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Sample records for 2 hidroxietilo co

  1. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  2. CO2 sequestration

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO2; CO2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  3. Electrochemical CO2 reduction

    Kriescher, Stefanie M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased significantly during the last two centuries. Since CO2 is considered to be one of the largest contributors to the greenhouse effect and is postulated to cause global warming, it is important to stabilize and/or reduce its concentration. Apart from regulations for the amount of CO2 that may be emmitted, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), biological and chemical conversions are potential ways to stabilize and/or reduce the atmospheric co...

  4. CO2NNIE

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based...... the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  5. Wearable CO2 sensor

    Radu, Tanja; Fay, Cormac; Lau, King-Tong; Waite, Rhys; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    High concentrations of CO2 may develop particularly in the closed spaces during fires and can endanger the health of emergency personnel by causing serious physiological effects. The proposed prototype provides real-time continuous monitoring of CO2 in a wearable configuration sensing platform. A commercially available electrochemical CO2 sensor was selected due to its selectivity, sensitivity and low power demand. This was integrated onto an electronics platform that performed signal capture...

  6. CO2 blood test

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  7. CO2 chemical valorization

    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO2/t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an energy mix

  8. CO2-neutral fuels

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  9. CO2-neutral fuels

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  10. Capnography: monitoring CO2.

    Casey, Georgina

    2015-10-01

    MONITORING RESPIRATORY and metabolic function by using capnography to measure end tidal carbon dioxide is standard practice in anaesthesia. It is also becoming more common in intensive care units and during procedural sedation. End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring may also be used to assess effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Capnography is now emerging in general medical and surgical wards to monitor respiratory depression in patients using opioid analgesics. Using EtCO2 to monitor respiratory function offers many benefits over pulse oximetry. It is important to understand the differences between these two monitoring methods, and why capnography is increasingly favoured in many situations. An understanding of the physiological processes involved in CO2 excretion allows nurses to use capnography in a safe and meaningful way, while monitoring at-risk patients in acute care. PMID:26638570

  11. CO2-strategier

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...... Naturfredningsforening’s lokalkomité for Lyngby blev en del af samarbejdet for at få borgerne i kommunen involveret i arbejdet med at udvikle strategier for reduktion af CO2. Siden sommeren 2007 har Videnskabsbutikken DTU, Lyngby-Taarbæk kommune og Danmarks Naturfredningsforening i Lyngby-Taarbæk samarbejdet om analyse...... og innovation i forhold til CO2-strategier....

  12. CO2 laser development

    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 1014 W/cm2. The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  13. Ar + CO2 and He + CO2 Plasmas in ASTRAL

    Boivin, R. F.; Gardner, A.; Munoz, J.; Kamar, O.; Loch, S.

    2007-11-01

    Spectroscopy study of the ASTRAL helicon plasma source running Ar + CO2 and He + CO2 gas mixes is presented. ASTRAL produces plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 10^10 - 10^13 cm-3, Te = 2 - 10 eV and Ti = 0.03 - 0.5 eV, B-field <= 1.3 kGauss, rf power <= 2 kWatt. A 0.33 m scanning monochromator is used for this study. Using Ar + CO2 gas mixes, very different plasmas are observed as the concentration of CO2 is changed. At low CO2 concentration, the bluish plasma is essentially atomic and argon transitions dominate the spectra. Weak C I and O I lines are present in the 750 - 1000 nm range. At higher CO2 concentration, the plasma becomes essentially molecular and is characterized by intense, white plasma columns. Here, spectra are filled with molecular bands (CO2, CO2^+, CO and CO^+). Limited molecular dissociative excitation processes associated with the production of C I and O I emission are also observed. On the other hand, He + CO2 plasmas are different. Here, rf matches are only possible at low CO2 concentration. Under these conditions, the spectra are characterized by strong C I and O I transitions with little or no molecular bands. Strong dissociative processes observed in these plasmas can be link to the high Te associated with He plasmas. An analysis of the spectra with possible scientific and industrial applications will be presented.

  14. CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

    Frilund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The literature survey discusses the recent developments in heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. Special focus was given to new coated catalysts and reactors. Methanol is an important chemical that is currently produced from synthesis gas. Methanol can also be produced from CO2, but the reaction is less thermodynamically favoured. The main reaction is the exothermic CO2 hydrogenation, and there is a competing fast reaction, the reverse water-gas shift, which converts CO2 t...

  15. CO2 Laser Market

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  16. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    A. Agustí-Panareda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 real-time forecast is now available as part of the pre-operational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate – Interim Implementation (MACC-II service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS. One of the strengths of the CO2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO2 satellite retrievals, as they

  17. CO{sub 2} separation

    Hakuta, Toshikatu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The climate change induced by CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases is probably the most serious environmental threat that mankind has ever experienced. Nowadays fossil fuels occupy the majority of the world commercial energy supply. Most nations will be dependent on fossil fuels even in the first half of the next century. Around 30 % of CO{sub 2} in the world is emitted from thermal power plants. Recovering CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes and storing it outside the atmosphere is a promising option for the mitigation of global warming. CO{sub 2} fixation and storage include CO{sub 2} disposal into oceans and underground, and utilization of CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} separation process will be used in any CO{sub 2} storage system, and is estimated to consume almost half the energy of the total system. Research and development of highly efficient CO{sub 2} separation process is most important from the viewpoint of practical application of CO{sub 2} fixation system.

  18. CO2 as a refrigerant

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  19. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Edward N. Steadman

    2004-07-01

    The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  20. CO2 pragmatic business solutions

    Alberta's strategy to manage the risk of climate change includes carbon dioxide (CO2) management as a mechanism to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The province is a leader in crude oil, bitumen and natural gas production, and as such, has seen an increase in production of CO2 and GHGs. There is a strong interest in the province to develop a CO2 market in Alberta. Stakeholders at a recent workshop suggested that projects for value-added use of CO2 be established as soon as possible. The nine suggested demonstration projects reflected the following 4 major markets for CO2: (1) enhanced oil recovery through carbon dioxide flooding, (2) enhanced coalbed methane production, (3) pressure maintenance in gas-over-bitumen projects, and (4) the recovery of solvents from hydrocarbon miscible floods. Three potential supply hubs include fertilizer producers, ethane processing, and petrochemical/gas processing plants. Most of these supply hubs will require the development of capture and processing facilities. This report briefly outlines some of the research completed in areas of CO2 capture, storage and sequestration. It also presents highlights of enhanced oil recovery demonstration projects at several oil producing areas including Swan Hills, Pembina Field, Taber Field, Acme Area, Redwater Field, Red Earth Field, Nipisi Field, Mitsue Field, and Rainbow Field. The economic implications of CO2 management were also outlined with reference to supply cost of CO2, world energy prices, long-term payouts, and costs associated with infrastructure. 32 refs. 1 tab., 13 figs

  1. The sequestration of CO2

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2, represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  2. CO2 Sequestration short course

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  3. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO3)2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg+2 and layers of Ca+2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO3)2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO2.....MgCa (CO3)2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO3 + CO2.....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO3, under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO3, CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  4. Capturing and storing CO2

    A promising way to combat global warming is to capture CO2 produced by industry and bury it in deep geologic formations. The processes are technically complex and still expensive. Before it can be captured, CO2 must be separated from other components produced by industrial processes that burn oil, gas, coal or biomass, such as nitrogen and sulfur. The CO2 is then piped down vertically from the storage facility and injected at depths of at least 800 meters. There, it reaches a 'supercritical' state in which it becomes denser and less voluminous. Three types of underground reservoirs have been tested so far: 1 - Deep onshore or offshore saline aquifers: These brackish water-bearing layers constitute the biggest reservoir, with 10,000 billion metric tons of storage capacity. They are also the most evenly distributed geographically, making it easier to find one near the source of emission. 2 - Depleted oil and gas reservoirs: injecting pressurized CO2 helps to dissolve remaining oil and reduce its viscosity. This facilitates the enhanced recovery of oil or gas from nearly depleted reservoirs, adding a potential economic advantage to the operation. The disadvantage of these reservoirs is their distance from CO2-emitting industrial sites. 3 - Unexploited coal seams: the CO2 replaces the methane that is naturally present in the coal bed. The methane can be extracted and marketed by gas companies. There are two additional solutions. The first involves storing the CO2 in carbon 'lakes' in the ocean at a minimum depth of 1,500 meters, but this has been rejected due to concerns about the impacts on the marine ecosystem and how long the CO2 would be contained. The second solution, carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation, is of more interest. Here, CO2 reacts with naturally occurring subsurface calcium and magnesium to become a carbonated rock similar to limestone, which is insoluble and therefore perfectly stable over the long term. The entire CO2 capture, compression

  5. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    Torres Hurtado, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is nowadays a worldwide problem, because is one of the gases contributing to global warming. It is a fact that CO2 is increasing every time more and more in the atmosphere due to several industrial activities and the own carbon cycle. From this point of view, it is wanted to suggest the photoreduction of CO2 in water with natural zeolites (in this case clinoptilolite) as a possible solution. In this research two different types zeolites were teste...

  6. Co2 On Titan's Surface

    McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, J.; Hayne, P.; Hansen, G. B.

    2007-10-01

    Evidence is reported for the presence of CO2 on the surface of Titan from the Cassini VIMS (an imaging visual and IR spectrometer) data (McCord et al., 2006, 2007). CO2 can be expected on Titan from basic planetary evolution models. It was also suggested as a plausible spectral component for bright material near the Huygens landing site (Rodriguez et al., 2006), based on structure in the 1.59-µm region. Hartung et al. (2006) searched for CO2 in one hemisphere, but they were able only to set an upper limit on the possible spatial coverage by pure CO2. Barnes et al., (2006) suggested CO2 as a possible candidate material for a 5-µm-bright region, named Tsegihi, based on the high 5-µm reflectance. However, these results are not inconsistent with our report. The evidence we report is three-fold: 1) A weak absorption near 4.9 µm in the 5-µm methane window for the Tui Regio region; 2) The spectral contrast between the 2.7- and 2.8-µm methane subwindows for the regions exhibiting the 4.9-µm absorption, with stronger absorption correlating with stronger contrast; and 3) the overall shape of the CO2 spectrum (for several grain-sizes) is consistent with the spectrum of one of the fundamental surface spectral components, as deduced by spectral mixture analysis modeling. The Tui Regio feature exhibits the strongest evidence in all three categories. Studies of this feature's morphology and albedo markings have suggested to some that it may be an active cryovolcanic feature (Barnes et al., 2006). If so, CO2 could be erupting and depositing as a frost. This likely happened elsewhere and at other times. Thus, CO2 could be a major constituent of the surface, but over time it may be mixed with other constituents, such as spectrally neutral organics raining from the atmosphere, thereby reducing the strength of its spectral signature.

  7. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    Fisk, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health...

  8. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Rutten, M.

    2009-06-10

    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  9. Oxygen labelled CO2

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C16O18O and 2.8 percent C18O2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s-1 and 0.12s-1 for C18O2 and 2.5s-1 and 0.87s-1 for C16O18O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C18O2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C16O18O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C16O18O as well as by C18O2. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  10. The relation of H2CO, 12CO, and 13CO in molecular clouds

    Di Tang, Xin; Zhou, Jian Jun; Wu, Gang; Ji, Wei Guang; Okoh, Daniel; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219809

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We seek to understand how the 4.8 GHz formaldehyde absorption line is distributed in the MON R2, S156, DR17/L906, and M17/M18 regions. More specifically, we look for the relationship among the H2CO, 12CO, and 13CO spectral lines. Methods. The four regions of MON R2 (60'x90'), S156 (5'0x70'), DR17/L906 (40'x60'), and M17 /M18 (70'x80')were observed for H2CO (beam 10'), H110a recombination (beam 10'), 6 cm continuum (beam 10'), 12CO (beam 1'), and 13CO (beam 1'). We compared the H2CO,12CO,13CO, and continuum distributions, and also the spectra line parameters of H2CO,12CO, and 13CO. Column densities of H2CO,13CO, and H2 were also estimated. Results. We found out that the H2CO distribution is similar to the 12CO and the 13CO distributions on a large scale. The correlation between the 13 CO and the H2CO distributions is better than between the 12CO and H2CO distributions. The H2CO and the 13CO tracers systematically provide consistent views of the dense regions. T heir maps have similar shapes, sizes, peak ...

  11. CO2 storage in Sweden

    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO2, providing that technology for electricity production with CO2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO2-pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies with the

  12. The CO2nnect activities

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  13. Inferring high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 records at continental sites from combined 14CO2 and CO observations

    LEVIN Ingeborg; Karstens, Ute

    2011-01-01

    An uncertainty estimate of a purely observational approach to derive hourly regional fossil fuel CO2 offsets (ΔCO2(foss)) at continental CO2 monitoring sites is presented. Weekly mean 14C-based fossil fuel CO2 mixing ratios and corresponding regional CO offsets (ΔCO) are proposed to determine weekly mean ΔCO/ΔCO2(foss) ratios in order to derive hourly ΔCO2(foss) mixing ratios from hourly ΔCO measurements. Respective regional model estimates of CO and CO2(foss) are applied to test this approac...

  14. Nuclear power and CO2

    Temperatures in the atmosphere have risen by nearly one degree in the twentieth century. To contain changes in global climate and their consequences, worldwide emissions of CO2 need to be curbed drastically in the future. Even if CO2 emissions are not taken into account, nuclear power has no economic disadvantages compared to fossil fuels. On the basis of an amount of money per ton of carbon emitted, nuclear power is cheaper than coal and, in most cases, also than natural gas. Actually, the worldwide CO2 problem and energy generation are part of the ongoing 'sustainability' debate. The following arguments, among others, used in the discussion show the sustainable character of nuclear power: - Comparison of the risks associated with major accidents for various sources of energy show nuclear power to be relatively free from hazard. - The introduction of fast breeders and other technical factors will make it possible to use nuclear fission as an important source of energy for many centuries. - The radiotoxicity of waste over very long periods of time can be influenced, for instance, by transmutation. The need to further develop CO2-free nuclear power has been recognized by many countries, among them Switzerland. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) works towards developing a new generation of nuclear power plants by 2030. It will be the symbiosis of the new types of reactors with today's modern plants which finally will establish CO2-free nuclear fission as a sustainable cornerstone of energy generation worldwide. That nuclear power has this potential for further development must be acknowledged generally. (orig.)

  15. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO2 and CO2-N2 mixtures

    Encarnação, P. M. C. C.; Cortez, A. F. V.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Trindade, A. M. F.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V‑1s‑1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V‑1s‑1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This second peak, with higher mobility, was attributed to CO2+ ions. The mobility values of the main peak range between 2.11 ± 0.04 and 1.10 ± 0.03 cm2V‑1s‑1 in the 1%–99% interval of CO2, while the second peak's from 2.26 ± 0.02 and 1.95 ± 0.04 cm2V‑1s‑1 (1%–10% of CO2). The inverse of the mobility displays an aproximately linear dependence on the CO2 concentration in the mixture.

  16. Global energy / CO2 projections

    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  17. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    2010-01-01

    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  18. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO2. The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO2 and the users of CO2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO2 programs such as: (1) CO2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO2 utilization

  19. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  20. CO2 neutral seawater desalination

    This article described the development of a seawater desalination project in Carlsbad, California, which is collocated with the Encina Power Generation Station that currently uses seawater from the Pacific Ocean for once-through cooling. The Carlsbad project is being developed as a public-private partnership between Poseidon Resources and 8 local utilities and municipalities. When completed in 2012, this project will supply 6 to 8 per cent of the drinking water in San Diego County and will be the largest seawater desalination plant in the United States. The total plant carbon footprint of the facility will depend on how much electricity is used and what sources are used to generate the electricity. It has been estimated that the total carbon footprint for the Carlsbad project is 61,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year and is based on desalination plant power use of 3.57 KWh/m3 of produced drinking water and on a greenhouse gas emission factor of 248.4 kg of CO2 per MWh of electricity used for the project. The plant will be located on a site that is occupied by an abandoned fuel storage tank. Reclaiming the land will produce a smaller imprint on the environment than if an undisturbed site were used. A rooftop photovoltaic system will be used for solar power generation. Approximately 2,100 tons of CO2 per year will be used to condition the freshwater for corrosion protection. This article reviewed the project feasibility, its environmental impact, site selection, pilot testing, and preliminary design estimate. 3 figs

  1. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    The PCOR Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Deployment Issues) activities have focused on utilizing Dakota Gasification Company (DGC) experience and data with respect to DGC participation in the enhanced oil recovery project at Weyburn, Saskatchewan. A solid line of communication has been developed with the Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) for the mutual benefit of the PCOR Partnership and IOGCC's complementary efforts. Task 3 (Public Education and Outreach) activities have focused on developing a foundation of background materials in order to avoid a duplication of efforts and provide the best outreach and educational materials possible. Progress in Task 4 (Characterization and Evaluation) has included the development of a database format, the preliminary collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks, and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have resulted in a conceptual model for screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities have also been useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  2. TG-FTIR measurement of CO2-H2O co-adsorption for CO2 air capture sorbent screening

    Smal, I.M.; Yu, Q; Veneman, R.; Fränzel-Luiten, B.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Capturing atmospheric CO2 using solid sorbents is gaining interest. As ambient air normally contains much more (up to 100 times) water than CO2, a selective sorbent is desirable as co-adsorption will most likely occur. In this study, a convenient method based on an TG-FTIR analysis system is developed and used to characterize sorbents for their water and CO2 adsorption capacity when exposed to ambient air. The method allows to determine quantitatively the co-adsorbed amounts of CO2 and water ...

