either 30 or 300 micromolar. Zinc speciation in the reactor solids was determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the results compared to spectra of known metal sulfide mineral phases and freshly formed metal sulfides synthesized through purely chemical processes. Biogenically mediated Zn sulfides showed significantly more short range crystallographic order than the abiotically prepared amorphous precipitates. The presence of dissolved Fe2+ at similar concentrations did not affect the nature of the Zn precipitates formed. The biogenic ZnS solids were also more resistant to re-oxidation than the chemical precipitates but more soluble than sphalerite mineral samples. These results suggest that Zn sulfides formed in anaerobic sediments are likely to be more resistant to re-oxidation than would be expected based on dissolution of Fe sulfides and/or sediment acid volatile sulfides.

  2. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  3. The bioleaching of different sulfide concentrates using thermophilic bacteria

    Torres, F.; Blázquez, M. L.; González, F.; Ballester, A.; Mier, J. L.

    1995-05-01

    The bioleaching of different mineral sulfide concentrates with thermophilic bacteria (genus Sulfolobus @#@) was studied. Since the use of this type of bacteria in leaching systems involves stirring and the control of temperature, the influence of the type of stirring and the pulp density on dissolution rates was studied in order to ascertain the optimum conditions for metal recovery. At low pulp densities, the dissolution kinetic was favored by pneumatic stirring, but for higher pulp densities, orbital stirring produced the best results. A comparative study of three differential concentrates, one mixed concentrate, and one global concentrate was made. Copper and iron extraction is directly influenced by bacterial activity, while zinc dissolution is basically due to an indirect mechanism that is activated in the presence of copper ions. Galvanic interactions between the different sulfides favors the selective bioleaching of some phases (sphalerite and chalcopyrite) and leads to high metal recovery rates. However, the formation of galvanic couples depends on the type of concentrate.

  4. 'Low-acid' sulfide oxidation using nitrate-enriched groundwater

    Donn, Michael; Boxall, Naomi; Reid, Nathan; Meakin, Rebecca; Gray, David; Kaksonen, Anna; Robson, Thomas; Shiers, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Acid drainage (AMD/ARD) is undoubtedly one of the largest environmental, legislative and economic challenges facing the mining industry. In Australia alone, at least 60m is spent on AMD related issues annually, and the global cost is estimated to be in the order of tens of billions US. Furthermore, the challenge of safely and economically storing or treating sulfidic wastes will likely intensify because of the trend towards larger mines that process increasingly higher volumes of lower grade ores and the associated sulfidic wastes and lower profit margins. While the challenge of managing potentially acid forming (PAF) wastes will likely intensify, the industrial approaches to preventing acid production or ameliorating the effects has stagnated for decades. Conventionally, PAF waste is segregated and encapsulated in non-PAF tips to limit access to atmospheric oxygen. Two key limitations of the 'cap and cover' approach are: 1) the hazard (PAF) is not actually removed; only the pollutant linkage is severed; and, 2) these engineered structures are susceptible to physical failure in short-to-medium term, potentially re-establishing that pollutant linkage. In an effort to address these concerns, CSIRO is investigating a passive, 'low-acid' oxidation mechanism for sulfide treatment, which can potentially produce one quarter as much acidity compared with pyrite oxidation under atmospheric oxygen. This 'low-acid' mechanism relies on nitrate, rather than oxygen, as the primary electron accepter and the activity of specifically cultured chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and archaea communities. This research was prompted by the observation that, in deeply weathered terrains of Australia, shallow (oxic to sub-oxic) groundwater contacting weathering sulfides are commonly inconsistent with the geochemical conditions produced by ARD. One key characteristic of these aquifers is the natural abundance of nitrate on a regional scale, which becomes depleted around the sulfide bodies, and

  5. L-Cysteine-assisted Synthesis of Copper Gallium Sulfide Microspheres

    LIANG Xiao-juan; ZHONG Jia-song; CAI Qian; HUANG Hai-yu; LIU Hai-tao; XIANG Wei-dong; SUN Jun-cai

    2012-01-01

    An effective L-cysteine-assisted synthetic route has been successfully developed to prepare copper gallium sulfide(CuGaS2) microspheres under solvothermal conditions with CuCI2-2H2O,GaCl3 and L-cysteine as source materials,in which L-cysteine was used as the sulfide source and eomplexing molecule.The experiments revealed that the synthesized sample was of a typical CuGaS2 tetragonal structure.Moreover,the prepared CuGaS2 crystals consisting of microspheres made up of nanoflakes,and the diameter of the nanoflakes was about 20 nm.Raman spectrum of the obtained CuGaS2 exhibits a high-intensity peak of the A1 mode at 306 cm-1.Meanwhile,a possible growth mechanism was proposed based on the investigations.

  6. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide

    Martinson, Alex B.; Hock, Adam S.; McCarthy, Robert; Weimer, Matthew S.

    2016-07-05

    A method for synthesizing an In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor including cooling a mixture comprised of diisopropylcarbodiimide and diethyl ether to approximately -30.degree. C., adding methyllithium drop-wise into the mixture, allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature, adding indium(III) chloride as a solid to the mixture to produce a white solid, dissolving the white solid in pentane to form a clear and colorless solution, filtering the mixture over a celite plug, and evaporating the solution under reduced pressure to obtain a solid In(III) N,N'-diisopropylacetamidinate precursor. This precursor has been further used to develop a novel atomic layer deposition technique for indium sulfide by dosing a reactor with the precursor, purging with nitrogen, dosing with dilute hydrogen sulfide, purging again with nitrogen, and repeating these steps to increase growth.

  7. Potential impact of climate change on marine dimethyl sulfide emissions

    Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Oliver; Belviso, Sauveur; MONFRAY, PATRICK

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a biogenic compound produced in sea-surface water and outgased to the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, DMS is a significant source of cloud condensation nuclei in the unpolluted marine atmosphere. It has been postulated that climate may be partly modulated by variations in DMS production through a DMS-cloud condensation nuclei-albedo feedback. We present here a modelled estimation of the response of DMS sea-water concentrations and DMS fluxes to climate change, fo...

  8. Ocean color and atmospheric dimethyl sulfide: On their mesoscale variability

    Matrai, Patricia A.; Balch, William M; Cooper, David J; Saltzman, Eric S.

    1993-01-01

    The mesoscale variability of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and ocean color is explored to determine the feasibility of a predictive relationship. During NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3), simultaneous shipboard and aircraft studies were carried out in the North Atlantic, followed by aircraft studies in the South Atlantic. Surface concentrations of chlorophyll a were measured with an airborne spectroradiometer, the Ocean Data Acquisition S...

  9. Is Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Suspended Animation General Anesthesia?

    Li, Rosie Q.; McKinstry, Andrew R.; Moore, Jason T.; Caltagarone, Breanna M.; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Kelz, Max B.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) depresses mitochondrial function and thereby metabolic rates in mice, purportedly resulting in a state of “suspended animation.” Volatile anesthetics also depress mitochondrial function, an effect that may contribute to their anesthetic properties. In this study, we ask whether H2S has general anesthetic properties, and by extension, whether mitochondrial effects underlie the state of anesthesia. We compared loss of righting reflex, electroencephalography, and electromy...

  10. Laboratory SIP signatures associated with oxidation of disseminated metal sulfides.

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Binley, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Oxidation of metal sulfide minerals is responsible for the generation of acidic waters rich in sulfate and metals. When associated with the oxidation of sulfide ore mine waste deposits the resulting pore water is called acid mine drainage (AMD); AMD is a known environmental problem that affects surface and ground waters. Characterization of oxidation processes in-situ is challenging, particularly at the field scale. Geophysical techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) in particular, may provide a means of such investigation. We performed laboratory experiments to assess the sensitivity of the SIP method to the oxidation mechanisms of common sulfide minerals found in mine waste deposits, i.e., pyrite and pyrrhotite, when the primary oxidant agent is dissolved oxygen. We found that SIP parameters, e.g., phase shift, the imaginary component of electrical conductivity and total chargeability, decrease as the time of exposure to oxidation and oxidation degree increase. This observation suggests that dissolution-depletion of the mineral surface reduces the capacitive properties and polarizability of the sulfide minerals. However, small increases in the phase shift and imaginary conductivity do occur during oxidation. These transient increases appear to correlate with increases of soluble oxidizing products, e.g., Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in solution; precipitation of secondary minerals and the formation of a passivating layer to oxidation coating the mineral surface may also contribute to these increases. In contrast, the real component of electrical conductivity associated with electrolytic, electronic and interfacial conductance is sensitive to changes in the pore fluid chemistry as a result of the soluble oxidation products released (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)), particularly for the case of pyrrhotite minerals. PMID:23531431

  11. Structural, electronic and optical properties of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles

    Frenzel, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles with sizes up to 4nm have been calculated using density-functional theory (DFT). Inaccuracies in the description of the unoccupied states of the applied density-functional based tight-binding method (DFTB) are overcome by a new SCF-DFTB method. Density-functional-based calculations employing linear-response theory have been performed on cadmium sulfide nanoparticles considering different stoichiometries, und...

  12. Evaluation of methods for monitoring air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide

    Katarzyna Janoszka; Agata Wziątek; Gromiec, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    The development of different branches of industry and a growing fossil fuels mining results in a considerable emission of by-products. Major air pollutants are: CO, CO₂, SO₂, SO₃, H₂S, nitrogen oxides, as well as compounds of an organic origin. The main aspects of this paper is to review and evaluate methods used for monitoring of hydrogen sulfide in the air. Different instrumental techniques were discussed, electrochemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric (wet and dry), to select the ...

  13. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Production Is Essential for Dietary Restriction Benefits

    Hine, Christopher; Harputlugil, Eylul; Zhang, Yue; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Lee, Byung Cheon; Brace, Lear; Longchamp, Alban; Trevino-Villarreal, Jose H.; Mejia, Pedro; Ozaki, C. Keith; Wang, Rui; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Madeo, Frank; Mair, William B.; Mitchell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ische...

  14. Method of purifying oil and bed water from hydrogen sulfide

    Dyadechko, V.N.; Kuzovatkin, R.I.; Nesterov, I.N.; Stavitskiy, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for purifying oil and bed water of hydrogen sulfide by treatment with a chemical reagent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to prevent the formation of corrosion-aggressive side products and sulfate-reducing bacteria, in the bed water the chemical reagent complex compounds of copper-hexaamine copper (II) hydroxide or tetraamine copper (II) hydroxide are used in the form of 0.05% aqueous solution.

  15. Brassica juncea Produces a Phytochelatin-Cadmium-Sulfide Complex.

    Speiser, D M; Abrahamson, S L; Banuelos, G; Ow, D W

    1992-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymically synthesized peptides produced in higher plants and some fungi upon exposure to heavy metals. We have examined PC production in the Se-tolerant wild mustard Brassica juncea and found that it produces two types of PC-Cd complexes with the same characteristics as those from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, including a high molecular weight PC-Cd-sulfide form. PMID:16669006

  16. Brassica juncea Produces a Phytochelatin-Cadmium-Sulfide Complex 1

    Speiser, David M.; Abrahamson, Susan L.; Banuelos, Gary; Ow, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymically synthesized peptides produced in higher plants and some fungi upon exposure to heavy metals. We have examined PC production in the Se-tolerant wild mustard Brassica juncea and found that it produces two types of PC-Cd complexes with the same characteristics as those from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, including a high molecular weight PC-Cd-sulfide form. PMID:16669006

  17. Formation of iron sulfide nodules during anaerobic oxidation

    van Dongen, B. E.; Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, Cantock’s Close, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1TS, United Kingdom; Roberts, A. P.; National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.; Schouten, S.; Department of Marine Biogeochemistry, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands; Jiang, W-T; Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, PR China; Florindo, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Pancost, R. D.; Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, Cantock’s Close, Bristol University, Bristol BS8 1TS, United Kingdom

    2007-01-01

    The biomarker compositions of iron sulfide nodules (ISNs; upper Pliocene Valle Ricca section near Rome, Italy) that contain the ferrimagnetic mineral greigite (Fe3S4) were examined. In addition to the presence of specific terrestrial and marine biomarkers, consistent with formation in coastal marine sediments, these ISNs contain compounds thought to originate from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). These compounds include a variety of low-molecular-weight and branched alkanols and seve...

  18. Discrimination among iron sulfide species formed in microbial cultures.

    Popa, R; Kinkle, B K

    2000-10-01

    A quantitative method for the study of iron sulfides precipitated in liquid cultures of bacteria is described. This method can be used to quantify and discriminate among amorphous iron sulfide (FeS(amorph)), iron monosulfide minerals such as mackinawite or greigite (FeS(min)), and iron disulfide minerals such as pyrite or marcasite (FeS(2min)) formed in liquid cultures. Degradation of iron sulfides is performed using a modified Cr(2+) reduction method with reflux distillation. The basic steps of the method are: first, separation of FeS(amorph); second, elimination of interfering species of S such as colloidal sulfur (S(c) degrees ), thiosulphate (S(2)O(3)(2-)) and polysulfides (S(x)(2-)); third, separation of FeS(min); and fourth, separation of FeS(2min). The final product is H(2)S which is determined after trapping. The efficiency of recovery is 96-99% for FeS(amorph), 76-88% for FeS(min), and >97% for FeS(2min). This method has a high reproducibility if the experimental conditions are rigorously applied and only glass conduits are used. A well ventilated fume hood must be used because of the toxicity and volatility of several reagents and products. The advantage relative to previously described methods are better resolution for iron sulfide species and use of the same bottles for both incubation of cultures and acid degradation. The method can also be used for Fe/S stoichiometry with sub-sampling and Fe analysis. PMID:11018273

  19. Fabrication and applications of copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures

    Shamraiz, Umair; Hussain, Raja Azadar; Badshah, Amin

    2016-06-01

    This review article presents different fabrication procedures (under the headlines of solvothermal routes, aerosol methods, solution methods and thermolysis), and applications (photocatalytic degradation, ablation of cancer cells, electrode material in lithium ion batteries and in gas sensing, organic solar cells, field emission properties, super capacitor applications, photoelectrochemical performance of QDSCs, photocatalytic reduction of organic pollutants, electrochemical bio sensing, enhanced PEC characteristics of pre-annealed CuS film electrodes) of copper sulfide (Covellite).