  3. Passive CO2 concentration in higher plants.

    Sage, Rowan F; Khoshravesh, Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Photorespiratory limitations on C3 photosynthesis are substantial in warm, low CO2 conditions. To compensate, certain plants evolved mechanisms to actively concentrate CO2 around Rubisco using ATP-supported CO2 pumps such as C4 photosynthesis. Plants can also passively accumulate CO2 without additional ATP expenditure by localizing the release of photorespired and respired CO2 around Rubisco that is diffusively isolated from peripheral air spaces. Passive accumulation of photorespired CO2 occurs when glycine decarboxylase is localized to vascular sheath cells in what is termed C2 photosynthesis, and through forming sheaths of chloroplasts around the periphery of mesophyll cells. The peripheral sheaths require photorespired CO2 to re-enter chloroplasts where it can be refixed. Passive accumulation of respiratory CO2 is common in organs such as stems, fruits and flowers, due to abundant heterotrophic tissues and high diffusive resistance along the organ periphery. Chloroplasts within these organs are able to exploit this high CO2 to reduce photorespiration. CO2 concentration can also be enhanced passively by channeling respired CO2 from roots and rhizomes into photosynthetic cells of stems and leaves via lacunae, aerenchyma and the xylem stream. Through passive CO2 concentration, C3 species likely improved their carbon economy and maintained fitness during episodes of low atmospheric CO2. PMID:27058940

  4. Optical properties of heusler alloys Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa

    Shreder, E. I.; Svyazhin, A. D.; Belozerova, K. A.

    2013-11-01

    The results of an investigation of optical properties and the calculations of the electronic structure of Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa Heusler alloys are presented. The main focus of our attention is the study of the spectral dependence of the real part (ɛ1) and imaginary part (ɛ2) of the dielectric constant in the range of wavelengths λ = 0.3-13 μm using the ellipsometric method. An anomalous behavior of the optical conductivity σ(ω) has been found in the infrared range in the Co2CrAl and Co2CrGa alloys, which differs substantially from that in the Co2FeSi and Co2FeAl alloys. The results obtained are discussed based on the calculations of the electronic structure.

  5. N2-CO2 co-injection field test at the Ketzin pilot CO2 storage site

    Sebastian Fischer; Alexandra Szizybalski; Martin Zimmer; Christian Kujawa; B. Plessen; A. Liebscher; F. Moeller

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2013, a four week N2-CO2 co-injection field test was conducted at the Ketzin pilot site. Major objectives were (i) demonstrating the technical feasibility of a continuous N2-CO2 co-injection scenario, (ii) monitoring wellhead and reservoir pressure, (iii) monitoring spreading and behavior of the CO2-N2 gas mixture in the reservoir, and (iv) analyzing potential chromatographic effects within the reservoir. 10,000 L (10 Nm3) of krypton (Kr) were injected as an additional conservative ...

  6. CyclicCO2R: production of cyclic carbonates from CO2 using renewable feedstocks

    Kimball, E; Schuurbiers, C.A.H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Håkonsen, S.F.; Heyn, R.; Offermans, W.; Leitner, W.; Ostapowicz, T.; Müller, T. E.; Mul, G.; North, M.; Ngomsik-Fanselow, A.F.; Sarron, E.; Sigurbjörnsson, O.; Schäffner, B.

    2013-01-01

    The consortium behind CyclicCO2R wants to kick-start the implementation of CO2 utilization technologies by converting CO2 into a high value-added product, thus providing a showcase that inspires industry to further develop technologies utilizing CO2 as a sustainable raw material and valorizing CO2 in such a way that drives the market for CO2 capture and utilization.

  7. CO2 Virtual Science Data Environment API

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CO2 Virtual Data Environment is a comprehensive effort at bringing together the models, data, and tools necessary to perform research on atmospheric CO2.This...

  8. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Roger W Ruess; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CO(2) emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2) efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2) efflux. CO(2) efflux from soils de...

  9. CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies

    Ketzer, Marcelo [Brazilian Carbon Storage Research Center (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the importance of the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} is outlined for the reduction of gas discharges of greenhouse effect; then the principles of CO{sub 2} storage in geologic formations are reviewed; afterwards, the analogs for the CO{sub 2} storage are commented, such as the storage of the acid gas, the natural gas storage and the natural CO{sub 2} deposits. Also it is spoken on the CO{sub 2} storage in coal, in water-bearing saline deposits and in oil fields, and finally the subject of the safety and monitoring of the CO{sub 2} storage is reviewed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se expone la importancia de la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} para la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero; luego se tratan los principios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en formaciones geologicas; despues se comentan los analogos para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} como el almacenamiento del gas acido, el almacenamiento de gas natural y los yacimientos naturales de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se habla sobre el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en carbon, acuiferos salinos y yacimientos petroliferos y por ultimo se toca el tema de la seguridad y monitoreo del almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  10. Crystal structure of [Co(NH36][Co(CO4]2

    Thomas G. Müller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hexaamminecobalt(II bis[tetracarbonylcobaltate(-I], [Co(NH36][Co(CO4]2, was synthesized by reaction of liquid ammonia with Co2(CO8. The CoII atom is coordinated by six ammine ligands. The resulting polyhedron, the hexaamminecobalt(II cation, exhibits point group symmetry -3. The Co-I atom is coordinated by four carbonyl ligands, leading to a tetracarbonylcobaltate(−I anion in the shape of a slightly distorted tetrahedron, with point group symmetry 3. The crystal structure is related to that of high-pressure BaC2 (space group R-3m, with the [Co(NH36]2+ cations replacing the Ba sites and the [Co(CO4]− anions replacing the C sites. N—H...O hydrogen bonds between cations and anions stabilize the structural set-up in the title compound.

  11. Autocatalytic growth of Co on pure Co surfaces using Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} precursor

    Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; Ibarra, M.R. [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); De Teresa, J.M., E-mail: deteresa@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the autocatalytic growth of Co using Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On Si wafers and Co grown by FEBID, no role is played by autocatalytic growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On Co films grown by sputtering, Co grows autocatalytically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implications of the results on Co by FEBID are discussed. - Abstract: The autocatalytic growth of Co on different surfaces using the Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} precursor is investigated. It is observed that Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} molecules dissociate spontaneously on pure Co surfaces grown by sputtering, forming a pure Co film. The microstructure of this film consists of Co nanocrystals with size below 100 nm. However, when the same type of experiment is done on a Co surface grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition there is no autocatalytic growth of Co. On other surfaces such as Si substrates and Al films grown by sputtering, the spontaneous dissociation of the Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8} molecules does not occur. The origin and implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Selecting CO2 Sources for CO2 Utilization by Environmental-Merit-Order Curves.

    von der Assen, Niklas; Müller, Leonard J; Steingrube, Annette; Voll, Philip; Bardow, André

    2016-02-01

    Capture and utilization of CO2 as alternative carbon feedstock for fuels, chemicals, and materials aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil resource use. For capture of CO2, a large variety of CO2 sources exists. Since they emit much more CO2 than the expected demand for CO2 utilization, the environmentally most favorable CO2 sources should be selected. For this purpose, we introduce the environmental-merit-order (EMO) curve to rank CO2 sources according to their environmental impacts over the available CO2 supply. To determine the environmental impacts of CO2 capture, compression and transport, we conducted a comprehensive literature study for the energy demands of CO2 supply, and constructed a database for CO2 sources in Europe. Mapping these CO2 sources reveals that CO2 transport distances are usually small. Thus, neglecting transport in a first step, we find that environmental impacts are minimized by capturing CO2 first from chemical plants and natural gas processing, then from paper mills, power plants, and iron and steel plants. In a second step, we computed regional EMO curves considering transport and country-specific impacts for energy supply. Building upon regional EMO curves, we identify favorable locations for CO2 utilization with lowest environmental impacts of CO2 supply, so-called CO2 oases. PMID:26752014

  13. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers. PMID:23167314

  14. Forest succession at elevated CO2; TOPICAL

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response

  15. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  16. CO2 for refrigeration. Co-operation with Indonesia

    NTNU and SINTEF Energy Research, Norway, have co-operated closely with universities in Indonesia on the use of CO2 as a working fluid in refrigeration systems. The Asian market is the largest in the world and so it is very important to use environmentally friendly working fluids. In Indonesia, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) plays a leading role in the efforts to meet the national emission goals. For economical reasons, Indonesia considers natural working fluids such as CO2 rather than the new expensive synthetic ones

  17. Exogenously produced CO2 doubles the CO2 efflux from three north temperate lakes

    Wilkinson, Grace M.; Buelo, Cal D.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Pace, Michael L.

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that lakes are typically sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, it remains unclear what portion of CO2 efflux is from endogenously processed organic carbon or from exogenously produced CO2 transported into lakes. We estimated high-frequency CO2 and O2 efflux from three north temperate lakes in summer to determine the proportion of the total CO2 efflux that was exogenously produced. Two of the lakes were amended with nutrients to experimentally enhance endogenous CO2 uptake. In the unfertilized lake, 50% of CO2 efflux was from exogenous sources and hydrology had a large influence on efflux. In the fertilized lakes, endogenous CO2 efflux was negative (into the lake) yet exogenous CO2 made the lakes net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Shifts in hydrologic regimes and nutrient loading have the potential to change whether small lakes act primarily as reactors or vents in the watershed.

  18. Energyless CO2 Absorption, Generation, and Fixation Using Atmospheric CO2.

    Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Okada, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Yamada, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Kenta; Mukai, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    From an economic and ecological perspective, the efficient utilization of atmospheric CO2 as a carbon resource should be a much more important goal than reducing CO2 emissions. However, no strategy to harvest CO2 using atmospheric CO2 at room temperature currently exists, which is presumably due to the extremely low concentration of CO2 in ambient air (approximately 400 ppm=0.04 vol%). We discovered that monoethanolamine (MEA) and its derivatives efficiently absorbed atmospheric CO2 without requiring an energy source. We also found that the absorbed CO2 could be easily liberated with acid. Furthermore, a novel CO2 generator enabled us to synthesize a high value-added material (i.e., 2-oxazolidinone derivatives based on the metal catalyzed CO2-fixation at room temperature) from atmospheric CO2. PMID:26596773

  19. CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe - Phase 2; CO{sub 2}-Erdwaermesonde - Phase 2

    Grueniger, A.; Wellig, B.

    2009-12-15

    In this project the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics inside a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe have been investigated. The functionality of such a probe, which works like a thermosyphon, was analyzed by means of a simulation model in MATLAB. The model couples the behaviour inside the heat probe with the heat conduction in the earth. A parameter study revealed that the self-circulation character of such a probe leads to flattening of the vertical earth temperature profile near the probe and, hence, leads to more uniform heat removal along the probe. The circulation of CO{sub 2} even goes on when the heat pump is off. This might be advantageous for the regeneration phase. The heat transfer resistance of the evaporating CO{sub 2} film flowing down the probe wall is very small compared to the conduction resistance of the earth. Therefore, no difference has been found between the performances of a conventional heat pipe and a configuration where the liquid phase injection is distributed on different height stages along the probe. It is estimated that the seasonal performance factor of heat pumps can be improved by 15-25% with a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe. The main advantage is that the heat transfer to the evaporator of the heat pump (condensation of CO{sub 2} / evaporation of refrigerant) is much more efficient than in a conventional brine probe without phase change. Furthermore, no circulation pump is needed. (authors)

  20. ESTUDIO DE LA INTEGRACIÓN DE TANINOS EN EL SISTEMA SiO2-PHEMA-Ta PARA SU POTENCIAL APLICACIÓN COMO RECUBRIMIENTO ANTICORROSIVO

    Pantoja Castro, Mayra Agustina

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se sintetizó y caracterizó un recubrimiento orgánico-inorgánico a partir de dióxido de silicio (SiO2), poli(metacrilato de 2-hidroxietilo) (PHEMA) y taninos (Ta). Este material se propone como potencial inhibidor en la corrosión de los metales debido a que contiene taninos, los cuales poseen propiedades antioxidantes. Esta propiedad fue reforzada al integrar a los taninos en una matriz orgánica/inorgánica (SiO2/PHEMA), la cual permite fijar a los taninos en el s...

  1. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    Storage of CO2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO2 after injection.

  2. CO2 transport over complex terrain

    Sun, Jielun; Burns, Sean P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.A.; Stephens, B.B.; Lenschow, D.H.; LeMone, M.A.; Monson, Russell K.; Anderson, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    CO2 transport processes relevant for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, were investigated during a pilot experiment. We found that cold, moist, and CO2-rich air was transported downslope at night and upslope in the early morning at this forest site situated on a ???5% east-facing slope. We found that CO2 advection dominated the total CO2 transport in the NEE estimate at night although there are large uncertainties because of partial cancellation of horizontal and vertical advection. The horizontal CO2 advection captured not only the CO2 loss at night, but also the CO2 uptake during daytime. We found that horizontal CO2 advection was significant even during daytime especially when turbulent mixing was not significant, such as in early morning and evening transition periods and within the canopy. Similar processes can occur anywhere regardless of whether flow is generated by orography, synoptic pressure gradients, or surface heterogeneity as long as CO2 concentration is not well mixed by turbulence. The long-term net effect of all the CO2 budget terms on estimates of NEE needs to be investigated. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable Process Networks for CO2 Conversion

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Kongpanna, P.; Pavarajam, V.;

    contributors to global warming, primarily greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest source and, therefore, the reduction of the amount emitted is primary focus of developments [1]. Currently, the main method that is focused on is carbon capture and storage (CCS). There are various...... drawbacks to this geologic storage system: the CO2 is not eliminated, the implementation is limited due to natural phenomena, and the capturing methods are often expensive. Thus, it is desirable to develop an alternative strategy for reducing the CO2 emissions [2]. An additional process that reduces the...... emissions is the conversion of CO2 into useful products, such as methanol [3]. In this work, through a computer-aided framework for process network synthesis-design, a network of feasible conversion processes that all use emitted CO2 is investigated. CO2 is emitted into the environment from various sources...

  4. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  5. On organic soil carbon and CO2

    Bohn, Hinrich L.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of virgin lands released about 150 times 1012 kg of carbon as CO2 to the atmosphere during the last 100 years, at rates of 1 to 2 times 1012 kg/yr. These rates exceeded the CO2 evolved from fossil fuel combustion until the mid-1960s. Soil organic carbon, in organic and mineral soils, may play a considerable role in the CO2 cycle and in controlling the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1978.tb00863.x

  6. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations and CO2 exchange in onion, Allium cepa L.

    Byrd, G T; Loboda, T; Black, C C; Brown, R H

    1995-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) plants were examined to determine the photosynthetic role of CO2 that accumulates within their leaf cavities. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations ranged from 2250 μL L(-1) near the leaf base to below atmospheric (CO2 concentrations with minimum values near midday and maximum values at night. Conductance to CO2 from the leaf cavity ranged from 24 to 202 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and was even lower for membranes of bulb scales. The capacity for onion leaves to recycle leaf cavity CO2 was poor, only 0.2 to 2.2% of leaf photosynthesis based either on measured CO2 concentrations and conductance values or as measured directly by (14)CO2 labeling experiments. The photosynthetic responses to CO2 and O2 were measured to determine whether onion leaves exhibited a typical C3-type response. A linear increase in CO2 uptake was observed in intact leaves up to 315 μL L(-1) of external CO2 and, at this external CO2 concentration, uptake was inhibited 35.4±0.9% by 210 mL L(-1) O2 compared to 20 mL L(-1) O2. Scanning electron micrographs of the leaf cavity wall revealed degenerated tissue covered by a membrane. Onion leaf cavity membranes apparently are highly impermeable to CO2 and greatly restrict the refixation of leaf cavity CO2 by photosynthetic tissue. PMID:24307095

  7. Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography in children

    Background. When iodinated contrast material is contraindicated, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas can be injected intravascularly to produce high-quality digital subtraction angiograms. Objective. CO2 angiography, although previously described in adults, has never before been reported in children. Materials and methods. We present three children with renal transplants who required renal angiography. Because of elevated creatinine levels, iodinated contrast was not used to search for possible renal artery stenosis. Instead, CO2 angiography was used to evaluate the renal artery anastomosis. Results. In all three cases, the renal artery anastomosis was clearly visualized using CO2 angiography and showed no evidence of renal artery stenosis. Conclusion. Digital CO2 angiography is an effective method for pediatric renal angiography. The technique can easily be adapted for virtually any angiographic laboratory capable of digital subtraction imaging. Digital CO2 angiography also lacks the risks of a conventional iodinated contrast medium, namely nephrotoxicity, allergic reaction and volume overload. (orig.). With 1 fig

  8. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  9. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll;

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in...

  10. A NOVEL CO2 SEPARATION SYSTEM

    Robert J. Copeland; Gokhan Alptekin; Mike Cesario; Steven Gebhard; Yevgenia Gershanovich

    1999-01-01

    Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current CO{sub 2} separation systems is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity.

  11. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  12. Air reversing CO2 heat pumps

    Andreassen, Hanne Elisabeth Bø

    2010-01-01

    CO2 is an environmentally friendly refrigerant that has a no global warming potential when used as refrigerant. The current refrigerants used for air conditioning in public transport are chemical components, and have a high global warming impact. The possibility of replacing the conventional refrigerants by CO2 is investigated for various parts of the transport sector. A possible CO2system for heating and cooling for public transport has been modeled and simulated. This system is a turntable ...

  13. Transport and storage of CO2

    A brief overview is given of the investment cost and the operation and maintenance cost as well as the total cost of CO2 transport by pipeline (onshore) and CO2 sequestration in an onshore, depleted gas reservoir or a coal seam (CO2 Enhanced Coal Bed Methane). The costs are based on literature sources and refer to the state-of-the-art of 2004

  14. CO2 Absorbing Capacity of MEA

    José I Huertas; Gomez, Martin D.; Nicolas Giraldo; Jessica Garzón

    2015-01-01

    We describe the use of a gas bubbler apparatus in which the gas phase is bubbled into a fixed amount of absorbent under standard conditions as a uniform procedure for determining the absorption capacity of solvents. The method was systematically applied to determine the CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (Ac) at several aqueous MEA (β) and gas-phase CO2 concentrations. Ac approached the nominal CO2 absorbing capacity of MEA (720 g CO2/kg MEA) at very low β levels, increasing from 447.9±18.1 to 581...

  15. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  16. Charged water- and CO2-clusters

    A supersonic molecular beam source with an internal radioactive β-emitter produces a variety of unusual positively or negatively charged cluster ions, among them the so called ''hydrated'' electrons (H2O)sub(n)-, with n>=8. For a CO2-expansion the metastable ion CO2- is observed. (Auth.)

  17. Charged water- and CO2-clusters

    A supersonic molecular beam source with an internal radioactive #betta#-emitter produces a variety of unusual positively or negatively charged cluster ions, among them the so called 'hydrated' electrons (H2O)sup(-n), with n>=81. For a CO2-expansion the metastable ion CO-2 is observed. (Author)

  18. PENNING IONIZATION QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF CO+: THE RATIO GENERATED BY ITS PARENT CO TO CO2

    陈海波

    2008-01-01

    Ionization quantum efficiency is one of the important parameters in studying the gas discharge.In the present paper, we report a spectral technique to determine the relative ionization quantum efficiency of CO+ generated by discharging its parent molecule CO to CO2.

  19. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  20. Carbonated concrete blocks for CO2 captation

    Courard, Luc; Parmentier, Véronique; Michel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The CO2 captation process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with bio-based products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Concrete blocks produced with mis...

  1. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  2. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  3. CO2 emission calculations and trends

    Evidence that the atmospheric CO2 concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO2 is believed to result from CO2 releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO2 concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention's stated objectives was the ''stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. '' Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO2 as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO2 emissions and increases in atmospheric CO2 levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO2 emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented

  4. CO2 LASERS IN HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS.

    POGORELSKY,I.V.

    2001-12-03

    Several proof-of-principle laser accelerator experiments turned a long-wavelength of a CO{sub 2} laser to advantage. Ongoing advancement to multi-terawatt femtosecond CO{sub 2} lasers opens new venues for next-generation laser acceleration research.

  5. CAPTURING CO2 WITH MGO AEROGELS

    CO2 capture from flue gas requires that the adsorbent be active at relatively low CO2 concentrations (3 – 13 vol%), high temperatures (~ 250ºC), and in the presence of many other gas species. These conditions will be simulated in the student designed reactor. The...

  6. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...

  7. CO2 Rekentool voor Tuinbouw: Handleiding

    Hiller, S.R.C.H.; Danse, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Dit document is een handleiding bij de online CO2 Rekentool voor Tuinbouw Ketens. De CO2 tool is mogelijk gemaakt door de financiële bijdrage van Productschap Tuinbouw en het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV). De tool is ontwikkeld door het onderzoeksconsortium WUR, BMA en AI

  8. Energy Balance of Global CO_2 Recycling and Amounts of Reduction of CO_2 Emission

    Hashimoto, K; Akiyama, E.; Habazaki, H.; Kawashima, A.; Komori, M.; Shimamura, K.; Kumagai, N.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of tailoring of amorphous alloy electrodes for seawater electrolysis to form H_2 and amorphous alloy catalysts for conversion of CO_2 to CH_4, we are proposing global CO_2 recycling : At deserts; power generation by solar energy, at coasts close to the deserts; production of H_2 by electrolysis of seawater, production of CH_4 by the reaction of H_2 and CO_2 transported, and at energy consuming districts; combustion of CH_4, recovery of CO_2 and transportation of liquefied CO_2 to...

  9. Estimation of continuous anthropogenic CO2: model-based evaluation of CO2, CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2) tracer methods

    Vardag, S. N.; Gerbig, C.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate different methods for estimating anthropogenic CO2 using modeled continuous atmospheric concentrations of CO2 alone, as well as CO2 in combination with the surrogate tracers CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2). These methods are applied at three hypothetical stations representing rural, urban and polluted conditions. We find that, independent of the tracer used, an observation-based estimate of continuous anthropogenic CO2 is not yet feasible at rural measurement sites due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of anthropogenic CO2 estimates at such settings. The tracers δ13C(CO2) and CO provide an accurate possibility to determine anthropogenic CO2 continuously, only if all CO2 sources in the catchment area are well characterized or calibrated with respect to their isotopic signature and CO to anthropogenic CO2 ratio. We test different calibration strategies for the mean isotopic signature and CO to CO2 ratio using precise Δ14C(CO2) measurements on monthly integrated as well as on grab samples. For δ13C(CO2), a calibration with annually averaged 14C(CO2) grab samples is most promising, since integrated sampling introduces large biases into anthropogenic CO2 estimates. For CO, these biases are smaller. The precision of continuous anthropogenic CO2 determination using δ13C(CO2) depends on measurement precision of δ13C(CO2) and CO2, while the CO method is mainly limited by the variation in natural CO sources and sinks. At present, continuous anthropogenic CO2 could be determined using the tracers δ13C(CO2) and/or CO with a precision of about 30 %, a mean bias of about 10 % and without significant diurnal discrepancies. Hypothetical future measurements of continuous Δ14C(CO2) with a precision of 5 ‰ are promising for anthropogenic CO2 determination (precision ca. 10-20 %) but are not yet available. The investigated tracer-based approaches open the door to improving, validating and reducing biases of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric

  10. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  11. Vehicle emissions of greenhouse gases and related tracers from a tunnel study: : CO: CO2, N2O: CO2, CH4: CO2, O2: CO2 ratios, and the stable isotopes 13C and 18O in CO2 and CO

    Popa, Maria Elena; Vollmer, M. K.; Jordan, A.; Brand, W. A.; Pathirana, S. L.; Rothe, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of CO2, CO, N2O and CH4 mole fractions, O2/N2 ratios and the stable isotopes 13C and 18O in CO2 and CO have been performed in air samples from the Islisberg highway tunnel (Switzerland). The molar CO : CO2 ratios, with an average of (4.15 ± 0.34) ppb:ppm, are lower than reported in prev

  12. Combustion of hythane diluted with CO2

    Hraiech Ibtissem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about energy shortage and environmental protection, improving engine fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions have become major research topics in combustion and engine development. Hythane (a blend of hydrogen H2 and natural gas NG has generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. This paper describes an experimental study of the effects of CO2 addition on the stability of a turbulent jet diffusion NG-H2 flame. The mole fraction of hydrogen (% H2 in NG-H2 mixture was varied from 0% to 50%. The equivalence ratio of the hythane/CO2/air mixture was kept at stoichiometry. The results show that the lift-off height increases with the addition of CO2 at various % H2 content in hythane. However, we observe that with 20% H2, we can obtain a stable flame diluted with 40% CO2, while for 0% H2, the flame is blown out above 20% CO2. This means that the limits of flame blowing out are pushed with the additions of H2. Moreover, the results show that for %H2 content in NG-H2 fuel up to 10%, the addition of CO2 could produce lifted flame if the % CO2 is low. At higher % CO2 dilution, flame would remain attached until blow-out. This is mainly due to the fact that the dilution leads to ejection velocities very high but reactivity of the mixture does not change so the flame tends to stretch.

  13. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    CO2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO2-N2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO2-CH4 and CO2-N2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 1065.355 - H2O and CO2 interference verification for CO NDIR analyzers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false H2O and CO2 interference verification... Co2 Measurements § 1065.355 H2O and CO2 interference verification for CO NDIR analyzers. (a) Scope and frequency. If you measure CO using an NDIR analyzer, verify the amount of H2O and CO2 interference...

  15. CO2 deserts: implications of existing CO2 supply limitations for carbon management.

    Middleton, Richard S; Clarens, Andres F; Liu, Xiaowei; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Levine, Jonathan S

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change will require deep reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the scale of gigatonnes per year. CO2 capture and utilization and/or storage technologies are a class of approaches that can substantially reduce CO2 emissions. Even though examples of this approach, such as CO2-enhanced oil recovery, are already being practiced on a scale >0.05 Gt/year, little attention has been focused on the supply of CO2 for these projects. Here, facility-scale data newly collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was processed to produce the first comprehensive map of CO2 sources from industrial sectors currently supplying CO2 in the United States. Collectively these sources produce 0.16 Gt/year, but the data reveal the presence of large areas without access to CO2 at an industrially relevant scale (>25 kt/year). Even though some facilities with the capability to capture CO2 are not doing so and in some regions pipeline networks are being built to link CO2 sources and sinks, much of the country exists in "CO2 deserts". A life cycle analysis of the sources reveals that the predominant source of CO2, dedicated wells, has the largest carbon footprint further confounding prospects for rational carbon management strategies. PMID:25137398

  16. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs. PMID:27362472

  17. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    , more than 80% of the inlet CO2 was captured by highly deactivated limestone, which had a maximum CO2 capture capacity of 11.5%, with an inlet Ca/C ratio of 13. So, the performance of the carbonator can be defined by the inlet Ca/C ratio, which can be estimated if the maximum capture capacity of...... carbonator. Based on the model simulation results a particle recirculation of 2-5 kg/m2s is sufficient for 90% CO2 capture efficiency depending on active fraction, inlet CO2 concentration and composition of particle stream. Based on the main experimental results, i.e. the CO2 capture capacity of raw meal as...... ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is anew process and has the potential to reduce CO2emissions with lower energy penalties. Most of thework...

  18. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO2. Some techniques could be used to reduced CO2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO2 and to review the various options for CO2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could make a

  19. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO2 uptake assessment approach owing to the concrete

  20. Subsurface Water as Natural CO2 Sink

    In aquifer recharge areas, groundwater mineralization acts as an important sink for CO2 (assessed at 100 Mtco2/a on a European scale). An isotopic study of C fluxes in the unsaturated zone of a sand carbonate aquifer shows that the physical and geochemical processes controlling CO2 abstraction induce changes in the isotopic composition of both dissolved and matrix carbonates. An integrated record of these fluxes toward the aquifers is evidenced through isotopic investigation of the recharge areas. It is evidenced that the unsaturated zone represents an archive of pristine conditions, and would help to quantify downward C fluxes and environmental changes related to this CO2 abstraction process. (author)

  1. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  2. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  3. Spin polarization effect for Co2 molecule

    Yan Shi-Ying; Bao Wen-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT)(b3p86) of Gaussian 03 has been used to optimize the structure of the Co2molecule, a transition metal element molecule. The result shows that the ground state for the Co2 molecule is a 7-multiple state, indicating a spin polarization effect in the Co2 molecule. Meanwhile, we have not found any spin pollution because the wavefunction of the ground state is not mingled with wavefunctions of higher-energy states. So for the ground state of Co2 molecule to be a 7-multiple state is the indicative of spin polarization effect of the Co2molecule, that is, there exist 6 parallel spin electrons in a Co2 molecule. The number of non-conjugated electrons is the greatest. These electrons occupy different spacial orbitals so that the energy of the Co2 molecule is minimized. It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Co2 molecule is larger than the effect of the conjugated molecule,which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization. In addition, the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters for the ground state and the other states of the Co2 molecule are derived. The dissociation energy De for the ground state of Co2 molecule is 4.0489eV, equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2061 nm, and vibration frequency 11.2222 aJ.nm-4respectively(1 a.J=10-18 J). The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of Co2 molecule ωexe,Be, and αe are 0.7202 cm-1, 0.1347 cm-1, and 2.9120× 10-1 cm-1 respectively. And ωexe is the non-syntonic part of frequency, Be is the rotational constant, αe is revised constant of rotational constant for non-rigid part of Co2 molecule.

  4. Crystallization of CO2 ice and the absence of amorphous CO2 ice in space

    Escribano, Rafael M.; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M.; Cruz-Diaz, Gustavo A.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Maté, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most relevant and abundant species in astrophysical and atmospheric media. In particular, CO2 ice is present in several solar system bodies, as well as in interstellar and circumstellar ice mantles. The amount of CO2 in ice mantles and the presence of pure CO2 ice are significant indicators of the temperature history of dust in protostars. It is therefore important to know if CO2 is mixed with other molecules in the ice matrix or segregated and whether it is...

  5. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  6. Efficient pulsed CO2 laser calculations

    Stone, David H.; Honey, David A.

    1991-02-01

    A computationally efficient scheme for generating pumping rates was developed for use with a pulsed CO2 laser model. A steady-state solution of the Boltzmann electron transport equation generates the rates. Vibrational temperatures for the CO2 and N2 populations are determined by iterating the Boltzmann solver with the rate equation model. Rapid convergence and coarse grids allow quick calculations of pulse shape, peak power, and total energy. Results compare well with a fully time-dependent Boltzmann solver.

  7. Vpliv CO 2 na izkoristke sinteze metanola

    Štumpf, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi smo naredili raziskavo procesa proizvodnje metanola z uvajanjem CO2 v proces. Raziskava je bila narejena za družbo Nafta Petrochem d. o. o. Proces proizvodnje smo simulirali s procesnim simulatorjem ASPEN PLUS. Na proizvodnjo metanola smo vplivali z zmanjševanjem vtoka zemeljskega plina ter z dodajanjem CO2 v proces. Določili smo tudi matematični model z linearno regresijo, vpliv zemeljskega plina na proizvodnjo metanola in vpliv dodatnega vtoka CO2 na dodatno proizvodnjo m...

  8. Structurally simple complexes of CO2

    Murphy, Luke J.; Katherine N. Robertson; Kemp, Richard A.; Tuononen, Heikki; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to bind CO2 through the formation of low-energy, easily-broken, bonds could prove invaluable in a variety of chemical contexts. For example, weak bonds to CO2 would greatly decrease the cost of the energy-intensive sorbent-regeneration step common to most carbon capture technologies. Furthermore, exploration of this field could lead to the discovery of novel CO2 chemistry. Reduction of complexed carbon dioxide might generate chemical feedstocks for the preparation of value-added p...

  9. The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2

    Sabine, Chris [NOAA, Seattle, WA; Feely, R. A. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Gruber, N. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Key, Robert [Princeton University; Lee, K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Bullister, J.L. [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Wong, C. S. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Climate Chemistry Laboratory, Sidney, BC Canada; Wallace, D.W.R. [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute for Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography, Kiel, Germany; Tilbrook, B. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Millero, F. J. [University of Miami; Peng, T.-H. [Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Ono, Tsueno [Frontier Research System for Global Change/Institute for Global Change Research, Japan; Rios, Aida F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientificas, Spain

    2004-01-01

    Using inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s and a tracer-based separation technique, we estimate a global oceanic anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 19 petagrams of carbon. The oceanic sink accounts for ~48% of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions, implying that the terrestrial biosphere was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of about 39 28 petagrams of carbon for this period. The current fraction of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions stored in the ocean appears to be about one-third of the long-term potential.

  10. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost......-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The gains from CO2 trade may give vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe, for example, and it will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further...

  11. Economic aspects of the CO2 problem

    After a more global look at the CO2 problem, the situation in Germany and Great Britain is compared. The different trends in CO2 emission in industrialized and developing countries are explained and analyzed. Future trends are indicated, and long-term strategies are developed. A reduction of CO2 emissions is considered to be feasible only by methods based on the free market economy, not by applying the principles of order policy. Finally, the author raises the question of how the ''Toronto goal'' can be achieved. (UA)

  12. CO2 sequestration and climatic change

    Since about 10 years, the underground sequestration of CO2 has been the object of intensive researches among the scientists working on climatic change. Such a process would open a new way of massive abatement of CO2 emissions. This article presents the different types of disposal sites (saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas fields, deep coal seams), the disposal duration and its stakes, the other processes under study (bio-fixation, carbonation), the risks and safety aspects of CO2 sequestration, the different projects in progress and the economic aspects of this technique. (J.S.)