  20. Spurious hydrogen sulfide production by Providencia and Escherichia coli species.

    Treleaven, B E; Diallo, A. A.; Renshaw, E C

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide production was noted in two Escherichia coli strands and one Provaidenica alcalifaciens (Proteus inconstans A) strain isolated from clinical stool specimens durin the summer of 1979. An investigation into this phenomenon revealed the predence of Eubacterium lentum, an anaerobe, growing in synergism with the Enterobacteriaceae and producing H2s. The implications of this association are discssed with reference to clinical microbiology laboratory practice.

  1. Support Effect in Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene over Rhodium Sulfide

    Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    Prague: J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v.i, 2009, s. 74-75. ISBN 978-80-87351-04-8. [Symposium on Catalysis /41./. Prague (CZ), 02.11.2009-03.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrodesulfurization * rhodium sulfide * support effect Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Productivity-Diversity Relationships from Chemolithoautotrophically Based Sulfidic Karst Systems

    Porter Megan L.; Summers Engel Annette; Kane Thomas C.; Kinkle Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Although ecosystems thriving in the absence of photosynthetic processes are no longer considered unique phenomena, we haveyet to understand how these ecosystems are energetically sustained via chemosynthesis. Ecosystem energetics were measuredin microbial mats from active sulfidic caves (Movile Cave, Romania; Frasassi Caves, Italy; Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming, USA; andCesspool Cave, Virginia, USA) using radiotracer techniques. We also estimated bacterial diversity using 16S rRNA sequences torela...

  3. Study of crystallization behavior of poly(phenylene sulfide)

    Liliana B. Nohara; Evandro L. Nohara; Andreza Moura; Joseane M. R. P. Gonçalves; Michelle L. Costa; Mirabel C. Rezende

    2006-01-01

    Poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) is an engineering thermoplastic polymer that presents high temperature resistance (glass transition temperature around 85 ºC and melting point at 285 ºC). These properties combined with its mechanical properties and its high chemical resistance allows its use in technological applications such as molding resins and as matrix for structural thermoplastic composites. During the manufacture of thermoplastic composites, the polymer is exposed to repeated melting, que...

  4. Evaluation of methods for monitoring air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide

    Katarzyna Janoszka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of different branches of industry and a growing fossil fuels mining results in a considerable emission of by-products. Major air pollutants are: CO, CO₂, SO₂, SO₃, H₂S, nitrogen oxides, as well as compounds of an organic origin. The main aspects of this paper is to review and evaluate methods used for monitoring of hydrogen sulfide in the air. Different instrumental techniques were discussed, electrochemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric (wet and dry, to select the method most suitable for monitoring low levels of hydrogen sulfide, close to its odor threshold. Based on the literature review the method for H₂S determination in the air, involving absorption in aqueous zinc acetate and reaction with N,N-dimethylo-p-phenylodiamine and FeCl₃, has been selected and preliminary verified. The adopted method allows for routine measurements of low concentration of hydrogen sulfide, close to its odor threshold in workplaces and ambient air. Med Pr 2013;64(3:449–454

  5. Benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized polypropylene/halloysite nanotubes composites

    Liu, Mingxian; Guo, Baochun; Lei, Yanda; Du, Mingliang; Jia, Demin

    2009-02-01

    Clay-philic benzothiazole sulfide, capable of donating electrons, is grafted onto polypropylene (PP) backbones when N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), a commonly used accelerator in the tire industry, is included in the processing of PP/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites. CBS decomposes at elevated temperature and yields benzothiazole sulfide radicals, which react with the PP polymeric free radicals generated during the processing of the composites. On the other hand, the benzothiazole group of CBS is reactive to HNTs via electron transferring. The compatibilization between HNTs and PP is thus realized via interfacial grafting and electron transferring mechanism. The interfacial interactions in the compatibilized systems were fully characterized. Compared with the control sample, the dispersion of HNTs and the interfacial bonding are enhanced substantially in the compatibilized composites. The significantly improved mechanical properties and thermal properties of benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized PP/HNTs composites are correlated to the enhanced interfacial property. The present work demonstrates a novel interfacial design via interfacial grafting/electron transferring for the compatibilization of PP/clay composites.

  6. Benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized polypropylene/halloysite nanotubes composites

    Clay-philic benzothiazole sulfide, capable of donating electrons, is grafted onto polypropylene (PP) backbones when N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), a commonly used accelerator in the tire industry, is included in the processing of PP/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites. CBS decomposes at elevated temperature and yields benzothiazole sulfide radicals, which react with the PP polymeric free radicals generated during the processing of the composites. On the other hand, the benzothiazole group of CBS is reactive to HNTs via electron transferring. The compatibilization between HNTs and PP is thus realized via interfacial grafting and electron transferring mechanism. The interfacial interactions in the compatibilized systems were fully characterized. Compared with the control sample, the dispersion of HNTs and the interfacial bonding are enhanced substantially in the compatibilized composites. The significantly improved mechanical properties and thermal properties of benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized PP/HNTs composites are correlated to the enhanced interfacial property. The present work demonstrates a novel interfacial design via interfacial grafting/electron transferring for the compatibilization of PP/clay composites.

  7. Benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized polypropylene/halloysite nanotubes composites

    Liu Mingxian [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guo Baochun, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lei Yanda; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Clay-philic benzothiazole sulfide, capable of donating electrons, is grafted onto polypropylene (PP) backbones when N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), a commonly used accelerator in the tire industry, is included in the processing of PP/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites. CBS decomposes at elevated temperature and yields benzothiazole sulfide radicals, which react with the PP polymeric free radicals generated during the processing of the composites. On the other hand, the benzothiazole group of CBS is reactive to HNTs via electron transferring. The compatibilization between HNTs and PP is thus realized via interfacial grafting and electron transferring mechanism. The interfacial interactions in the compatibilized systems were fully characterized. Compared with the control sample, the dispersion of HNTs and the interfacial bonding are enhanced substantially in the compatibilized composites. The significantly improved mechanical properties and thermal properties of benzothiazole sulfide compatibilized PP/HNTs composites are correlated to the enhanced interfacial property. The present work demonstrates a novel interfacial design via interfacial grafting/electron transferring for the compatibilization of PP/clay composites.

  8. A kit for preparation of 188Re sulfide suspension

    The 188Re sulfide suspension could be prepared quickly by a kit. The kit consists of three 10 mL vials. All the procedures were carried out in sterility circumstance. Vial A consisted of 1 mL KReO4 and Na2S2O3 (mole ratio 1:70) solution with excipient. Vial B was 5 mol/L HCl solution. Vial C consisted of 1.5 mL PVP and NaOH solution (mole ratio 1000:1). Vial B was sealed, Vial A and C were freeze-dried. Bacterium check, endotoxin check and security check were qualified. Kits were kept at ambient temperature and the Labelling efficiency of 188Re sulfide suspension was more than 98% with 2 months. The particle sizes were 1-5 μm (60.1 +- 12.7)%; 5-10 μm (30.9 +- 8.1)%; > 10 μm (9.0 +- 4.7)%. The radiochemical purity of 188Re sulfide suspension made by the kit was higher than 98% in 5 days with particle sizes 1-5 μm (49.9 +- 14.4%); 5-10 μm (41.1 +- 5.4)%; > 10μm (9.0 +- 3.3)%

  9. Magnetite-sulfide-metal complexes in the Allende meteorite

    Haggerty, S. E.; Mcmahon, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    A model of liquid immiscibility is presented that seemingly accounts for the sulfide-oxide-metal complexes that are present in olivine-rich chondrules in the Allende meteorite. The four major assemblages that are identified are: (1) magnetite + Ni-Fe metal; (2) magnetite + troilite + Ni-Fe metal; (3) magnetite + troilite + pentlandite + Ni-Fe metal; and (4) troilite + or - pentlandite. Specific attention is focused on oxide-metal associations and experimental data confirm earlier suggestions that magnetite results from the oxidation of an initially high-Fe-content metal alloy. Oxidation decreases the modal abundance of the Fe metal and this is accompanied by substantial increases in Ni contents which reach a maximum of approximately 70 wt % Ni. The proposed oxidation mechanism is entirely consistent with condensation of Fe-metal + olivine (Fa5) that subsequently reequilibrated at lower temperatures. Although the sulfide constituents could also have formed by the reaction of Fe-Ni metal + gaseous H2S, sulfide immiscibility under increased conditions of partial O2 pressure is the preferred process.

  10. A recovery installation for sodium sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides from waste water resulting from hydrogen sulfide fabrication

    An installation for recovery of sodium sulfate and sulfur suspensions from waste water was conceived. It consists from a preheater, vacuum evaporator and a refrigerating system with drum and scraper. This equipment concentration the solution by eliminating in the first stage the water in the vacuum evaporator. The water resulting at this stage is chemically pure and can be discharged in the sewage sludge system. The concentrated solution is then directed to the refrigerating system with drum and scrapper. Here the sodium sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides get crystallized onto the drum surface. The resulting aqueous solution to be discharged in the sewage sludge system is previously analyzed as in case of the absent of the recovery installation, but the amount of pollutants will be much lower because sulfates, thiosulfates and sulfides were already recovered as scales from the drum. These solid scales can be used in detergent industry

  11. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    Bruchert, V.; Jørgensen, BB; Neumann, K.;

    2003-01-01

    low capacity to oxidize and trap sulfide. The inner shelf break marks the seaward border of sulfidic bottom waters, and separates two different regimes of bacterial sulfate reduction. In the sulfidic bottom waters on the shelf, up to 55% of sulfide oxidation is mediated by the large nitrate......The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore...... water profiles for dissolved,sulfide and sulfate, S-35-sulfate reduction rates, as well as bacterial counts of large sulfur bacteria from 20 stations across the continental shelf and slope. The stations covered two transects and included the inner shelf with its anoxic and extremely oxygen...

  12. Microbial control of the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Montgomery, A D; McLnerney, M J; Sublette, K L

    1990-03-01

    A sulfide-resistant ctrain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium or in Berea sandstone cores. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. These data suggest that strain F would be effective in controlling sulfide production in oil reservoirs and other environments. PMID:18592547

  13. When can Electrochemical Techniques give Reliable Corrosion Rates on Carbon Steel in Sulfide Media?

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hemmingsen, Tor; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo;

    2005-01-01

    of film formation in sulfide solutions was followed by video. It can be shown that capacitative and diffusional effects due to porous reactive deposits tend to dominate the data resulting in unreliable corrosion rates measured by electrochemical techniques. The effect is strongly increased if biofilm......Effects of film formation on carbon steel in hydrogen sulfide media may corrupt corrosion rate monitoring by electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical data from hydrogen sulfide solutions, biological sulfide media and natural sulfide containing geothermal water have been collected and the process...... in combination with ferrous sulfide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 with electrochemical techniques - both by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxygen entering the system...

  14. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  15. Leaching of strontium sulfide from produced clinker in conversion furnace

    Iran is rich in mineral resources one of which is mineral Celestine. Basing on current estimations, the capacity of mineral Celestine is over two million tons, 75-95% of which is strontium sulfate. However; in industries such as Color cathode Ray Tubes, pyrochemical processes, ceramics, paint production, zinc purification processes; strontium sulfate is not a direct feed, rather it is largely consumed in the form of strontium carbonate. Two conventional methods are used to produce strontium carbonate from the sulfate; that is direct reaction and black ash methods. Strontium sulfide, as an intermediate component has a key role in black ash process including strontium sulfate reduction by coke, hence producing and leaching the strontium sulfide by hot water. Finally the reaction of strontium sulfate with sodium carbonate lead to strontium carbonate. In this paper, a system was designed to analyze and optimize the process parameters of strontium sulfide production which is less expensive and available solvent in water. Fundamentally, when strontium sulfide becomes in contact with strontium sulfate; Sr(SH)2, and Sr(OH)2, are produced. The solubility of strontium sulfide depends on water temperature and the maximum solubility achieved at 90degreeC. The results showed that in the experimental scale, at water to SrS ratio of 6; they sediment for 45 minutes at 95degreeC in five operational stages; the separation of 95 and 97.1 percent of imported SrS is possible in effluent of fourth and fifth stages, respectively. Thus; four leaching stages could be recommended for pilot scale plants. Also, the results show that at water to SrS ratio of 8, 40 minutes sedimentation at 85-95degreeC in one operational stage, the separation of 95 percent separation of inputted SrS, is possible. Solvent leaching process is continued till no smell of sulfur components is felt. It could be used as a key role to determine the number of leaching stages in experiments. Finally, the results show

  16. Gibbs free energy of formation of rhodium sulfides

    Highlights: • Gibbs energies of formation of RhS0.882, Rh3S4 and Rh2S3 are accurately measured. • Employed a novel solid-state cell based on single crystal CaF2 as an electrolyte. • Auxiliary electrodes of (CaS + CaF2) convert S2 potential into F2 potential. • Measuring electrodes consists of two adjacent phases in the system (Rh + S). • Evaluated S298.15Ko and ΔfH298.15Ko for three rhodium sulfides at T = 298.15 K. -- Abstract: Using a solid-state electrochemical technique, thermodynamic properties of three sulfide phases (RhS0.882, Rh3S4, Rh2S3) in the binary system (Rh + S) are measured as a function of temperature over the range from (925 to 1275) K. Single crystal CaF2 is used as the electrolyte. The auxiliary electrode consisting of (CaS + CaF2) is designed in such a way that the sulfur chemical potential converts into an equivalent fluorine potential at each electrode. The sulfur potentials at the measuring electrodes are established by the mixtures of (Rh + RhS0.882), (RhS0.882 + Rh3S4) and (Rh3S4 + Rh2S3) respectively. A gas mixture (H2 + H2S + Ar) of known composition fixes the sulfur potential at the reference electrode. A novel cell design with physical separation of rhodium sulfides in the measuring electrode from CaS in the auxiliary electrode is used to prevent interaction between the two sulfide phases. They equilibrate only via the gas phase in a hermetically sealed reference enclosure. Standard Gibbs energy changes for the following reactions are calculated from the electromotive force of three cells:2.2667Rh (s) + S2 (g) → 2.2667RhS0.882 (s), ΔrGo±2330/(J·mol-1)=-288690+146.18(T/K), 4.44RhS0.882 (s) + S2 (g) → 1.48Rh3S4 (s), ΔrGo±2245/(J·mol-1)=-245596+164.31(T/K), 4Rh3S4 (s) + S2 (g) → 6Rh2S3 (s), ΔrGo±2490/(J·mol-1)=-230957+160.03(T/K). Standard entropy and enthalpy of formation of rhodium sulfides from elements in their normal standard states at T = 298.15 K are evaluated

  17. Biodegradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by three strains of bacteria isolated from contaminated soils.