  13. CO2, the promises of geological sequestration

    Trapping part of the world CO2 effluents in the deep underground is a profitable and ecological way to limit the global warming. This digest paper presents the different ways of CO2 sequestration (depleted oil and gas fields, unexploited coal seams, saline aquifers), the other possible solutions for CO2 abatement (injection in the bottom of the ocean, conversion into carbonates by injection into basic rocks, fixation by photosynthesis thanks to micro-algae cultivation), and takes stock of the experiments in progress (Snoehvit field in Norway, European project Castor). (J.S.)

  14. CO2-Leaking Well - Analytical Modeling

    Wertz, F.; Audigane, P.; Bouc, O.

    2009-04-01

    The long-term integrity of CO2 storage in geological system relies highly on local trapping mechanisms but also on the absence/control of any kind of outlets. Indeed numerous pathways (faults, wells, rock heterogeneities…) exist that can lead stored gas back to the surface. Thus, such leakage risks must be assessed and quantified if possible. In France, BRGM is inquired for evaluating safety criteria and developing a methodology for qualifying potential geological storage sites. This implies in particular to study the leakage scenario, here through a water-filled well as a worth scenario case. In order to determine the kinds of impacts leaking CO2 can have; knowing the velocity and flow rate of uprising CO2 is a necessity. That is why a better knowledge of CO2 in storage conditions and its behaviour with the environment is required. The following study aims at characterising the CO2 flowing into the well and then rising up in a water column over the vertical dimension. An analytical model was built that describes: - In a first step, the CO2 flow between the reservoir and the inside of the well, depending on quality and thickness of different seals, which determines the flow rate through the well. - In a second step, the CO2 uprising through an open and water filled well, however in steady state, which excludes a priori the characterisation of periodic or chaotic behaviours such as geyser formation. The objective is to give numerous orders of magnitude concerning CO2 thermodynamic properties while rising up: specific enthalpy, density, viscosity, velocity, flow, gas volume fraction and expansion, pressure and temperature gradient. Dissolution is partially taken into account, however without kinetic. The strength of this model is to compute analytically - easily and instantaneously - the 1-dimensional rising velocity of CO2 in a water column as a function of the CO2 density, interfacial tension and initial volume fraction. Characteristic speeds - the ones given by

  15. Partitioning of the Leaf CO2 Exchange into Components Using CO2 Exchange and Fluorescence Measurements.

    Laisk, A.; Sumberg, A.

    1994-10-01

    Photorespiration was calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics and compared with CO2 evolution rate in the light, measured by three gas-exchange methods in mature sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The gas-exchange methods were (a) postillumination CO2 burst at unchanged CO2 concentration, (b) postillumination CO2 burst with simultaneous transfer into CO2-free air, and (c) extrapolation of the CO2 uptake to zero CO2 concentration at Rubisco active sites. The steady-state CO2 compensation point was proportional to O2 concentration, revealing the Rubisco specificity coefficient (Ksp) of 86. Electron transport rate (ETR) was calculated from fluorescence, and photorespiration rate was calculated from ETR using CO2 and O2 concentrations, Ksp, and diffusion resistances. The values of the best-fit mesophyll diffusion resistance for CO2 ranged between 0.3 and 0.8 s cm-1. Comparison of the gas-exchange and fluorescence data showed that only ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation and photorespiratory CO2 evolution were present at limiting CO2 concentrations. Carboxylation of a substrate other than RuBP, in addition to RuBP carboxylation, was detected at high CO2 concentrations. A simultaneous decarboxylation process not related to RuBP oxygenation was also detected at high CO2 concentrations in the light. We propose that these processes reflect carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate, formed from phosphoglyceric acid and the subsequent decarboxylation of malate. PMID:12232361

  16. CO2 binding in the (quinoline-CO2)− anionic complex

    We have studied the (quinoline-CO2)− anionic complex by a combination of mass spectrometry, anion photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. The (quinoline-CO2)− anionic complex has much in common with previously studied (N-heterocycle-CO2)− anionic complexes both in terms of geometric structure and covalent bonding character. Unlike the previously studied N-heterocycles, however, quinoline has a positive electron affinity, and this provided a pathway for determining the binding energy of CO2 in the (quinoline-CO2)− anionic complex. From the theoretical calculations, we found CO2 to be bound within the (quinoline-CO2)− anionic complex by 0.6 eV. We also showed that the excess electron is delocalized over the entire molecular framework. It is likely that the CO2 binding energies and excess electron delocalization profiles of the previously studied (N-heterocycle-CO2)− anionic complexes are quite similar to that of the (quinoline-CO2)− anionic complex. This class of complexes may have a role to play in CO2 activation and/or sequestration

  17. CO{sub 2} binding in the (quinoline-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complex

    Graham, Jacob D.; Buytendyk, Allyson M.; Wang, Yi; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kim, Seong K. [Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-21

    We have studied the (quinoline-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complex by a combination of mass spectrometry, anion photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. The (quinoline-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complex has much in common with previously studied (N-heterocycle-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complexes both in terms of geometric structure and covalent bonding character. Unlike the previously studied N-heterocycles, however, quinoline has a positive electron affinity, and this provided a pathway for determining the binding energy of CO{sub 2} in the (quinoline-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complex. From the theoretical calculations, we found CO{sub 2} to be bound within the (quinoline-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complex by 0.6 eV. We also showed that the excess electron is delocalized over the entire molecular framework. It is likely that the CO{sub 2} binding energies and excess electron delocalization profiles of the previously studied (N-heterocycle-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complexes are quite similar to that of the (quinoline-CO{sub 2}){sup −} anionic complex. This class of complexes may have a role to play in CO{sub 2} activation and/or sequestration.

  18. Global CO2 simulation using GOSAT-based surface CO2 flux estimates

    Takagi, H.; Oda, T.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Belikov, D.; Saeki, T.; Saito, R.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, Y.; Bril, A.; Oshchepkov, S.; Andres, R. J.; Maksyutov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Investigating the distribution and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes is an active research topic in the field of contemporary carbon cycle dynamics. The technique central to this effort is atmospheric inverse modeling with which surface CO2 fluxes are estimated by making corrections to a priori flux estimates such that mismatches between model-predicted and observed CO2 concentrations are minimized. Past investigations were carried out by utilizing CO2 measurements collected in global networks of surface-based monitoring sites. Now, datasets of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) retrieved from spectral soundings collected by GOSAT are available for complementing the surface-based CO2 observations. These space-based XCO2 data are expected to enhance the spatiotemporal coverage of the existing surface observation network and thus reduce uncertainty associated with the surface flux estimates. We estimated monthly CO2 fluxes in 64 sub-continental regions from a subset of the surface-based GLOBALVIEW CO2 data and the GOSAT FTS SWIR Level 2 XCO2 retrievals. We further simulated CO2 concentrations in 3-D model space using the surface flux estimates obtained. In this presentation, we report the result of a comparison between the simulated CO2 concentrations and independent surface observations. As part of an effort in inter-comparing GOSAT-based surface CO2 flux estimates, we also look at results yielded with XCO2 data retrieved with the PPDF-DOAS algorithm and those made available by the NASA Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space team. For this study, we used version 08.1 of the National Institute for Environmental Studies atmospheric transport model, which was driven by the Japan Meteorological Agency's JCDAS wind analysis data. The CO2 forward simulations were performed on 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal grids at 32 vertical levels between the surface and the top of the atmosphere. The a priori flux dataset used was comprised of the sum of four

  19. CO2 Sensing and CO2 Regulation of Stomatal Conductance: Advances and Open Questions.

    Engineer, Cawas B; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordström, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas-exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense [CO2] changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in the CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars that perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  20. Application of CO2 in BOF%转炉应用CO2技术

    万雪峰; 曹东; 刘祥; 朱晓雷; 廖相巍

    2015-01-01

    By the thermodynamic analysis of top blowing CO2 in the converter,combined with laboratory simulation re-sult of top blowing O2+CO2 mixture gas in converter,some key parameters of CO2 used in converter were established. It is concluded that although pure CO2 injected in the converter could achieve decarburize,the drop of temperature was rath-er large. When the CO2 supplying intensity was 3.0 m3/(t·min),the reduction of temperature was 15.1℃/min;By blow-ing O2+CO2 mixture gas,temperature balance could be realized,but the largest theoretical proportion of CO2 in mixture gas was 79.1%;with the increase of CO2 proportion,the carbon and oxygen product of molten steel at the blowing end was reduced,under the condition of φ(CO2)∶φ(O2)=1∶1,the carbon and oxygen product could be controlled in the range of (25~32)×10-8.%通过对转炉顶吹CO2的热力学分析,结合实验室模拟转炉顶吹O2CO2混合气体试验结果,确立了CO2在转炉中应用的关键参数。得出在转炉中顶吹纯CO2虽可脱碳,但温降较大,顶吹CO2供气强度为3.0 m3/(t·min)时,钢液温降速率为15.1℃/min;通过喷吹O2CO2混合气体可实现温度平衡,但CO2配比的最大理论比例为79.1%;随着混合气体中CO2比例增大,吹炼终点钢液碳氧积降低,当φ(CO2)∶φ(O2)=1∶1时可控碳氧积为(25~32)×10-8。

  1. Using CO2 : CO correlations to improve inverse analyses of carbon fluxes

    Palmer, Paul I.; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Streets, David G.; Fu, Qingyan; Vay, Stephanie A.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2006-01-01

    Observed correlations between atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CO represent potentially powerful information for improving CO2 surface flux estimates through coupled CO2-CO inverse analyses. We explore the value of these correlations in improving estimates of regional CO2 fluxes in east Asia by using aircraft observations of CO2 and CO from the TRACE-P campaign over the NW Pacific in March 2001. Our inverse model uses regional CO2 and CO surface fluxes as the state vector, separating bio...

  2. Field verification of CO sub 2 -foam

    Martin, F.D.; Heller, J.P.; Weiss, W.W.

    1992-05-01

    In September 1989, the Petroleum Recovery Research Center (PRRC), a division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, received a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a project entitled Field Verification of CO{sub 2} Foam.'' The grant provided for an extension of the PRRC laboratory work to a field testing stage to be performed in collaboration with an oil producer actively conducting a CO{sub 2} flood. The objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct reservoir studies, laboratory tests, simulation runs, and field tests to evaluate the use of foam for mobility control or fluid diversion in a New Mexico CO{sub 2} flood, and (2) evaluate the concept of CO{sub 2}-foam in the field by using a reservoir where CO{sub 2} flooding is ongoing, characterizing the reservoir, modeling the process, and monitoring performance of the field test. Seven tasks were identified for the successful completion of the project: (1) evaluate and select a field site, (2) develop an initial site- specific plan, (3) conduct laboratory CO{sub 2}-foam mobility tests, (4) perform reservoir simulations, (5) design the foam slug, (6) implement a field test, and (7) evaluate results.

  3. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  4. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  5. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hjuler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... capacity (Xr). This shows that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  6. CO2 reduction in power generation

    At the UN Climate Conferenc held in Berlin in April 1995, the German Federal Government once more confirmed its program of CO2 minimization, reinforcing its goal to curb CO2 emissions due to power generation by 25% or 30% by the year 2005. This is based on conditions in 1987, when CO2 emissions in the old German federal states amounted to 715 million tons and, in the new federal states, to 345 million tons, i.e a total of 1060 million tons of CO2. The national program is part of the strategy of climate protection pursued by the European Union, and also of the basic international convention on protection of the global climate. That strategy is to limit to a tolerable level all manmade changes in climate. The greenhouse effect plays an improtant role in this respect. (orig.)

  7. CO2 Removal from Mars EMU Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A practical CO2 control system for ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) on Mars have not yet been developed. TDA Research, Inc. proposes to develop a durable,...

  8. UTJECAJ CO2 NA CEMENTNI KAMEN

    Gaurina-Međimurec, Nediljka

    2010-01-01

    Hvatanje (kaptiranje) i geološko skladištenje CO2 predstavlja jedan od načina smanjenja ispuštanja stakleničkih plinova u atmosferu. Kritični uvjeti za sigurno skladištenje CO2 u duboko zaliježuće propusne stijene su: odgovarajuća konstrukcija bušotine i postojanje nepropusnih pokrovnih stijena. Za utiskivanje CO2 mogu se koristiti nove ili već postojeće bušotine. U oba slučaja, dugotrajni integritet utisnih bušotina (do 1 000 godina) je ključni paramertar za geološko skladištenje CO2. Utisnu...

  9. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  10. CO2 Removal from Mars EMU Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CO2 control for during ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) on mars is challenging. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters have impractical logistics penalties, and...

  11. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  12. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-10-10

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as much as 2-3% higher than pure water density. This density variation might produce an influence on the groundwater flow regime. For instance, in geologic sequestration of CO2, convective transport mixing might occur when, several years after injection of carbon dioxide has stopped, the CO2-rich gas phase is concentrated at the top of the formation, just below an overlaying caprock. In this particular case the heavier CO2 saturated water will flow downward and will be replaced by water with a lesser CO2 content.

  13. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  14. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  15. Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaetzle, O; Paz-García, J. M.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a total annual worldwide capacity of 1570 TWh. To harvest the mixing energy from CO2-containing gas emissions, we use pairs of porous electrodes, one selective for anions and the o...

  16. Blowdown Simulation of CO2 Pipelines

    Collard, A

    2015-01-01

    Pipelines are the most practical option for transporting large volumes of captured CO2 to appropriate storage sites as part of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process. Proper maintenance, including periodic blowdown of pipelines or pipeline sections, is necessary for their safe operation, a pre-requisite for the public acceptance of CCS. Given the relatively high Joule-Thomson coefficient of CO2, blowdown can present significant risks to pipeline infrastructure. Depressurisation will res...

  17. Flow assurance studies for CO2 transport

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to compensate for the relative lack of experience of the CCTS community, Flow Assurance studies of new CO2 pipelines and networks are a very important step toward reliable operation. This report details a typical approach for Flow Assurance study of CO2 transport pipeline. Considerations to take during the design of a pipeline are highlighted, with an emphasis on operability of the system. The steady state aspects of a pipeline operation are first addressed, putting some highlight in...

  18. CO{sub 2} emissions from transport

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A joint declaration on reduction of CO{sub 2}, was signed by European Transport Ministers and industry representatives in 1995. In response to Ministries requests, the ECMT conducted an in-depth survey in 1996 of its 38 Members and Associate Members to find out how countries were responding to the challenge of reducing transport-related CO{sub 2}. ECMT countries were asked to provide information on: CO{sub 2} emissions data from the transport sector disaggregated to subsector level: and transport policy actions either in effect or planned to limit CO{sub 2} emissions. The first part of this publication, the report `Monitoring of national policies for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from transport`, contains the conclusions of this survey. Among other findings, the survey showed that despite policy initiatives in many ECMT countries to limit CO{sub 2} emissions from transport, these emissions will continue to rise in both relative and absolute terms up to 2010. And commitments already made in the context of the Framework Convention on Climate Change will only in very few cases be met. The dialogue with industry has centred on methodologies for tracking fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions from new cars. The second part of this publication, the report entitled `Monitoring of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of new cars`, examines the requirements of a monitoring system and takes a look at current data sources. It concludes that while data remain imperfect, they are sufficient to record trends in new car fuel consumption to the degree of accuracy required. At the 1997 Ministerial session in Berlin, Ministers noted both of these reports, and agreed to their recommendations and proposed follow-up actions. 40 refs., 11 figs., 41 tabs.

  19. Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan;

    Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ” Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur” og udgør slutrapportering for dette projekt.......Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ” Udvikling af CO2 neutralt byrumsarmatur” og udgør slutrapportering for dette projekt....

  20. The twelve principles of CO2 Chemistry

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Leitner, Walter; Streng, Emelia S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of 12 Principles, based on the acronym CO2 CHEMISTRY, which are intended to form a set of criteria for assessing the viability of different processes or reactions for using CO2 as a feedstock for making organic chemicals. The principles aim to highlight the synergy of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDU) with the components of green and sustainable chemistry as well as briefly pointing out the connection to the energy sector.

  1. CO2 pipelines material and safety considerations

    Bilio, M.; S. Brown; Fairweather, M.; Mahgerefteh, H.; IChemE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the most important factors and areas of uncertainty affecting integrity and accurate hazard assessment of CO2 pipelines employed as part of the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) chain. These include corrosion, hydrate formation, hydrogen embrittlement and propensity to fast running ductile and brittle factures. Special consideration is given to the impact of impurities within the CO2 feed from the various capture technologies on t...

  2. Can increasing CO2 cool Antarctica?

    Schmithüsen, Holger; Notholt, Justus; König-Langlo, Gert; Lemke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    CO2 is the strongest anthropogenic forcing agent for climate change since pre-industrial times. Like other greenhouse gases, CO2 absorbs terrestrial surface radiation and causes emission from the atmosphere to space. As the surface is generally warmer than the atmosphere, the total long-wave emission to space is commonly less than the surface emission. However, this does not hold true for the high elevated areas of central Antarctica. Our investigations show, that for the high elevated ar...