    Xu, Jun; Li, Xuesheng; Xu, Yanjun; Qiu, Lihong; Pan, Canping

    2009-02-01

    Three bacterial strains capable of transforming pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, designated as D61, D66, and D713, were isolated from pyrazosulfuron-ethyl contaminated soils. According to the sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene, it is found that the strains D61 and D66 belong to Pseudomonas sp., and the strain D713 belongs to Bacillus sp. The effects of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl concentration, pH and temperature on biodegradation were examined. At a concentration of 10.0mgL(-1), pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was completely degraded by Pseudomonas sp. D61 after 2d and by Pseudomonas sp. D66 after 5d. At a concentration of 90.0mgL(-1), pyrazosulfuron-ethyl can be completely degraded by Pseudomonas sp. D66 and D61 after 12d. More than 85.9% degradation rate was observed with Bacillus sp. D713 after 12d. The growth of these three strains was inhibited at low pH buffers. The abiotic degradation occurs much faster at low pH than at neutral and basic pH conditions. The degradation rate of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 28 degrees C was faster than those at 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C by these strains, except the highest degradation rate of Bacillus sp. D713 was obtained at 37 degrees C. The pyrazosulfuron-ethyl biodegradation products were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy with positive/negative modes and tandem MS-MS techniques. The main degradation product was detected and identified as 5-(N-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoyl)sulfamoyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid based on mass spectral data and fragmentation patterns. PMID:19004468

  18. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  19. Antifoaming materials in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water plants. Thermical stability. Pt. 2

    In Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants hydrogen sulfide-water systems are inherentely foaming, so the adding of antifoaming materials is of great importance. These may be of high volatility, pyrolizable or chemically unstable in plant operation conditions (water and hydrogen sulfide at 2 MPa, up to 230 deg C). About twenty commercial surfactants were studied from the point of view of their thermical stability. (Author)

  20. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    Mohamed Abdel-Monaem Zytoon; Abdulraheem Ahmad AlZahrani; Madbuli Hamed Noweir; Fadia Ahmed El-Marakby

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combinat...

  1. Research of the Plasma Sulfide Layer Formed on the Nitrocarburizing Layer

    LI Xin; MA Shi-ning; HU Chun-hua; QIU Ji; HUANG Yuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Low-temperature sulfurizing after nitrocarburizing are compared with only low-temperature sulfurizing on the surface of CrMoCu alloyed cast iron, the surface morphologies and microstructures are investigated by SEM and EDS.Results show that under proper treatment parameters, there are sulfide layer on both of the surfaces, and can more easily obtain sulfide layers on the surface of nitrocarburizing. Forming mechanism of sulfides were also studied elementarily.

  2. Marine mineral resources The Global Rare Element Endowment of Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits

    Monecke, Thomas; Petersen, Sven; Hannington, Mark D.; Grant, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, a large number of seafloor hydrothermal vent sites and associated sulfide deposits have been discovered in the worlds' oceans. Geochemical analysis of samples collected from vent sites worldwide suggests that seafloor sulfide deposits may contain significant base and precious metal concentrations. The present study provides the first estimate of the global rare metal endowment of these deposits. It is shown that seafloor sulfide accumulations can contain elevated ...

  3. Preferential desulfurization of dibenzyl sulfide by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100

    Ahmad, Abrar; Chauhan, Ashok Kumar; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Javed, Saleem; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    Several organosulfur compounds are present in the crude oil, and are required to be removed before its processing into transport fuel. For this reason, biodesulfurization of thiophenic compounds has been studied extensively. However, studies on the sulfide compounds are scarce. In this paper, we describe desulfurization of a model sulfidic compound, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100. The reaction was accompanied with the formation of metabolites dibenzyl sulfoxide, di...

  4. The use of 14C ethanolamine as a precursor

    Two new 2 chloroethyl nitrosoureas were labelled on two positions by 14C starting from Na14CN and using 14C ethanolamine as intermediate, i.e. on the carbon 2 of the 2 chloro ethyl group and on the carbon 2 of the cysteamine part. (author)

  5. All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants

    Wagner, George W. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Procell, Lawrence R. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Sorrick, David C. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Lawson, Glenn E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Dahlgren, VA (United States); Wells, Claire M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Dahlgren, VA (United States); Reynolds, Charles M. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Ringelberg, D. B. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Foley, Karen L. [U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (CRREL), Hanover, NH (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blanchard, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-03-11

    A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 °C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

  6. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  7. Biological and chemical sulfide oxidation in a Beggiatoa inhabited marine sediment

    Preisler, André; de Beer, Dirk; Lichtschlag, Anna;

    2007-01-01

    gradient and corresponding high sulfide flux, a typical characteristic of Beggiatoa habitats, is not needed for their metabolic performance, but rather used as a chemotactic cue by the highly motile filaments to avoid getting lost at depth in the sediment. Indeed sulfide is a repellant for Beggiatoa...... and corresponding high sulfide flux, a typical characteristic of Beggiatoa habitats, is not needed for their metabolic performance, but rather used as a chemotactic cue by the highly motile filaments to avoid getting lost at depth in the sediment. Indeed sulfide is a repellant for Beggiatoa...

  8. Biogenic hydrogen sulfide in the oil gas of Western Siberian fields

    Yershov, V.A.; Chetverkina, V.N.; Nosova, V.S.; Shakirova, A.Kh.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the discovery of biogenic hydrogen sulfide in the oil gas of Western Siberian fields, the quantity of hydrogen sulfide has been monitored and the dynamics of the development of the sulfate reduction processes and their features are examined. It is noted that in the absence of influences on the bacterial flora, it is necessary to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from natural gas or to use hydrogen sulfide corrosion inhibiters in order to suppress biocenosis in building gas processing plants and gas lift systems, in order to reduce equipment corrosion.

  9. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O' Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  10. Spontaneous electrochemical treatment for sulfur recovery by a sulfide oxidation/vanadium(V) reduction galvanic cell.

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Kijjanapanich, Pairoje; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-02-01

    Sulfide is the product of the biological sulfate reduction process which gives toxicity and odor problems. Wastewaters or bioreactor effluents containing sulfide can cause severe environmental impacts. Electrochemical treatment can be an alternative approach for sulfide removal and sulfur recovery from such sulfide rich solutions. This study aims to develop a spontaneous electrochemical sulfide oxidation/vanadium(V) reduction cell with a graphite electrode system to recover sulfide as elemental sulfur. The effects of the internal and external resistance on the sulfide removal efficiency and electrical current produced were investigated at different pH. A high surface area of the graphite electrode is required in order to have as less internal resistance as possible. In this study, graphite powder was added (contact area >633 cm(2)) in order to reduce the internal resistance. A sulfide removal efficiency up to 91% and electrical charge of more than 400 C were achieved when using five graphite rods supplemented with graphite powder as the electrode at an external resistance of 30 Ω and a sulfide concentration of 250 mg L(-1). PMID:25463589

  11. Reliability of Electrochemical Techniques for Determining Corrosion Rates on Carbon Steel in Sulfide Media

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hemmingsen, T.; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Richter, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of film formation on carbon steel in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) media may corrupt corrosion rate monitoring by electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical data from H2S solutions, biological sulfide media, and natural sulfide containing geothermal water have been collected, and the process of...... biofilm in combination with ferrous sulfide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 with electrochemical techniques - both by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemicel impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxygen entering the system...

  12. Phototrophic sulfide oxidation: environmental insights and a method for kinetic analysis

    Thomas E Hanson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we presented data that indicated microbial sulfide oxidation would out-compete strictly chemical, abiotic sulfide oxidation reactions under nearly all conditions relevant to extant ecosystems (Luther et al., 2011. In particular, we showed how anaerobic microbial sulfide oxidation rates were several orders of magnitude higher than even metal catalyzed aerobic sulfide oxidation processes. The fact that biotic anaerobic sulfide oxidation is kinetically superior to abiotic reactions implies that nearly all anaerobic and sulfidic environments should host microbial populations that oxidize sulfide at appreciable rates. This was likely an important biogeochemical process during long stretches of euxinia in the oceans suggested by the geologic record. In particular, phototrophic sulfide oxidation allows the utilization of carbon dioxide as the electron acceptor suggesting that this process should be particularly widespread rather than relying on the presence of other chemical oxidants. Using the Chesapeake Bay as an example, we argue that phototrophic sulfide oxidation may be more important in many environments than is currently appreciated. Finally, we present methodological considerations to assist other groups that wish to study this process.

  13. Microbial oxidation of soluble sulfide in produced water from the Bakkeen Sands

    Gevertz, D.; Zimmerman, S. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The presence of soluble sulfide in produced water results in problems for the petroleum industry due to its toxicity, odor, corrosive nature, and potential for wellbore plugging. Sulfide oxidation by indigenous nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) present in brine collected from wells at the Coleville Unit (CVU) in Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated. Sulfide oxidation took place readily when nitrate and phosphate were added to brine enrichment cultures, resulting in a decrease in sulfide levels of 99-165 ppm to nondetectable levels (< 3.3 ppm). Produced water collected from a number of producing wells was screened to determine the time required for complete sulfide oxidation, in order to select candidate wells for treatment. Three wells were chosen, based on sulfide removal in 48 hours or less. These wells were treated down the backside of the annulus with a solution containing 10 mM KNO{sub 3} and 100 {mu}M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Following a 24- to 72-hour shut-in, reductions in pretreatment sulfide levels of greater than 90% were observed for two of the wells, as well as sustained sulfide reductions of 50% for at least two days following startup. NRB populations in the produced brine were observed to increase significantly following treatment, but no significant increases in sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. These results demonstrate the technical feasibility of stimulating indigenous populations of NRB to remediate and control sulfide in produced brine.

  14. Effect of sulfide concentration on the location of the metal precipitates in inversed fluidized bed reactors

    Highlights: → Sulfide concentration governs the location of metal precipitates in sulfate reducing bioreactors. → High dissolved sulfide induces metal precipitation in the bulk liquid as fines. → Low dissolved sulfide concentrations yield local supersaturation and thus metal precipitation in the biofilm. -- Abstract: The effect of the sulfide concentration on the location of the metal precipitates within sulfate-reducing inversed fluidized bed (IFB) reactors was evaluated. Two mesophilic IFB reactors were operated for over 100 days at the same operational conditions, but with different chemical oxygen demand (COD) to SO42- ratio (5 and 1, respectively). After a start up phase, 10 mg/L of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn each were added to the influent. The sulfide concentration in one IFB reactor reached 648 mg/L, while it reached only 59 mg/L in the other one. In the high sulfide IFB reactor, the precipitated metals were mainly located in the bulk liquid (as fines), whereas in the low sulfide IFB reactor the metal preciptiates were mainly present in the biofilm. The latter can be explained by local supersaturation due to sulfide production in the biofilm. This paper demonstrates that the sulfide concentration needs to be controlled in sulfate reducing IFB reactors to steer the location of the metal precipitates for recovery.

  15. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed.

  16. Structures Related to Morphine Synthesis of alpha 2 OH 2 Methyl 5 Propyl 9 Ethyl 6 7 Benzomorphan - Part 1

    Reena Ramachandran

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available A three step synthesis of 2-methyl-5-methyl-9-ethyl-6, 7-benzomorphan from 3-ethyl-4-propyl pyridine was effected and only the a-form could be obtained through phosphoric acid cyclisation. This a-form of benzomorphan was converted to a-2-methyl-2-hydroxy-5-propyl-9-ethyl-6, 7-benzomorphan in three steps again. Infrared spectra of the base confirmed the presence of a-form.

  17. Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint And EETA79001: Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts

    Ross, D. K.; Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L.; Agee, C.; Sutton, S.

    2013-01-01

    Immiscible sulfide melt spherules are locally very abundant in shergottite impact melts. These melts can also contain samples of Martian atmospheric gases [1], and cosmogenic nuclides [2] that are present in impact melt, but not in the host shergottite, indicating some components in the melt resided at the Martian surface. These observations show that some regolith components are, at least locally, present in the impact melts. This view also suggests that one source of the over-abundant sulfur in these impact melts could be sulfates that are major constituents of Martian regolith, and that the sulfates were reduced during shock heating to sulfide. An alternative view is that sulfide spherules in impact melts are produced solely by melting the crystalline sulfide minerals (dominantly pyrrhotite, Fe(1-x)S) that are present in shergottites [3]. In this abstract we report new analyses of the compositions of sulfide immiscible melt spherules and pyrrhotite in the shergottites Tissint, and EETA79001,507, and we use these data to investigate the possible origins of the immiscible sulfide melt spherules. In particular, we use the metal/S ratios determined in these blebs as potential diagnostic criteria for tracking the source material from which the numerous sulfide blebs were generated by shock in these melts.

  18. Degradation behaviour of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in water as affected by pH.

    Singh, Shashi B; Singh, Neera

    2013-01-01

    Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, a new herbicide belonging to the sulfonylurea group, is used for weed control in rice crops growing in areas varying from acidic to alkaline soils. This study was undertaken to determine the degradation behaviour of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in distilled water and buffer solutions at pH 4, 7 and 9. Degradation was pH-dependent and herbicide was least persistent in acidic pH followed by alkaline and neutral pH. The half-life of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl varied from 2.6 days (pH 4) to 19.4 days (pH 7) and half-life in distilled water was comparable to half-life at pH 7 buffer. HPLC analysis of different pH samples showed the formation of three metabolites viz., 5-(aminosulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid; ethyl 5-(aminosulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate and 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine. The formation of pyrazosulfuron acid [5-([([(4,6-dimethoxy-2 pyrimidinyl)-amino]-carbonyl) amino]-sulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid] was not observed at any pH. The study indicated that the herbicide was least stable under acidic conditions and the predominant degradation route of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in water is hydrolysis of sulfonamide linkage. PMID:23374044

  19. Lignin is linked to ethyl-carbamate formation in ume (Prunus mume) liqueur.

    Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Izu, Hanae; Sudo, Shigetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate concentrations in oak barrel-aged ume (Prunus mume) liqueurs were measured, and possible explanations for elevated levels were examined. The average concentration was 0.30 mg/L, significantly higher than in ume liqueurs not aged in oak (0.08 mg/L). Oak powder extracts were prepared from both untoasted and toasted oak powder by extraction with aqueous ethanol, and these were used to make ume liqueurs. Relative to a no-oak control, the ethyl carbamate concentrations were 3.8 and 11 times higher in the ume liqueur made with the untoasted and toasted oak powder extracts respectively. The extracts were loaded onto a C18 column, washed with water, and eluted with methanol. The (13)C-NMR spectra for the main constituents of the methanol elution fractions were consistent with those for lignin or fragments thereof. The methanol fractions were added to ume liqueur which was stored for 3 months. Relative to a control, the ethyl carbamate concentrations in the 3-month old liqueurs were found to be 1.2 and 4.6 higher for the untoasted oak-powder and the toasted oak-powder respectively. Ethyl carbamate was formed when lignin was added to a 40% aqueous ethanol solution that contained potassium cyanide. These observations suggest that lignin or fragments thereof promote the formation of ethyl carbamate. PMID:22232267

  20. Copper(II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions.

    Aresta, M; Boscolo, M; Franco, D W

    2001-06-01

    The role of copper(II) species in the oxidation of inorganic cyanide to cyanate and in the conversion of cyanate or urea into ethyl carbamate was investigated. The oxidation process has been shown to be independent from the dissolved oxygen. Elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy have shown the formation of a mixed copper carbonate/hydroxide in the process of oxidation of cyanide to cyanate in water/ethanol. The complexation to Cu(II) of cyanate formed upon cyanide oxidation makes the former more susceptible to nucleophilic attack from ethanol, with conversion into ethyl carbamate. Comparatively, urea has a minor role with respect to cyanide in the formation of ethyl carbamate. Therefore, the urea present in some samples of Brazilian sugar cane spirit (cachaça) has been shown to have almost no influence on the ethyl carbamate content of cachaças, which comes essentially from cyanide. Fe(II,III) affords results similar to those found with Cu(II). Some suggestions are presented to avoid ethyl carbamate formation in spirits during distillation. PMID:11409971

  1. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Arokiyaraj S; Balamurugan R; Augustian P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment.Results: H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study.Conclusions:The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  2. Ethyl Radical Ejection During Photodecomposition of Butanone on TiO2(110)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-10-15

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was proceeded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in a diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater thermal stability of the ethyl radical over that of the methyl radical. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO2(110) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed a preference for dehydrogenation to ethene through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO2 surface. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  3. Performance and Kinetic Evaluation of Ethyl Acetate Biodegradation in a Biofilter Using Pseudomonas Putida

    Hossein Zare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in batch and continuous cultures was investigated. Pseudomonas putida was selected as a biological agent to biodegrade ethyl acetate. In batch experiment, biodegradation of ethyl acetate was performed in the range of 25-35°C. Walnut shells treated with alkaline solution as natural packing materials provided an appropriate environment for the growth and immobilization of microorganisms. The active biofilm was fully established on the surface of natural packing material. In the early stage, experiments were performed at Empty Bed Resistance Time (EBRT of 60 s. Maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430 ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency dropped to 80% with an increase of inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. In order to enhance the removal efficiency, the EBRT was increased from 60 to 75 s. At EBRT of 75 s, the removal efficiency was maintained above 80% even though the inlet concentration increased to 5150 ppm. Michaelis-Menten and Logistic models were perfectly fitted to experimental data. In addition, the kinetic parameters of presented models were defined

  4. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Worldwide, Ni-Cu and PGE magmatic sulfide deposits are confined to the lower parts of stratiform mafic and ultramafic complexes. However, ophiolite mafic and ultramafic complexes have been rarely explored for sulfide deposits despite the fact that they have been extensively explored and exploited for chromite. Sulfide saturation during magmatic evolution is necessary for sulfide mineralization, in which sulfide melts scavenge chalcophile metals from the parent magma and concentrate them in specific lithological zones. The lack of exploration for sulfides in this environment suggests that sulfide saturation is rarely attained in ophiolite-related magmas. Some ophiolites, however, contain sulfide deposits, such as at Acoje in Philippines, and Cliffs in Shetland, U.K. (Evans, 2000; Naldrett, 2004. The Faryab ophiolite complex in southern Kerman Province, the most important mining area for chromite deposits in Iran, is located in the southwest part of the Makran Zone. Evidence of sulfide mineralization has been reported there by some authors (e.g. Rajabzadeh and Moosavinasab, 2013. This paper discusses the genesis of sulfides in the Faryab ophiolite using mineral chemistry of the major mineral phases in different rocks of the ophiolite column in order to determine the possible lithological location of sulfide deposits. Materials and methods Seventy three rock samples from cumulate units were collected from surficial occurrences and drill core. The samples were studied using conventional microscopic methods and the mineralogy confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Electron microprobe analysis was carried out on different mineral phases in order to determine the chemistry of the minerals used in the interpretation of magma evolution in the Faryab ophiolite. Lithologically, the Faryab ophiolite complex is divided into two major parts: the northern part includes magmatic rocks and the southern part is comprised of rocks residual after partial

  5. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

    E. Tamil Jothi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis was screened for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity was performed by two models. One was short term cytotoxicity and another was long term cytotoxicity. In short term cytotoxicity assay Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cell lines were used and for long term L929 cell lines (Lungs fibroblast were used. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed protective action against the cell lines. Comparing both extracts, ethanol extract has shown better cytotoxic activity than the ethyl acetate extract and in comparison of standard both extracts have moderate cytotoxic activity.

  6. Papain-Catalyzed Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Telechelic Polypeptides Using Bis(Leucine Ethyl Ester) Initiator.

    Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Numata, Keiji

    2016-07-01

    In order to construct unique polypeptide architectures, a novel telechelic-type initiator with two leucine ethyl ester units is designed for chemoenzymatic polymerization. Glycine or alanine ethyl ester is chemoenzymatically polymerized using papain in the presence of the initiator, and the propagation occurs at each leucine ethyl ester unit to produce the telechelic polypeptide. The formation of the telechelic polypeptides is confirmed by (1) H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopies. It is revealed by AFM observation that long nanofibrils are formed from the telechelic polyalanine, whereas a conventional linear polyalanine with a similar degree of polymerization shows granule-like structures. The telechelic polyglycine and polyalanine show the crystalline structures of Polyglycine II and antiparallel β-sheet, respectively. It is demonstrated that this method to synthesize telechelic-type polypeptides potentially opens up a pathway to construct novel hierarchical structures by self-assembly. PMID:26947148

  7. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    S. Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of soybean oil into ethyl esters. The process resulted in a maximum yield of 91.8% after 30 minutes of reaction. The process variables alcohol to oil ratio and catalyst to oil ratio were statistically significant regarding the yield of ethyl esters. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 10.2 and a catalyst to oil weight ratio of 0.0035.

  8. Experimental Autoignition of C4-C6 Saturated and Unsaturated Methyl and Ethyl Esters

    Bennadji, Hayet; Coniglio-Jaubert, Lucie; Billaud, Francis; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Autoignition delay times, ?, of methyl crotonate, methyl acrylate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl crotonate, and ethyl acrylate were studied in shock tube experiments. A series of mixtures diluted with argon, of varying fuel/oxygen equivalence ratios (?=0.25, 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1280-1930 K, pressure range of 7-9.65 atm, during which the logarithm of ? varies linearly as a function of the inverse temperature for all equivalence ratios. The ignition delay time decreases as temperature rises. The dependence of ? on temperature, and reactant concentrations is given in an empirical correlation. The results provide a database for the validation of small saturated and unsaturated esters kinetic mechanisms at elevated temperatures and pressure combustion.

  9. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. PMID:26685114

  10. Solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents

    Highlights: • The solubilities of daidzin were measured in various solvents. • The solubility data were correlated by three models. • The thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process were also determined. - Abstract: The solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method from T = (283.2 to 323.2) K at atmosphere pressure. The results show that at higher temperature more daidzin dissolves, and moreover, the solubility increases with the ethyl alcohol mole fraction increase in the (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents. The experimental solubility values were correlated by a simplified thermodynamic equation, λh equation and modified Apelblat equation. Based on the solubility of daidzin, the enthalpy and entropy of solution were also evaluated by van’t Hoff equation. The results illustrated that the dissolution process of daidzin is endothermic and entropy driven

  11. Ethyl pyruvate for the treatment of acetaminophen intoxication: alternative to N-acetylcysteine?

    Wagner, Florian; Asfar, Pierre; Georgieff, Michael; Radermacher, Peter; Wagner, Katja

    2012-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine is the classical antidote for acetaminophen overdose-induced hepatotoxicity, but its efficacy is limited by the need for early and only temporary treatment. Therefore, Yang and colleagues tested the hypothesis of whether ethyl pyruvate--another anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound, which they had previously shown to protect against liver injury of various other etiologies--may allow circumventing these limitations. While ethyl pyruvate improved liver regeneration when administered early and during a limited period only, the opposite response was present both after delayed as well as prolonged treatment. The authors concluded that prolonged anti-inflammatory treatment is detrimental after acetaminophen intoxication-induced liver damage. On the one hand, this research paper confirms the need for biomarkers to monitor organ recovery after acetaminophen. On the other hand, this paper adds to the ongoing discussion on the usefulness of ethyl pyruvate as a resuscitation fluid in the critically ill. PMID:22348679

  12. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  13. Respirometric characterization of aerobic sulfide, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur oxidation by S-oxidizing biomass.

    Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R; Lafuente, Javier; Pérez, Julio; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gamisans, Xavier; Gabriel, David

    2016-02-01

    Respirometry was used to reveal the mechanisms involved in aerobic biological sulfide oxidation and to characterize the kinetics and stoichiometry of a microbial culture obtained from a desulfurizing biotrickling filter. Physical-chemical processes such as stripping and chemical oxidation of hydrogen sulfide were characterized since they contributed significantly to the conversions observed in respirometric tests. Mass transfer coefficient for hydrogen sulfide and the kinetic parameters for chemical oxidation of sulfide with oxygen were estimated. The stoichiometry of the process was determined and the different steps in the sulfide oxidation process were identified. The conversion scheme proposed includes intermediate production of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate and the subsequent oxidation of both compounds to sulfate. A kinetic model describing each of the reactions observed during sulfide oxidation was calibrated and validated. The product selectivity was found to be independent of the dissolved oxygen to hydrogen sulfide concentration ratio in the medium at sulfide concentrations ranging from 3 to 30 mg S L(-1). Sulfide was preferentially consumed (SOURmax = 49.2 mg DO g(-1) VSS min(-1)) and oxidized to elemental sulfur at dissolved oxygen concentrations above 0.8 mg DO L(-1). Substrate inhibition of sulfide oxidation was observed (K(i,S(2-))= 42.4 mg S L(-1)). Intracellular sulfur accumulation also affected negatively the sulfide oxidation rate. The maximum fraction of elemental sulfur accumulated inside cells was estimated (25.6% w/w) and a shrinking particle equation was included in the kinetic model to describe elemental sulfur oxidation. The microbial diversity obtained through pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Thiothrix sp. was the main species present in the culture (>95%). PMID:26704759

  14. Efeitos do trinexapac-ethyl sobre o crescimento e florescimento da grama-batatais Effects of trinexapac-ethyl on the growth and flowering of the bahiagrass

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de doses do trinexapac-ethyl, bem como dos intervalos de aplicação após o corte no crescimento vegetativo e florescimento da grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum, na redução de cortes e na melhoria da qualidade do gramado. O ensaio foi conduzido no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa-MG, entre os meses de dezembro de 1998 e março de 1999, em gramado estabelecido. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 13 tratamentos e quatro repetições, distribuídos em esquema fatorial (6 x 2 + 1, com seis doses de trinexapac-ethyl (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; e 1,25 kg ha-1, aplicadas aos dois e cinco dias após o corte do gramado, e uma testemunha com cortes a cada três semanas. Foram efetuadas avaliações a três, seis, nove e doze semanas após o corte, para produção de biomassa seca total, altura e número de inflorescências. Verificou-se, para todas as características avaliadas, relação direta entre o aumento da dose do regulador de crescimento trinexapac-ethyl e o período de controle do crescimento vegetativo e do florescimento, evitando-se, com isso, cortes no gramado pelo período de até 12 semanas com a aplicação de 0,75 kg ha-1. Não se constatou efeito da época de aplicação e também de doses do trinexapac-ethyl sobre a coloração do gramado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of doses and application intervals of trinexapac-ethyl on the vegetative growth and flowering of bahiagrass, to reduce clips and improve lawn quality. The experiment was conducted on the campus of the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa-MG - Brazil, from December 1998 to March 1999, in an established lawn. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 13 treatments and four repetitions, distributed in a factorial scheme (6 x 2 + 1, with six doses of trinexapac-ethyl (0.00; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00 and 1.25 kg ha-1

  15. Evaluation of N-ethyl-N-methyl-morpholinium bromide and N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide as bromine complexing agents in vanadium bromide redox flow batteries

    Evolution of bromine gas in the positive half cell of the Generation 2 (G2) vanadium bromide (V/Br) battery during charging is a concern which can be resolved by the use of bromine complexing agents. In this paper, for the first time, we report the effect of the addition of two quaternary ammonium bromides; N-ethyl-N-methyl-morpholinium bromide (MEM) and N-ethyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide (MEP) to the positive and negative half cell electrolytes of the V/Br. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed that the addition of MEM–MEP effectively reduce Br2 vapours. Although the presence of MEM and MEP did not affect the mechanism of the electrode reactions, performance tests conducted in lab scale V/Br cells employing the VF11 cation exchange membrane resulted in lower average cell efficiencies possibly due to the increase in membrane resistance caused by membrane fouling

  16. Determination of the new anticancer agent KW 2149, 7-N-[2-[2-(gamma-L-glutamylamino)ethyl)dithio)ethyl]mitomycin C, an analogue of mitomycin C.