  3. CO2 emission from nuclear electricity

    A lot of controversy can be found in open literature on the carbon balance attributed to the electricity generated by nuclear power plants. Extremely scattered values are spread about varying over more than two orders of magnitude from one study to another. In this paper, we work out a realistic estimation of the CO2 emission that ought to be allocated to nuclear energy, based on a technical analysis of the life cycle of the uranium fuel. It includes going all the way from the front-end (mining, purification, enrichment and fuel fabrication) up to the back-end (including recycling and waste conditioning) through the production part inside the reactor. In the analysis, the CO2 emitted during both the plant construction phase and the deconstruction and dismantling phases has been evaluated and added to the amount of greenhouse gas released during operation. It is shown that the final carbon footprint of nuclear electricity is highly dependent on the country considered and its electricity generation mix. A special focus is given on France's case, whose CO2 balance is closely linked to the nuclear share. In France, thanks to an electric power mainly generated by nuclear and hydroelectricity, the actual carbon footprint of nuclear electricity has been estimated to be as low as 1.56 g CO2/kWh in which the different contributions are: mining: 0.77 g CO2/kWh, front-end: 0.12 g CO2/kWh, production: 0.41 g CO2/kWh and back-end: 0.26 g CO2/kWh. In France the carbon footprint of nuclear energy is 250 times lower than gas-fired power plants and 600 times lower than coal plants

  4. World premiere of CO2 capture

    On March 15, 2006, the very first industrial pilot facility of CO2 capture was inaugurated in Denmark in the framework of the Castor project. This facility allows to capture about 90% of the CO2 from the smokes of a coal-fired power plant thanks to a solvent extraction process. During the process, the solvent is regenerated and reinjected in the absorber. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  6. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Renato eBaciocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis the energy requirements associated to each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO2 emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW. For the slurry phase route, maximum CO2 uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO2, to 21.1% (BOF-a and 29.2% (BOF-b at 40% CO2 and 32.5% (BOF-a and 40.3% (BOF-b at 100% CO2. For the thin film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c and 19.5% (BOF-d at 40% CO2, and 17.8% (BOF-c and 20.2% (BOF-d at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO2 uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO2 flows (i.e. 1400-1600 MJ/t CO2 for the slurry phase and 2220-2550 MJ/t CO2 for the thin film route.

  7. Optimal reductions in CO2 emissions

    Current optimizing climate-economy models use CO2 uptake functions that greatly underestimates both peak atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the time horizon of elevated CO2. As a result these models underestimate potential global warming damages. Here, a more realistic, but practical, carbon cycle parameterization is developed that can be incorporated within an optimizing climate-economy model framework. This method is utilized in conjunction with DICE model (Nordhaus, 1994) to estimate optimal reductions in CO2 emissions. The results are shown to be extremely sensitive to the pure rate of time preference, ρ. For ρ=3% (Norhaus' preferred value), our model predicts an optimal CO2 emission reduction of 13% by the year 2045, as compared to 11% in the original DICE model. But, for ρ=0% the optimal emissions reduction rises to 79% in the year 2045 and to 97% by the year 2200. We argue that energy policy should be guided by the ρ=0% results for both economic and ethical reasons. A steady-state analysis performed using DICE model supports the argument that large fractional reductions in CO2 emissions should be undertaken. (author)

  8. Improvement of CO sub 2 flood performance

    Martin, D.F.; Heller, J.P.

    1991-06-01

    This is the final report of a six-year research project devoted to the study of processes of oil displacement using dense carbon dioxide. The topics studied have included phase behavior and physical properties of mixtures of crude oil with CO{sub 2}, the phenomena involved in the displacement of oil through reservoir rock under oilfield conditions, the influence of stabilized lamella or CO{sub 2}-foam on this displacement and the development of computer programs to simulate the displacement. In addition, the occurrence of nonuniformities in the displacement pattern has also been considered. The effect on displacement of permeability heterogeneities in the reservoir have been studied geostatistically and by direct numerical modelling. Displacement nonuniformities that are induced by viscosity and density differences between displaced and displacing fluids have also been considered, and efforts are described for the development of two different types of additive for purposes of mobility control of CO{sub 2} floods. One of these is the so-called CO{sub 2}-foam, formed by simultaneous flow through the formation of dense CO{sub 2} with a water solution of a special surfactant. The second type under development in the project is known as direct thickener, and consists of a polymer that is soluble in dense CO{sub 2} and able to viscosify it. Significant progress is reported on all of the topics mentioned above. 174 refs., 186 figs., 41 tabs.

  9. Precursory volcanic CO2 signals from space

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kataoka, Fumie; Kuze, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Identification of earliest signals heralding volcanic unrest benefits from the unambiguous detection of precursors that reflect deviation of magmatic systems from metastable background activity. Ascent and emplacement of new basaltic magma at depth may precede eruptions by weeks to months. Transient localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions stemming from exsolution from depressurized magma are expected, and have been observed weeks to months ahead of magmatic surface activity. Detecting such CO2 precursors by continuous ground-based monitoring operations is unfortunately not a widely implemented method yet, save a handful of volcanoes. Detecting CO2 emissions from space offers obvious advantages - however it is technologically challenging, not the least due to the increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, against which a surface emission signal is hard to discern. In a multi-year project, we have investigated the feasibility of space-borne detection of pre-eruptive volcanic CO2 passive degassing signals using observations from the Greenhouse Gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Since 2010, we have observed over 40 active volcanoes from space using GOSAT's special target mode. Over 72% of targets experienced at least one eruption over that time period, demonstrating the potential utility of space-borne CO2 observations in non-imaging target-mode (point source monitoring mode). While many eruption precursors don't produce large enough CO2 signals to exceed space-borne detection thresholds of current satellite sensors, some of our observations have nevertheless already shown significant positive anomalies preceding eruptions at basaltic volcanoes. In 2014, NASA launched its first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). Its observation strategy differs from the single-shot GOSAT instrument. At the expense of GOSAT's fast time series capability (3-day repeat cycle, vs. 16 for OCO-2), its 8-footprint continuous swath can slice

  10. CO2 chemosensitivity during immersion in humans.

    Chang, L P; Lundgren, C E

    1995-01-01

    Hypercapnic ventilatory response was compared in 9 seated subjects during head-out immersion in 35 degrees C (thermoneutral) water and during non-immersion in 28 degrees C (thermoneutral) room air. Using Read's CO2-rebreathing technique, minute ventilation (VE) and end-tidal (ET) PCO2 were sampled continuously for 4-5 min with a spirometer and a mass spectrometer, while the subject rebreathed a 6 L gas mixture initially containing 7% CO2 and 93% O2 in a bag-in-box system. The slope of the hypercapnic ventilatory response curve, expressed as delta VE/delta PETCO2, ranged from 0.76 to 2.49 L/min/mmHg. Immersion affected neither the slope nor the position of the hypercapnic ventilatory response curve. The rate of rise of PETCO2 during immersed CO2-rebreathing was significantly reduced (4.47 +/- 0.19 [SE] mmHg/min), as compared to the control value (5.67 +/- 0.24). It was concluded that the CO2 chemosensitivity during immersion in humans did not change and that the capacity to store CO2 in tissue might have been increased. PMID:8549236

  11. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  12. CO2 electrochemical reduction into CO or C in molten carbonates: a thermodynamic point of view

    Highlights: • Competing reduction processes in molten alkali carbonates are studied theoretically. • The redox systems CO2/CO, CO2/C, CO/C, H2O/H2, Metal+/Metal are investigated. • Potential-oxoacidity diagrams are established for binary and ternary eutectics. • We focus on different operating conditions for CO2/CO reduction from 450 to 750 °C. • Syngas is theoretically feasible in oxoacidic conditions and relatively high CO pressure. - Abstract: This work is a predictive thermodynamic study focused on competing reduction processes in molten carbonates, involving the following redox systems CO2/CO, CO2/C, CO/C, H2O/H2, M+/M (M = Li, Na or K). Its main purpose is to determine the best electrolyte and operating conditions relative to the CO2 reduction into CO or C between 450 and 750 °C, from a theoretical point of view. Potential-oxoacidity diagrams are established at different temperatures for binary eutectics (Li2CO3-K2CO3: 42.7–57.3 mol.%, Li2CO3-K2CO3: 62–38 mol.%, Li2CO3-Na2CO3: 52–48 mol.% and Na2CO3-K2CO3: 56–44 mol.%), and for the ternary carbonate eutectic Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3: 43.5–31.5–25 mol.%. As residual water can be present, its reduction into hydrogen is studied as well. The coexistence of CO (g) and H2 (g) in the same phase is theoretically feasible in acidic condition along with a relatively high pressure of CO

  13. Fingerprinting captured CO2 using natural tracers: Determining CO2 fate and proving ownership

    Flude, Stephanie; Gilfillan, Stuart; Johnston, Gareth; Stuart, Finlay; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In the long term, captured CO2 will most likely be stored in large saline formations and it is highly likely that CO2 from multiple operators will be injected into a single saline formation. Understanding CO2 behavior within the reservoir is vital for making operational decisions and often uses geochemical techniques. Furthermore, in the event of a CO2 leak, being able to identify the owner of the CO2 is of vital importance in terms of liability and remediation. Addition of geochemical tracers to the CO2 stream is an effective way of tagging the CO2 from different power stations, but may become prohibitively expensive at large scale storage sites. Here we present results from a project assessing whether the natural isotopic composition (C, O and noble gas isotopes) of captured CO2 is sufficient to distinguish CO2 captured using different technologies and from different fuel sources, from likely baseline conditions. Results include analytical measurements of CO2 captured from a number of different CO2 capture plants and a comprehensive literature review of the known and hypothetical isotopic compositions of captured CO2 and baseline conditions. Key findings from the literature review suggest that the carbon isotope composition will be most strongly controlled by that of the feedstock, but significant fractionation is possible during the capture process; oxygen isotopes are likely to be controlled by the isotopic composition of any water used in either the industrial process or the capture technology; and noble gases concentrations will likely be controlled by the capture technique employed. Preliminary analytical results are in agreement with these predictions. Comparison with summaries of likely storage reservoir baseline and shallow or surface leakage reservoir baseline data suggests that C-isotopes are likely to be valuable tracers of CO2 in the storage reservoir, while noble gases may be particularly valuable as tracers of potential leakage.

  14. Measuring Nitrous Oxide Mass Transfer into Non-Aqueous CO2BOL CO2 Capture Solvents

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Freeman, Charles J.; Zwoster, Andy; Heldebrant, David J.

    2016-03-28

    This paper investigates CO2 absorption behavior in CO2BOL solvents by decoupling the physical and chemical effects using N2O as a non-reactive mimic. Absorption measurements were performed using a wetted-wall contactor. Testing was performed using a “first generation” CO2 binding organic liquid (CO2BOL), comprised of an independent base and alcohol. Measurements were made with N2O at a lean (0.06 mol CO2/mol BOL) and rich (0.26 mol CO2/mol BOL) loading, each at three temperatures (35, 45 and 55 °C). Liquid-film mass transfer coefficients (kg') were calculated by subtracting the gas film resistance – determined from a correlation from literature – from the overall mass transfer measurement. The resulting kg' values for N2O in CO2BOLs were found to be higher than that of 5 M aqueous MEA under comparable conditions, which is supported by published measurements of Henry’s coefficients for N2O in various solvents. These results suggest that the physical solubility contribution for CO2 absorption in CO2BOLs is greater than that of aqueous amines, an effect that may pertain to other non-aqueous solvents.

  15. The Idea of Global CO2 Trade

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective co......The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost......-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably...... not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future....

  16. CO2 sequestration in basalts: laboratory measurements

    Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on basalt cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the basalt react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three basalt core samples for different saturation. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our basalts ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water saturated conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these basalts and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.

  17. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2release experiment

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2007-09-15

    A new field facility was used to study CO2 migrationprocesses and test techniques to detect and quantify potential CO2leakage from geologic storage sites. For 10 days starting 9 July 2007,and for seven days starting 5 August 2007, 0.1 and 0.3 t CO2 d-1,respectively, were released from a ~;100-m long, sub-water table (~;2.5-mdepth) horizontal well. The spatio-temporal evolution of leakage wasmapped through repeated grid measurements of soil CO2 flux (FCO2). Thesurface leakage onset, approach to steady state, and post-release declinematched model predictions closely. Modeling suggested that minimal CO2was taken up by groundwater through dissolution, and CO2 spread out ontop of the water table. FCO2 spatial patterns were related to well designand soil physical properties. Estimates of total CO2 discharge along withsoil respiration and leakage discharge highlight the influence ofbackground CO2 flux variations on detection of CO2 leakagesignals.

  18. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225. ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  19. Direct Copolymerization of CO2 and Diols

    Tamura, Masazumi; Ito, Kazuki; Honda, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Direct polymerization of CO2 and diols is promising as a simple and environmental-benign method in place of conventional processes using high-cost and/or hazardous reagents such as phosgene, carbon monoxide and epoxides, however, there are no reports on the direct method due to the inertness of CO2 and severe equilibrium limitation of the reaction. Herein, we firstly substantiate the direct copolymerization of CO2 and diols using CeO2 catalyst and 2-cyanopyridine promotor, providing the alternating cooligomers in high diol-based yield (up to 99%) and selectivity (up to >99%). This catalyst system is applicable to various diols including linear C4-C10 α,ω-diols to provide high yields of the corresponding cooligomers, which cannot be obtained by well-known methods such as copolymerization of CO2 and cyclic ethers and ring-opening polymerization of cyclic carbonates. This process provides us a facile synthesis method for versatile polycarbonates from various diols and CO2 owing to simplicity of diols modification.

  20. Technologies and possibilities for CO2 capture and storage

    In the form of overhead sheets an overview is given of the title subject, focusing on the need for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, the portfolio of options for reducing emissions; sources of CO2; stages of the process (capture of CO2, transport of CO2, geological storage of CO2); and performances and costs of CO2 capture and storage (CCS)

  1. The Li–CO2 battery: a novel method for CO2 capture and utilization

    Xu, Shaomao

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel primary Li-CO2 battery that consumes pure CO2 gas as its cathode. The battery exhibits a high discharge capacity of around 2500 mA h g-1 at moderate temperatures. At 100 °C the discharge capacity is close to 1000% higher than that at 40 °C, and the temperature dependence is significantly weaker for higher surface area carbon cathodes. Ex-situ FTIR and XRD analyses convincingly show that lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the main component of the discharge product. The feasibility of similar primary metal-CO2 batteries based on earth abundant metal anodes, such as Al and Mg, is demonstrated. The metal-CO2 battery platform provides a novel approach for simultaneous capturing of CO2 emissions and producing electrical energy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Chilled Ammonia Process for CO2 Capture

    Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Thomsen, Kaj; Well, Willy J.M. van;

    2010-01-01

    The chilled ammonia process absorbs the CO2 at low temperature (2–10°C). The heat of absorption of carbon dioxide by ammonia is significantly lower than for amines. In addition, degradation problems can be avoided and a high carbon dioxide capacity is achieved. Hence, this process shows good...... pressure up to 100bars. The results show that solid phases consisting of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate are formed in the absorber. The heat requirements in the absorber and in the desorber have been studied. The enthalpy calculations show that a heat requirement for the desorber lower than 2GJ/ton CO2...

  3. Constraints on the atmospheric CO2 deglacial rise based on its δ13CO2 evolution

    Lourantou, A.; Lavric, J. V.; Köhler, Peter; Barnola, J.-M.; Michel, E.; Paillard, D.; D. Raynaud; Chappellaz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of air bubbles trapped in polar ice permits the reconstruction of atmospheric evolution of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2 ), on various timescales. Within this study, the simultaneous analysis of the CO2 mixing ratio and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13 CO2 ) over the last two deglaciations allows us to better constrain the global carbon cycle. Based on the different isotopic signatures of the ocean and the terrestrial biosphere (major reservoirs re...