    Pattyn, G; van Oosterom, A T; de Bruijn, E A; Tjaden, U R

    1991-03-01

    The new mitomycin 7-N-[2-[2-(gamma-L-glutamylamino)ethyl)dithio)ethyl] mitomycin C (KW 2149) (I) proved to be active against a wide variety of experimental tumours. In order to perform pharmacokinetic studies with the new drug in Phase I sessions, a fast and reliable method has been developed based on the data of previous assays for mitomycin C. XAD-2 was preferred for isolation of I from blood plasma. The recovery of I was 50% whereas that of mitomycin C was 85%. Optimal separation was obtained on octadecyl silica columns with methanol-water (45:55, v/v) as mobile phase, while ultraviolet absorbance detection was performed at 375 nm. The assay enabled determination of I in a plasma concentration range of 20-1000 ng/ml using porfiromycin as internal standard. PMID:1860933

  17. Dissipation and transport of quizalofop-p-ethyl herbicide in sunflower cultivation under field conditions.

    Mantzos, Nikolaos; Karakitsou, Anastasia; Nikolaki, Sofia; Leneti, Eleni; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the field dissipation and transport of quizalofop-p-ethyl by water and sediment runoff were investigated in sunflower experimental cultivation under Mediterranean conditions. The cultivation was carried out in silty clay soil plots with two different slopes of 1 and 5%. The soil dissipation rate of quizalofop-p-ethyl was fast and can be described by both single first-order (SFO) and Gustafson and Holden (first-order multi compartment (FOMC)) kinetics. The half-life of quizalofop-p-ethyl ranged from 0.55 to 0.68 days and from 0.45 to 0.71 days when SFO and FOMC kinetics were applied, respectively. No herbicide residues were detected below the 10-cm soil layer. A single detection of quizalofop-p-ethyl was observed in runoff water (3 days after application (DAA)) at relatively low concentrations (from 1.70 to 2.04 μg L(-1)). In sediment, it was detected in the samplings of 3 and 25 DAA at concentrations that never exceeded 0.126 μg g(-1). The estimated total losses of quizalofop-p-ethyl as percentage of the initial applied active ingredient were low both in water and sediment (less than of 0.021 and 0.005%, respectively). Quizalofop-p-ethyl residues were detectable for 18 DAA in the stems and leaves of the plants and 6 DAA in the root system. No herbicide residues were detected in inflorescences and seeds of sunflower plants. Experimental data showed minimal risk for the contamination of soil and adjacent water bodies. PMID:26490927

  18. New cadmium sulfide nanomaterial for heterogeneous organic photovoltaic cells

    Rohovec, Jan; Toušková, J.; Toušek, J.; Schauer, F.; Kuřitka, I.

    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet, 2011 - (Moshfegh, B.), s. 2815-2822. (Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings). ISBN 978-91-7393-070-3. ISSN 1650-3740. [World renewable energy congress. Linköping (SE), 08.05.2011-13.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : nanocrysaline cadmium sulfide * preparation * photovoltaic cells * photovoltaic solar cells * triethanolamine Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/Complete%20Proceeding.pdf

  19. Conspicuous veils formed by vibrioid bacteria on sulfidic marine sediment

    Thar, Roland Matthias; Kühl, Michael

    2002-01-01

    inclusions of poly-ß-hydroxybutyric acid. The cells have bipolar polytrichous flagella and exhibit a unique swimming pattern, rotating and translating along their short axis. Free-swimming cells showed aerotaxis and aggregated at ca. 2 µM oxygen within opposing oxygen-sulfide gradients, where they were able...... from the oxic water region toward the veil, whereby the oxygen uptake rate could be enhanced up to six times, as shown by model calculations. The veils showed a pronounced succession pattern. New veils were generated de novo within 24 h and had a homogeneous whitish translucent appearance. Bacterial...

  20. Experience of reprocessing of cadmium sulfide-containing waste materials

    Technique of cadmium extraction from sulfide-containing wastes using the method of oxidizing leaching was developed and subjected to industrial testing. Reagents containing manganese dioxide - manganese ore or manganese slime of electrolytic shop usually used in zinc production - are advisable to be used as oxidizers. Factors of cadmium extraction into solution appeared to be close to ones, obtained during laboratory investigation. If the yield of leaching residual equals ∼38% and the content of cadmium, being in insoluble form, equals ∼0.40%, metal losses with this residual are equal to 0.37%

  1. Hydrogen evolution on nano-particulate transition metal sulfides

    Bonde, Jacob Lindner; Moses, Poul Georg; Jaramillo, Thomas F.;

    2008-01-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on carbon supported MoS2 nanoparticles is investigated and compared to findings with previously published work on Au(111) supported MoS2. An investigation into MoS2 oxidation is presented and used to quantify the surface concentration of MoS2. Other metal...... sulfides with morphologies similar to MoS2 such as WS2, cobalt- promoted WS2, and cobalt-promoted MoS2 were also investigated in the search for improved HER activity. Experimental findings are compared to density functional theory (DFT) calculated values for the hydrogen binding energies (Delta G(H)) on...

  2. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: change in stoichiometry

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Lobanov, Sergey; Kruglov, Ivan; Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Oganov, Artem R.; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen-sulfide (H2S) was studied by x-ray synchrotron diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy up to 150 GPa at 180-295 K and by quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations. The experiments show that H2S becomes unstable with respect to formation of new compounds with different structure and composition, including Cccm and a body-centered-cubic (bcc) like (R3m or Im-3m) H3S, the latter one predicted previously to show a record-high superconducting transition temperature...

  3. Dynamic corrosion of copper-nickel sulfide by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    TONG Lin-lin; JIANG Mao-fa; YANG Hong-ying; YU Juan; FAN You-jing; ZHANG Yao

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic corrosion process of bio-oxidation of copper-nickel sulfide from Karatungk in northern Xinjiang Province of China was studied. The polished wafer of the copper-nickel sulphide was used to carry on a series of oxidation corrosion experiment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The changes of superficial corrosion appearance and the mineral dynamic corrosion process were discovered by microscope observation. Then, the galvanic cell model was established, and the bio-oxidation activation order of typical copper-nickel sulphide minerals was ascertained as pyrrhotite>pentlandite>chalocopyrite.

  4. Iron (III) sulfide particles produced by a polyol method

    Iron(III) sulfide Fe2S3 particles were produced using a polyol method. Although pyrrhotite Fe1−xS appeared together with Fe2S3, the relative yield of Fe2S3 changed when the concentration of reagents in the oleylamine changed. Mössbauer spectra of the particles showed superparamagnetic doublets due to Fe2S3 at 293 K, along with a hyperfine magnetic splitting of H = 24.7 T at 6 K. XRD patterns of the Fe2S3 suggested a structure similar to that of greigite Fe3S4

  5. Surface-treatment of Alkaline Earth Sulfides Based Phosphor

    GUO Chong-feng; CHU Ben-li; XU Jian; SU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A series of alkaline earth sulfides based phosphors Ca0.8Sr0.2S∶Eu2+, Tm3+ were covered with a layer of protective coating with alkaline earth fluorides by heating the mixture of phosphor and NH4HF2 at elevated temperatures. The coatings were characterized by means of XRD and SEM. The optical properties of the coated phosphors and the influences of the coating on their properties have been discussed extensively. The stabilities of the coated and uncoated phosphors have been compared.

  6. Iron (III) sulfide particles produced by a polyol method

    Shimizu, Ryo; Kubono, Ippei; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Iron(III) sulfide Fe2S3 particles were produced using a polyol method. Although pyrrhotite Fe1-xS appeared together with Fe2S3, the relative yield of Fe2S3 changed when the concentration of reagents in the oleylamine changed. Mössbauer spectra of the particles showed superparamagnetic doublets due to Fe2S3 at 293 K, along with a hyperfine magnetic splitting of H = 24.7 T at 6 K. XRD patterns of the Fe2S3 suggested a structure similar to that of greigite Fe3S4.

  7. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of lead sulfide nanocrystals in polymeric coatings

    Lu, Songwei; Sohling, Ulrich; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    2002-01-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystals with a particle size of 3.3 +/- 0.7 nm have been synthesized in a poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) coating on fused silica glass substrates. The coating was dip-coated from a PVA aqueous solution, in which PbS nanocrystals were precipitated and stabilized in the polymer matrix. Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of PbS nanocrystals is dependent on the wavelength with its maximum located near the first excitonic absorption peak resulting from the quantum confi...

  9. Luminescence of high-doped calcium sulfide crystals

    Calcium sulfide crystals grown by high-temperatur mineralization tecnique have been studied. Bands peaked at 2.12 and 2.5-2.7 eV are considered the most invariable features of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra. It has been found that the 2.12 eV band is conditioned by optical electronic transitions in Mn2+ ions substituted for Ca2+ ions in the host lattice. The exciton mechanism of energy transfer to centers, that are responsible for the high-energy luminescence band, is discussed

  10. HYDROGEN SULFIDE ADSORPTION BY ALKALINE IMPREGNATED COCONUT SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON

    HUI SUN CHOO; LEE CHUNG LAU; ABDUL RAHMAN MOHAMED; KEAT TEONG LEE

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is one type of renewable energy which can be burnt to produce heat and electricity. However, it cannot be burnt directly due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is highly corrosive to gas engine. In this study, coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC) was applied as a porous adsorbent for H2S removal. The effect of amount of activated carbon and flow rate of gas stream toward adsorption capacity were investigated. Then, the activated carbons were impregnated by three types of ...

  11. Isolation and characterization of deodorizing bacteria for organic sulfide malodor

    JIANG An-xi; LIU Bo; ZHAO Yang-guo; LI Zheng; BAI Yu; CHENG Yang-xue

    2004-01-01

    Strain Jll screened out from different odor origins can efficiently degrade methyl mercaptan and ethanethiol whereas has no ability to remove dimethyl sulfide. The results indicated that the strain Jll breaks only the C-SH bond. The optimum temperature and pH of Jll are 20-30℃ and 6.0-8.3 respectively. A systematic identification method-16S rDNA gene sequence comparison, for deodorizing bacteria was carried out. The 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis of strain Jll showed the highest level of 97% homology to Rape rhizosphere.

  12. The summer of hydrogen sulfide: highlights from two international conferences

    Calvert, John W

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of interest has been paid recently to the hydrogen sulfide, the newest member of the gasotransmitter family. With the growing interest in the biology of H2S, the need for meetings and conferences dedicated solely to the field of H2S has also grown. In 2009, scientist from around the world met in Shanghai, China for the first time to discuss the physiological relevance of H2S. In 2012, two conferences were organized to bring scientists, clinicians, and industry representatives tog...

  13. Therapeutic application of hydrogen sulfide donors: the potential and challenges.

    Wu, Dan; Hu, Qingxun; Zhu, Yizhun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a colorless gas smelling of rotten egg, has long been considered a toxic gas and environment hazard. However, evidences show that H2S plays a great role in many physiological and pathological activities, and it exhibits different effects when applied at various doses. In this review, we summarize the chemistry and biomedical applications of H2S-releasing compounds, including inorganic salts, phosphorodithioate derivatives, derivatives of Allium sativum extracts, derivatives of thioaminoacids, and derivatives of antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:26597301

  14. Sulfided heterogeneous, bimetallic RuMo catalysts derived from mixtures of Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} (or RuCl{sub 3}) and a molybdenum heteropolyanion. The reactions of ethanol with tetrahydroquinoline

    Koo, Sang-Man; Ryan, D.; Laine, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    Efforts have been made to develop Ru/Mo bimetallic catalyst systems for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of tetrahydroquinoline (THQ)- In the course of these studies, it was discovered that in ethanol, under H{sub 2} and in the presence Of CS2, Precatalyst solutions containing Ru [as Ru{sub 3} (CO){sub 12} or RuCl{sub 3}] and Mo [as the H{sub 3}PMO{sub 12}0{sub 40} heteropolyanion (HPA)] decompose to form bimetallic, sulfided particles. Particle diameters run from 0.1 to 5 {mu}m depending on the rate of stirring. Catalyst particles with sizes ranging from 0.1--1 {mu}m can be prepared reproducibly. BET measured surface areas for these size particles ranged from 2 to 20 m2/g. These sulfided particles were found to catalyze, at temperatures of 200--250{degrees}C and hydrogen pressures of 200--1000 psig H{sub 2}, the N-ethylation of THQ to form NEt-THQ; rather than the formation of propylcyclohexane or propylbenzene, reaction products expected for HDN of THQ. Monometallic heterogeneous catalysts prepared from the individual precatalyst complexes, under identical conditions, show minimal activity for N-ethylation by comparison with the bimetallic catalyst. In the absence of H{sub 2}, the reaction proceeds such that THQ is converted to Q, N-EtTHQ, N-C{sub 6}H{sub 9}-THQ, and N-C{sub 6}H{sub 13}-THQ. The latter products appear to arise via acetaldehyde, formed as an intermediate by dehydrogenation of ethanol. Acetaldehyde either condenses with THQ to form N-Et-THQ, or self condenses (aldol condensation) prior to reaction with THQ thereby giving higher homolog alkylation products.

  15. Sulfided heterogeneous, bimetallic RuMo catalysts derived from mixtures of Ru sub 3 (CO) sub 12 (or RuCl sub 3 ) and a molybdenum heteropolyanion. The reactions of ethanol with tetrahydroquinoline

    Koo, Sang-Man; Ryan, D.; Laine, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts have been made to develop Ru/Mo bimetallic catalyst systems for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of tetrahydroquinoline (THQ)- In the course of these studies, it was discovered that in ethanol, under H{sub 2} and in the presence Of CS2, Precatalyst solutions containing Ru (as Ru{sub 3} (CO){sub 12} or RuCl{sub 3}) and Mo (as the H{sub 3}PMO{sub 12}0{sub 40} heteropolyanion (HPA)) decompose to form bimetallic, sulfided particles. Particle diameters run from 0.1 to 5 {mu}m depending on the rate of stirring. Catalyst particles with sizes ranging from 0.1--1 {mu}m can be prepared reproducibly. BET measured surface areas for these size particles ranged from 2 to 20 m2/g. These sulfided particles were found to catalyze, at temperatures of 200--250{degrees}C and hydrogen pressures of 200--1000 psig H{sub 2}, the N-ethylation of THQ to form NEt-THQ; rather than the formation of propylcyclohexane or propylbenzene, reaction products expected for HDN of THQ. Monometallic heterogeneous catalysts prepared from the individual precatalyst complexes, under identical conditions, show minimal activity for N-ethylation by comparison with the bimetallic catalyst. In the absence of H{sub 2}, the reaction proceeds such that THQ is converted to Q, N-EtTHQ, N-C{sub 6}H{sub 9}-THQ, and N-C{sub 6}H{sub 13}-THQ. The latter products appear to arise via acetaldehyde, formed as an intermediate by dehydrogenation of ethanol. Acetaldehyde either condenses with THQ to form N-Et-THQ, or self condenses (aldol condensation) prior to reaction with THQ thereby giving higher homolog alkylation products.

  16. (Z-Ethyl 3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyano-3-(2,6-difluorobenzamidoacrylate

    Zhang Xiaoyan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H13ClF2N2O3, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-ethyl 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 2,6-difluorobenzoyl chloride. The dihedral angle between the chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene rings is 37.0 (1°. The ethyl group is disordered over two positions [occupancies = 0.52 (2:0.48 (2]. In addition to intramolecular N—H...O and N—H...F hydrogen bonds, the crystal packing shows the molecules to be connected by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  17. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    Lau, B P; Weber, D; Page, B D

    1987-07-31

    A sensitive and specific method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of ethyl carbamate in table wines, fortified wines (such as ports and sherries), distilled spirits, brandies and liqueurs has been developed. Three characteristic ions from ethyl carbamate [m/z 89 (molecular ion), 74 and 62] were monitored in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The lowest detection limit (based on the response on the m/z 62 ion) was estimated to be 0.5 ng/g (ppb). Additional confirmation techniques, including high-resolution SIM, and methane or isobutane chemical ionization are described. PMID:3654867

  18. The carcinogenic potential of ethyl carbamate (urethane): risk assessment at human dietary exposure levels

    Schlatter, J; Werner K Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate is found in fermented foods: bread contains 3-15 ng/g, stone-fruit brandies 200-20,000 ngfg, and about one-third of table-wine samples analysed contained more than 10 ng/g. In animals, ethyl carbamate is degraded to C02, H20 and NH3, with intermediate formation ofethanol. This degradation has been shown tobe inhibited (postponed) in the mouse by ethanol concentrations in the blood of about 0.15% and higher. A quantitatively minor pathway involves a two-step oxidation of the et...

  19. Theoretical Study of the Kinetics of the Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction of Ethyl Chloride

    Isaiah Ajibade Adejoro; Emmanuel Ekeh

    2010-01-01

    The products of the gas-phase elimination of ethyl chloride are hydrogen chloride and ethane. Using AM1, MNDO and PM3 Hamiltonians of quantum mechanical computer code called MOPAC, a procedure for the kinetics and computation of the Arrhenius parameters for the pyrolytic elimination reaction of ethyl chloride was devised in order to evaluate the predictive ability of the three Hamiltonians used. The first-order rate coefficient for the three Hamiltonians are 1.15x10-8s-1, 4.55x10-15s-1 and 5....

  20. Direct Asymmetric Aldol Type Reaction with Ethyl Diazoacetate: Stereoselective Synthesis of α, β-Dihydroxy Esters

    LIAO Ming-Yi; YAO Wen-Gang; FENG Hai-Tao; WANG Jian-Bo

    2003-01-01

    @@ Enantioselective aldol condensation under catalytic condition remains a challenging task in modern organic synthesis, and numerous efforts have been directed to this area. In particular, the direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction is very attractive considering the requirement of atom efficiency. This has been studied only recently, and several very practical processes have been developed. We have recently initiated a study on the direct asymmetric aldol type reaction with ethyl diazoacetate as nucleophile. Moderate enantioselectivities (65% ~91% ee ) were achieved in the condensation of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by the chiral complex of BINOL derivatives-Zr (OBu- t )4. [1

  1. Determination of Bioactive Components of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Punica granatum Rind Extract

    J. Sangeetha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Punica granatum belongs to a Punicaceae family. The Punica granatum is valued as a powerful medicinal plant and used in folk medicines. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract by GC-MS Technique. This analysis revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract contain Pyrogallol (41.88%, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (14.10%, D-Allose (9.17%, 2-Methoxy-1, 4-Benzenediol (8.34% and 2, 3 Dimethylfumaric acid (3.96% justifying the use of this plant to treat many disease in folk and herbal medicine.

  2. Ethyl 4-chloro-2′-fluoro-3-hydroxy-5-methylbiphenyl-2-carboxylate

    Muhammad Adeel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14ClFO3, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two benzene rings is 71.50 (5°. Due to an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the hydroxy group and the carbonyl O atom of the ethyl ester group, the ethyl ester group lies within the ring plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F interactions.

  3. Layered metal laurates as active catalysts in the methyl/ethyl esterification reactions of lauric acid

    Lisboa, Fabio da Silva; Cordeiro, Claudiney S.; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br [Centro de Pesquisas em Quimica Aplicada (CEPESQ), Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Gardolinski, Jose Eduardo F. da Costa [Laboratorio de Analise de Minerais e Rochas (LAMIR), Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, characterization and investigation of the catalytic activity of layered copper(II), manganese(II), lanthanum(III) and nickel(II) laurates in the methyl and ethyl esterification reactions of lauric acid. In the methyl esterification, conversions between 80 and 90% were observed for all catalysts, while for the ethyl esterification only manganese laurate showed reasonable catalytic activity, with conversions close to 75%. Reuse of copper and lanthanum laurates in three cycles of reaction was also investigated and both catalysts preserved the structure and retained catalytic activity close to that observed for the first reaction cycle. (author)

  4. Cyperus difformis L. resistance to pyrazosulfuron-ethyl herbicide and option controlResistência de Cyperus difformis L. ao herbicida pyrazosulfuron-ethyl e alternativas de controle

    José Alberto Noldin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus difformis L. is a weed occurrence in flooded rice, that it has been presenting control difficulty due to ALS inhibiting herbicides resistance. The objectives of this work was to determine necessary rate 50% control of the population (C50 and reduce 50% of the production the aerial dry mass (GR50 in resistant and susceptible biotypes of C. difformis and evaluate the control of these biotypes with alternative herbicides recommended for that species. For that, two experiments were performed at green house of FAEM/UFPel arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replicates. The experiment I were consisted of resistant (CYPDI 9 and susceptible of C. difformis biotype and rate of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl herbicide, corresponding to 0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 16, 32 and 64 times de registered rate (20g ha-1. The evaluated variables were visual control and aerial dry mass (MPAS to the 28 days after the application of the treatments (DAT. In the experiment II the treatments were consisted of the same biotype (CYPDI 9 and CYPDI 8, nine herbicides azimsulfuron (6g ha-1; bentazon (900g ha-1; bispyribac-sodium (48g ha-1; carfentrazone-ethyl (40g ha-1; ethoxysulfuron (72g ha-1; glyphosate (900g ha-1; penoxsulam (36g ha-1; propanil (3600g ha-1 and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (20g ha-1 and checks that didn't applied herbicide. The evaluated variables were: visual control for the herbicides to the 14, 21 and 28 DAT, foliate area and MPAS to 28 DAT. Before the results, it can be concluded that the resistance of the C. difformis biotype to pyrazosulfuron-ethyl is elevated and it makes unfeasible her control for the herbicide and the herbicides carfentrazone-ethyl, bentazon e propanil holders of alternative action mechanisms to the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, control the resistant biotype of C. difformis.Cyperus difformis L. é planta daninha ocorrente em lavouras de arroz irrigado, que tem apresentado dificuldade de controle devido à resistência a

  5. Rice: Sulfide-induced Barriers to Root Radial Oxygen Loss, Fe2+ and Water Uptake, and Lateral Root Emergence

    ARMSTRONG, JEAN; Armstrong, William (Canadian painter, civil engineer, photographer, 1822-1914)

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Akagare and Akiochi are diseases of rice associated with sulfide toxicity. This study investigates the possibility that rice reacts to sulfide by producing impermeable barriers in roots.

  6. 30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    2010-07-01

    ... methodologies outlined in 40 CFR part 68. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the...

  7. Effects of Methylated, Organic, and Inorganic Substrates on Microbial Consumption of Dimethyl Sulfide in Estuarine Waters

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Kiene, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the effects of a variety of amendments on the consumption of [U-14C]dimethyl sulfide in a Georgia salt marsh. Methylated compounds, particularly those with dimethyl groups, significantly inhibited dimethyl sulfide consumption, while nonmethylated substrates had little effect. Dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl ether were the most effective inhibitors tested.

  8. Spin-polarized quasiparticle transport in exchange-split superconducting aluminum on europium sulfide

    Wolf, M. J.; Sürgers, C.; Fischer, G.; Beckmann, D.

    2014-10-01

    We report on nonlocal spin transport in mesoscopic superconducting aluminum wires in contact with the ferromagnetic insulator europium sulfide. We find spin injection and long-range spin transport in the regime of the exchange splitting induced by europium sulfide. Our results demonstrate that spin transport in superconductors can be manipulated by ferromagnetic insulators, and opens a path to control spin currents in superconductors.

  9. Sulfide oxidation at halo-alkaline conditions in a fed-batch bioreactor

    Bosch, van den P.L.F.; Beusekom, van O.C.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    A biotechnological process is described to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from high-pressure natural gas and sour gases produced in the petrochemical industry. The process operates at halo-alkaline conditions and combines an aerobic sulfide-oxidizing reactor with an anaerobic sulfate (SO) and thiosul

  10. Inhibition of a biological sulfide oxidation under haloalkaline conditions by thiols and diorgano polysulfanes

    Roman, Pawel; Lipińska, Joanna; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Keesman, Karel J.; Janssen, Albert J.H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach has been developed for the simultaneous description of reaction kinetics to describe the formation of polysulfide and sulfate anions from the biological oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using a quick, sulfide-dependent respiration test. Next to H2S, thiol

  11. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  12. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  13. The sampling of hydrogen sulfide in air with impregnated filter paper

    Huygen, C.

    1964-01-01

    A method is proposed for the quantitative collection of hydrogen sulfide in air on impregnated filter paper. An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide, potassium zincate and glycerol is used as impregnating fluid. The stability of the collected sulfide and the efficiency of collection at different

  14. Evaluation of long-term sulfide oxidation processes within pyrrhotite-rich tailings, Lynn Lake, Manitoba.

    Gunsinger, M R; Ptacek, C J; Blowes, D W; Jambor, J L

    2006-02-10

    Oxidation reactions have depleted sulfide minerals in the shallow tailings and have generated sulfate- and metal-rich pore water throughout the East Tailings Management Area (ETMA) at Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada. Information concerning the tailings geochemistry and mineralogy suggest the sulfide oxidation processes have reached an advanced stage in the area proximal to the point of tailings discharge. In contrast, the distal tailings, or slimes area, have a higher moisture content close to the impoundment surface, thereby impeding the ingress of oxygen and limiting sulfide oxidation. Numerical modelling of sulfide oxidation indicates the maximum rate of release for sulfate, Fe, and Ni occurred shortly after tailings deposition ceased. Although the sulfide minerals have been depleted in the very shallow tailings, the modelling suggests that sulfide oxidation will continue for hundreds and possibly thousands of years. The combination of sulfide minerals, principally pyrrhotite, that is susceptible to weathering processes and the relatively dry, coarse-grained nature of the tailings have resulted in the formation of a massive-hardpan layer in the proximal area of the ETMA. Because extensive accumulations of secondary oxyhydroxides of ferric iron are already present, remediation strategies for the ETMA should focus on mitigating the release of sulfide oxidation products rather than on preventing further oxidation. PMID:16406605

  15. Synthetic Fabrication of Nanoscale MoS2-Based Transition Metal Sulfides

    Jikang Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal sulfides are scientifically and technologically important materials. This review summarizes recent progress on the synthetic fabrication of transition metal sulfides nanocrystals with controlled shape, size, and surface functionality. Special attention is paid to the case of MoS2 nanoparticles, where organic (surfactant, polymer, inorganic (support, promoter, doping compounds and intercalation chemistry are applied.