  4. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  5. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  6. Validation of Airborne CO2 Laser Measurements

    Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S.; Fenn, M. A.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    This paper discusses the flight test validation of a unique, multi-frequency, intensity-modulated, single-beam laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates near 1.57 μm for remote column CO2 measurements. This laser system is under development for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of regional-scale CO2 sources and sinks, which is the objective of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions during Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. A prototype of this LAS system, called the Multi-frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), was developed by ITT, and it has been flight tested in nine airborne campaigns since May 2005. This paper focuses on the most recent results obtained over the last two years of flight-testing where the MFLL remote CO2 column measurements were evaluated against airborne in situ CO2 profile measurements traceable to World Meteorological Organization standards. A comprehensive multiple-aircraft flight test program was conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia in July-August 2009. The MFLL obtained surface reflectance and average CO2 column variations along the 50-km flight legs over the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility (CF) in Lamont, Oklahoma; over rural Virginia and North Carolina; and over the Chesapeake Bay. For a flight altitude of 4.6 km, the average signal to noise ratio (SNR) for a 1-s CO2 column measurement was found to be 760, which is the equivalent of a CO2 mixing ratio precision of 0.60 ppmv, and for a 10-s average the SNR was found to be 2002 or 0.20 ppmv. Absolute comparisons of MFLL-derived and in situ-derived CO2 column measurements were made for all daytime flights conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia with an average agreement to within 0.32 ppmv. A major ASCENDS flight test campaign was conducted using the NASA DC-8 during 6-18 July 2010. The MFLL system and associated in situ CO2 instrumentation were operated on DC-8 flights over the Central Valley

  7. CO2/water interfacial tensions under pressure and temperature conditions of CO2 geological storage

    CO2 storage in aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most promising options for reducing CO2 atmospheric concentration. However, its implementation in a given reservoir requires demonstration that CO2 leakage through the reservoir seal (caprock) is extremely limited. One possible cause of rapid leakage is capillary failure of the caprock, which is to a large extent controlled by the CO2/water interfacial tension (IFT). This paper presents pendant drop measurements of IFTs between water and CO2 in a range of temperatures (308-383 K) and pressures (5-45 MPa) relevant to CO2 storage in deep geological formations. Phase densities were measured simultaneously, allowing precise IFT determinations. Increasing the pressure along a given isotherm, IFTs were observed to decrease sharply, then to level off and reach, for pressures above 20 MPa, a pseudo-plateau that decreases slightly with temperature, from around 30 mN/m at 308 K to 23 mN/m at 383 K. The presence of salt (20 g/l NaCl) in the water phase has a negligible effect on the IFT. An important conclusion for CO2 storage is that CO2/brine IFTs have low but reasonable values (higher than 20 mN/m) even at the highest pressures and temperatures examined, and that, neglecting all other possible effects, CO2 storage can, therefore, be considered even in deep geological formations

  8. Investigation into optimal CO2 concentration for CO2 capture from aluminium production

    Mathisen, Anette; Sørensen, Henriette; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Müller, Gunn-Iren

    2013-01-01

    Capture of CO2 from aluminum production has been simulated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Hysys. The technology used for aluminum production is the Hall-Héroult and the current cell design necessitates that large amounts of false air is supplied to the cells. This results in a CO2 concentration in the process gas at around 1 vol%, which is considered uneconomical for CO2 capture. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to evaluate the CO2 capture from aluminum production when the process g...

  9. CO2 and HCO3- uptake in marine diatoms acclimated to different CO2 concentrations.

    Burkhardt, S.; Amoroso, G.; Riebesell, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    Rates of cellular uptake of CO2 and HCO3- during steady-state photosynthesis were measured in the marine diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, acclimated to CO2 partial pressures of 36, 180, 360, and 1,800 ppmv. In addition, in vivo activity of extracellular (eCA) and intracellular (iCA) carbonic anhydrase was determined in relation to CO2 availability. Both species responded to diminishing CO2 supply with an increase in eCA and iCA activity. In P. tricornutum, eCA ...

  10. Light-duty vehicle CO2 targets consistent with 450 ppm CO2 stabilization.

    Winkler, Sandra L; Wallington, Timothy J; Maas, Heiko; Hass, Heinz

    2014-06-01

    We present a global analysis of CO2 emission reductions from the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration at 450 ppm. The CO2 emission reductions are described by g CO2/km emission targets for average new light-duty vehicles on a tank-to-wheel basis between 2010 and 2050 that we call CO2 glide paths. The analysis accounts for growth of the vehicle fleet, changing patterns in driving distance, regional availability of biofuels, and the changing composition of fossil fuels. New light-duty vehicle fuel economy and CO2 regulations in the U.S. through 2025 and in the EU through 2020 are broadly consistent with the CO2 glide paths. The glide path is at the upper end of the discussed 2025 EU range of 68-78 g CO2/km. The proposed China regulation for 2020 is more stringent than the glide path, while the 2017 Brazil regulation is less stringent. Existing regulations through 2025 are broadly consistent with the light-duty vehicle sector contributing to stabilizing CO2 at approximately 450 ppm. The glide paths provide long-term guidance for LDV powertrain/fuel development. PMID:24798684

  11. Detection of CO2 leaks from carbon capture and storage sites with combined atmospheric CO2 and O-2 measurements

    van Leeuwen, Charlotte; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transportable instrument that simultaneously measures the CO2 and (relative) O-2 concentration of the atmosphere with the purpose to aid in the detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites. CO2 and O-2 are coupled in most processes on earth (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration and fossi

  12. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    Kelley, Michael; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori; Knight, Matthew; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2016-08-01

    Carbon dioxide is a primary volatile in comet nuclei, and potentially a major contributor to comet activity (i.e., the process of mass loss). However, CO2 cannot be observed directly from the ground, and past surveys of this molecule in comets were limited to space-borne snapshot observations. This situation limits our understanding of the behavior of CO2 in comets, and its role in driving comet mass loss. To address this deficiency, we were awarded a Cy11 Spitzer program designed to quantify the production rate of CO2 on >month-long timescales for 21 comets. We request an additional 269~hr in Cy13 to complete the Spitzer portion of our survey, and to add three more comets (46P/Wirtanen and 2 Target of Opportunity Oort cloud comets). Our survey is designed to probe the orbital trends of CO2 production in the comet population. We aim to: 1) examine the role of CO2 in the persistent post-perihelion activity observed in Jupiter-family comets; 2) measure the seasonal variations of CO2/H2O as a proxy for nucleus heterogeneity, when possible; 3) search for orbital trends sensitive to cumulative insolation as a proxy for nucleus layering; and 4) examine how Oort cloud comets evolve by comparing dynamically new and old targets. The final data set will allow us to investigate the effects of heating on the evolution of comets, if nucleus structures can be inferred through activity, and set the stage for JWST investigations into comet activity and composition.

  13. Development of CO2 circulators

    The development of the basic machine types we have supplied has not been without problems. The Windscale AGR (the prototype AGR) was a small 1.2 MW vertically up circulator with an inlet temperature of 237 deg. C (459 deg. F). Oil leakage problems occurred and were cured in the works test facility and the machine went into service with no other problems. The Horizontal 5 MW machines for Hinkley/Hunterston were not so fortunate with vibration problems, interface corrosion problems (effecting the whole reactor) and material dimensional stability problems. Oil ingress problems did not show up in test work but were later reported from site. These reports were initially exagerated due to the measuring techniques which took the operators some time to resolve. In the vertical 5 MW machines for Hartlepool and Heysham 1 there are two interesting factors, firstly a spar failure and secondly shaft axial stability. Many of the problems were due to modifications at site or our inability to model all aspects of site installation from which lessons for the future can be learned. The latest stations Torness and Heysham II incorporate these lessons. The machines have been designed with so much margin that during the resolution of the reactor control rod gag problems the machines were run continuously at 20% overload (6.3 MW). From an initial accident case of 350 deg. C inlet temperature, this increased to 458 deg. C and now stands at 585 deg. C. No modifications to the impeller were required. The site experience to date is good with no operational problems reported. (author). 4 figs

  14. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    by the Ministry of Transport, with the Technical University of Denmark as one of the main contributors. The CO2-strategy was to be based on the principle of cost-effectiveness. A model was set up to assist in the assessment. The model consists of a projection of CO2-emissions from road and rail modes from 2020......, a scenario-part and a cost-benefit part. Air and sea modes are not analyzed. The model adopts a bottom-up approach to allow a detailed assessment of transport policy measures. Four generic areas of intervention were identified and the likely effect on CO2 emissions, socioeconomic efficiency and other...... are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily...

  15. Economic efficiency of CO2 reduction programs

    A highly simplified time-dependent low-dimensional system has been designed to describe conceptually the interaction of climate and economy. Enhanced emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) is understood as the agent that not only favors instantaneous consumption but also causes unfavorable climate changes at a later time. The problem of balancing these two counterproductive effects of CO2 emissions on a finite time horizon is considered. The climate system is represented by just two parameters, namely a globally averaged near-surface air-temperature and a globally averaged troposheric CO2 concentration. The costs of abating CO2 emissions are monitored by a function which depends quadratically on the percentage reduction of emission compared to an 'uncontrolled emission' scenario. Parameters are fitted to historical climate data and to estimates from studies of CO2 abatement costs. Two optimization approaches, which differ from earlier attempts to describe the interaction of economy and climate, are discussed. In the 'cost oriented' strategy an optimal emission path is identified which balances the abatement costs and explicitly formulated damage costs. These damage costs, whose estimates are very uncertain, are hypothesized to be a linear function of the time-derivative of temperature. In the 'target oriented' strategy an emission path is chosen so that the abatement costs are minimal while certain restrictions on the terminal temperature and concentration change are met. (orig.)

  16. Rangeland -- plant response to elevated CO2

    Plots of a tallgrass prairie ecosystem were exposed to ambient and twice-ambient CO2 concentrations in open-top chambers and compared to unchambered ambient CO2 plots during the entire growing season from 1989 through 1992. Relative root production among treatments was estimated using root ingrowth bags which remained in place throughout the growing season. Latent heat flux was simulated with and without water stress. Botanical composition was estimated annuallyin all treatments. Open-top chambers appeared to reduce latent heat flux and increase water use efficiency similar to elevated CO2 when water stress was not severe, but under severe water stress, chamber effect on water use efficiency was limited. In natural ecosystems with periodic moisture stress, increased water use efficiency under elevated CO2 apparently would have a greater impact on productivity than photosynthetic pathway. Root ingrowth biomass was greater in 1990 and 1991 on elevated CO2 plots compared to ambient or chambered-ambient plots. In 1992, there was no difference in root ingrowth biomass among treatments

  17. Artificial photosynthesis - CO2 towards methanol

    The new insight into the problem of carbon dioxide utilization into valuable compound - methanol and then its transformation into fuel is presented. Because the highly endothermic requirements of the reaction of CO2 hydrogenation a photocatalytic route is applied. Combining of the two reactions: water splitting and CO2 hydrogenation using H2O as a source of hydrogen at the same time and place are proposed. The studies over modified TiO2 catalysts supported on Al2O3 were conducted in a self-designed circulated photocatalytic reaction system under at room temperature and constant pressure. Experimental results indicated that the highest yield of the photoreduction of CO2 with H2O were obtained using TiO2 with the active anatase phase modified by Ru and WO3 addition. The conversion was very high - almost 97% of CO2 was transformed mainly into methanol (14%vol.) and into small amount of formic and acetic acid and ester.

  18. Artificial photosynthesis - CO2 towards methanol

    Nazimek, D.; Czech, B.

    2011-03-01

    The new insight into the problem of carbon dioxide utilization into valuable compound - methanol and then its transformation into fuel is presented. Because the highly endothermic requirements of the reaction of CO2 hydrogenation a photocatalytic route is applied. Combining of the two reactions: water splitting and CO2 hydrogenation using H2O as a source of hydrogen at the same time and place are proposed. The studies over modified TiO2 catalysts supported on Al2O3 were conducted in a self-designed circulated photocatalytic reaction system under at room temperature and constant pressure. Experimental results indicated that the highest yield of the photoreduction of CO2 with H2O were obtained using TiO2 with the active anatase phase modified by Ru and WO3 addition. The conversion was very high - almost 97% of CO2 was transformed mainly into methanol (14%vol.) and into small amount of formic and acetic acid and ester.

  19. CO2 laser used in cosmetology

    Su, Chenglie

    1993-03-01

    Cases of various kinds of warts, nevi, papillomas, skin angiomas, ephilises, skin vegetation, scars and brandy noses were vaporized and solidified with a 2.5 - 8 W low power CO2 laser with an overall satisfaction rate up to 99.8% and the satisfaction rate for one time 92%.

  20. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  1. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  2. The idea of global CO2 trade

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future

  3. Sequestration of CO2 by concrete carbonation.

    Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Mora, Pedro; Sanjuan, Miguel A

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation of reinforced concrete is one of the causes of corrosion, but it is also a way to sequester CO2. The characteristics of the concrete cover should ensure alkaline protection for the steel bars but should also be able to combine CO2 to a certain depth. This work attempts to advance the knowledge of the carbon footprint of cement. As it is one of the most commonly used materials worldwide, it is very important to assess its impact on the environment. In order to quantify the capacity of cement based materials to combine CO2 by means of the reaction with hydrated phases to produce calcium carbonate, Thermogravimetry and the phenolphthalein indicator have been used to characterize several cement pastes and concretes exposed to different environments. The combined effect of the main variables involved in this process is discussed. The moisture content of the concrete seems to be the most influential parameter. PMID:20225850

  4. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  5. Superconductivity in CeCo2 nanoparticles

    Both Ce and Co are essentially nonmagnetic in Pauli-paramagnetic CeCo2, which undergoes a superconducting transition near 1K. When made into 58-A nanoparticles, the compound becomes paramagnetic. Meanwhile, based on heat capacity measurements, the nanoparticles remain to be nonsuperconducting down to 0.4K but exhibit a low-temperature Kondo anomaly with C/T∼ 350mJ/molK2 at 0.4K. Such intriguing effects are consequences of the competition between superconducting gap and electronic spectrum's mean level spacing

  6. Kronikken: Handel og handling med CO2

    Andersen, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    De fleksible mekanismer i Kyoto-aftalen fortjener indgående overvejelser, ikke kun fordi de giver mulighed for en rabat på CO2-reduktionen, men også fordi de rummer globale og sikkerhedspolitiske dimensioner som er essentielle.......De fleksible mekanismer i Kyoto-aftalen fortjener indgående overvejelser, ikke kun fordi de giver mulighed for en rabat på CO2-reduktionen, men også fordi de rummer globale og sikkerhedspolitiske dimensioner som er essentielle....

  7. CO2 capture research in the Netherlands

    Meerman, J.C.; Kuramochi, T.; van Egmond, S.

    2008-01-01

    The global climate is changing due to human activities. This human‑induced climate change is mainly caused by global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Most scientists agree that in order to mitigate climate change, by 2050, global CO2 emissions must be reduced by at least 50% compared to their 1990 level. Fossil fuels, however, are expected to continue playing a dominant role in the world energy supply far into this century. As yet, the combined effect of improving energy...

  8. Spin Waves in Ho2Co17

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Lebech, Bente

    1980-01-01

    Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed.......Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed....

  9. 14CO2 fixation pattern of cyanobacteria

    The 14CO2 fixation pattern of three cyanobacteria in the light and dark were studied. Two different chromatographic methods widely used for separating labelled photosynthetic intermediates were compared. After ethanolic extraction, a rather uniform fixation pattern reflecting mainly the β-carboxylation pathway is obtained for all 3 species. Of the intermediates, glucosylglycerol is specific and high citrulline and low malate contents are fairly specific to cyanobacteria. The composition of the 14CO2 fixation pattern is hardly affected by changes in temperature or light intensity, but it is severely affected by changes in the water potential of the medium. (author)

  10. Capture and Geological Storage of CO2

    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO2 capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO2 storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO2: A global project for carbon management in South-East France (Gilles Munier, Geogreen); Session III

  11. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    L. Ammoura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical

  12. Sequestration and storage of CO{sub 2}; Captage et stockage du CO{sub 2}

    Botte, J.M

    2008-03-15

    In this work is given a brief synthesis of the second international colloquium on the capture and storage of CO{sub 2}; in particular are given the problems and the technological advances for the storage of CO{sub 2}. (O.M.)

  13. Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection

    Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the inferr

  14. CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: An input-output approach for the Turkish economy

    Recently, global warming (greenhouse effect) and its effects have become one of the hottest topics in the world agenda. There have been several international attempts to reduce the negative effects of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol can be cited as the most important agreement which tries to limit the countries' emissions within a time horizon. For this reason, it becomes important to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions of countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2-the most important greenhouse gas-emissions, for the Turkish economy. An extended input-output model is estimated by using 1996 data in order to identify the sources of CO2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Besides, 'CO2 responsibility', which takes into account the CO2 content of imports, is estimated for the Turkish economy. The sectoral CO2 emissions and CO2 responsibilities are compared and these two notions are linked to foreign trade volume. One of the main conclusions is that the manufacturing industry has the first place in both of the rankings for CO2 emissions and CO2 responsibilities, while agriculture and husbandry has the last place

  15. Impact of CO2 Impure stream on a CO2 Storage Reservoir

    Segev, R.; Bear, J.; Bensabat, J.

    2013-12-01

    In a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology, a stream of CO2, extracted from the gas stream emitted from an industrial plant, is transported to a storage site where it is injected into a deep brine-containing geological reservoir for storage for very long time periods. The injected CO2 may contain various compositions of residual O2, SOx , NOx, and inert gases. In this work, we focus on the impact of the SO2 and its potential to acidify the reservoir brine. The amount of dissolved SO2 is determined by adjusting the Henry coefficient and fugacity coefficient for the mixture that contains CO2 as a major component and SO2. The models show the spreading of the pH level over time in the entire reservoir when different CO2-SO2 mixture compositions are injected. The minimum pH level achieved is 0.35 when 4% SO2 is injected, 1.8 when 2% SO2 is injected and 3.8 when a pure CO2 stream is injected. The model may serve as a tool to predict the influence of SO2 on the initial brine composition and on the initial rock properties. For example, a model result for the pH spreading in the reservoir, in the case of 2%SO2-CO2 injected mixture, is shown below. Fig.1. The pH level at the reservoir bedrock and caprock after 5 years for a 2%SO2-CO2 stream.

  16. Structures for capturing CO.sub.2, methods of making the structures, and methods of capturing CO.sub.2

    Jones, Christopher W; Hicks, Jason C; Fauth, Daniel J; McMahan, Gray

    2012-10-30

    Briefly described, embodiments of this disclosure, among others, include carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sorption structures, methods of making CO.sub.2 sorption structures, and methods of using CO.sub.2 sorption structures.