  16. Isolation of Ochrobactrum sp.QZ2 from sulfide and nitrite treatment system.

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Hu, Baolan; Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Azim, Muhammad Rashid; Jilani, Ghulam; Islam, Ejazul

    2009-06-15

    A bacterial strain QZ2 was isolated from sludge of anoxic sulfide-oxidizing (ASO) reactor. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphology, the isolate was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2. The strain was facultative chemolithotroph, able of using sulfide to reduce nitrite anaerobically. It produced either elemental sulfur or sulfate as the product of sulfide oxidation, depending on the initial sulfide and nitrite concentrations. The optimum growth pH and temperature for Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 were found as 6.5-7.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. The specific growth rate (micro) was found as 0.06 h(-1) with a doubling time of 19.75h; the growth seemed more sensitive to highly alkaline pH. Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 catalyzed sulfide oxidation to sulfate was more sensitive to sulfide compared with nitrite as indicated by IC(50) values for sulfide and nitrite utilization implying that isolate was relatively more tolerant to nitrite. The comparison of physiology of Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 with those of other known sulfide-oxidizing bacteria suggested that the present isolate resembled to Ochrobactrum anthropi in its denitrification ability. PMID:19010594

  17. Isolation of Ochrobactrum sp.QZ2 from sulfide and nitrite treatment system

    Mahmood, Qaisar, E-mail: mahmoodzju@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310029 (China); Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbottabad (Pakistan); Hu Baolan; Cai Jing [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zheng Ping, E-mail: pzheng@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310029 (China); Azim, Muhammad Rashid [Department of Botany, Federal Government Post Graduate College H-8 Islamabad (Pakistan); Jilani, Ghulam [Department of Soil Science and Soil and Water Conservation, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Islam, Ejazul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-06-15

    A bacterial strain QZ2 was isolated from sludge of anoxic sulfide-oxidizing (ASO) reactor. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphology, the isolate was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2. The strain was facultative chemolithotroph, able of using sulfide to reduce nitrite anaerobically. It produced either elemental sulfur or sulfate as the product of sulfide oxidation, depending on the initial sulfide and nitrite concentrations. The optimum growth pH and temperature for Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 were found as 6.5-7.0 and 30 deg. C, respectively. The specific growth rate ({mu}) was found as 0.06 h{sup -1} with a doubling time of 19.75 h; the growth seemed more sensitive to highly alkaline pH. Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 catalyzed sulfide oxidation to sulfate was more sensitive to sulfide compared with nitrite as indicated by IC{sub 50} values for sulfide and nitrite utilization implying that isolate was relatively more tolerant to nitrite. The comparison of physiology of Ochrobactrum sp. QZ2 with those of other known sulfide-oxidizing bacteria suggested that the present isolate resembled to Ochrobactrum anthropi in its denitrification ability.

  18. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d-1 and 1.33 d-1 as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur.

  19. Why does the Conductivity of a Nickel Catalyst Increase during Sulfidation? An Exemplary Study Using an In Operando Sensor Device

    Peter Fremerey; Andreas Jess; Ralf Moos

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the sulfidation of a catalyst fixed bed, an in operando single pellet sensor was designed. A catalyst pellet from the fixed bed was electrically contacted and its electrical response was correlated with the catalyst behavior. For the sulfidation tests, a nickel catalyst was used and was sulfidized with H2S. This catalyst had a very low conductivity in the reduced state. During sulfidation, the conductivity of the catalyst increased by decades. A reaction from nickel to nicke...

  20. Accelerating column leaching trial on copper sulfide ore

    WANG Hongjiang; WU Aixiang; ZHOU Xun; WANG Shaoyong; ZHANG Jie

    2008-01-01

    The main measures to accelerate leaching sulfide ore are large spraying intensity,manual oxygen supply,temperature control and acclimated bacteria.The indoor experiment accelerating sulfide ore leaching detected the temperature during leaching process,dissolvability of oxygen,bacterial concentration,Cu concentration and slag grade.At the same time,this paper also analyzed the effect of four factors,which are bacterial diversity cultivation stage,spraying intensity,air supply,and whether to control temperature,on the leaching efficiency of copper.The results indicate that the oxygen content of leach solution has a close relationship with temperature but it is rarely affected by air supply.The bacterial concentration preserves from 106 to 107 mL-1,and temperature has a great effect on the bacterial activity under the condition of proper temperature and oxygen supply,and the lack of nutrition prevents the bacterial concentration from rising in the late stage.The relationships of the copper leaching efficiency to temperature,air feed,and spraying intensity are directly proportional.The leaching efficiencies of the cultivated bacteria and acclimation bacteria are 1.2 and 1.4 times as large as that of the original bacteria.

  1. Hydrogen attack - Influence of hydrogen sulfide. [on carbon steel

    Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.

  2. Biological conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur

    Basu, R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. [Bioengineering Resources, Inc., Fayetteville, AR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Currently, hydrogen sulfide is removed from process gas streams by a series of reactions at high temperature to produce elemental sulfur in Claus, Stretford or other processes. These physicochemical processes have high intrinsic capital and operating costs, often are restricted by contaminants, and do not effectively remove all the H{sub 2}S. As an alternative, the anaerobic, photosynthetic bacterium, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, has been demonstrated to convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in a single step at atmospheric conditions. The autotrophic bacterium uses CO{sub 2} as the carbon source. Energy for cell metabolism is provided by incandescent light and the oxidation of H{sub 2}S. A bench scale study has been performed in a CSTR equipped with a sulfur separator. Optimum process conditions have been achieved to maximize cell growth and elemental sulfur production. Near total conversion of H{sub 2}S is achieved in a retention time of a few minutes. High concentrations of H{sub 2}S or organics do not affect the culture. Sulfur recovery by settling is very efficient and near theoretical yields of sulfur are achieved. Economic projections indicate that sour gas can be desulfurized for $0.08-0.12/MSCF. 13 refs.

  3. Clues to the origin of sulfide minerals in CI chondrites

    The dominant sulfide in Ci carbonaceous chondrites is an Fe-deficient pyrrhotite containing about 1% Ni. Alais, Ivuna and Orgueil also contain minor cubanite, CuFe2S3, and Alais minor pentlandite, (Fe, Ni)9S8. All pyrrhotites contain 39.4 +- 0.1% S; Ni contents range from 0.7 to 1.3%. The phase diagrams reveal no temperature at which the observed pentlandite-pyrrhotite assemblage is at equilibrium. Similarly, the pyrrhotite compositions alone are inconsistent with equilibrium formation from a gas of solar composition. In Xe from high-purity submilligram Orgueil pyrrhotite separates, the ratios 129Xe/132Xe are not significantly larger than those in trapped meteoritic Xe. The lack of positive evidence for extinct 129I in pyrrhotite does not permit any inferences regarding cooling rates in the early solar nebula. Tt is concluded that sulfides in CI chondrites cannot be nebular condensates formed under equilibrium conditions. Argon isotopic abundances reveal the presence of significant spallation and trapped gas components in Orgueil pyrrhotite. The Orgueil exposure age is calculated to be > approximately 10 m.y. (Auth.)

  4. Clues to the origin of sulfide minerals in CI chondrites

    Kerridge, J. F.; Macdougall, J. D.; Marti, K.

    1979-01-01

    The dominant sulfide in CI carbonaceous chondrites is an Fe-deficient pyrrhotite containing about 1% Ni, Alais, Ivuna, and Orgueil also contain minor cubanite, CuFe2S3, and Alais minor pentlandite, (Fe,Ni)9S8. All pyrrhotites contain 39.4 + or - 0.1% S; Ni contents range from 0.7 to 1.3%. The phase diagrams reveal no temperature at which the observed pentlandite-pyrrhotite assemblage is at equilibrium. Similarly, the pyrrhotite composition alone are inconsistent with equilibrium formation from a gas of solar composition. In Xe from high-purity submilligram Orgueil pyrrhotite separates, the ratios Xe-129/Xe-132 are not significantly larger than those in trapped meteoritic Xe. The lack of positive evidence for extinct I-129 in pyrrhotite does not permit any inferences regarding cooling rates in the early solar nebula. It is concluded that sulfides in CI chondrites cannot be nebular condensates formed under equilibrium conditions. Argon isotopic abundances reveal the presence of significant spallation and trapped gas components in Orgueil pyrrhotite. The Orgueil exposure age is calculated to be at least about 10 m.y.

  5. Sulfide mineralization: Its role in chemical weathering of Mars

    Burns, Roger G.

    1988-01-01

    Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produced degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy with terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni sulfides on Mars has generated secondary sulfides (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato- and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossans above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite) and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost, contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, etc., which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.

  6. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  7. Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.

    Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments. PMID:24508155

  8. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Xin-juan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X 7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X 7 receptors.

  9. Nano Transition Metal Sulfide Catalyst for Solvolysis Liquefaction of Soda Lignin

    Solvolysis liquefaction of soda lignin in the presence of various transition metal sulfide catalysts was studied to investigate the catalyst effects on the oil and gas yields, conversion rate and higher heating value (HHV) of oil. Nano sized copper sulfide, iron sulfide and molybdenum sulfide were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method under reaction temperature 200 degree Celsius for 90 min. The addition of transition metal sulfide based catalysts (CuS, MoS2 and FeS2) enhanced both production of the oils and gas and the higher heating value (HHV) of oil products. A high oil and gas yields of 82.1 % and 2890 cm3 was obtained with MoS2 at 250 degree Celsius for 60 min. Elemental analyses for the oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude soda lignin powder. (author)

  10. Influence of sulfides on the tribological properties of composites produced by pulse electric current sintering

    Seung Ho Kim

    2014-01-01

    Self-lubricating Al2O3-15wt%ZrO2 composites with sulfides, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) serving as solid lubricants, were fabricated by using the pulse electric current sintering (PECS) technique. The coefficient of friction (COF) of the Al2O3-15wt%ZrO2 composite without/with sulfides was in the range of 0.37-0.48 and 0.27-0.49, respectively. As the amount of sul-fides increased, the COF and the wear rate decreased. The reduction in COF and wear rate of the sulfide-containing composite is caused by a reduction in shear stresses between the specimen and the tribological medium due to the formation of a lubricating film resulting from the lamellar structure of sulfides located on the worn surface.

  11. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    Picard, Aude; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  12. Influence of sulfides on the tribological properties of composites produced by pulse electric current sintering

    Kim, Seung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Self-lubricating Al2O3-15wt% ZrO2 composites with sulfides, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) serving as solid lubricants, were fabricated by using the pulse electric current sintering (PECS) technique. The coefficient of friction (COF) of the Al2O3-15wt% ZrO2 composite without/with sulfides was in the range of 0.37-0.48 and 0.27-0.49, respectively. As the amount of sulfides increased, the COF and the wear rate decreased. The reduction in COF and wear rate of the sulfide-containing composite is caused by a reduction in shear stresses between the specimen and the tribological medium due to the formation of a lubricating film resulting from the lamellar structure of sulfides located on the worn surface.

  13. Synthesis of rare earth sulfides and their UV-vis absorption spectra

    YUAN Haibin; ZHANG Jianhui; YU Ruijin; SU Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Rare earth sulfides were systematically synthesized via the sulfurization of their commercial oxide powders using CS2 gas to shorten sulfurization time, and their UV-vis absorption spectra were investigated. The appropriate sulfurization conditions were studied. For the rare earth sulfides with the same crystal structure, the sulfurization temperature showed increasing tendency with the decrease of rare earth element atomic radii. The UV-vis absorption spectra of rare earth sulfides did not depend on the crystal structure of rare earth sulfides, but on the 4f electronic structure of rare earth element. The data showed that the optical band gaps of rare earth sulfides were irregular, and the values ranged from 1.65 to 3.75 eV.

  14. Utilising copper screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) for the electroanalytical sensing of sulfide.

    Thakur, Bhawana; Bernalte, Elena; Smith, Jamie P; Foster, Christopher W; Linton, Patricia E; Sawant, Shilpa N; Banks, Craig E

    2016-02-01

    A mediatorless sulfide electrochemical sensing platform utilising a novel nanocopper-oxide screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) is reported for the first time. The state-of-the-art screen-printed electrochemical sensors demonstrate their capability to quantify sulfide within both the presence and absence of an array of interferents with good levels of sensitivity and repeatability. The direct sensing (using linear sweep voltammetry) of sulfide utilising the CuSPEs provides a mediatorless approach for the detection of sulfide, yielding useful analytical signatures that can be successfully quantified. The proposed novel protocol using the CuSPEs is successfully applied to the sensing of sulfide within drinking water exhibiting a high level of recovery. PMID:26815001

  15. Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses assessed by stable sulfur isotopes—a synthesis of current results

    Holmer, Marianne; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses, as assessed by stable sulfur isotope signals, is widespread in all climate zones, where seagrasses are growing. Seagrasses can incorporate substantial amounts of 34S-depleted sulfide into their tissues with up to 87% of the total sulfur in leaves derived from...... sedimentary sulfide. Correlations between δ34S in leaves, rhizomes, and roots show that sedimentary sulfide is entering through the roots, either in the form of sulfide or sulfate, and translocated to the rhizomes and the leaves. The total sulfur content of the seagrasses increases as the proportion of...... sulfur in the tissue, and other sulfur containing compounds such as thiols, organic sulfur, and sulfate contribute to the accumulated sulfur pool. Experimental studies with seagrasses exposed to environmental and biological stressors show decreasing δ34S in the tissues along with reduction in growth...

  16. Reliability of Electrochemical Techniques for Determining Corrosion Rates on Carbon Steel in Sulfide Media

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hemmingsen, T.; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo;

    2007-01-01

    film formation in sulfide solutins was followed by video. It can be shown that capacitative and diffusional effects due to porous reactive deposits tend to dominate the data, resulting in unreliable corrosion rates measured using electrochemical techniques. The effect is strongly increased if the......Effects of film formation on carbon steel in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) media may corrupt corrosion rate monitoring by electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical data from H2S solutions, biological sulfide media, and natural sulfide containing geothermal water have been collected, and the process of...... biofilm in combination with ferrous sulfide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 with electrochemical techniques - both by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemicel impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxygen entering the system...

  17. 76 FR 36349 - Diethylene Glycol MonoEthyl Ether (DEGEE); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2011-06-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Diethylene Glycol MonoEthyl Ether (DEGEE); Exemption From the Requirement of a... establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Diethylene Glycol MonoEthyl Ether...) 305-5805. II. Petition for Exemption In the Federal Register of July 9, 2008 (73 FR 39291)...

  18. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  19. Extremely decreased release of prostaglandin E-like activity from chopped lung of ethyl linolenate-supplemented rats

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Fjalland, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were reared on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). The...

  20. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. Development of novel and sensitive methods for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples by hydrogen sulfide generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Two new, simple and accurate methods for the determination of sulfide (S2-) at low levels (μg L-1) in aqueous samples were developed. The generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) took place in a coil where sulfide reacted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting H2S was then introduced as a vapor into an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and sulfur emission intensity was measured at 180.669 nm. In comparison to when aqueous sulfide was introduced, the introduction of sulfur as H2S enhanced the sulfur signal emission. By setting a gas separator at the end of the reaction coil, reduced sulfur species in the form of H2S were removed from the water matrix, thus, interferences could be avoided. Alternatively, the gas separator was replaced by a nebulizer/spray chamber combination to introduce the sample matrix and reagents into the plasma. This methodology allowed the determination of both sulfide and sulfate in aqueous samples. For both methods the linear response was found to range from 5 μg L-1 to 25 mg L-1 of sulfide. Detection limits of 5 μg L-1 and 6 μg L-1 were obtained with and without the gas separator, respectively. These new methods were evaluated by comparison to the standard potentiometric method and were successfully applied to the analysis of reduced sulfur species in environmental waters

  3. Synthesis of Nanoporous Metals, Oxides, Carbides, and Sulfides: Beyond Nanocasting.

    Luc, Wesley; Jiao, Feng

    2016-07-19

    metal oxides with bimodal pore size distributions can be obtained. Combining nanocasting with chemical etching, a cobalt oxide with a hierarchical porous structure was synthesized, which possessed a surface area up to 250 m(2) g(-1), representing the highest surface area reported to date for nanoporous cobalt oxides. Lastly, this Account also covers the syntheses of nanoporous metal carbides and sulfides. The combination of in situ carburization and nanocasting enabled the syntheses of two ordered nanoporous metal carbides, Mo2C and W2C. For nanoporous metal sulfides, an "oxide-to-sulfide" synthetic strategy was proposed to address the large volume change issue of converting metal nitrate precursors to metal sulfide products in nanocasting. The successful syntheses of ordered nanoporous FeS2, CoS2, and NiS2 demonstrated the feasibility of the "oxide-to-sulfide" method. Concluding remarks include a summary of recent advances in the syntheses of nanoporous metal-based solids and a brief discussion of future opportunities in the hope of stimulating new interests and ideas. PMID:27294847

  4. Nitrosopersulfide (SSNO− accounts for sustained NO bioactivity of S-nitrosothiols following reaction with sulfide

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide salts are known to promote the release of nitric oxide (NO from S-nitrosothiols and potentiate their vasorelaxant activity, but much of the cross-talk between hydrogen sulfide and NO is believed to occur via functional interactions of cell regulatory elements such as phosphodiesterases. Using RFL-6 cells as an NO reporter system we sought to investigate whether sulfide can also modulate nitrosothiol-mediated soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC activation following direct chemical interaction. We find a U-shaped dose response relationship where low sulfide concentrations attenuate sGC stimulation by S-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP and cyclic GMP levels are restored at equimolar ratios. Similar results are observed when intracellular sulfide levels are raised by pre-incubation with the sulfide donor, GYY4137. The outcome of direct sulfide/nitrosothiol interactions also critically depends on molar reactant ratios and is accompanied by oxygen consumption. With sulfide in excess, a ‘yellow compound’ accumulates that is indistinguishable from the product of solid-phase transnitrosation of either hydrosulfide or hydrodisulfide and assigned to be nitrosopersulfide (perthionitrite, SSNO−; λmax 412 nm in aqueous buffers, pH 7.4; 448 nm in DMF. Time-resolved chemiluminescence and UV–visible spectroscopy analyses suggest that its generation is preceded by formation of the short-lived NO-donor, thionitrite (SNO−. In contrast to the latter, SSNO− is rather stable at physiological pH and generates both NO and polysulfides on decomposition, resulting in sustained potentiation of SNAP-induced sGC stimulation. Thus, sulfide reacts with nitrosothiols to form multiple bioactive products; SSNO− rather than SNO− may account for some of the longer-lived effects of nitrosothiols and contribute to sulfide and NO signaling.

  5. Sulindac sulfide selectively increases sensitivity of ABCC1 expressing tumor cells to doxorubicin and glutathione depletion

    Whitt, Jason D.; Keeton, Adam B.; Gary, Bernard D.; Sklar, Larry A.; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Piazza, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transpo rters ABCC1 (MRP1), ABCB1 (P-gp), and ABCG2 (BCRP) contribute to chemotherapy failure. The primary goals of this study were to characterize the efficacy and mechanism of the non­steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sulindac sulfide, to reverse ABCC1 mediated resistance to chemother­apeutic drugs and to determine if sulindac sulfide can influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs independently of drug efflux. Cytotoxicity assays were performed to measure resistance of ABC-expressing cell lines to doxoru­bicin and other chemotherapeutic drugs. NSAIDs were tested for the ability to restore sensitivity to resistance selected tumor cell lines, as well as a large panel of standard tumor cell lines. Other experiments characterized the mechanism by which sulindac sulfide inhibits ABCC1 substrate and co-substrate (GSH) transport in isolated membrane vesicles and intact cells. Selective reversal of multi-drug resistance (MDR), decreased efflux of doxor­ubicin, and fluorescent substrates were demonstrated by sulindac sulfide and a related NSAID, indomethacin, in resistance selected and engineered cell lines expressing ABCC1, but not ABCB1 or ABCG2. Sulindac sulfide also inhibited transport of leukotriene C4 into membrane vesicles. Sulindac sulfide enhanced the sensitivity to doxoru­bicin in 24 of 47 tumor cell lines, including all melanoma lines tested (7-7). Sulindac sulfide also decreased intra­cellular GSH in ABCC1 expressing cells, while the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, BSO, selectively increased sensitivity to sulindac sulfide induced cytotoxicity. Sulindac sulfide potently and selectively reverses ABCC1-mediated MDR at clinically achievable concentrations. ABCC1 expressing tumors may be highly sensitive to the direct cytotoxicity of sulindac sulfide, and in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs that induce oxidative stress.

  6. Composition and ph-sensitive hydrogels on the basis of polymers of ethyl piperidol

    In the paper the results of investigation of modification of reticular polymers of ethynyl piperidol by mono-chloracetate acid and dependence of the swelling of the obtained materials from ph of a solution are adduced. The received data show the possibility of production stimulus sensitive polymers on the basis of ethyl piperidol derivatives

  7. Comparative Study Between Ethylbenzene Disproportionation Reaction and its Ethylation Reaction with Ethanol over ZSM-5

    Tukur, N. M.

    2009-06-23

    Ethylation of ethylbenzene with ethanol has been studied over ZSM-5 catalyst in a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The feed molar ratio of ethylbenzene:ethanol is 1:1. The study was carried out at 350, 400, 450, and 500°C for reaction times of 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, and 15 s. Comparisons are made between the results of the ethylbenzene ethylation reaction with that of ethylbenzene disproportionation reaction earlier reported. The effect of reaction conditions on ethylbenzene reactivity, p-diethylbenzene selectivity, total diethylbenzene (DEB) isomers selectivity, p-DEB-to-m-DEB ratio, benzene-to-DEB molar ratio, and benzene selectivity, are reported. Benzene selectivity is about 10 times more in the EB disproportion reaction as compared to its ethylation reaction with ethanol at 350°C. In addition, the results showed a p-DEB/m-DEB ratio for the EB ethylation reaction varying between 1.2-1.7, which is greater than the equilibrium values. Increase in temperature shifts the alkylation/dealkylation equilibrium towards dealkylation, thereby decreasing conversion and selectivity to DEB. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  8. Persistence of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and halosulfuron-methyl in aqueous solutions: Comparing hydrolytic dissipation

    Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and halosulfuron-methyl are two new highly active sulfonylurea herbicides that have been widely used for weed control in many crops. Chemical hydrolysis is a primary process to determine the environmental fates of this group of pesticides. The hydrolytic dissipation of two herbi...

  9. Phase diagrams for (water + 1,2-butanediol or propanediol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) systems

    Highlights: ► Tie line data were obtained for (water + 1,2-butanediol + 2-thethyl-1-hexanol) and (water + propanediol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) ternary systems at T = 298.2 K. ► Distribution coefficients and separation factors were measured for these ternary systems. It has been shown that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol has high separation factor for extraction of 1,2-butanediol from its aqueous solutions. ► Experimental LLE data were analyzed correlated using UNQUAC model. ► The average RMSD (the root-mean-square deviation) value between the observed and calculated mass percent were 1.75 and 0.74, respectively, for 1,2-butanediol and propanediol solutions. -- Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data (water + 1,2-butanediol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) and (water + propanediol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) were determined at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure. Phase diagrams were obtained for these ternary systems. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were measured to evaluate the extracting capability of the solvent. The UNIQUAC model was used to correlate the observed LLE data with a root mean square deviation value of 1.75 and 0.74 for 1,2-butanediol and propanediol mixtures, respectively. The reliability of the experimental data was confirmed by using the Othmer–Tobias correlation

  10. Investigation of ethyl carbamate levels in some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

    Dennis, M J; Howarth, N; Key, P E; Pointer, M; Massey, R C

    1989-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included whisky, fruit brandy, liqueur, wine, sherry and port. PMID:2721787

  11. Primary study of ethyl cellulose nanofiber for oxygen-enrichment membrane

    Shen Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl cellulose is widely used for oxygen-enrichment membrane, however, its nanofiber membrane was rarely developed though it behaves more excellent performance. This paper gives a preliminary study to produce oxygen-enrichment membrane by bubbfil spinning.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole

    Blokhin, Andrey V., E-mail: blokhin@bsu.by; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Voitkevich, Olga V.

    2013-08-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat capacities and phase transition enthalpies for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were measured. • Enthalpy of formation for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole was determined. • Vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were found from Knudsen measurements. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the parameters of phase transitions of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (1ET) were studied between 5 and 370 K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of the 1ET in the condensed state were obtained over the range of 0–370 K. Saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 1ET in the temperature ranges from 313 to 344 K and its enthalpy of sublimation were measured by the Knudsen effusion method. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 1ET at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 1ET was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in excellent agreement with the experimental value.

  13. 77 FR 75859 - Pyraflufen-Ethyl; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    2012-12-26

    ... time-limited tolerances for residues of pyraflufen-ethyl in or on cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat... Register of September 28, 2012 (77 FR 59576) (FRL- 9363-8), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section...-difluoromethoxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4- fluorophenoxyacetic acid, in or on: Cattle, meat byproducts;...

  14. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  15. Ethyl benzene-induced ototoxicity in rats : a dose-dependent mild-frequency hearing loss

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Baretta, A.B.; Muijser, H.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Rats were exposed to ethyl benzene at 0, 300, 400 and 550 ppm for 8 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Three to six weeks after the exposure, auditory function was tested by measuring compound action potentials (CAP) in the frequency range of 1-24 kHz and 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic emissio

  16. Mutation frequencies in ontogenetically different spikes of hexaploid wheat after ethyl methanesulphonate treatment

    Iqbal Khan, M.; Doll, Hans

    1968-01-01

    Seeds of hexaploid wheat were treated with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). The M1 generation was grown in a greenhouse, and the individual shoots of the plants were classified and marked according to their ontogeny. The sterility in M1 and the frequencies of chlorophyll and viable mutants segregat...

  17. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  18. Phenyl versus Ethyl Transfer in the Addition of Organozincs to Aldehydes: A Theoretical Study

    Rudolph, Jens; Rasmussen, Torben; Bolm, Carsten; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in diphenylzinc addition to aldehydes that is obtained by adding diethylzinc was investigated by DFT methods. The strong preference for phenyl over ethyl transfer can be understood in terms of overlap with the phenyl 31 system in the transition state (see picture). Reason...... for the high ee value in the presence of Et$-2$/Zn are discussed....

  19. Dampness and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in floor construction of rehabilitation center: Health effects in staff.

    Wieslander, Gunilla; Kumlin, Anders; Norbäck, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated changes of symptoms and biomarkers in health care staff (N = 18) for people with different physical dysfunctions and similarly in an external office control group in a nondamp building (N = 15). The first workplace had verified dampness in the floor construction, with formation of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from water-based glue. Tear film break up time (BUT), nasal patency, biomarkers in nasal lavage (NAL), and dynamic spirometry were measured. Both buildings had low indoor air levels of CO2 (510 to 630 ppm), low levels of respirable particles (6 to 7 microg/m3) and formaldehyde (<5 microg/m3), and no indication of microbial growth. Pronounced increase of butanols and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol levels were found in the damp floor material samples, but very low air levels of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. The staff had been previously exposed to floor construction with alkaline degradation of floor glue, as well as formation of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. This led to an increase in their ocular, nasal, and respiratory symptoms, a decrease in nasal patency, and slight airway obstruction after 2 days of reexposure, possibly related to neutrophilic inflammation, after a 4-month exposure-free period. PMID:20146997

  20. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 and micro;g/ml, 25 and micro;g/ml, and 50 and micro;g/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6