  17. H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis in solid oxide electrolysis cells

    Han Minfang; Fan Hui; Peng Suping

    2014-01-01

    A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) is an environmental-friendly device which can convert electric energy into chemical energy with high efficiency. In this paper,the progress on structure and operational princi-ple of an SOEC for co-electrolyzing H2O and CO2 to generate syngas was reviewed. The recent development of high temperature H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis from solid oxide single electrolysis cell was introduced. Also investi-gated was H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis research using hydrogen electrode-supported nickel (Ni)-yttria-stabilized zir-conia (YSZ)/YSZ/Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM)-YSZ cells in our group. With 50%H2O,15.6%H2 and 34.4%CO2 inlet gas to Ni-YSZ electrode,polarization curves (I-U curves) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were measured at 800℃and 900℃. Long-term durability of electrolysis was carried out with the same in-let gas at 900℃and 0.2 A/cm2. In addition,the improvement of structure and development of novel materials for increasing the electrolysis efficiency of SOECs were put forward as well.

  18. A cross-association model for CO2-methanol and CO2-ethanol mixtures

    2010-01-01

    A cross-association model was proposed for CO2-alcohol mixtures based on the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT).CO2 was treated as a pseudo-associating molecule and both the self-association between alcohol hydroxyls and the cross-association between CO2 and alcohol hydroxyls were considered.The equilibrium properties from low temperature-pressure to high temperature-pressure were investigated using this model.The calculated p-x and p-p diagrams of CO2-methanol and CO2-ethanol mixtures agreed with the experimental data.The results showed that when the cross-association was taken into account for Helmholtz free energy,the calculated equilibrium properties could be significantly improved,and the error prediction of the three phase equilibria and triple points in low temperature regions could be avoided.

  19. Flash scanning the CO2 laser: a revival of the CO2 laser in plastic surgery

    Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The CO2 laser has broad clinical application yet also presents a number of practical disadvantages. These drawbacks have limited the success and utilization of this laser in plastic surgery. Flashscanner technology has recently been used for char-free CO2 laser surgery of the oropharynx, the external female genital tract, and perirectal mucosa. A commercially available optomechanical flashscanner unit `Swiftlase,' was adapted to a CO2 laser and used for treatment in numerous plastic surgical applications. Conditions and situations that were treated in this study included generalized neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, rhinophyma, viral warts, breast reconstruction, and deepithelialization prior to microsurgery or local flap transfer and/or skin graft placement. There were no significant wound healing complications. Some patients previously sustained undue scarring from conventional CO2 laser surgery. Conservative, primarily ablative CO2 laser surgery with the Swiftlase has usefulness for treatment of patients in plastic surgery including those that were previously unsuccessfully treated.

  20. Warming the early Earth - CO2 reconsidered

    Von Paris, P; Grenfell, L; Patzer, B; Hedelt, P; Stracke, B; Trautmann, T; Schreier, F

    2008-01-01

    Despite a fainter Sun, the surface of the early Earth was mostly ice-free. Proposed solutions to this so-called "faint young Sun problem" have usually involved higher amounts of greenhouse gases than present in the modern-day atmosphere. However, geological evidence seemed to indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the Archaean and Proterozoic were far too low to keep the surface from freezing. With a radiative-convective model including new, updated thermal absorption coefficients, we found that the amount of CO2 necessary to obtain 273 K at the surface is reduced up to an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. For the late Archaean and early Proterozoic period of the Earth, we calculate that CO2 partial pressures of only about 2.9 mb are required to keep its surface from freezing which is compatible with the amount inferred from sediment studies. This conclusion was not significantly changed when we varied model parameters such as relative humidity or surface albedo, obtaining CO2 ...

  1. Calculated vibrational populations of O2 Herzberg states in the mixture of CO2, CO, N2, O2 gases

    Kirillov, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    Calculated in (Kirillov, 2014) constants are applied for simulations of vibrational populations of Herzberg states in mixtures of O2 with CO2, CO, N2 gases for laboratory conditions. Results show very important role of electronic-vibrational processes in redistribution of electronic excitation energy among vibrational levels. It is shown that the interaction between O2(A‧3Δu) and O2 causes effective production O2(c1Σu-,v = 0) observed in laboratory conditions. The inclusion of the interaction between O2(A‧3Δu) and CO2 molecules may explain high intensities of Herzberg II system observed in laboratory experiments with high CO2 concentrations and registered in the nightglow of Venusian atmosphere.

  2. CO2驱油与埋存研究进展%Advances in CO2 Displacing Oil and CO2 Sequestrated Researches

    陈欢庆; 胡永乐; 田昌炳

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches was reviewed. Nowadays, CO2 displacing oil had got good economic benefits outside and was carried out oil field experiment inside. And CO2 sequestrated researches were in exploring stage all over the world. The key problems in CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches contained five parts, such as enlarging sweep volume of EOR, carrier and medium choice of CO2 sequestrated, the formation damage in the process of CO2 displacing oil, air source, industrial coordination and overall planning. Finally, several development directions of CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches were proposed.%详细介绍了CO2驱油与埋存研究的现状。目前CO2驱油在国外已取得较好的经济效益,在国内正在进行矿场先导试验。而CO2埋存在国内外均处于探索阶段。CO2驱油与埋存研究中存在的问题主要包括提高采收率方面的扩大波及体积等关键问题、CO2埋存介质和方法的选择、CO2驱油对地层的伤害、CO2驱油与埋存的气源问题、CO2驱油与埋存产业协调和整体规划5大方面。指出了该项研究的发展趋势。图22参38

  3. CO2 emission in the Nordic countries

    This report is the final one in a research project ''Nordic Energy Market Model'' financed by the Nordic Minister Council. The report contains description of the Nordic electric power markets, their production structure, legislation and taxation policy. Surplus power and its exchange among Nordic countries is discussed. CO2 tax as a means to limit emissions is critically evaluated. (EG)

  4. Projecting human development and CO2 emissions

    Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01

    We estimate cumulative CO2 emissions during the period 2000 to 2050 from developed and developing countries based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita emissions of individual countries we make three assumptions which are detailed below. First, we use logistic regressions to fit and extrapolate the HDI on a country level as a function of time. This is mainly motivated by the fact that the HDI is bounded between 0 and 1 and that it decelerates as it approaches 1. Second, we employ for individual countries the correlations between CO2 per capita emissions and HDI in order to extrapolate their emissions. This is an ergodic assumption. Third, we let countries with incomplete data records evolve similarly as their close neighbors (in the emissions-HDI plane, see Fig. 1 in the main text) with complete time series of CO2 per capita emissions and HDI. Country-based emissions estimates a...

  5. CO2 calculator

    Nielsen, Claus Werner; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are in the process of mapping their national CO2 emissions, but only few have managed to produce an overall report at municipal level yet. Denmark, however, has succeeded in such a project. Using a new national IT-based calculation model, municipalities can calculate the extent of...

  6. Commitment accounting of CO2 emissions

    The world not only continues to build new coal-fired power plants, but built more new coal plants in the past decade than in any previous decade. Worldwide, an average of 89 gigawatts per year (GW yr–1) of new coal generating capacity was added between 2010 and 2012, 23 GW yr–1 more than in the 2000–2009 time period and 56 GW yr–1 more than in the 1990–1999 time period. Natural gas plants show a similar pattern. Assuming these plants operate for 40 years, the fossil-fuel burning plants built in 2012 will emit approximately 19 billion tons of CO2 (Gt CO2) over their lifetimes, versus 14 Gt CO2 actually emitted by all operating fossil fuel power plants in 2012. We find that total committed emissions related to the power sector are growing at a rate of about 4% per year, and reached 307 (with an estimated uncertainty of 192–439) Gt CO2 in 2012. These facts are not well known in the energy policy community, where annual emissions receive far more attention than future emissions related to new capital investments. This paper demonstrates the potential for ‘commitment accounting’ to inform public policy by quantifying future emissions implied by current investments. (letter)

  7. Managing CO2 emissions in Nigeria

    The energy resources in Nigeria are nearly equally divided between fossil fuels and biofuels. The increasing pressure on them, following expected increased population growth, may lead to substantial emissions of carbon into the atmosphere. Additionally agricultural and forestry management practices in vogue are those related to savannah burning and rotational bush fallow systems, which have been clearly implicated as important sources of CO2 and trace gases. An integrated model for the prediction of future CO2 emissions based on fossil fuels and biomass fuels requirements, rates of deforestation and other land-use indices is presented. This is further based on trends in population and economic growth up to the year 2025, with a base year in 1988. A coupled carbon cycle-climate model based on the contribution of CO2 and other trace gases is established from the proportions of integrated global warming effects for a 20-year averaging time using the product of global warming potential (GWP) and total emissions. An energy-technology inventory approach to optimal resources management is used as a tool for establishing the future scope of reducing the CO2 emissions through improved fossil fuel energy efficiencies. Scenarios for reduction based on gradual to swift shifts from biomass to fossil and renewable fuels are presented together with expected policy options required to effect them

  8. 76 FR 43489 - Deferral for CO2

    2011-07-20

    ... dioxide CO 2 e carbon dioxide equivalents EO Executive Order EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR... as the Tailoring Rule; 75 FR 31514), setting thresholds for GHG emissions that define when permits... bioenergy and other biogenic sources (75 FR 41173). The purpose of this CFI was to request comment...

  9. 76 FR 15249 - Deferral for CO2

    2011-03-21

    ... EO Executive Order EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG Greenhouse gas... the NAFO on August 3, 2010, related to the PSD and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule (75 FR 31514... how to calculate a source's GHG emissions in tpy CO 2 e.\\15\\ 75 FR 31514-31608. The Inventory...

  10. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-07-15

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 06/30/2004. The major accomplishment was the modification of the header and harvesting work, with a system designed to distribute algae at startup, sustain operations and harvest in one unit.

  11. Climate change and CO2 emission reductions

    This paper presents the results of an opinion poll performed on a representative sample of 1000 persons about their sensitivity to climate change and to environment protection, their knowledge about technologies which are useful for environment protection, their opinion about geological CO2 sequestration, and technologies to be developed to struggle against climate warming

  12. CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation

    A survey of LCA studies on nuclear electricity generation revealed life cycle CO2 emissions ranging between 3 g/kWhe to 60 g/kWhe and above. Firstly, this paper points out the discrepancies in studies by estimating the CO2 emissions of nuclear power generation. Secondly, the paper sets out to provide critical review of future developments of the fuel cycle for light water reactors and illustrates the impact of uncertainties on the specific CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation. Each step in the fuel cycle will be considered and with regard to the CO2 emissions analysed. Thereby different assumptions and uncertainty levels are determined for the nuclear fuel cycle. With the impacts of low uranium ore grades for mining and milling as well as higher burn-up rates future fuel characteristics are considered. Sensitivity analyses are performed for all fuel processing steps, for different technical specifications of light water reactors as well as for further external frame conditions. (authors)

  13. Agriculture waste and rising CO2

    Currently, there are many uncertainties concerning agriculture’s role in global environmental change including the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. A viable and stable world food supply depends on productive agricultural systems, but environmental concerns within agriculture have to...

  14. CO2 bij paprika: meerwaarde en beperkingen

    Dieleman, J.A.; Zwinkels, Jeroen; Gelder, de A.; Kuiper, I.; Zwart, de H.F.; Dijk, van C.J.; Dueck, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Een verhoging van de CO2 concentratie verhoogt de productie van een paprikagewas. Maar rookgassen doseren kan ook negatieve gevolgen hebben voor groei en productkwaliteit doordat er gassen vrijkomen die schadelijk kunnen zijn voor het gewas. In 2007 is een project uitgevoerd dat zich richtte op de m

  15. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  16. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  17. Using natural CO2 reservoir to constrain geochemical models for CO2 geological sequestration

    Highlights: • We model mineral alteration in a natural CO2 reservoir. • Field observation data are reproduced by our geochemical models. • This is an effective way to validate models for CO2 geological sequestration. • Thermodynamic and kinetic data of minerals can be constrained. • Conditions of temperature, pressure, and salinity can be confined. - Abstract: Numerical modeling of geochemical transport processes is necessary to investigate long-term CO2 storage in deep saline formations, because aluminosilicate mineral alteration is very slow under ambient deep-formation conditions and is not amenable to experimental study. Geochemical transport modeling can solve many problems and answer questions related to CO2 geological sequestration. The numerical modeling provides valuable insights regarding the physical and chemical consequences of CO2 injection in the subsurface environment. However, the reliability and applicability of the models need to be tested and validated if they are applied for CO2 geological sequestration. Issues on model validations are important if CO2 injection technologies are to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. Validation of geochemical transport models could be different from conventional model validation methods for groundwater flow and solute transport. For the short-term behaviors, the models can be validated using laboratory and field experiments. For the long-term mineral alteration and CO2 sequestration, the natural analogue using high-pressure CO2 reservoirs could be a best way to validate the model. In this paper, a natural CO2 reservoir in southern Songliao Basin of China, which is past accumulations of CO2 in geological formation associated with magmatic or volcanic activity, was selected. Although the length of CO2 exposure and hence the rates of reaction for the natural system is not known in detail, we have shown that it is indeed possible to use observation data of mineral alteration in the natural

  18. Zero CO2 emission SOLRGT power system

    A novel hybrid power system with zero CO2 emission (ZE-SOLRGT) has been proposed and analyzed in this paper. It consists of a high temperature Brayton-like topping cycle and a high pressure-ratio Rankine-like bottoming cycle, integrated with methane-steam reforming, solar heat-assisted steam generation and CO2 capture and compression. Water is selected to be the working fluid. Solar heat input enhances the steam generation and power output, and reduces fossil fuel consumption. Besides CO2 capture with oxy-fuel combustion and cascade recuperation of turbine exhaust heat, the system is featured with indirect upgrading of low-mid temperature solar heat and cascade release of fossil fuel chemical exergy, which is described by the energy level concept. With nearly 100% CO2 capture, the system attains a net energy efficiency of 50.7% (including consideration of the energy needed for oxygen separation). The cost of generated electricity and the payback period of ZE-SOLRGT are found to be $0.056/kWh and 11.3 years, respectively. The system integration accomplishes the complementary utilization of fossil fuel and solar heat, and attains their high efficiency conversion into electricity. -- Highlights: ► A novel hybrid power system ZE-SOLRGT has been proposed and analyzed. ► The system integrates power generation with methane-steam reforming, solar heat driven steam generation and CO2 capture. ► The system is featured with indirect upgrading of solar heat and cascade release of fossil fuel chemical exergy. ► The system thermodynamic and economic performances have been investigated.

  19. Studies on CO2 decomposition over H2-reduced MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Cu, Co, Zn)

    Decomposition of CO2 over reduced MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Cu, Zn) was studied by H2-TPR, H2-TG, and CO2-TG. XRD Rietveld analysis was used for determining phase composition and crystallite size of reduced and oxidized samples. The results indicate that spinel CoFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 are reduced to metals by H2, while ZnFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 only partly reduced at 350 C. The CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite shows the best activity in decomposing CO2 and the ZnFe2O4 shows the best recovery ability in the process of redox. (authors)

  20. Stored CO2 and Methane Leakage Risk Assessment and Monitoring Tool Development: CO2 Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2)

    Dan Kieki

    2008-09-30

    The primary project goal is to develop and test tools for optimization of ECBM recovery and geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds, in addition to tools for monitoring CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbeds to support risk assessment. Three critical topics identified are (1) the integrity of coal bed methane geologic and engineered systems, (2) the optimization of the coal bed storage process, and (3) reliable monitoring and verification systems appropriate to the special conditions of CO{sub 2} storage and flow in coals.

  1. Thermodynamic Study of binary an ternary systems containing CO2 + impurities in the context of CO2 transportation

    Coquelet, Christophe; Valtz, Alain; Arpentinier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience CO2 capture transportation and storage, or CO2 capture transportation and utilization, are two ways which should be considered in the industry in order to reduce the emission of CO2. After capture, CO2 is not pure and contain impurities like SO2, NOx, N2, O2 and Ar for example. Two binary systems involving CO2 were studied in this work (CO2 + SO2 at 263.15 and ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 333.21 K and between 0.1 and 8.8 MPa and CO2 + NO in at 232.93, 252.98 and 273.15 K, and...

  2. NMR Investigation of an Itinerant Weakly Antiferromagnetism in Metallic Thiospinels CoCo 2S 4 and (Co 1- xCu x)Co 2S 4

    Sugita, Hiroshi; Wada, Shinji; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Miyatani, Kazuo; Tanaka, Toshiro

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance of 59Co in a metallic thiospinel compound CoCo2S4 was carried out at 75 MHz in a temperature range between 1.4 and 260 K to study the properties of the low frequency spin dynamics at the tetrahedral A and the octahedral B sites. From the combination of the 59Co Knight shift, spin-lattice relaxation rate and susceptibility measurements, it is concluded that the stoichiometric CoCo2S4 belongs to a group of weakly antiferromagnetic metals with the Néel temperature of ≃55 K. The magnetic properties of Cu substituted compounds (Co1-xCux)Co2S4 were also studied. The results exhibited that the light substitution lowers the Néel temperature and the heavy substitution leads the compound to a nearly Pauli paramagnetic metal.

  3. Effects of CO2 on synthesis of isobutene and isobutane from CO2/CO/H2 reactant mixtures over zirconia-based catalysts

    The effects of CO2 on the selective formation of i-C4 hydrocarbons (isobutene and isobutane) from CO2/CO/H2 reactant mixtures were studied. Three ZrO2-based catalysts including unmodified ZrO2, 8.6%Y2O3-ZrO2, and 15.3%Al2O3-0.5%K2O-ZrO2, were used in this study. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, spectra, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of ammonia and carbon dioxide, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The influences of CO2 on the catalytic performances of the catalysts were investigated by varying the content of CO2 in the feed up to 20%. It was found that the addition of CO2 in the synthesis gas (CO/H2) significantly reduced the net formation of CO2, but did not affect the formation of hydrocarbons. For the distribution of hydrocarbons, the selectivity to i-C4 in total hydrocarbons decreased with increasing the content of CO2 in the feed, while the selectivities to C1-C3 hydrocarbons increased. However, the i-C4 selectivities in all products were enhanced significantly because of the inhibition of CO2 formation with CO2 adding in the feed. The predominant products in CO2 hydrogenation on the ZrO2-based catalysts were CO and H2O at 648-723 K, indicating that the ZrO2-based catalysts were not active in the reactions towards hydrocarbons from CO2/H2. A 5-6% yield of i-C4 hydrocarbons with ∝62% selectivity in the products was achieved on 15.3%Al2O3-0.5%K2O-ZrO2 catalyst at 8-9% CO conversion with 20% CO2 adding in the feed at 698 K. The yield of CO2 was only 0.5% (∝5% CO2 selectivity in the products). Our results would suggest one potential way of using the recycle of CO2 formed to selectively synthesize i-C4 hydrocarbons from coal or natural gas-derived syngas (CO + H2) with high carbon efficiency (with free or very low CO2 emission). (author)

  4. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2002-09-01

    The primary focus of this reporting period was to prepare for conducting the ocean carbon sequestration field experiment during the summer of 2002. We discuss four key aspects of this preparation: (1) Design criteria for a CO{sub 2} flow system mounted on a ship; (2) Inter-model comparison of plume models; (3) Application of a double plume model to compute near field mixing; and (4) Evaluation of tracers.

  5. Combustion of hythane diluted with CO2

    Hraiech Ibtissem; Sautet Jean-Charles; Yon Sébastien; Mhimid Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    With increasing concern about energy shortage and environmental protection, improving engine fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions have become major research topics in combustion and engine development. Hythane (a blend of hydrogen H2 and natural gas NG) has generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. This paper describes an experimental study of the effects of CO2 addition on the stability of a turbulent jet diffusion NG-H...

  6. Saturated CO2 inhibits microbial processes in CO2-vented deep-sea sediments

    A. Boetius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on biogeochemical processes and microbial activity in sediments of a natural deep-sea CO2 seepage area (Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Japan. The aim was to assess the influence of the geochemical conditions occurring in highly acidic and CO2 saturated sediments on sulphate reduction (SR and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM. Porewater chemistry was investigated from retrieved sediment cores and in situ by microsensor profiling. The sites sampled around a sediment-hosted hydrothermal CO2 vent were very heterogeneous in porewater chemistry, indicating a complex leakage pattern. Near the vents, droplets of liquid CO2 were observed to emanate from the sediments, and the pH reached approximately 4.5 in a sediment depth >6 cm, as determined in situ by microsensors. Methane and sulphate co-occurred in most sediment samples from the vicinity of the vents down to a depth of at least 3 m. However, SR and AOM were restricted to the upper 7–15 cm below seafloor, although neither temperature, low pH, nor the availability of methane and sulphate could be limiting microbial activity. We argue that the extremely high subsurface concentrations of dissolved CO2 (1000–1700 mM, through the ensuing high H2CO3 levels (approx. 1–2 mM uncouples the proton-motive-force (PMF and thus inhibits biological energy conservation by ATPase-driven phosphorylation. This limits life to the surface sediment horizons above the liquid CO2 phase, where less extreme conditions prevail. Our results may have to be taken into consideration in assessing the consequences of deep-sea CO2 sequestration on benthic element cycling and on the local ecosystem state.

  7. Synthesis of Hierarchical (BiO)2CO3 Nanosheets Microspheres toward Efficient Photocatalystic Reduction of CO2 into CO

    Yang, Huohai; Bai, Yang; Chen, Ting; Shi, Xian; Zhu, Yu-chuan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hierarchical (BiO)2CO3 nanosheets microspheres were synthesized with dry ice as carbon source, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic results showed that (BiO)2CO3 display much higher photocatalytic activity than BiOCl and TiO2 for photocatalystic reduction of CO2 under UV-visible light. The photocatalytic mechanism study revealled that (BiO)2CO3 display better separation efficiency of photoinduced charge carriers due to the large interlayer spacing (1.3675 nm).

  8. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    Drees, Markus

    2012-08-10

    Faced with depleting fossil carbon sources, the search for alternative energy carriers and energy storage possibilities has become an important issue. Nature utilizes carbon dioxide as starting material for storing sun energy in plant hydrocarbons. A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation of CO 2 involve high temperatures and are often not selective. With the development of more sophisticated methods and better software, theoretical studies have become both increasingly widespread and useful. This concept article summarizes theoretical investigations of the current state of the feasibility of CO 2 activation with molecular transition metal catalysts, highlighting the most promising reactions of CO 2 with olefins to industrially relevant acrylic acid/acrylates, and the insertion of CO 2 into metal-element bonds, particularly for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates and polymers. Rapidly improving computational power and methods help to increase the importance and accuracy of calculations continuously and make computational chemistry a useful tool helping to solve some of the most important questions for the future. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    PDF file available for free at http://pubs.ub.ro/?pg=revues&rev=cscc6&num=201011&vol=1&aid=2975 International audience This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to giv...

  10. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags using CO2 diluted sources: CO2 uptakes and energy requirements

    Renato eBaciocchi; Giulia eCosta; Alessandra ePolettini; Raffaella ePomi; Alessio eStramazzo; Daniela eZingaretti

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO2 vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO2 for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry phase (L/S=5 l/kg, T=100 °C and Ptot=10 bar) and the thin film (L/S =0.3-0.4 l/kg, T=50 °C and Ptot=7-10 bar) routes. For each one, the CO2 uptake achieved as...

  11. Literatuuronderzoek CAM-fotosynthese en CO2-bemesting en CO2-bemesting bij bromelia's

    Marissen, A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    De ‘normale’ wijze van CO2-opname gebeurt bij de meeste planten overdag, wanneer er licht is om de opgenomen CO2 door middel van fotosynthese direct om te zetten in suikers. Hiervoor is het nodig dat de huidmondjes overdag open staan, ‘s nachts zijn huidmondjes meestal dicht. Via de huidmondjes gaat waterdamp naar buiten, de planten verdampen zo overdag veel meer dan ‘s nachts. Een deel van de Bromeliaceae -soorten hebben zich echter gespecialiseerd in een andere wijze van CO2-opname. In deze...

  12. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Shao, H.;

    2013-01-01

    urrent research into CO2 capture and storage is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. In this context, risk related to CO2 leakage is an important issue which may cause environmental problems, particularly when freshwater resources nearby are intruded by the CO2 plume. In this work, the...

  13. Electron Attachment to CO2 Embedded in Superfluid He Droplets

    Postler, Johannes; Vizcaino, Violaine; Denifl, Stephan; Zappa, Fabio; Ralser, Stefan; Daxner, Matthias; Illenberger, Eugen; Scheier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Electron attachment to CO2 embedded in superfluid He droplets leads to ionic complexes of the form (CO2) n – and (CO2) n O– and, at much lower intensities, He containing ions of the form He m (CO2) n O–. At low energies (

  14. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433... Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of § 108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2....

  15. BaCo2(AsO4)2

    Tamara Đordević

    2008-01-01

    Suitable single crystals of the title compound, barium dicobalt(II) bis[orthoarsenate(V)], were prepared under hydrothermal conditions. This phase belongs to a series of compounds with general formula AM2(XO4)2, where A = alkaline earth metal, M = Mg or a divalent first-row transition element, and X = P, As or V. BaCo2(AsO4)2 is isotypic with BaNi2(XO4)2 (X = P, V or As) and is characterized by brucite-like sheets of edge-sharing CoO6 octahedra (3 symmetry) parallel to (001), with one-third o...

  16. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CO2 DIRECT HYDROGENATION REACTIONS

    Cao Fahai; Liu Dianhua; Hou Qiushi; Fang Dingye

    2001-01-01

    CO2 hydrogenation is one of important routes for the activation and effective utilization of CO2. In this paper, eighteen CO2 direct hydrogenation reactions are listed and their reaction heats and equilibrium constants are calculated. On the assumption that the reactions of CO2 and H2 are in stoichiometric ratio and the amount of whole reactants is one mole, the equilibrium conversions of CO2 are obtained.

  17. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many

  18. Strategies for CO2 capture from different CO2 emission sources by vacuum swing adsorption technology☆

    Jianghua Ling; Penny Xiao; Augustine Ntiamoah; Dong Xu; Paul Webley; Yuchun Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Different VSA (Vacuum Swing Adsorption) cycles and process schemes have been evaluated to find suitable process configurations for effectively separating CO2 from flue gases from different industrial sectors. The cycles were studied using an adsorption simulator developed in our research group, which has been suc-cessfully used to predict experimental results over several years. Commercial zeolite APGIII and granular ac-tivated carbon were used as the adsorbents. Three-bed VSA cycles with-and without-product purge and 2-stage VSA systems have been investigated. It was found that for a feed gas containing 15%CO2 (representing flue gas from power plants), high CO2 purities and recoveries could be obtained using a three-bed zeolite APGIII VSA unit for one stage capture, but with more stringent conditions such as deeper vacuum pressures of 1–3 kPa. 2-stage VSA process operated in series allowed us to use simple process steps and operate at more realistic vacuum pressures. With a vacuum pressure of 10 kPa, final CO2 purity of 95.3%with a recov-ery of 98.2%were obtained at specific power consumption of 0.55 MJ·(kg CO2)−1 from feed gas containing 15%CO2. These numbers compare very well with those obtained from a single stage process operating at 1 kPa vacuum pressure. The feed CO2 concentration was very influential in determining the desorption pressure necessary to achieve high separation efficiency. For feed gases containing N30%CO2, a single-stage VSA capture process operating at moderate vacuum pressure and without a product purge, can achieve very high product purities and recoveries.

  19. Photo-enhanced hydrogenation of CO2 to mimic photosynthesis by CO co-feed in a novel twin reactor

    Highlights: • A novel twin reactor is developed for integration of CO2 hydrogenation with water splitting. • CO2 is directly hydrogenated into a desirable fuel and simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas. • The performance of CO co-feed is more efficient than the conventional system using solely CO or CO2. • A mechanism, which is capable of explaining key experimental trends, is proposed. - Abstract: Photocatalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a promising technology to mimic photosynthesis by the conversion of solar energy into methanol (CH3OH) for the development of sustainable energy. This technology not only can potentially cut down the atmospheric CO2, but also reduce the world’s dependence on fossil fuel. Using a novel twin reactor, the hydrogen, which is directly generated from the water splitting, could be utilized to hydrogenate CO2 into a desirable fuel and simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas. Remarkable result has been observed by using a gaseous mixture of CO/CO2 to yield CH3OH under artificial sunlight, compared with the one using solely CO or CO2. Although direct hydrogenation of CO to form CH3OH on either Pt/CuAlGaO4 or Pt/SrTiO3:Rh photocatalysts is not likely to occur, CO still plays an important role on the generation of either H2 via water–gas shift reaction or methyl formate (HCOOCH3), the intermediate product of CH3OH. Nevertheless, adding too much CO as the co-feed will adversely decrease the yield of CH3OH. A possible mechanism of CO/CO2 photo-hydrogenation over Pt/CuAlGaO4 and Pt/SrTiO3:Rh photocatalysts is proposed to explain the key experimental trends observed as well as the species involved during the reaction

  20. CO2 Uptake Model of Biomass Silica Foamed Concrete

    Yee Loon Lee; Heng Boon Koh; Ahmad Tarmizi Abdul Karim; Mia Wimala; C. Ng

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. A model of CO2 uptake by biomass silica foamed concrete is proposed as a potential mitigation strategy against CO2-emission. The key parameters in the cement production process are defined and the total CO2 emissions are reviewed. A comparison between CO2 emission and CO2...

  1. Process-dependent residual trapping of CO2 in sandstone

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper demonstrates that the nature and extent of residual CO2 trapping depend on the process by which the CO2 phase is introduced into the rock. We compare residual trapping of CO2 in Berea Sandstone by imbibing water into a core containing either exsolved CO2 or CO2 introduced by drainage. X-ray computed tomography measurements are used to map the spatial distribution of CO2 preimbibition and postimbibition. Unlike during drainage where the CO2 distribution is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the rock, the distribution of exsolved CO2 is comparatively uniform. Postimbibition, the CO2 distribution retained the essential features for both the exsolved and drainage cases, but twice as much residual trapping is observed for exsolved CO2 even with similar preimbibition gas saturations. Residually trapped exsolved gas also disproportionately reduced water relative permeability. Development of process-dependent parameterization will help better manage subsurface flow processes and unlock benefits from gas exsolution.

  2. A study of CO2 precipitation method considering an ionic CO2 and Ca(OH)2 slurry

    CCS (carbon capture and storage) is the most popular technology used for the reduction of CO2 in the post-combustion stage. However, the CCS process has some disadvantages including uncertainty about the stability of the land that is used to store the separated CO2. Consequently, CCU (carbon capture and utilization) technologies have recently received increased attention as a possible replacement for CCS. In this study, we utilized CO2 fixation methods by using the metal carbonate mechanism. We selected 5 and 30 wt% MEA (mono-ethanolamine) solutions to rapidly make a carbonate and Ca(OH)2 slurry. In all of the experiments, normal temperature and pressure conditions were maintained (except during desorption to check for residual CO2 in the MEA solution). Consequently, most of the CO2 was converted to carbonate. The MEA converted CO2 to ionic CO2 and rapidly created calcium carbonate. Also the formed solids that were observed were determined to be CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 by X-ray diffractometry. Also, the MEA solution could be reused to absorb CO2. Therefore, we have confirmed the development of our suggested CCS process. This process has the ability not only to reuse emitted CO2, but it can also be employed to reuse construction wastes that include heavy metals. - Highlights: • We propose novel CO2 conversion technology by utilizing an amine solution. • In this study, alkaline solutions were used to produce CO2 precipitate. • The MEA (mono-ethanolamine) solution has a sufficient potential to fix CO2 with metal sources under moderate condition. • Also, the Ca(OH)2 slurry yielded enough Ca2+ ions to make carbonate

  3. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2.

    van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. PMID:27082277

  4. Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO2

    van Meerten, S. G. J.; Tayler, M. C. D.; Kentgens, A. P. M.; van Bentum, P. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for 1H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in 1H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4 ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4 T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2.

  5. Carbon and energy yields in prebiotic syntheses using atmospheres containing CH4, CO and CO2

    Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

    1984-01-01

    Yields based on carbon are usually reported in prebiotic experiments, while energy yields (moles/cal) are more useful in estimating the yields of products that would have been obtained from the primitive atmosphere of the earth. Energy yields for the synthesis of HCN and H2CO from a spark discharge were determined for various mixtures of CH4, CO, CO2, H2, H2O, N2 an NH3. The maximum yields of HCN and H2CO from CH4, CO, and CO2 as carbon sources are about 4 x 10 to the -8th moles/cal.

  6. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  7. Monitoring CO2 behaviour during injection into reservoir sandstone

    Tran, Truong Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Storing CO2 in deep subsurface aquifers is considered to be a good solution for reducing the increasing atmospheric emissions of CO2. To mitigate the possibility of stored CO2 leaking out to the atmosphere, geophysical monitoring techniques are applied. These techniques must be able to detect small and big changes in CO2 saturation. In this thesis acoustic and electrical resistivity measurement will be used to detect and monitor the injection of CO2 into three brine saturated samples. Two san...

  8. Monitoring of Geological CO2, based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Ms. Wagh Sushama Mohan*; Prof. Mr. Devi R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), also known as Carbon Capture and Sequestration, includes geological storage CO2. Safe, long-term geological storage (sequestration) of CO2 also requires a continuous monitoring system to detect CO2 leakage from reservior. This paper gives details about a remote carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration monitoring system developed, based on the technologies of wireless sensor networks, in allusion to the gas leakage monitoring requirement for CO2 capture ...

  9. CO2 and energy France and world indicators 2007

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the carbon dioxide is a very controlled greenhouse effect gases to limit the climatic change. This paper presents and explains the greenhouse effect, the consequences of the climatic change, the other greenhouse effect gases as the CO2, the CO2 emissions from the energy production, the emission factors of CO2, the sectorial emissions of CO2, the Kyoto protocol and the european market of the CO2 quotas. (A.L.B.)

  10. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour