WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1st-level muon trigger

  1. Large-scale performance studies of the Resistive Plate Chamber fast tracker for the ATLAS 1st-level muon trigger

    Cattani, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    In the ATLAS experiment, Resistive Plate Chambers provide the first-level muon trigger and bunch crossing identification over large area of the barrel region, as well as being used as a very fast 2D tracker. To achieve these goals a system of about ~4000 gas gaps operating in avalanche mode was built (resulting in a total readout surface of about 16000 m2 segmented into 350000 strips) and is now fully operational in the ATLAS pit, where its functionality has been widely tested up to now using cosmic rays. Such a large scale system allows to study the performance of RPCs (both from the point of view of gas gaps and readout electronics) with unprecedented sensitivity to rare effects, as well as providing the means to correlate (in a statistically significant way) characteristics at production sites with performance during operation. Calibrating such a system means fine tuning thousands of parameters (involving both front-end electronics and gap voltage), as well as constantly monitoring performance and environm...

  2. The ATLAS Muon Trigger

    Ventura, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The Level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a Level-2 trigger followed by an event filter for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. The ATLAS experiment has taken data with high efficiency continuously over entire running periods from 2010 to 2012, for which sophisticated triggers to guard the highest physics output while reducing effectively the event rate were mandatory. The ATLAS muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment. The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analyses involving ...

  3. ATLAS Muon Trigger

    Woudstra, MJ; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest energy proton-proton collider, providing also the highest instantaneous luminosity as a hadron collider. Bunch crossings occurred every 50 ns in 2012 runs. Amongst of which the online event selection system should reduce the event recording rate down to a few 100 Hz, while events are in a harsh condition with many overlapping proton-proton collisions occurring in a same bunch crossing. Muons often provide an important and clear signature of physics processes that are searched for, for instance as in the discovery of Higgs particle in year 2012. The ATLAS experiment deploys a three-levels processing scheme at online. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filte...

  4. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Trigger Selection

    Musto, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the three-level ATLAS muon trigger as evaluated by using LHC data is presented. Events have been selected by using only the hardware-based Level-1 trigger in order to commission and to subsequently enable the (software-based) selections of the High Level Trigger. Studies aiming at selecting prompt muons from J/{\\psi} and at reducing non prompt muon contamination have been performed. A brief overview on how the muon triggers evolve with increasing luminosity is given.

  5. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  6. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  7. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  8. The new Global Muon Trigger of the CMS experiment

    Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    For the 2016 physics data runs the L1 trigger system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent a major upgrade to cope with the increasing instantaneous luminosity of the CERN LHC whilst maintaining a high event selection efficiency for the CMS physics program. Most subsystem specific trigger processor boards were replaced with powerful general purpose processor boards, conforming to the MicroTCA standard, whose tasks are performed by firmware on an FPGA of the Xilinx Virtex 7 family. Furthermore, the muon trigger system moved from a subsystem centered approach, where each of the three muon detector systems provides muon candidates to the Global Muon Trigger (GMT), to a region based system, where muon track finders (TFs) combine information from the subsystems to generate muon candidates in three detector regions, that are then sent to the upgraded GMT. The upgraded GMT receives up to 108 muons from the processors of the muon TFs in the barrel, overlap, and endcap detector regions. The muons are...

  9. Pre-LHCP 2016 L1 muon trigger performance

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the 2016 data-taking, the CMS Level-1 trigger has been significantly upgraded to deal with the higher instantaneous luminosity and average number of pile-up events. The performance of the new Level-1 muon trigger achieved in the first half of 2016 are presented here.

  10. The ATLAS Level-1 Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface

    Berge, D; Farthouat, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) is part of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system and connects the output of muon trigger system to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). At every bunch crossing (BC), the MUCTPI receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six transverse momentum (pT) thresholds. This multiplicity value is then sent to the CTP, where it is used together with the input from the Calorimeter trigger to make the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision. In addition the MUCTPI provides summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for events selected at Level-1. This information is used to define the regions of interest (RoIs) that drive the Level-2 muontrigger processing. The MUCTPI system consists of a 9U VME chassis with a dedicated active backplane and 18 custom designed modules. The design of the modules is based on state-of-the-art FPGA devices and special ...

  11. Triggering and measuring bent cosmic muon tracks with the Muon Spectrometer barrel for the first time

    Fabio Cerutti

    During the ATLAS barrel toroid stability test, bent cosmic muon tracks were seen for the first time in the ATLAS cavern by means of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The barrel toroid has been powered at its nominal current (20.5 thousand Amperes) and kept in steady state for more than one day during the weekend of 18-19 November (see a report on this test in the Magnet section). During this test one large sector and part of a small sector of the barrel muon spectrometer were readout and used to detect the cosmic muons tracks bent by the toroidal magnetic field. Thirteen muon stations in the feet sectors (sectors 13 and 14) have been used in this test. The muon stations are formed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) that were providing the muon trigger, and Monitored Drift Tubes that were used to measure with high accuracy the muon curvature hence their momentum. The Level-1 Barrel trigger chain was based on the Barrel Middle Large chambers equipped with final production modules on both the on-detector and the o...

  12. The first-level muon trigger system advances

    Ellis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Important advances have been made in the last few months in the first-level muon trigger, both for the barrel system and for the endcap system, in a close collaboration between the detector and trigger-electronics groups for the RPCs (Resistive-Plate Chambers) and TGCs (Thin-Gap Chambers). These trigger systems are crucial for the success of the muon-related physics programme of the experiment; events that are not triggered will be lost forever, and the trigger chambers also provide the second coordinate for the reconstruction of muons that are only measured in the bending plane by the MDT detectors. Integration and installation of the barrel muon trigger electronics on the RPC detectors is in full swing. The on-detector electronics consists of more than 800 units each of "Splitter" and "Pad" boxes which have been tested and integrated by a team of physicists, engineers and technicians from Italy and Romania. This work will continue for a further few months until the complete system has been installed and so...

  13. Commissioning of the ALICE muon spectrometer trigger at LHC

    ALICE (a large ion collider experiment) is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The ALICE muon spectrometer covers a large range in pseudo-rapidity and is designed to study quarkonia and heavy flavours decaying into (di-)muons. The high particle multiplicities environment in such collisions require a specific, fast and efficient trigger system, the muon trigger. It consists of four planes of RPC detectors, covering an area of 36 m2 each, 21k front-end channels and a fast-decision electronics. The muon trigger is designed to reconstruct (muon) tracks and deliver a trigger signal each 25 ns (40 MHz) with a total latency of 800 ns. The hit position on the RPC is measured in two orthogonal directions with an accuracy of about 1 cm. The performance measured with the first p-p collisions at √(()s)=900 GeV carried out in December 2009 is reported.

  14. Trigger Algorithms and Electronics for the ATLAS Muon NSW Upgrade

    Guan, Liang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW), comprising MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), will upgrade the ATLAS muon system for a high background environment. Particularly, the NSW trigger will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from background tracks in the endcap. We will present an overview of the FPGA-based trigger processor for NSW and trigger algorithms for sTGC and Micromegas detector sub systems. In additional, we will present development of NSW trigger electronics, in particular, the sTGC Trigger Data Serializer (TDS) ASIC, sTGC Pad Trigger board, the sTGC data packet router and L1 Data Driver Card. Finally, we will detail the challenges of meeting the low latency requirements of the trigger system and coping with the high background rates of the HL-LHC.

  15. Muon identification and triggering at D0

    The D0 detector is a large, general-purpose detector to take full advantage of the 2 TeV energy of the Fermilab collider. The design of the experiment emphasizes accurate identification, complete angular acceptance, and precise measurement of the decay products of W and Z bosons: charged leptons (both electrons and muons), quarks and gluons, which emerge as collimated jets of particles, and noninteracting particles, such as neutrinos. The primary physics goals of D0 include searching for new phenomena, such as the top quark or particles outside the Standard Model, and high-precision studies of the W and Z bosons. In addition, the excellent muon identification allows the study of b quark production and decay. The D0 detector consists of three major hardware systems: calorimetry, muon detection, and central tracking, which together allow fairly complete characterization of most proton-antiproton collision events. The central tracking system consists of four drift-chamber systems (vertex, central, and two end systems) and transition radiation detectors for electron identification. Surrounding the central tracking system are three uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters. The uranium is a dense medium, allowing containment of high energy hadron showers in a relatively short depth, as well as equal response to electrons and hadrons, while the liquid-argon ionization medium gives ease of calibration, stability, radiation hardness, and the ability to build in fine segmentation in all three coordinates. The energy resolution due to sampling fluctuations alone is σ/E ∼ 16%/√E for electrons and ∼ 49%/√E for charged pions. Surrounding the calorimeters is the muon system which the author describe in this paper

  16. The ATLAS Barrel Level-1 Muon Trigger Processor Performances

    Bocci, V; Ciapetti, G; De Pedis, D; Di Girolamo, A; Di Mattia, A; Gennari, E; Luci, C; Nisati, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Spila, F; Vari,, R; Veneziano, S; Zanelli, L; Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Di Stante, L; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Canale, V; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Delle Volpe, D; Iengo, P; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Patricelli, S; Sekhniaidze, G; Brambilla, Elena; Cataldi, G; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Spagnolo, S; Aprodo, V; Bartos, D; Buda, S; Constantin, S; Dogaru, M; Magureanu, C; Pectu, M; Prodan, L; Rusu, A; Uroseviteanu, C

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 muon trigger will select events with high transverse momentum and tag them to the correct machine bunch-crossing number with high efficiency. Three stations of dedicated fast detectors provide a coarse pT measurement, with tracking capability on bending and non-bending pro jections. In the Barrel region, hits from doublets of Resistive Plate Chambers are processed by custom ASIC, the Coincidence Matrices, which performs almost all the functionalities required by the trigger algorithm and the readout. In this paper we present the performance of the level-1 trigger system studied on a cosmic test stand at CERN, concerning studies on expected trigger rates and efficiencies.

  17. The Muon High Level Trigger of the ATLAS experiment

    Ventura, A

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been designed and built for new discoveries in High Energy Physics as well as for precision measurements of Standard Model parameters. To satisfy the limited data acquisition and recording capability, at the LHC project luminosity, the ATLAS trigger system must select a very small rate of physically interesting events (~200 Hz) among about 40 million events per second. In the case of events containing muons, as described in this work, the first hardware-based level (Level-1) starts from coincidence of hits in the Muon Spectrometer trigger chambers to select Regions of Interest (RoI) where muons produce significant activity. Such RoIs are used as seeds for the two subsequent trigger levels (Level-2 and Event Filter), running on dedicated online farms, which constitute the High Level Trigger (HLT). This seeding strategy is crucial to drastically reduce the total processing time. Within the Muon HLT, few algorithms are implemented in different steps ...

  18. The ATLAS Muon Trigger - Experience and Performance in the first 3 years of LHC pp runs

    Ventura, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 trigger followed by an event filter for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. The ATLAS experiment has taken data with high efficiency continuously over entire running periods form 2010 to 2012, for which sophisticated triggers to guard the highest physics output while reducing effectively the event rate were mandatory. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment. The selection strategy has been optimized for the various physics analysis involving mu...

  19. Online Muon Reconstruction in the ATLAS Level-2 trigger system

    Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Conde-Muíño, P; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dosil, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Soluk, R A; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Venda-Pinto, B; Vercesi, V; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium And Medical Imaging Conference

    2004-01-01

    To cope with the 40 MHz event production rate of LHC, the trigger of the ATLAS experiment selects the events in three sequential steps of increasing complexity and accuracy whose final results are close to the offline reconstruction. The Level-1, implemented with custom hardware, identifies physics objects within Regions of Interests and operates a first reduction of the event rate to 75 KHz. The higher trigger levels provide a software based event selection which further reduces the event rate to about 100 Hz. This paper presents the algorithm (muFast) employed at Level-2 to confirm the muon candidates flagged by the Level-1. muFast identifies hits of muon tracks inside the Muon Spectrometer and provides a precise measurement of the muon momentum at the production vertex. The algorithm must process the Level-1 muon output rate (~20 KHz), thus a particular care has been used for its optimization. The result is a very fast track reconstruction algorithm with good physics performances which, in some cases, appr...

  20. A Level-2 trigger algorithm for the identification of muons in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Conde-Muíño, P; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dosil, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Soluk, R A; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Venda-Pinto, B; Vercesi, V; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; Computing In High Energy Physics

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-2 trigger provides a software-based event selection after the initial Level-1 hardware trigger. For the muon events, the selection is decomposed in a number of broad steps: first, the Muon Spectrometer data are processed to give physics quantities associated to the muon track (standalone feature extraction) then, other detector data are used to refine the extracted features. The “µFast” algorithm performs the standalone feature extraction, providing a first reduction of the muon event rate from Level-1. It confirms muon track candidates with a precise measurement of the muon momentum. The algorithm is designed to be both conceptually simple and fast so as to be readily implemented in the demanding online environment in which the Level-2 selection code will run. Never-the-less its physics performance approaches, in some cases, that of the offline reconstruction algorithms. This paper describes the implemented algorithm together with the software techniques employed to increase its timing p...

  1. Performance of electron, photon and muon triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger

    Fernandez Perez Tomei, Thiago Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with the detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. Here we will present the design and performance of the main muon, electron and photon triggers, in view of the more challenging conditions for the LHC Run 2. For the muon case, we discuss the improvements in the isolation algorithm with the usage of Particle Flow techniques, which allow for better discrimination power between processes with prompt muons and the the effect of jets penetrating through the hadronic calorimeter into the muon chambers. For the ele...

  2. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT FOR A FAST MUON TRIGGER

    OBRIEN,E.; BASYE, A.; ISENHOWER, D.; JUMPER, D.; SPARKS, N.; TOWELL, R.; WATTS, C.; WOOD, J.; WRIGHT, R.; HAGGERTY, J.; LYNCH, D.; BARISH, K.; EYSER, K.O.; SETO, R.; HU, S.; LI, X.; ZHOU, S.; GLENN, A.; KINNEY, E.; KIRILUK, K.; NAGLE, J.; CHI, C.Y.; SIPPACH, W.; ZAJC. W.; BUTLER, C.; HE, X.; OAKLEY, C.; YING, J.; BLACKBURN, J.; CHIU, M.; PERDEKAMP, M.G.; KIM, Y.J.; KOSTER, J.; LAYTON, D.; MAKINS, N.; MEREDITH, B.; NORTHACKER, D.; PENG, J.-C.; SEIDL, R.; THORSLAND, E.; WADHAMS, S.; WILLIAMSON, S.; YANG, R.; HILL, J.; KEMPEL, T.; LAJOIE, J.; SLEEGE, G.; VALE, C.; WEI, F.; SAITO, N.; HONG, B.; KIM, B.; LEE, K.; LEE, K.S.; PARK, S.; SIM, K.-S.; AOKI, K.; DAIRAKU, S.; IMAI, K.; KARATSU, K.; MURAKAMI, T.; SATO, A.; SENZAKA, K.; SHOJI, K.; TANIDA, K.; BROOKS, M.; LEITCH, M.; ADAMS, J.; CARINGI, A.; FADEM, B.; IDE, J.; LICHTENWALNER, P.; FIELDS, D.; MAO, Y.; HAN, R.; BUNCE, G.; XIE, W.; FUKAO, Y.; TAKETANI, A.; KURITA, K.; MURATA, J.; (PHENIX COLLABORATION)

    2007-08-01

    This document is a Conceptual Design Report for a fast muon trigger for the PHENIX experiment that will enable the study of flavor separated quark and anti-quark spin polarizations in the proton. A powerful way of measuring these polarizations is via single spin asymmetries for W boson production in polarized proton-proton reactions. The measurement is done by tagging W{sup +} and W{sup -} via their decay into high transverse momentum leptons in the forward directions. The PHENIX experiment is capable of measuring high momentum muons at forward rapidity, but the current online trigger does not have sufficient rejection to sample the rare leptons fromW decay at the highest luminosities at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This Report details the goals, design, R&D, and schedule for building new detectors and trigger electronics to use the full RHIC luminosity to make this critical measurement. The idea for W boson measurements in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC was first suggested by Jacques Soffer and Claude Bourrely in 1995. This prompted the RIKEN institute in Japan to supply funds to build a second muon arm for PHENIX (south muon arm). The existence of both a north and south muon arm makes it possible to utilize a Z{sup 0} sample to study and control systematic uncertainties which arise in the reconstruction of high momentum muons. This document has its origins in recommendations made by a NSAC Subcommittee that reviewed the U.S. Heavy Ion Physics Program in June 2004. Part of their Recommendation 1 was to 'Invest in near-term detector upgrades of the two large experiments, PHENIX and STAR'. In Recommendation 2 the subcommittee stated '- detector improvements proceed at a rate that allows a timely determination of the flavor dependence of the quark-antiquark sea polarization through W-asymmetry measurements' as we are proposing here. On September 13, 2004 DOE requested from BNL a report articulating a research plan for

  3. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT FOR A FAST MUON TRIGGER

    This document is a Conceptual Design Report for a fast muon trigger for the PHENIX experiment that will enable the study of flavor separated quark and anti-quark spin polarizations in the proton. A powerful way of measuring these polarizations is via single spin asymmetries for W boson production in polarized proton-proton reactions. The measurement is done by tagging W+ and W- via their decay into high transverse momentum leptons in the forward directions. The PHENIX experiment is capable of measuring high momentum muons at forward rapidity, but the current online trigger does not have sufficient rejection to sample the rare leptons fromW decay at the highest luminosities at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This Report details the goals, design, R and D, and schedule for building new detectors and trigger electronics to use the full RHIC luminosity to make this critical measurement. The idea for W boson measurements in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC was first suggested by Jacques Soffer and Claude Bourrely in 1995. This prompted the RIKEN institute in Japan to supply funds to build a second muon arm for PHENIX (south muon arm). The existence of both a north and south muon arm makes it possible to utilize a Z0 sample to study and control systematic uncertainties which arise in the reconstruction of high momentum muons. This document has its origins in recommendations made by a NSAC Subcommittee that reviewed the U.S. Heavy Ion Physics Program in June 2004. Part of their Recommendation 1 was to 'Invest in near-term detector upgrades of the two large experiments, PHENIX and STAR'. In Recommendation 2 the subcommittee stated '- detector improvements proceed at a rate that allows a timely determination of the flavor dependence of the quark-antiquark sea polarization through W-asymmetry measurements' as we are proposing here. On September 13, 2004 DOE requested from BNL a report articulating a research plan for the RHIC spin physics program. The

  4. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon High Level Trigger with beam collisions at the LHC

    Kanno, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has taken its first data with colliding beams. The LHC aims to deliver an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 in the run period 2010/2011 at luminosities of up to 10^32 cm^-2s^-1, which requires active rejection of events in the trigger system. The muon system is the largest sub-detector of the ATLAS experiment and has the capability to reconstruct muons in standalone mode, as well as in combination with the Inner Detector tracking. The L1 muon trigger gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The Muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level 2 trigger followed by an event filter for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. The muon HLT has been extensively tested with cosmi...

  5. Prestaciones del Detector Central de Muones del Experimento CMS: las Camaras de Deriva y su Sistema de Trigger (Performance of the Central Muon Detector of the Experiment CMS: the Drift Tube Chambers and its Trigger System)

    Muñoz, Carlos Villanueva

    2007-01-01

    Prestaciones del Detector Central de Muones del Experimento CMS: las Camaras de Deriva y su Sistema de Trigger (Performance of the Central Muon Detector of the Experiment CMS: the Drift Tube Chambers and its Trigger System)

  6. Database and interactive monitoring system for the electronics of RPC muon trigger in CMS experiment

    Wiacek, D; Kudla, I; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    The main task of the RPC (resistive plate chamber) muon trigger monitoring system design for the CMS (compact muon solenoid) experiment (at LHC in CERN Geneva) is the visualization of data that includes the structure of electronic trigger system (e.g. geometry and imagery), the way of its processes and to generate automatically files with VHDL source code used for programming of the FPGA matrix. In the near future, the system enables the analysis of condition, operation and efficiency of individual muon trigger elements, registration of information about some muon trigger devices and present previously obtained results in interactive presentation layer. A broad variety of different database and programming concepts for design of muon trigger monitoring system was presented in this article.

  7. Design and performance of the upgrade of the CMS L1 muon trigger

    Bortignon, P.

    2016-07-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) LHC will run at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV, providing CMS with proton collisions at an expected luminosity which is almost double the LHC design value of 1034cm-2s-1, and almost three times the peak luminosity reached during Run1 of 7.7 ·1033cm-2s-1. The higher luminosity and center of mass energy of the LHC will raise the Level 1 (L1) muon trigger rate by almost a factor six for a given muon transverse momentum pT threshold. It is therefore necessary to increase the muon (pT) threshold to keep the trigger rate below 100 kHz, the maximum sustainable rate for the CMS detectors. An increase of the L1 trigger thresholds implies a lowering of the efficiency in detecting signals from new physics. The CMS muon trigger is upgraded using custom designed AMC boards, with more powerful FPGAs and larger memories. The upgraded CMS muon trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger boards for muon pT assignment, drastically reducing the trigger rate and improving the trigger efficiency. The upgraded system design exploits the redundancy of the CMS muon detectors at a very early stage merging different muon detector information already at L1. The pileup subtracted information from the upgraded calorimeter trigger allows to require isolated muons already in the L1 algorithms. The upgrade trigger is also designed to include inputs from GEM, the phase 2 muon detector upgrade in the very high pseudorapidity region.

  8. The RPC muon trigger system for CMS experiment on LHC collider

    Bunkowski, K; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Kalinowski, A; Kierzkowski, K; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I G; Nakielski, T; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Wrochna, G; Zabolotny, W M; Zalewski, Piotr; Zych, P

    2002-01-01

    In this article the RPC muon trigger for the CMS experiment on the LHC collider is presented. The overall structure of the RPC muon trigger system is presented. More details are given for trigger algorithm built with usage of the Patten Comparator (PAC) ASIC. Front End electronics are briefly discussed. The optical data link system using a compression/decompression scheme allowing large link reduction is demonstrated. Synchronization and diagnostics tasks are discussed. (14 refs).

  9. Efficiency studies of the CMS L3 muon trigger

    De Clerck, Marine

    2016-01-01

    The current muon L3 reconstruction algorithms are tested with various muon HLT paths in order to settle the basis for a comparison with the new L3 reconstruction algorithms. Efficiency and fake rate measurements have been performed for single and double muon paths.

  10. Study of Muon Triggers and Momentum Reconstruction in a Strong Magnetic Field for a Muon Detector at LHC

    2002-01-01

    % RD-5 \\\\ \\\\ A small fraction of a muon detector for possible use in an LHC experiment is installed in the SPS H2 beam. It consists of a 3T superconducting solenoid enclosing a 10$\\lambda$ deep calorimeter made of stainless steel plates interleaved with Honeycomb strip chambers. Behind this magnet are located 3 muon stations for triggering and momentum measurement. These stations, consisting of UA1 muon chambers backed up with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), are inserted in a 1.5~T absorber magnet of 20$\\lambda$ total thickness, station 2 being located after 10$\\lambda$. \\\\ \\\\During the data taking period (1991-1994) 10$^{7}$ muon and hadron events were recorded. Beams of negative muons and pions and of positive muons and hadrons $ (\\pi^+, K ^+ $ and protons) were used with a momentum ranging from 10~to~300~GeV/c. \\\\ \\\\The RD-5 program has covered several topics related to muon detection at LHC: \\\\ \\\\\\begin{description} \\item[(i)]~~study of the behaviour of muons from hadron punchthrough and decays, and also ...

  11. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance in Run I and Initial Run II Performance

    Bielski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run I, the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC reached 7.7x1033 cm-2s-1 and the average number of events that occur in a same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. The performance of muon triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns is presented, together with an overview and preliminary results of the new muon str...

  12. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Trigger with Beam Collisions at the LHC

    Oh, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has taken its first data with colliding beams. The LHC aims to deliver an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 in the run period 2010/2011 at luminosities of up to 1032 cm-2 s-1, which requires active rejection of events in the trigger system. The muon system is the largest sub-detector of the ATLAS experiment and has the capability to reconstruct muons in standalone mode, as well as in combination with the Inner Detector tracking. It deploys different detector technologies, resistive plate chambers and thin gap chambers to provide fast trigger signals, and monitored drift tubes and cathode strip chambers for precision measurements. The L1 muon trigger gets its input from the fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The Muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level 2 trigger followed by an event...

  13. Bunched beam test of the CMS drift tubes local muon trigger

    Arce, P; Benettoni, M; Benvenuti, A C; Bonacorsi, D; Bontenackels, M; Caballero, J; Cafaro, V; Capiluppi, P; Castellani, L; Cavallo, F R; Cerrada, M; Checchia, P; Colino, N; Conti, E; Corvo, M; de la Cruz, B; Dal Corso, F; Dallavalle, G M; De Giorgi, M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fernández, C; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; García-Abia, P; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Gonella, F; Grandi, C; Guiducci, L; Gulmini, M; Hebbeker, T; Hernández, J M; Höpfner, K; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Lacaprara, S; Lippi, I; Mameghani, R; Marcellini, S; Maron, G; Martinelli, R; Maselli, S; Masetti, G; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Meng, G; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Montecassiano, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Odorici, F; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Peroni, C; Perrotta, A; Ponte-Sancho, A J; Puerta, J; Reithler, H; Romero, A; Romero, L; Ronchese, P; Rossi, A; Rovelli, T; Sacchi, R; Staiano, A; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Vanini, S; Ventura, L; Ventura, Sandro; Villanueva, C; Willmott, C; Zanetti, M; Zangrando, L; Zotto, P L; Zumerle, G

    2004-01-01

    The 40 MHz bunched muon beam set up at CERN was used in May 2003 to make a full test of the drift tubes local muon trigger. The main goal of the test was to prove that the integration of the various devices located on a muon chamber was adequately done both on the hardware and software side of the system. Furthermore the test provided complete information about the general performance of the trigger algorithms in terms of efficiency and noise. Data were collected with the default configuration of the trigger devices and with several alternative configurations at various angles of incidence of the beam. Tests on noise suppression and di-muon trigger capability were performed.

  14. The Octant Module of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface

    Haas, Stefan; Berge, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Wengler, T

    2007-01-01

    The Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger receives data from the sector logic modules of the muon trigger at every bunch crossing and calculates the total multiplicity of muon candidates, which is then sent to the Central Trigger Processor where the final Level-1 decision is taken. The MUCTPI system consists of a 9U VME crate with a special backplane and 18 custom designed modules. We focus on the design and implementation of the octant module (MIOCT). Each of the 16 MIOCT modules processes the muon candidates from 13 sectors of one half-octant of the detector and forms the local muon candidate multiplicities for the trigger decision. It also resolves the overlaps between chambers in order to avoid double-counting of muon candidates that are detected in more than one sector. The handling of overlapping sectors is based on Look-Up-Tables (LUT) for maximum flexibility. The MIOCT also sends the information on the muon candidates over the custom backplane via the Readou...

  15. The First-Level and High-Level Muon Triggers of the Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment at CERN

    Sakulin, H

    2003-01-01

    High transverse momentum muons are expected to play a crucial role in the discovery of the Standard Model Higgs, precision Standard Model measurements, as well as in the discovery of new physics such as Supersymmetry at CERN's new Large Hadron Collider. In order to provide efficient and precise muon detection, three muon systems are utilized in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment: Drift Tubes in the barrel, Cathode Strip Chambers in the endcaps and Resistive Plate Chambers throughout for trigger information complementary to the high-precision tracking measurements of the first two systems. The CMS trigger has to reduce the event rate from the LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to a rate of approximately 100 Hz, the maximum that can be recorded for offline analysis. This enormous reduction is achieved in several subsequent levels: while the first level trigger reduces the initial rate to a maximum of 100 kHz employing fully pipelined custom-built electronics, the following higher trigger levels will run ...

  16. ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger robustness study at X5 test facility

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F C; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors, as designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small RPC chambers with part of the final trigger electronics are used, while the trigger coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation model. copy 2003 Published by Esevier B.V. 3 Refs.

  17. Fine Synchronization of the CMS Muon Drift-Tube Local Trigger using Cosmic Rays

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; 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    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment uses self-triggering arrays of drift tubes in the barrel muon trigger to perform the identification of the correct bunch crossing. The identification is unique only if the trigger chain is correctly synchronized. In this paper, the synchronization performed during an extended cosmic ray run is described and the results are reported. The random arrival time of cosmic ray muons allowed several synchronization aspects to be studied and a simple method for the fine synchronization of the Drift Tube Local Trigger at LHC to be developed.

  18. Performance of the CMS Level-1 Trigger during Commissioning with Cosmic Ray Muons and LHC beams

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Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Level-1 trigger was used to select cosmic ray muons and LHC beam events during data-taking runs in 2008, and to estimate the level of detector noise. This paper describes the trigger components used, the algorithms that were executed, and the trigger synchronisation. Using data from extended cosmic ray runs, the muon, electron/photon, and jet triggers have been validated, and their performance evaluated. Efficiencies were found to be high, resolutions were found to be good, and rates as expected.

  19. Conception and validation software tools for the level 0 muon trigger of LHCb

    The Level-0 muon trigger processor of the LHCb experiment looks for straight particles crossing muon detector and measures their transverse momentum. It processes 40*106 proton-proton collisions per second. The tracking uses a road algorithm relying on the projectivity of the muon detector (the logical layout in the 5 muon station is projective in y to the interaction point and it is also projective in x when the bending in the horizontal direction introduced by the magnetic field is ignored). The architecture of the Level-0 muon trigger is complex with a dense network of data interconnections. The design and validation of such an intricate system has only been possible with intense use of software tools for the detector simulation, the modelling of the hardware components behaviour and the validation. A database describing the data-flow is the corner stone between the software and hardware components. (authors)

  20. A Cherenkov counter designed as a muon trigger for the SDC detector

    A test of a gas Cherenkov counter was performed at Fermilab in the High Energy Muon Lab in order to understand its performance as a trigger counter for muons above a given momentum. This counter was built so that it could rotate relative to the beam direction to simulate the bending of muon tracks in the toroidal magnet of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) being designed for use at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The SDC Cherenkov counter is so designed that a high momentum muon would emit Cherenkov light that is focussed on the face of a photomultiplier tube while a low momentum muon in the forward element of the SDC detector is bent to large enough angles so that the light is focussed away from the photomultiplier tube. We present the observed changes in pulse height as the counter is rotated and the simulated resultant trigger efficiency for a given photomultiplier output pulse. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary performance studies for the ATLAS Muon Trigger during initial Run 2

    Reale, Marilea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The physics program of the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) includes the search for the Higgs Boson and the measurements of its properties, searches for new physics and precision measurements of the Standard Model. Events with high momentum muons in the final state are an important signature of many of these physics topics, then an efficient muon trigger and a deep understanding of its performance are crucial. During Run 1 the ATLAS muon trigger was successfully adapted to the challenging environment, thus reaching an excellent performance. During Run 2 ~100 pb-1 of data with 50 ns bunch spacing have been already collected, while the collection of data with 25 ns bunch spacing is currently ongoing. As the data taking proceeds, the muon trigger performance is being constantly monitored. The muon trigger efficiency, studied both with respect to offline muon reconstruction and with Tag&Probe method applied to the Z decays in muon pairs, is presented here as a function of different kinem...

  2. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance in Run I and Initial Run II Performance

    Bielski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run I, the instantaneous luminosity reached $7.7\\times10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and the average number of interactions that occur in the same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS muon trigger has successfully adapted to this challenging environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. The performance of muon triggers during the Large Hadron Collider Run I data-taking campaigns is presented, together with an overview and pre...

  3. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance : Run 1 and initial Run 2.

    Kasahara, Kota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run 1, the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC reached 7.7x10^33 cm -2s-1 and the average number of events that occur in a same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. 
The performance of muon triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns is presented, together with an overview and preliminary results of the new muo...

  4. Design and Simulation of the First Level Global Muon Trigger for the CMS Experiment at CERN

    Sakulin, Hannes

    2002-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the First Level Global Muon Trigger (GMT) for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Particle Physics Laboratory CERN. The First Level Trigger electronics reduce the event rate from 40MHz (bunch crossing rate of the LHC) to 100 kHz, the maximal input rate of the higher level triggers, by selecting potentially interesting events on the basis of coarsely segmented data from the calorimeters and the three muon systems in CMS. It is the task of the GMT to combine independent measurements of regional triggers in each of the muon systems and to determine the best four muons in the entire detector for each bunch crossing. In order to apply isolation criteria and to achieve confirmation by the calorimeter the GMT further correlates muon measurements with regions in the calorimeter. The GMT algorithms were elaborated with the help of detailed simulations of the detector and trigger system. The logic design of the main GMT electronics ...

  5. Trigger algorithms and electronics for the ATLAS muon new small wheel upgrade

    The New Small Wheel Upgrade for the ATLAS experiment will replace the innermost station of the Muon Spectrometer in the forward region in order to maintain its current performance during high luminosity data-taking after the LHC Phase-I upgrade. The New Small Wheel, comprising Micromegas and small Thin Gap Chambers, will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from backgrounds in the forward region and significantly improve the Level-1 muon trigger selectivity by providing precise on-line segment measurements with ∼ 1 mrad angular resolution. Such demanding precision, together with the short time (∼ 1 μs) to prepare trigger data and perform on-line reconstruction, implies very stringent requirements on the design of trigger system and trigger electronics. This paper presents an overview of the design of the New Small Wheel trigger system, trigger algorithms and processor hardware

  6. A Muon Trigger with high pT-resolution for Phase-II of the LHC Upgrade, based on the ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Chambers

    Nowak, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Trigger in the ATLAS end-cap region is based on Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) which have an excellent time resolution but a moderate spatial resolution. The Muon Trigger efficiency curves show that for a transverse momentum ($p_{t}$) threshold of 20 GeVc$^{-1}$ the trigger rate is mainly dominated by muons with a $p_{t}$ between 10 GeVc$^{-1}$ and 20 GeVc$^{-1}$. To cope with the expected Muon Trigger rate at HL-LHC luminosities, we propose to include the precision tracking chambers (MDT) in the Muon Trigger. According to a potential study based on ATLAS data and assuming the HL-LHC scenario, this leads to a dramatical reduction of the Muon Trigger rate below the nominal threshold. As the already existing MDT chamber read-out chain is not capable of reading out the MDT fast enough to be used for the Muon Trigger, an additional fast read-out (FRO) chain with moderate spatial resolution but low latency is necessary. To conduct fast track reconstruction and muon $p_{t}$ determination with the data acqui...

  7. Design and performance of the upgrade of the CMS L1 muon trigger

    Bortignon, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) LHC will run at a center of mass energy of 13TeV, providing CMS with proton collisions at an expected luminosity which is almost double the LHC design value of $10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$, and almost three times the peak luminosity reached during Run1 of $7.7\\cdot10^{33} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. The higher luminosity and center of mass energy of the LHC will raise the Level 1 (L1) muon trigger rate by almost a factor six for a given muon transverse momentum $\\text{p}_{\\text{T}}$ threshold. It is therefore necessary to increase the muon ($\\text{p}_{\\text{T}}$) threshold to keep the trigger rate below 100 kHz, the maximum sustainable rate for the CMS detectors. An increase of the L1 trigger thresholds implies a lowering of the efficiency in detecting signals from new physics. The CMS muon trigger is upgraded using custom designed AMC boards, with more powerful FPGAs and larger memories. The upgraded CMS muon trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Bo...

  8. Muon tracking and triggering with gaseous detectors and some applications

    Sharma, Archana

    2012-01-01

    In this review paper the present state-of-the-art of muon detection systems using gaseous detectors at the Large Hadron collider (LHC) is described. Beginning with a discussion of the concepts of muon detection systems, a comparison of the various technologies used is made with respect to the challenges at present experiments, and developments for future upgrades are discussed. Starting from wire chambers, micropattern detectors are described and their readiness for upgrades is highlighted. Aging, long-term sustained operation and factors affecting gas choice are discussed. Finally some applications outside particle physics are also presented.

  9. Design and Test of the Off-Detector Electronics for the CMS Barrel Muon Trigger

    Guiducci, Luigi; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R

    2007-01-01

    Drift Tubes chambers are used in the CMS barrel for tagging the passage of high Pt muons generated in a LHC event and for triggering the CMS data read out. The Sector Collector (SC) system synchronizes the track segments built by trigger modules on the chambers and deliver them to reconstruction processors (Track Finder, TF) that assemble full muon tracks. Then, the Muon Sorter (MS) has to select the best four candidates in the barrel and to filter fake muons generated by the TF system redundancy. The hardware implementations of the Sector Collector and Muon Sorter systems satisfy radiation, I/O and fast timing constraints using several FPGA technologies. The hardware was tested with custom facilities, integrated with other trigger subsystems, and operated in a beam test. A test beam on a 40 MHz bunched beam validated the local trigger electronics and off-detector prototype cards and the synchronization tools. The CMS Magnet Test and Cosmic challenge in 2006 proved stable and reliable operation of the Drift T...

  10. The Muon Spectrometer Barrel Level-1 Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    Aloisio, A; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Izzo, V; Migliaccio, A; Ciapetti, G; Di Mattia, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Petrolo, E; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Salamon, A

    2006-01-01

    The proton-proton beam crossing at the LHC accelerator at CERN will have a rate of 40 MHz at the project luminosity. The ATLAS Trigger System has been designed in three levels in order to select only interesting physics events reducing from that rate of 40 MHz to the foreseen storage rate of about 200 Hz. The First Level reduces the output rate to about 100 kHz. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer has been designed to perform stand-alone triggering and measurement of muon transverse momentum up to 1 TeV/c with good resolution (from 3% at 10 GeV/c up to 10% at 1 TeV/c). In the Barrel region of the Muon Spectrometer the Level-1 trigger is given by means of three layers of Resistive Plate Chamber detectors (RPC): a gaseous detector working in avalanche mode composed by two plates of high-resistivity bakelite and two orthogonal planes of read-out strips. The logic of the Level-1 barrel muon trigger is based on the search of patterns of RPC hits in the three layers consistent with a high transverse momentum muon track ori...

  11. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHCs Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer.An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger ($\\mu$GMT). B...

  12. A Trigger Data Serialize ASIC for the ATLAS Forward Muon Detector Upgrade

    Wang, Jinhong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The small-strip Thin-Gap Chambers (sTGC) will be used as both trigger and precision tracking muon detectors for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) muon detector. A Trigger data serializer (TDS) ASIC is required to prepare trigger data for both sTGC pad and strip detectors, perform pad-strip matching, and serializer trigger data to the circuits on the rim the rim of the NSW detector. The large number of input channels (128 differential input channels), short time available to prepare and transmit trigger data (<100 ns), high speed output data rate (4.8 Gbps), harsh radiation environment (about 300 kRad), and low power consumption (<1 W) all impose great challenges for the design of this ASIC using the IBM 130 nm CMOS process. We present our design and consderation of the TDS ASIC and the first prototype we built

  13. Development of Advanced Gaseous Detectors for Muon Tracking and Triggering in Collider Experiments

    Guan, Liang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhu, Junjie

    High luminosity and high energy collider experiments impose big challenges to conventional gaseous detectors used for muon tracking and triggering. Stringent requirements, in terms of time and spatial resolutions, rate capabilities etc. are expected. In the context of ATLAS muon upgrade project, we present extensive researches and developments of advanced gas detectors for precision muon tracking and triggering in high rate environments. Particularly, this dissertation focuses on the studies of Micro-mesh Gaseous structure (Micromegas), thin gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) and small strip Thin Gap multi-wire Chambers (sTGC). In this dissertation, we first present a novel method, based on thermally bonding micro-meshes to anodes, to construct Micromegas detectors. Without employing the traditional photo-lithography process, it is a convenient alternative to build Micromegas. Both experimental and simulation studies of basic performance parameters of thermo-bonded Micromegas will be reported. Development...

  14. Data transfer simulation for the RPC muon trigger of the CMS experiment

    Górski, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P

    2004-01-01

    Proton-proton collisions in the LHC accelerator will occur every 25ns. The muon trigger of the CMS experiment will have to analyse data from 200000 channels of RPC chambers every bunch crossing. Special compression algorithm has been developed to transmit the data from the chambers to the trigger electronics through optical fibers. The data flow has been simulated, and the data loss estimate is presented.

  15. Design and simulation of the CMS first-level muon trigger track finder

    Wildschek, T

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider LHC is scheduled to start operation in the year 2005 at the CERN research center. Experiments at this collider will look for extremely rare physics events hidden in an overwhelming rate of background events. It is the task of the experiment's trigger system to reduce the total event rate to a level that can be recorded permanently for later analysis. The high reduction factor from total rate to recording rate places demands on the experiment's trigger system that go beyond any experienced at previous high-energy physics experiments. The objective of my thesis has been to design a part of that trigger system, the regional first level muon trigger, of one of the LHC experiments, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. At the beginning, I give a brief introduction to the LHC and its physics motivation, followed by an overview of the CMS detector. The emphasis is on the detector's muon system. Next comes a general introduction to triggering, followed by an overview of the CMS trigger s...

  16. JTAG test system for RPC muon trigger in the CMS experiment

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Pietrusinski, M; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Rutkowski, P Z

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical and practical realisation of the JTAG testing system for the RPC Muon trigger of the CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN laboratory (Geneva) is presented. The paper covers issues related to tests of connections of the printed circuit boards (PCB) of the RPC trigger. Functionality tests of devices and modules were performed. Special tests were designed for large PLD FPGA. Testing environment for the JTAG model is discussed. The model is based on some existing and some newly developed testing algorithms. Practical system realisation is presented. The system consists of the hardware interface and the software layer. Software was built using C++ object oriented language and databases. Exemplary tests of the RPC Muon trigger electronics was performed and the results were given.

  17. Slice Test Results of the ATLAS Barrel Muon Level-1 Trigger

    Aielli, G; Alviggi, M G; Bocci, V; Brambilla, Elena; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Cardarelli, R; Cataldi, G; De Asmundis, R; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Distante, L; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Iengo, P; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Severi, M; Spagnolo, S; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; 9th Workshop On Electronics For LHC Experiments - LECC 2003

    2003-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment makes use of the Resistive Plate Chambers detectors for particle tracking in the barrel region. The level-1 muon trigger system has to measure and discriminate muon transverse momentum, perform a fast and coarse tracking of the muon candidates, associate them to the bunch crossing corresponding to the event of interest, measure the second coordinate in the non-bending projection. The on-detector electronics first collects front-end signals coming from the two inner RPC stations on the low-pT PAD boards, each one covering a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.2, and hosting four Coincidence Matrix ASICs. Each CMA performs the low-pT trigger algorithm and data readout on a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.1. Data coming from the four CMAs are assembled by the low-pT PAD logic. Each low-pT PAD board sends data to the corresponding high-pT PAD boards, located on the outer RPC station. Four CMA on each board make use of the low-pT trigger result and of the front-end signals coming from...

  18. The First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATLAS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern

    Sugimoto, T; Takahashi, Y; Tomoto, M; Fukunaga, C; Ikeno, M; Iwasaki, H; Nagano, K; Nozaki, M; Sasaki, O; Tanaka, S; Yasu, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Oshita, H; Takeshita, T; Nomachi, M; Sugaya, Y; Kubota, T; Ishino, M; Kanaya, N; Kawamoto, T; Kobayashi, T; Kuwabara, T; Nomoto, H; Sakamoto, H; Yamaguchi, T; Kadosaka, T; Kawagoe, K; Kiyamura, H; Kurashige, H; Niwa, T; Ochi, A; Omachi, C; Takeda, H; Lifshitz, R; Lupu, N; Bressler, S; Tarem, S; Kajomovitz, E; Ben Ami, S; Bahat Treidel, O; Benhammou, Ya; Etzion, E; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Mikenberg, G; Roich, A

    2007-01-01

    We report on the ATLAS commissioning run from the view point of the Thin Gap Chamber (TGC), which is the ATLAS end cap muon trigger detector. All the TGC sectors with on-detector electronics are going to be installed to the ATLAS cavern by the end of September 2007. To integrate all sub-detectors before the physics run starting from early 2008, the global commissioning run together with other sub-detectors has been performed from June 2007. We have evaluated the performance of the complete trigger chain of the TGC electronics and provide the trigger signal using cosmic-ray to the sub-systems in the global run environment.

  19. Muons in the CMS High Level Trigger System

    Verwilligen, Piet Omer J

    2014-01-01

    The trigger systems of LHC detectors play a fundamental role in defining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude in the rate of collected events, with respect to the proton-proton bunch crossing rate generated by the LHC, is mandatory to cope with the limits imposed by the readout and storage system. An accurate and efficient online selection mechanism is thus required to fulfill the task keeping maximal the acceptance to physics signals. The CMS experiment operates using a two-level trigger system. Firstly a Level-1 Trigger (L1T) system, implemented using custom-designed electronics, is designed to reduce the event rate to a limit compatible to the CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) capabilities. A High Level Trigger System (HLT) follows, aimed at further reducing the rate of collected events finally stored for analysis purposes. The latter consists of a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software and operates on a computer farm. It runs algorithms o...

  20. Muon beam trigger and CMS RPC detectors studies in GIF++

    Lomidze, Irakli

    2015-01-01

    During my stay at CERN I took part in the following projects: 1. Installing and testing of the air conditioning system in GIF++ irradiation facility 2. Reconstruction and testing of stand for the RPC chambers hermetic testing 3. Work concerning the Near trigger 4. Modification of the RPC trolley 3

  1. The RD27 muon trigger co-incidence array demonstrator ASIC

    One aim of the RD27 project is to perform design and R and D work leading to a first level muon trigger for an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of an ASIC for a trigger demonstrator system. The trigger system is implemented using a set of seven chambers. The low momentum trigger requires hits in three out of the four inner chambers. The high momentum trigger requires a low momentum trigger and hits in two of three outer chambers. This scheme allows for chamber inefficiencies for real muons and reduces the trigger rate from neutron and photon-induced background in the detectors. The core of the ASIC is an eight by twenty-four input double co-incidence array allowing two momentum cuts to be applied. The ASIC has multiple inputs per axis and includes the multiplicity logic. The design of the ASIC is flexible enough to demonstrate fully combinatorial operation, fully pipelined operation, or any combination of the two. The ASIC has been fabricated using a 34K gate, 0.5microm CMOS gate array from Fujitsu. Testing confirms it can be pipelined at above 100MHz or fully combinatorial with a measured maximum propagation delay of 7.4ns, varying by up to 2ns depending on input pattern

  2. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance in pp collisions at $\\sqrt s$ = 8 TeV

    Klinger, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), for instance searches for muonic Higgs boson decays or new phenomena, or measurements of the standard model (SM) processes like top-quark, W-boson, and Z-boson production. The use of efficient trigger muon selections during data taking and a good understanding of their performance is crucial for these physics studies. At the LHC high rejection power against the large SM backgrounds, while simulatneously maintaining high efficiency for rare signal events, is required at the online trigger stage. The ATLAS experiment employs a multi-level trigger architecture that selects the events in three sequential steps of increasing complexity and accuracy to cope with this challenging task. This presentation reports about efficiency, resolution, and general performance of the ATLAS muon trigger for proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt s$ = 8TeV collected in year 2012.

  3. The trigger chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer: production and tests

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer (ATLAS Collaboration, ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Technical Design Report CERN/LHCC/97-22, ATLAS TDR 10, 1997.) will use dedicated detectors to trigger on muons and to identify the bunch-crossing at the appropriate rate. The Spectrometer has been designed to perform stand-alone triggering and measurement of muon transverse momentum up to 1 TeV with good resolution (from 3% up to 10% at 1 TeV). The magnetic system is composed of three large superconducting air-core toroids instrumented with trigger and high-precision tracking chambers, a central part (barrel) composed of eight coils and two end-cap magnets. The high-precision tracking system is based on Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) in the small angle-regions. The Level-1 trigger is provided by Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in the barrel and Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) in the end-cap. These detectors will also measure the track coordinates in the magnetic field direction (second coordinate), to complement the precision tracking provided by the MDT which only measure the track coordinates in the bending direction of the magnetic field. The trigger system covers an area of 3650 m2 in the barrel and 2900 m2 in the end-cap. In the barrel region three double-gap RPC stations are used, two in the middle and one in the outer MDT chamber layer. In the end-cap region one triple-gap TGC station is used, in front of the middle MDT station, and two double-gap TGC stations behind it. The mass production of both systems is under way. The systems were involved in extensive beam tests in 2002-2003, testing their compliance with LHC timing requirements using 25 ns beam bunching to emulate the LHC beam structure, aging under critical environment conditions and so on

  4. Radiation tests of CMS RPC muon trigger electronic components

    Bunkowski, Karol; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Królikowski, J; Kudla, MacIej; Maenpaa, Teppo; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Rybka, Dominik; Tuominen, Eija; Ungaro, Donatella; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zabolotny, W M

    2005-01-01

    The results of proton irradiation test of electronic devices, selected for the RPC trigger electronic system of the CMS detector, will be presented. For Xilinx Spartan-IIE FPGA the cross-section for Single Event Upsets (SEUs) in configuration bits was measured. The dynamic SEUs in flip-flops were also investigated, but not observed. For the FLASH memories no single upsets were detected. Only after irradiating with a huge dose permanent damages of devices were observed. For Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM), the SEU cross-section was measured.

  5. Performance of ATLAS RPC Level-1 muon trigger during the 2015 data taking

    Corradi, Massimo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    RPCs are used in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC for muon trigger in the barrel region, which corresponds to |eta|<1.05. The status of the barrel trigger system during the 2015 data taking is presented, including measurements of the RPC detector efficiencies and of the trigger performance. The RPC system has been active in more than 99.9% of the ATLAS data taking, showing very good reliability. The RPC detector efficiencies were close to Run-1 and to design value. The trigger efficiency for the high-pT thresholds used in single-muon triggers has been approximately 4% lower than in Run 1, mostly because of chambers disconnected from HV due to gas leaks. Two minor upgrades have been performed in preparation of Run 2 by adding the so-called feet and elevator chambers to increase the system acceptance. The feet chambers have been commissioned during 2015 and are included in the trigger since the last 2015 runs. Part of the elevator chambers are still in commissioning phase and will probably need a replacement ...

  6. The coincidence matrix ASIC of the level-1 muon barrel trigger of the ATLAS experiment

    Bocci, V; Salamon, A; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel level-1 muon trigger processes hit information from the resistive plate chamber detector, identifying candidate muon tracks and assigning them to a programmable p/sub T/ range and to a unique bunch crossing number. The trigger system uses up to seven detector layers and seeks hit patterns compatible with muon tracks in the bending and nonbending projection. The basic principle of the algorithm is to demand a coincidence of hits in the different chamber layers within a path. The width of the road is related to the p/sub T / threshold to be applied. The system is split into an on-detector and an off-detector part. The on-detector electronics reduces the information from about 350 k channels to about 400 32-bit data words sent via optical fiber to the so-called sector logic (SL). The off- detector SL electronics collects muon candidates and associates them to detector regions-of-interest of Delta eta * Delta Phi of 0.1*0.1. The core of the on-detector electronics is the coincidence matrix ASIC (...

  7. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance in pp Collisions at sqrt(s)=8 TeV in Year 2012 Runs

    Nobe, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at Large Hadron Collider (LHC), for instance, searches for Higgs boson production or new phenomena, measurements on the standard model processes like top-quark, W, Z production. Thus, efficient trigger on muons in data taking and understanding its performance are crucial to perform these physics studies. At LHC high rejection power against large backgrounds, while maintaining high efficiency for rare signal events, is required for online selection at the trigger level. The ATLAS experiment employs a multi-level trigger architecture that selects the events in three sequential steps of increasing complexity and accuracy to cope with this challenging task. The L1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The Muon HLT is purely software ba...

  8. The ATLAS muon trigger performance in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV in year 2012 runs

    Nobe, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at Large Hadron Collider (LHC), for instance, searches for Higgs boson production or new phenomena, measurements on the standard model processes like top-quark, W, Z production. Thus, efficient trigger on muons in data taking and understanding its performance are crucial to perform these physics studies. At LHC high rejection power against large backgrounds, while maintaining high efficiency for rare signal events, is required for online selection at the trigger level. The ATLAS experiment employs a multi-level trigger architecture that selects the events in three sequential steps of increasing complexity and accuracy to cope with this challenging task. The L1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The Muon HLT is purely software ba...

  9. Performance of the RPC-based ALICE muon trigger system at the LHC

    Bossù, Francesco; Marchisone, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The forward muon spectrometer of ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is equipped with a trigger system made of four planes of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), arranged in two stations with two planes each, for a total area of about 140 m2 . The system provides single and di-muon triggers with suitable transverse momentum selection, optimised for the physics of quarkonia and open heavy flavour. In the first two years of data-taking at the Large Hadron Collider (2010 and 2011) the 72 RPCs were operated in highly saturated avalanche mode in both pp and Pb-Pb collisions. The integrated charge was about 1.3 mC/cm2 on average and 3.5 mC/cm2 for the most exposed detectors. This paper describes two main results. The first result is the determination of the RPC performance, with particular focus on the stability of the main detector parameters such as efficiency, dark current, and dark rate. The second result is the measurement of the muon trigger performance in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV, in terms o...

  10. RPCs as trigger detector for the ATLAS experiment performances, simulation and application to the level-1 di-muon trigger

    Di Simone, A; Di Ciaccio, A

    2005-01-01

    In the muon spectrometer different detectors are used to provide trigger functionality and precision momentum measurements. In the pseudorapidity range |eta|<1 the first level muon trigger is based on Resistive Plate Chambers, gas ionization detectors which are characterized by a fast response and an excellent time resolution (<1.5ns). The working principles of the Resistive Plate Chambers will be illustrated in chapter 3. Given the long time of operation expected for the ATLAS experiment (~10 years), ageing phenomena have been carefully studied, in order to ensure stable long-term operation of all the subdetectors. Concerning Resistive Plate Chambers, a very extensive ageing test has been performed at CERN's Gamma Irradiation Facility on three production chambers. The results of this test are presented in chapter 4. One of the most commonly used gases in RPCs operation is C2H2F4, which during the gas discharge can produce fluorine ions. Being F one of the most aggressive elements in nature, the presenc...

  11. Development and Evaluation of the Muon Trigger Detector Using a Resistive Plate Chamber

    The PHENIX Experiment is the largest of the four experiments that have taken data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. PHENIX, the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, is designed specifically to measure direct probes of the collisions such as electrons, muons, and photons. The primary goal of PHENIX is to discover and study a new state of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Among many particles, muons coming from W-boson decay gives us key information to analyze the spin of proton. Resistive plate chambers are proposed as a suitable solution as a muon trigger because of their fast response and good time resolution, flexibility in signal readout, robustness and the relatively low cost of production. The RPC detectors for upgrade were assembled and their performances were evaluated. The procedure to make the detectors better was optimized and described in detail in this thesis. The code based on ROOT was written and by using this the performance of the detectors made was evaluated, and all of the modules for north muon arm met the criteria and installation at PHENIX completed in November 2009. As RPC detectors that we made showed fast response, capacity of covering wide area with a resonable price and good spatial resolution, this will give the opportunity for applications, such as diagnosis and customs inspection system

  12. Development and Evaluation of the Muon Trigger Detector Using a Resistive Plate Chamber

    Park, Byeong Hyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kyun; Kang, Jeong Soo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Ihn Jea [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven (United States); Kim, Chong; Hong, Byung Sik [Korea University, Seol (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The PHENIX Experiment is the largest of the four experiments that have taken data at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. PHENIX, the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, is designed specifically to measure direct probes of the collisions such as electrons, muons, and photons. The primary goal of PHENIX is to discover and study a new state of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Among many particles, muons coming from W-boson decay gives us key information to analyze the spin of proton. Resistive plate chambers are proposed as a suitable solution as a muon trigger because of their fast response and good time resolution, flexibility in signal readout, robustness and the relatively low cost of production. The RPC detectors for upgrade were assembled and their performances were evaluated. The procedure to make the detectors better was optimized and described in detail in this thesis. The code based on ROOT was written and by using this the performance of the detectors made was evaluated, and all of the modules for north muon arm met the criteria and installation at PHENIX completed in November 2009. As RPC detectors that we made showed fast response, capacity of covering wide area with a resonable price and good spatial resolution, this will give the opportunity for applications, such as diagnosis and customs inspection system.

  13. Development of a Concept for the Muon Trigger of the ATLAS Detector at the HL-LHC

    Gadow, Paul Philipp

    Highly selective first level triggers are essential to exploit the full physics potential of the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider, where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC Run 1 instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS experiment plans to increase the rate of the first trigger level to 1 MHz at 6 µs latency. The momentum resolution of the existing first level muon trigger is limited by the moderate position resolution of the trigger chambers. Including the data of the precision Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers in the first level muon trigger decision will increase the selectivity of the first level muon trigger substantially. Run 1 LHC data with a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\, \\textrm{TeV}$ and a bunch spacing of 25 ns was used to study the achievable selectivity of a muon trigger making use of the MDT data. It could be shown that it is not necessary to fully reconstruct the muon trajectory. The position and direction informa...

  14. Performance of ATLAS RPC Level-1 Muon trigger during the 2015 data taking

    Corradi, Massimo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Its input stage consists of an array of processors receiving the full granularity of data from Resistive Plate Chambers in the central area of the ATLAS detector ("Barrel"). The trigger efficiency and the level of synchronisation of its elements with the rest of ATLAS and the LHC clock are crucial figures of this system: many parameters of the constituent RPC detector and the trigger electronics have to be constantly and carefully checked to assure a correct functioning of the Level-1 selection. Notwithstanding the complexity of such a large array of integrated RPC detectors, the ATLAS Level-1 system has resumed operations successfully after the past 2 year shutdown, with levels similar to those of Run 1. We present the inclusive monitoring of the RPC+L1 system that we have developed to characterise the behaviour of the system, using reconstructed muons in events selected by...

  15. Muon trigger, flavour tagging and physics performance of the LHCb experiment; Trigger a muons, etiquetage de la saveur et performances physiques de l'experience LHCb

    Leroy, O

    2007-10-15

    The LHCb experiment that is being settled in CERN is dedicated to the study of CP violation and rare decays in the field of beauty hadrons. The phenomenological background necessary to an adequate understanding of the physics of flavor is presented in the first chapter, it is shown how the flavordynamics can open the way to new physics. The second chapter is dedicated to a brief presentation of the LHCb detector. Two aspects of the design of the muon trigger are more detailed: the radiation resistance of the opto-electronic transmitters and the simulated performances of the trigger. The third chapter reviews the tasks linked to the tagging of the savors of B mesons which will be an important step in all the experiments made at LHCb. The recent progress in heavy savor physics as well as the expected contribution of LHCb in this field are presented in the fourth chapter, especially the search for new physics in penguin diagrams b {yields} s.

  16. A 3-D Track-Finding Processor for the CMS Level-1 Muon Trigger

    Acosta, D.(University of Florida, Gainesville, USA); Golovtsov, V.; Kan, M.; Madorsky, A.; Scurlock, B; Stoeck, H; Uvarov, L.; Wang, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the design and test results of a prototype processor for the CMS Level-1 trigger that performs 3-D track reconstruction and measurement from data recorded by the cathode strip chambers of the endcap muon system. The tracking algorithms are written in C++ using a class library we developed that facilitates automatic conversion to Verilog. The code is synthesized into firmware for field-programmable gate-arrays from the Xilinx Virtex-II series. A second-generation prototype has bee...

  17. Software framework developed for the slice test of the ATLAS endcap muon trigger system

    Komatsu, S; Ishida, Y; Tanaka, K; Hasuko, K; Kano, H; Matsumoto, Y; Yakamura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Ikeno, M; Nakayoshi, K; Sasaki, O; Yasu, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Totsuka, M; Tsuji, S; Maeno, T; Ichimiya, R; Kurashige, H

    2002-01-01

    A sliced system test of the ATLAS end cap muon level 1 trigger system has been done in 2001 and 2002 separately. We have developed an own software framework for property and run controls for the slice test in 2001. The system is described in C++ throughout. The multi-PC control system is accomplished using the CORBA system. We have then restructured the software system on top of the ATLAS online software framework, and used this one for the slice test in 2002. In this report we discuss two systems in detail with emphasizing the module property configuration and run control. (8 refs).

  18. Performance of the ATLAS muon trigger in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$8 TeV

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the ATLAS muon trigger system has been evaluated with proton--proton collision data collected in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The performance was primarily evaluated using events containing a pair of muons from the decay of Z bosons. The efficiency is measured for the single-muon trigger for a kinematic region of the transverse momentum $p_{T}$ between 25 and 100 GeV, with a statistical uncertainty of less than 0.01% and a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%. The performance is also compared in detail to the predictions from simulation. The efficiency was measured over a wide pT range (a few GeV to several hundred GeV) by using muons from $\\rm J/ \\psi$ mesons,W bosons, and top and antitop quarks. It showed highly uniform and stable performance.

  19. Feasibility study of a LVL-2 low pT di-muon trigger based on Tile calorimeter

    Usai, G L

    2003-01-01

    A strategy for tagging muons in TILECAL at LVL2 will be presented and its efficiency and contamination will be discussed. It turns out that TILECAL can identify muons with good efficiency down to $p_T=2GeV/c$ where the stand-alone muon spectrometer has zero efficiency. A method of exploiting all information available at LVL2 to reduce spurious muon-tag and measure the candidate muon momentum is discussed. This scheme is tested in particular in the case of $b\\bar{b}$ events at low LHC luminosity ($10^{33}cm^{-1}s^{-2}$) with full simulation of experimental conditions. The results will be discussed and trigger rate calculation will be presented.

  20. Studies of Read-Out Electronics and Trigger for Muon Drift Tube Detectors at High Luminosities

    Nowak, Sebastian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. For precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs-Boson and searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, the LHC luminosity of $L=10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ is planned to be increased by a factor of ten leading to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to cope with the higher background and data rates, the LHC experiments need to be upgraded. In this thesis, studies for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are presented with respect to the read-out electronics of the Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) and the small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers and the Level-1 muon trigger. Due to the reduced tube diameter of sMDT chambers, background occupancy and space charge effects are suppressed by an order of magnitude compar...

  1. Test results of the ASIC front-end trigger prototypes for the muon barrel detector of CMS at LHC

    A sample of ASIC prototypes of the first-level trigger front-end device for the muon barrel drift chambers of CMS was tested on a full size chamber prototype. Tests were performed at several incident angles on cosmic rays and at normal incidence using a muon beam. The chamber was irradiated using a 137Cs gamma source to simulate the LHC radiation environment. The performance of the tested prototypes with respect to efficiency, resolution and noise issues is reported

  2. A Simulation of the Front End Signal Digitization for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer thin RPC trigger upgrade project

    Meng, Xiangting; Chapman, John; Levin, Daniel; Dai, Tiesheng; Zhu, Junjie; Zhou, Bing; Um Atlas Group Team

    2016-03-01

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Phase-I (and Phase-II) upgrade includes the BIS78 muon trigger detector project: two sets of eight very thin Resistive Place Chambers (tRPCs) combined with small Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers in the pseudorapidity region 1conducted detailed HPTDC latency simulations using the Behavioral Verilog code from the CERN group. We will report the results of these simulations run for the anticipated detector operating environment and for various HPTDC configurations.

  3. Muon Identification with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Read-Out Driver for Level-2 Trigger Purposes

    Ruiz-Martinez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) at the ATLAS experiment is a detector made out of iron as passive medium and plastic scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the particles is converted to electrical signals which are digitized in the front-end electronics and sent to the back-end system. The main element of the back-end electronics are the VME 9U Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards, responsible of data management, processing and transmission. A total of 32 ROD boards, placed in the data acquisition chain between Level-1 and Level-2 trigger, are needed to read out the whole calorimeter. They are equipped with fixed-point Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) that apply online algorithms on the incoming raw data. Although the main purpose of TileCal is to measure the energy and direction of the hadronic jets, taking advantage of its projective segmentation soft muons not triggered at Level-1 (with pT<5 GeV) can be recovered. A TileCal standalone muon identification algorithm is presented and i...

  4. TRIGGER

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  5. Algorithm and implementation of muon trigger and data transmission system for barrel-endcap overlap region of the CMS detector

    Zabolotny, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment is currently undergoing upgrade of its trigger, including the Level-1 muon trigger. In the barrel-endcap transition region it is necessary to merge data from 3 types of detectors - RPC, DT and CSC. The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) uses the novelty approach to concentrate and process those data in an uniform manner. The paper presents the algorithm and FPGA firmware implementation of the OMTF and its data transmission system in CMS. The OMTF is subject to significant changes during optimizations based on physical simulations. Therefore a special, high level, parametrized HDL implementation is necessary.

  6. TRIGGER

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  7. A Highly Selective First-Level Muon Trigger With MDT Chamber Data for ATLAS at HL-LHC

    Nowak, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will be about an order of magnitude larger than the LHC design luminosity. The Level-1 muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons below the nominal trigger threshold due to the limited momentum resolution of the Resistive Plate and Thin Gap trigger chambers. The resulting high trigger rates at HL-LHC can be sufficient reduced by using the data of the precision Muon Drift Tube chambers for the trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and of a fast MDT track reconstruction algorithm with a latency of at most 6~$\\mu$s. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain has been successfully tested at the high HL-LHC background rates at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. The fast track reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on a fas trigger processor.

  8. A highly selective first-level muon trigger with MDT chamber data for ATLAS at HL-LHC

    Nowak, S.; Kroha, H.

    2016-07-01

    Highly selective triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will be about an order of magnitude larger than the LHC instantaneous luminosity in Run 1. The first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons below the nominal trigger threshold due to the moderate momentum resolution of the Resistive Plate and Thin Gap trigger chambers. The resulting high trigger rates at HL-LHC can be sufficiently reduced by using the data of the precision Muon Drift Tube chambers for the trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and of a fast MDT track reconstruction algorithm with a latency of at most 6 μs. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain has been successfully tested at the HL-LHC operating conditions at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. The fast track reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on a fast trigger processor.

  9. A Highly Selective First-Level Muon Trigger With MDT Chamber Data for ATLAS at HL-LHC

    Kroha, H

    2016-01-01

    Highly selective triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will be about an order of magnitude larger than the LHC instantaneous luminosity in Run 1. The first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum muons below the nominal trigger threshold due to the moderate momentum resolution of the Resistive Plate and Thin Gap trigger chambers. The resulting high trigger rates at HL-LHC can be su?ciently reduced by using the data of the precision Muon Drift Tube chambers for the trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and of a fast MDT track reconstruction algorithm with a latency of at most 6 microseconds. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain has been successfully tested at the HL-LHC operating conditions at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. The fast track reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on a fast trigger processor.

  10. A new Highly Selective First Level ATLAS Muon Trigger With MDT Chamber Data for HL-LHC

    Nowak, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective first level triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS experiment at the HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC's instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum sub-trigger threshold muons due to the poor momentum resolution at trigger level caused by the moderate spatial resolution of the resistive plate and thin gap trigger chambers. This limitation can be overcome by including the data of the precision muon drift tube chambers in the first level trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and a fast MDT track reconstruction. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain was successfully tested under HL-LHC operating conditions at CERN's Gamma Irradiation Facility. It could be shown that the data provided by the demonstrator can be processed with a fast track reconstruction algorithm on an ARM CPU within the 6 microseconds latency...

  11. TRIGGER

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  12. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  13. A proposed Drift Tubes-seeded muon track trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    Pozzobon, N.; Lazzizzera, I.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.

    2016-07-01

    The LHC program at 13 and 14 TeV, after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson, will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the needed tools. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the High Luminosity-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key lepton, photon and hadron triggers should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012. In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps will be the inclusion of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. This contribution can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmation of triggers in other subsystems, and the improvement of the on-line momentum measurement resolution. A muon track-trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC is presented. A back-extrapolation of Drift Tubes trigger primitives is proposed to match tracks found at Level 1 with muon candidates. The main figures-of-merit are presented, featuring sharp thresholds and less contamination from lower momentum muons, and an expected rate reduction of a factor of 5-10 at typical thresholds with respect to the muon trigger configuration used in 2012.

  14. Muon trigger, flavour tagging and physics performance of the LHCb experiment

    The LHCb experiment that is being settled in CERN is dedicated to the study of CP violation and rare decays in the field of beauty hadrons. The phenomenological background necessary to an adequate understanding of the physics of flavor is presented in the first chapter, it is shown how the flavordynamics can open the way to new physics. The second chapter is dedicated to a brief presentation of the LHCb detector. Two aspects of the design of the muon trigger are more detailed: the radiation resistance of the opto-electronic transmitters and the simulated performances of the trigger. The third chapter reviews the tasks linked to the tagging of the savors of B mesons which will be an important step in all the experiments made at LHCb. The recent progress in heavy savor physics as well as the expected contribution of LHCb in this field are presented in the fourth chapter, especially the search for new physics in penguin diagrams b → s

  15. TRIGGER

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  16. Test results of the ASIC front-end trigger prototypes for the muon barrel detector of CMS at LHC

    De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Gonella, F; Guaita, P; Lippi, I; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Ronchese, P; Ponte-Sancho, A J; Martinelli, R; Torassa, E; Ventura, L; Zotto, P L; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    A sample of ASIC prototypes of the first-level trigger front-end device for the muon barrel drift chambers of CMS was tested on a full size chamber prototype. Tests were performed at several incident angles on cosmic rays and at normal incidence using a muon beam. The chamber was irradiated using a /sup 137/Cs gamma source to simulate the LHC radiation environment. The performance of the tested prototypes with respect to efficiency, resolution and noise issues is reported. (9 refs).

  17. Efficiency studies of the front-end trigger device of the muon drift tubes for the CMS detector at LHC

    Three simplified prototypes of the first-level trigger front-end device for the muon barrel drift chambers of CMS were tested on a chamber prototype. Tests were performed at several incidence angles of a muon beam and with different magnetic field configurations. The recorded drift times were also used to test a full software model reproducing the actual algorithm applied in the final ASIC being produced. The efficiency performance of this software model and of the tested prototype are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  18. Performance of the ALICE muon trigger system in pp and Pb/en-dashPb collisions at the LHC

    Fronzé, Gabriele Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE muon spectrometer studies the production of quarkonia and open heavy- flavour particles. It is equipped with a Trigger System composed of Resistive Plate Chambers which, by applying a transverse-momentum-based muon selection, minimises the background from light-hadron decays. The system has been continuously taking data throughout the LHC Run I; it has undergone maintenance and consolidation operations during the LHC shutdown period 1. In the first year of the LHC Run II, the system, fully recommissioned, has participated in data taking in pp and Pb/en-dashPb collisions. The performance of the system throughout the last data-taking period is presented.

  19. Algorithm and implementation of muon trigger and data transmission system for barrel-endcap overlap region of the CMS detector

    The CMS experiment Level-1 trigger system is undergoing an upgrade. In the barrel-endcap transition region, it is necessary to merge data from 3 types of muon detectors—RPC, DT and CSC. The Overlap Muon Track Finder (OMTF) uses the novel approach to concentrate and process those data in a uniform manner to identify muons and their transversal momentum. The paper presents the algorithm and FPGA firmware implementation of the OMTF and its data transmission system in CMS. It is foreseen that the OMTF will be subject to significant changes resulting from optimization which will be done with the aid of physics simulations. Therefore, a special, high-level, parameterized HDL implementation is necessary

  20. Resistive plate chamber (RPC) based muon trigger system for the CMS experiment - data compression/decompression system

    The CMS detector will have a dedicated subdetector (RPC chambers) to identify muons, measure their transverse momenta pt, and determine the bunch crossings from which they originate. The trigger algorithm is based on muon track search and classification in raw data from the RPC chambers grouped in the four muon stations in the CMS magnet yoke. A huge interconnection network is needed to fulfill this task. It can be built in the control room only, approximately 120 m away from the detector. The data compression/decompression system is proposed to reduce the number of links needed to transfer the data from detector to control room. The idea of such a system and results of first tests will be presented. (author)

  1. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  2. Optimization, Synchronization, Calibration and Diagnostic of the RPC PAC Muon Trigger System for the CMS detector

    Bunkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid is one of the four experiments that will analyse the results of the collisions of the protons accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The collisions of proton bunches occur in the middle of the CMS detector every 25 ns, i.e. with a frequency of 40 MHz. Such a high collision frequency is needed because the probability of interesting processes, which we hope to discover at the LHC (such as production of Higgs bosons or supersymmetric particles) is very small. The objects that are the results of the proton-proton collisions are detected and measured by the CMS detector. Out of each bunch crossing the CMS produces about 1 MB of data; 40 millions of bunch collisions per second give the data stream of 40 terabytes (1013) per second. Such a stream of data is practically not possible to record on mass storage, therefore the first stage of the analysis of the detector data is performed in real time by the dedicated trigger system. Its task is to select potentially interesting events (...

  3. The analysis of functional capacity of people with tetraplegia during the 1st level of the Active Rehabilitation camp.

    Jozefowsky Peter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze functional capacity during the 1st level of the Active Rehabilitation camp of people after spinal cord injury (SCI in cervical segment. The individual functional indicators as: self-service, sphincter control, mobility, locomotion and communication have been analyzed. The study included 30 men with SCI in cervical segment and in age of 18-45. The clinimetric scale for functional rating of neurological patients - The Functional Indicator "Repty" was used in the study. The test were conducted twice: immediately before the beginning of the camp and after. An improvement in functional capacity occurred among all respondents during the 1st level of the AR camp. The greatest improvements concerned the mobility and self-service, smaller improvement occurred in locomotion and sphincter control. There was no significant improvement in level of communication.

  4. Concept of a Stand-Alone Muon Trigger with High Transverse Momentum Resolution for the ATLAS Detector at the High-Luminosity LHC

    Horii, Yasuyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger uses a three-level trigger system. The level-1 (L1) trigger for muons with high transverse momentum pT in ATLAS is based on fast chambers with excellent time resolution which are able to identify muons coming from a particular beam crossing. These trigger chambers also provide a fast measurement of the muon transverse momenta, however with limited accuracy caused by the moderate spatial resolution along the deflecting direction of the magnetic field. The higher luminosity foreseen for Phase-II puts stringent limits on the L1 trigger rates. A way to control these rates is the improvement of the spatial resolution of the triggering device which drastically sharpens the turn-on curve of the L1 trigger. To do this, the precision tracking chambers (MDT) can be used in the L1 trigger, if the corresponding trigger latency is increased as planned. The trigger rate reduction is accomplished by strongly decreasing the rate of triggers from muons with pT lower than a predefined threshold (typically 20 ...

  5. TRIGGER

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  6. The Physics Performance Of And Level 2 Trigger For The Inner Detector Of Atlas (particle Detector, Muon Tracking, Cern)

    Dankers, R J

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis I describe a study on the physics performance of the ATLAS inner detector and a study on aspects of the second level trigger for the ATLAS inner detector. I present a short discussion of the standard model of particle physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the physics potential of LHC. I introduce the ATLAS experiment, which is one of the four future LHC experiments. The ATLAS detector consists of an inner tracker (inner detector), calorimeters and a muon spectrometer. I present a parameterisation of the reconstruction accuracy of the ATLAS inner tracker for muon tracks. A method is described for calculating from a given set of parameters, representing a muon track in the inner tracker, a smeared set of parameters, as would be obtained from real measurements. Results are presented. I shortly describe supersymmetry and discuss the possibility to find evidence for the existence of super-symmetry with ATLAS. I describe the ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system. The task of the AT...

  7. Test of a demonstrator of an MDT-based first-level muon Trigger for HL-LHC under realistic operating conditions

    Kroha, Hubert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective first level triggers are essential for the physics programme of the ATLAS Experiment at the HL-LHC where the instantaneous luminosity will exceed the LHC’s instantaneous luminosity by almost an order of magnitude. The ATLAS first level muon trigger rate is dominated by low momentum sub-trigger threshold muons due to the limited momentum resolution at trigger level caused by the moderate spatial resolution of the resistive plate and thin gap trigger chambers. This limitation can be overcome by including the data of the precision muon drift tube chambers in the first level Trigger decision. This requires the implementation of a fast MDT read-out chain and a fast MDT track reconstruction. A hardware demonstrator of the fast read-out chain was successfully tested under HL-LHC operating conditions at CERN’s Gamma Irradiation Facility. It could be shown that the data provided by the demonstrator can be processed with a fast track reconstruction algorithm on an ARM CPU within the 6 microseconds ...

  8. A Measurement of the ATLAS Di-Muon Trigger Efficiency in Proton-Proton Collision at √s = 7 TeV

    Picazio Attilio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The B physics programme of the ATLAS experiment includes measurements of production cross sections, searches for rare B-decay signatures which are sensitive to new physics at the TeV energy scale and studies of CP violation effects in B-events, such as Bs0 → J/ψφ and Bd0 → J/ψKs0. The key to the detection of these B signals in ATLAS is to achieve a high trigger efficiency for low-pT di-muon events, whilst keeping an acceptable trigger rate. ATLAS developed two separate approaches for triggering on di-muon events from resonances such as J/ψ and Upsilon (γ. The first approach is to start from a di-muon trigger selected at Level-1 while the second is based on dedicated Level-2 algorithms. The performance for these triggers has been studied using collision data at √s = 7 collected in 2011.

  9. Simulation of the digitization in the LHCb Monte Carlo program and study of its influence on the L0 muon trigger performance

    Full text follows: We included detector inefficiencies, dead time, noise and cross talk effects in the digitization module of SICB, the simulation program for the LHCb detector, and studied its influence in the performance of the level zero muon trigger algorithm. For reasonable values for the parameters characterizing these effects, obtained in beam tests of prototypes, the degradation of the trigger performance is small and it fulfills our requirements for minimum bias retention and signal efficiency. An object oriented design for the digitization was also developed and implemented as a first step on the software migration to C++. (author)

  10. A low resistivity RPC for the trigger of the ALICE di-muon arm

    Ferretti, A; Baldit, A; Barret, V; Bastid, N; Blanchard, G; Chiavassa, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, Philippe; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Drancourt, C; Dupieux, P; Espagnon, B; Forestier, B; Gallio, M; Genoux-Lubain, A; Insa, C; Jouve, F; Lamoine, L; Lefèvre, F; Manso, F; Mereu, P; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Rosnet, P; Royer, L; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Sigaudo, F; Vercellin, Ermanno

    2001-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) operated in streamer mode are expected to provide the trigger of the ALICE dimuon forward spectrometer. To match the requirements concerning the rate capability (about 100 Hz/cm2, including a large safety factor), several prototypes have been realized with low-resistivity Bakelite electrodes and a strongly quenching gas mixture. Duringb eam and irradiation tests the detector has shown a stable behaviour and excellent rate capability (up to 1 kHz/cm 2 in eam tests) with a cluster size close to one. In addition to that,a new discrimination technique with a dual threshold has been devised: with this method, a time resolution comparable with the one typical of the avalanche mode can be obtained as soon as the applied voltage is sufficient for the RPC to reach full efficiency. In the presentation the performances of the detector will be reported, together with the results of ageing tests performed at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN.

  11. SSC muon detector group report

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4π detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC

  12. TRIGGER

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  13. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  14. TRIGGER

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  15. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  16. TRIGGER

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  17. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  18. TRIGGER

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  19. TRIGGER

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  20. TRIGGER

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  1. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  2. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  3. TRIGGER

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  4. TRIGGER

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  5. TRIGGER

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  6. TRIGGER

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  7. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  8. TRIGGER

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  9. Radiation Qualification of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf LVDS and G-link Serializers and Deserializers for the ATLAS Endcap Muon Level-1 Trigger System

    Ichimiya, R; Arai, Y; Ikeno, M; Sasaki, O; Ohshita, H; Takada, N; Hane, Y; Hasuko, K; Nomoto, H; Sakamoto, H; Shibuya, K; Takemoto, T; Fukunaga, C; Toshima, K; Sakuma, T; 10th Workshop on Electronics for LHC and Future Experiments

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS endcap muon level-1 trigger system is divided into three parts; one off-detector part and two on-detector parts. Serialized data transfer with LVDS is used between two on-detector parts (15m apart) and serialized G-link transfer with optical transmission (90m) is used from the on-detector part to the off-detector part. Since the radiation damage of the components used in the on-detector parts is a matter of concern, we have investigate systematically the radiation susceptibility to both total ionizing dose and single event effects of COTS serializer/deserializer chipsets for LVDS (two candidates) and G-link (one) together. In this report we discuss in detail the characteristics of these LVDS chipsets and qualification of the G-link components for radiation.

  10. The CDF forward muon system

    The general properties of the toroids, drift chambers and trigger counters in the CDF forward muon (FMU) system are discussed. The operation of the PSL time-to-digital converter and the UW HOPU (Half Octant Pattern Unit) module is also described. The forward muon level 1 trigger is presented. (orig.)

  11. A proposed Drift Tubes-seeded muon track trigger for the CMS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    Pozzobon, Nicola; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program at 13 and 14 TeV, after the observation of the candidate SM Higgs boson, will help clarify future subjects of study and shape the needed tools. Any upgrade of the LHC experiments for unprecedented luminosities, such as the High Luminosity-LHC ones, must then maintain the acceptance on electroweak processes that can lead to a detailed study of the properties of the candidate Higgs boson. The acceptance of the key lepton, photon and hadron triggers should be kept such that the overall physics acceptance, in particular for low-mass scale processes, can be the same as the one the experiments featured in 2012.In such a scenario, a new approach to early trigger implementation is needed. One of the major steps will be the inclusion of high-granularity tracking sub-detectors, such as the CMS Silicon Tracker, in taking the early trigger decision. This contribution can be crucial in several tasks, including the confirmation of triggers in other subsystems, and the improvement of the on-line momentum mea...

  12. Muons in UA1

    In the years 1987-1989 the experiment ('UA1'), which is described in this thesis, has focused on measurements with muons. These particles can be considered as a part of the 'fingerprint' of interesting reactions. In the practice of 'UA1', recognizing this 'fingerprint' represents a puzzle because many (often more than hundred particles are produced in a collision between a proton and an anti-proton. In the experiment the properties (charge, energy, direction) of these particles are measured and subsequently the events are reconstructed. This results in several event samples corresponding to specific production mechanisms. The first part (ch. 1-5) of this thesis deals with the muon trigger of the UA1 experiment. This is a computer system that, directly after a measurement, reconstructs an event and checks for the presence of muons. If no muon is found the event is not considered anymore. In the other cases, the event is kept and written to magnetic tape. These tapes are for further analysis. The necessity of a trigger follows from the fact that per second more than 250.000 interactions occur and only about 10 can be saved on tape. For this reason a trigger system is of critical importance: all events not written to tape are lost. In ch. 2 the experiment and in ch. 4 the ideas and constraints of the trigger are explained. Ch. 4 discusses the construction and functioning of the muon trigger and ch. 5 presents the performance. The second part of this thesis (ch.'s 6 and 7) contain the physics analysis results from data collected with muon trigger. These results are explicitly obtained from events containing two muons. The theory is briefly reviewed and a discussion is given of the data and the way the selections are done. Finally the J/Ψ and Γ samples and the cross sections of b-quark production are given. (author). 57 refs.; 60 figs.; 8 tabs

  13. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    Ciodaro, Thiago; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The TileCal hadronic calorimeter provides a muon signal which can be used to assist in muon tagging at the ATLAS level-one trigger. Originally, the muon signal was conceived to be combined with the RPC trigger in order to reduce unforeseen high trigger rates due to cavern background. Nevertheless, the combined trigger cannot significantly deteriorate the muon detection performance at the barrel region. This paper presents preliminary studies concerning the impact in muon identification at the ATLAS level-one trigger, through the use of Monte Carlo simulations with single muons with 40 GeV/c momentum. Further, different trigger scenarios were proposed, together with an approach for matching both TileCal and RPC geometries.

  14. The LHCb Muon Sistem

    Brusa, Simone

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is described the LHCb muon detector, which plays a fundamental role in the Level-0 (L0) trigger and muon identification for the high-level trigger (HLT) and offline analysis. After a short review of the detector structure and of the required performances, we will describe, with some detail, the construction procedures and the relative quality control tests of the single chambers. The results of the quality control tests performed in the production centers, and the tests with fully equipped chambers performed at CERN before the installation on the experiment site, will also be reported.

  15. Electromagnetic Interactions of Muons

    2002-01-01

    This experiment was the first in a programme of physics experiments with high-energy muons using a large spectrometer facility. The aim of this experiment is to study the inelastic scattering of muons various targets to try to understand better the physics of virtual photon interactions over a wide of four-momentum transfer (q|2).\\\\ \\\\ The spectrometer includes a large aperture dipole magnet (2m x 1m) of bending power @C 5 T.m and a magnetized iron filter to distinguish the scattered muons from hadrons. Drift chambers and MWPC are used before and after the magnet to detect charged products of the interaction and to allow a momentum determination of the scattered muon to an accuracy of @C 1\\% at 100 GeV/c, and an angular definition of @+ 0.1 mrad. The triggering on scattered muons relies on three planes of scintillation counter hodoscopes before and after the magnetized iron, whose magnetic field serves to eliminate triggers from low momentum muons which are produced copiously by pion decay. \\\\ \\\\ The experime...

  16. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  17. Muon Colliders

    Palmer, R. B.; Sessler, A.; Skrinsky, A.; Tollestrup, A.

    1996-01-01

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity \\mumu colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in ...

  18. Muon colliders

    Muon Colliders have unique technical and physics advantages and disadvantages when compared with both hadron and electron machines. They should thus be regarded as complementary. Parameters are given of 4 TeV and 0.5 TeV high luminosity micro+micro-colliders, and of a 0.5 TeV lower luminosity demonstration machine. We discuss the various systems in such muon colliders, starting from the proton accelerator needed to generate the muons and proceeding through muon cooling, acceleration and storage in a collider ring. Problems of detector background are also discussed

  19. FPGA Implementation of a Fixed Latency Scheme in a Signal Packet Router for the Upgrade of ATLAS Forward Muon Trigger Electronics

    Wang, Jinhong; Schwarz, Thomas; Zhu, Junjie; Chapman, J W; Dai, Tiesheng; Zhou, Bing

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new fixed latency scheme for Xilinx gigabit transceivers that will be used in the upgrade of the ATLAS forward muon spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider. The fixed latency scheme is implemented in a 4.8 Gbps link between a frontend data serializer ASIC and a packet router. To achieve fixed latency, we use IO delay and dedicated carry in resources in a Xilinx FPGA, while minimally relying on the embedded features of the FPGA transceivers. The scheme is protocol independent and can be adapted to FPGA from other vendors with similar resources. This paper presents a detailed implementation of the fixed latency scheme, as well as simulations of the real environment in the ATLAS forward muon region.

  20. Measurement of the branching ratio of the long lived neutral kaon decay into a muon pair and a photon, and development of a trigger system in the NA48 experiment at CERN

    The study of direct CP violation in the neutral K meson system is the primary goal of the high precision NA 48 experiment at CERN, based on a spectrometer and a liquid krypton calorimeter. This experiment is also sensitive to rare kaon decays, in particular the one of the KL into a muon pair and a photon, discussed on the first part of he dissertation. The second part presents a detailed description on the second level 'charged' trigger system of the experiment, operating at a 100 kHz event input rate. Its aim is to select the decays of KL or KS into a pair of charged pions, based on a high speed digital signal processor farm performing the online reconstruction of the invariant mass of an event in less than 100 microseconds, using the spectrometer data for an efficient rejection of the physical backgrounds. The reconstruction algorithm, the realization of the farm and its performances are presented. The third part determines a measurement of the branching ratio of the KL decay into a pair of muons and a proton using the data taken in 1995. 59 signal events are found containing a background estimated to 14. The results is (3.4±0.6 (stat) ± 0.4 (syst) x 10-7 and allows the determination of the value of the ratio between the coupling constants of the weak non leptonic transitions through vector and pseudo-scalar intermediate states αK = 0.048680.21+024. A search for decays of Kl into two muons and two electrons has been performed. No candidate has been found. An upper limit for the branching fraction of the process of 3.8 x 10-8 at a 90 % confidence level is obtained. (author)

  1. Triggering the D0 experiment

    The D0 event selection consists of 3 levels of hardware trigger and one level of software trigger. Events passing the hardware trigger are read out to filtering processors, where the event is assembled in the multiported memory of the processor. Our trigger simulation runs from the same configuration files which specify the hardware and software trigger online. We outline the design and performance (rejection, efficiency, and throughput) of the trigger system for muons, electrons, photons, jets, and missing pT

  2. ATLAS detector records its first curved muon

    2007-01-01

    The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet. This was an important test of the chambers in their final configurations, and marked the first triggering and measurement of curved cosmic ray muons in ATLAS.

  3. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 1035 cm-2 s-1. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design

  4. Muon muon collider: Feasibility study

    NONE

    1996-06-18

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice--the authors believe--to allow them to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring which has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design.

  5. Energy spectrum of muon in EAS

    The compact extensive air shower (EAS) array which consists of 8 scintillation counters, and the solid iron magnet spectrometer (the Okayama muon telescope) have been used to measure energy spectrum of muons in EAS from January 2004 in Okayama University. We compared the result of the muon energy spectrum tagged by EAS trigger signals with EAS simulations which agreed with higher energy hadronic interaction models such as QGSJET and SYBILL, and lower energy hadronic ones such as Hillas Splitting Algorithm, GHEISHA and UrQMD, in order to verify the influence of the hadronic interaction model upon properties of EAS particles, especially the energy spectrum of muons

  6. Energy spectrum of muon in EAS

    Matsumoto, H.; Iyono, A.; Noda, C.; Masuda, M.; Yamamoto, I.; Wada, T.; Okei, K.; Tsuji, S.; Morita, T.; Okita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Liang, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ochi, N.

    2008-01-01

    The compact extensive air shower (EAS) array which consists of 8 scintillation counters, and the solid iron magnet spectrometer (the Okayama muon telescope) have been used to measure energy spectrum of muons in EAS from January 2004 in Okayama University. We compared the result of the muon energy spectrum tagged by EAS trigger signals with EAS simulations which agreed with higher energy hadronic interaction models such as QGSJET and SYBILL, and lower energy hadronic ones such as Hillas Splitting Algorithm, GHEISHA and UrQMD, in order to verify the influence of the hadronic interaction model upon properties of EAS particles, especially the energy spectrum of muons.

  7. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    Cardini, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2018, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10$^{33}$/cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead-time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  8. Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors

    The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

  9. Muon storage

    Protons are accelerated to 103 GeV/c in the energy doubler/saver ring (ED/S). They are extracted, targeted, and pions are collected in the main ring at an energy of approximately 100 GeV/c. The pions decay (tau/sup π/sub lab/ at 100 GeV/c approximately equal to 20 μs), giving birth to a muon beam. This muon beam can be extracted or bumped onto an internal target. The number of muons expected is calculated. The large aperture of the ED/S may allow a time averaged flux of as high as 107 μ+/sec to be achieved

  10. Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study

    Gallardo, J.C.; Palmer, R.B.; /Brookhaven; Tollestrup, A.V.; /Fermilab; Sessler, A.M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Skrinsky, A.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Ankenbrandt, C.; Geer, S.; Griffin, J.; Johnstone, C.; Lebrun, P.; McInturff, A.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mokhov, N.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Ng, K.Y.; Noble, R.; Novitski, I.; Popovic, M.; Qian, C.; Van Ginneken, A. /Fermilab /Brookhaven /Wisconsin U., Madison /Tel Aviv U. /Indiana U. /UCLA /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC /Argonne /Sobolev IM, Novosibirsk /UC, Davis /Munich, Tech. U. /Virginia U. /KEK, Tsukuba /DESY /Novosibirsk, IYF /Jefferson Lab /Mississippi U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /MIT /Columbia U. /Fairfield U. /UC, Berkeley

    2012-04-05

    A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle physics and, therefore, worthy of R and D support so that the reality of, and interest in, a muon collider can be better assayed. The goal of this support would be to completely assess the physics potential and to evaluate the cost and development of the necessary technology. The muon collider complex consists of components which first produce copious pions, then capture the pions and the resulting muons from their decay; this is followed by an ionization cooling channel to reduce the longitudinal and transverse emittance of the muon beam. The next stage is to accelerate the muons and, finally, inject them into a collider ring wich has a small beta function at the colliding point. This is the first attempt at a point design and it will require further study and optimization. Experimental work will be needed to verify the validity of diverse crucial elements in the design. Muons because of their large mass compared to an electron, do not produce significant synchrotron radiation. As a result there is negligible beamstrahlung and high energy collisions are not limited by this phenomena. In addition, muons can be accelerated in circular devices which will be considerably smaller than two full-energy linacs as required in an e{sup +} - e{sup -} collider. A hadron collider would require a CM energy 5 to 10 times higher than 4 TeV to have an equivalent energy reach. Since the accelerator size is limited by the strength of bending magnets, the hadron collider for the same physics reach would have to be much larger than the muon collider. In addition, muon collisions should be cleaner than hadron collisions. There are many detailed particle

  11. Potential Impact of a New GEM-based Detector on CMS Triggering

    Castaneda, A

    2013-01-01

    With the increases in the LHC instantaneous luminosity, maintaining effective triggering and avoiding dead time will become especially challenging. As the sensitivity of many physics studies, depends critically on the ability to maintain relatively low muon momentum thresholds, the identification of potential improvements in triggering is particularly important. The addition of a new muon detector to the existing CMS muon system in the very forward region allows for a substantial improvement in the performance of muon triggering. Integration of the new detector and the existing Cathode Strip Chamber system can improve the muon trigger momentum resolution due to an increase in the lever arm for the measurement of the muon bending angle.

  12. Polarized muon beams for muon collider

    An option for the production of intense and highly polarized muon beams, suitable for a high-luminosity muon collider, is described briefly. It is based on a multi-channel pion-collection system, narrow-band pion-to-muon decay channels, proper muon spin gymnastics, and ionization cooling to combine all of the muon beams into a single bunch of ultimately low emittance. (orig.)

  13. The Muon System of the GEM detector at the SSCL

    The GEM Muon System is based on a large super conducting solenoidal magnet with no magnetic flux return. Three superlayers of muon tracking chambers are deployed outside the calorimeter to reconstruct the sagitta of the muon trajectory in the magnetic field. Iron flux concentrators are placed along the central axis of the magnet to create a radial component of the magnetic field, thereby increasing the momentum resolution at small angles. The muon system can be triggered, based on transverse momentum, and muon trajectories can be reconstructed from vertical stroke ηvertical stroke = 0 to 2.5. (orig.)

  14. A simple setup to measure muon lifetime and electron energy spectrum of muon decay and its Monte Carlo simulation

    Hu, Yushi; Mei, Yefeng; Zhang, Zhao; Ning, Chuangang

    2016-01-01

    We designed a simple setup to measure the muon lifetime and the electron energy spectra of muon decay. A low cost coincidental circuit was designed to select the signals of muon decay events detected by a plastic scintillator detector. It triggered a digital oscilloscope to record the signals of muon decay events for measuring the muon lifetime and electron energy spectrum. A Landau-distribution energy loss method was introduced to conduct the energy calibration of the system. The experimental results were well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation. The software and hardware of the system are completely open to students, thus more helpful for instruction and motivation.

  15. MUON ACCELERATION

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  16. PHENIX Muon Arms

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons (∼10-3). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described

  17. PHENIX Muon Arms

    Akikawa, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Archuleta, J.B.; Archuleta, J.R.; Armendariz, R.; Armijo, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baldisseri, A.; Barker, A.B.; Barnes, P.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Batsouli, S.; Behrendt, J.; Bellaiche, F.G.; Bland, A.W.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Borel, H.; Brooks, M.L.; Brown, A.W.; Brown, D.S.; Bruner, N.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chavez, L.L.; Chollet, S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Chung, M.S.; Cianciolo, V.; Clark, D.J.; Cobigo, Y.; Dabrowski, C.M.; Debraine, A.; DeMoss, J.; Dinesh, B.V.; Drachenberg, J.L.; Drapier, O.; Echave, M.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; En' yo, H.; Fields, D.E.; Fleuret, F.; Fried, J.; Fujisawa, E.; Funahashi, H.; Gadrat, S.; Gastaldi, F.; Gee, T.F.; Glenn, A.; Gogiberidze, G.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hance, R.H.; Hart, G.W.; Hayashi, N.; Held, S.; Hicks, J.S.; Hill, J.C.; Hoade, R.; Hong, B.; Hoover, A.; Horaguchi, T.; Hunter, C.T.; Hurst, D.E.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Isenhower, L.D.L. Davis; Isenhower, L.D.L. Donald; Ishihara, M.; Jang, W.Y.; Johnson, J.; Jouan, D.; Kamihara, N.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, J.H.; Kapoor, S.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, G.-B.; Kinnison, W.W.; Klinksiek, S.; Kluberg, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Koehler, D.; Kotchenda, L.; Kuberg, C.H.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G.S.; LaBounty, J.J.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lee, D.M.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, M.X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lockner, E.; Lopez, J.D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, X.B.; McCain, M.C.; McGaughey, P.L.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, R.E.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montoya, B.C.; Moss, J.M.; Murata, J.; Murray, M.M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nakada, Y.; Newby, J.; Obenshain, F.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S.F.; Plasil, F.; Pope, K.; Qualls, J.M.; Rao, G.; Read, K.F. E-mail: readkf@ornl.gov; Robinson, S.H.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosnet, P.; Roth, R.; Saito, N.; Sakuma, T.; Sandhoff, W.F.; Sanfratello, L.; Sato, H.D.; Savino, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Shaw, M.R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sim, K.S.; Skank, H.D.; Smith, D.E.; Smith, G.D. [and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX Muon Arms detect muons at rapidities of |y|=(1.2-2.4) with full azimuthal acceptance. Each muon arm must track and identify muons and provide good rejection of pions and kaons ({approx}10{sup -3}). In order to accomplish this we employ a radial field magnetic spectrometer with precision tracking (Muon Tracker) followed by a stack of absorber/low resolution tracking layers (Muon Identifier). The design, construction, testing and expected run parameters of both the muon tracker and the muon identifier are described.

  18. The Muon Detector at the HERA-B experiment

    Eiges, V.; Fominykh, B.; Khasanov, F.; Kvaratscheliia, T.; Laptin, L.; Tchoudakov, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Titov, M.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Buchler, M.; Harr, R. F.; Karchin, P. E.; Nam, S.; Shiu, J. G.; Gilitsky, Yu.; Takach, S. F.

    2001-04-01

    The HERA-B experiment is designed to study beauty particle production and decay using the HERA 920 GeV proton beam interactions with an internal target. The Muon detector provides identification for muons having momenta greater than 5 GeV/c and triggering on the muon pair from J/ ψ decay. Three different chamber types are employed for operation in a high-rate environment. The overall design, performance and current status are discussed.

  19. Identification of Low PT Muon with the Atlas Tile Calorimeter

    Usai, G.

    2005-02-01

    A method for the identification of muons with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is presented and its efficiency and mis-tagging fraction are discussed. It is demonstrated that the Tile Calorimeter can identify muons with good efficiency down to 2 GeV/c transverse momentum, where the stand-alone Muon Spectrometer has zero efficiency. This kinematic region is important for study of B meson physics and in the particular for the CP violating decay channels. The effectiveness of this method is tested, in particular, in the case of bbar {b} events at low LHC luminosity (1033cm-1s-2) with full simulation of experimental conditions. The muon identification with the Tile Calorimeter is fast and can be used for muon selection at the trigger level. A method of exploiting the information available in other ATLAS sub-detectors in order to reduce spurious muon-tag and measure the candidate muon momentum is discussed.

  20. MUON DETECTOR

    F. Gasparini

    Barrel Muons The last CMS week was dominated by the lowering of YB0. The date of lowering was fixed in January for February 28th. RPC and DT cabling of YB0 had to be done on the surface to allow a complete check of the status of the chambers before lowering. When the decision of the date was taken, the wheel cabling, planned to start at end of December, was not yet started for several “muon independent” reasons. Cabling and DT /RPC test started on Jan 22nd and ended on Feb 19th. Several teams worked on the surface of the wheel in parallel on the three different items, finishing just in time for lowering. This was a real challenge and a significant result. So by the end of the CMS Week, all the positive part of CMS plus YB0 were in the cavern. YB+2 had been lowered in January 19th, and YB+1 on February 1st. The vertical chambers of sectors 1 and 7 (8 DT/RPC packs), whose space was taken by the lowering machinery, had to be installed after lowering. This was done from Jan 24 to Jan 26 for...

  1. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    Jay Hauser

    2012-01-01

    The CSC muon system has run well thus far during the 2012 run, coping well with the ever-increasing luminosity. Periodic hard resets, currently issued every 30 minutes, have greatly decreased the frequency of SEU-related problems. Near the end of 2011 a significant readout data loss at high Level-1 trigger rates was uncovered; before the collisions in 2012 several firmware and software fixes were made to eliminate this problem, and diagnostics were added to quickly identify this problem related to trigger number (L1A) mismatches if it were to occur in the future. Online trigger and offline reconstructed timing of the CSC chambers has not changed in 2012, even at the nanosecond level, relative to the well-adjusted timing of 2011. Removal of CASTOR has nearly equalised the background rate between the two endcaps except for station –2, where a gap in the inner ring shielding is suspected. From 2011 to 2012 the number of chambers that were inoperable due to loss of low-voltage power has grown from 9...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  3. The ATLAS level-1 Central Trigger

    Spiwoks, R; Berge, D; Caracinha, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Ohm, C; Pauly, T; Perantoni, M; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger consists of the Muon-to-Central-Trigger-Processor Interface (MUCTPI), the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), and the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) partitions of the sub-detectors. The MUCTPI connects the output of the muon trigger system to the CTP. At every bunch crossing it receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six pT thresholds. The CTP combines information from the calorimeter trigger and the MUCTPI and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). The MUCTPI and the CTP provide trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) for every event selected at the Level-1. They further provide accumulated and, for the CTP, bunch-by-bunch counter data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The TTC partitions send timing, trigger and control signals from the CTP to the...

  4. Atmospheric muons: experimental aspects

    Cecchini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of atmospheric muon flux and energy spectrum measurements over almost six decades of muon momentum. Sea-level and underground/water/ice experiments are considered. Possible sources of systematic errors in the measurements are examinated. The characteristics of underground/water muons (muons in bundle, lateral distribution, energy spectrum) are discussed. The connection between the atmospheric muon and neutrino measurements are also reported.

  5. The Muon system of the run II D0 detector

    Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov,; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech.

    2005-03-01

    The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

  6. Measurement of Neutral Particle Contamination in the MICE Muon Beam

    Fletcher, Rob Roy; Hanson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being built at the ISIS proton synchrotron at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) to measure ionization cooling of a muon beam. During recent data-taking, it was determined that there is a significant background contamination of neutral particles populating the MICE muon beam. This contamination creates unwanted triggers in MICE, thus reducing the percentage of useful data taken during running. This paper describes the analysis done with time-of-flight detectors, used to measure and identify the source of the contamination in both positive and negative muon beams.

  7. The VERITAS Trigger System

    Weinstein, A

    2007-01-01

    The VERITAS gamma-ray observatory, situated in southern Arizona, is an array of four 12m diameter imaging Cherenkov telescopes, each with a 499-pixel photomultiplier-tube camera. The instrument is designed to detect astrophysical gamma rays at energies above 100 GeV. At the low end of the VERITAS energy range, fluctuations in the night sky background light and single muons from cosmic-ray showers constitute significant backgrounds. VERITAS employs a three-tier trigger system to reduce the rate of these background events: an initial trigger which acts at the single pixel level, a pattern trigger which acts on the relative timing and pixel level, a pattern trigger which acts on the relative timing and distribution of pixel-level triggers within a single telescope camera, and an array-level trigger which requires simultaneous observation of an air-shower event in multiple telescopes. This final coincidence requirement significantly reduces the rate of background events, particularly those due to single muons. In...

  8. The trigger system for the Collider Detector Facility

    The trigger logic for the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) at Fermilab is described. An analog/digital system constructs triggers based on clusters of energy in the calorimetry. These triggers are then combined with signals from the muon and central tracking systems to make a global trigger. Two levels of trigger logic have been implemented: a 'Level 1' trigger which is dead-timeless, and a more sophisticated Level 2 trigger. The rejection factor provided by these two systems will be 103 - 104

  9. CLIC Muon Sweeper Design

    Aloev, A; Gatignon, L; Modena, M; Pilicer, B; Tapan, I

    2016-01-01

    There are several background sources which may affect the analysis of data and detector performans at the CLIC project. One of the important background source is halo muons, which are generated along the beam delivery system (BDS), for the detector performance. In order to reduce muon background, magnetized muon sweepers have been used as a shielding material that is already described in a previous study for CLIC [1]. The realistic muon sweeper has been designed with OPERA. The design parameters of muon sweeper have also been used to estimate muon background reduction with BDSIM Monte Carlo simulation code [2, 3].

  10. MUON DETECTOR

    F. Gasparini

    DT Commissioning of the two negative wheels was done on the surface to gain time; YB-1 was completed in June and that of YB-2 on October 3. A new test is ongoing following their lowering into the experiment cavern (UX). In the UX cavern, YB0 and YB+1 testing was completed by the end of August, and the two last sectors of YB+2 will be finished by the end of November. The two negative wheels were lowered at the beginning of October and the installation of the chambers in the vertical sectors was done immediately. Three important events took place at the end of October: the last of the 250 DT +RPC packs was installed in Sector 7 of YB-2; full power was switched on for the first time in a full wheel (on YB0, albeit with temporary power distribution) and 50,000 events of cosmic muons, including many spectacular showers crossing the fully active YB0 (50 chambers), were recorded in about 15 minutes. Other crucial tests were achieved, in difficult conditions, to prove the performance of the DT DAQ. The DAQ ha...

  11. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    J. Hauser

    2012-01-01

      The CSC muon system has run well and very stably during the 2012 run. Problems with the delivery of low voltage to 10–15% of the ME1/1 chambers were mitigated in the trigger by triggering modes that make use of coincidences between stations 2, 3, and 4. Attention now focuses on the ambitious upgrade program in LS1. Simulation and reconstruction code has been prepared for the post-LS1 era, for which the CSC system will have a full set of 72 ME4/2 chambers installed, and the 3:1 ganging of strips in the inner section of ME1/1 (pseudorapidity 2.1–2.4) will be replaced by flash digitisation of each strip. Several improvements were made to the CSC system during the course of the year. Zero-suppression of the anode readout reduced 15% from the CSC data volume. The response to single-event upsets (SEUs) that cause downstream FED readout problems was improved in two ways: first, the FED monitoring software now detects FEDs that are stuck in a warning state and resets within about 4 ...

  12. Muon storage ring

    1974-01-01

    The muon storage ring where the g-2 of the muon is being measured with extremely high accuracy. The ring is 14-m in diameter and has very precise magnetic bending and electric focussing fields so that the muons orbit the ring under well-defined conditions.

  13. Calibration of muon reconstruction algorithms using an external muon tracking system at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    To help constrain the algorithms used in reconstructing high-energy muon events incident on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), a muon tracking system was installed. The system consisted of four planes of wire chambers, which were triggered by scintillator panels. The system was integrated with SNO's main data acquisition system and took data for a total of 95 live days. Using cosmic-ray events reconstructed in both the wire chambers and in SNO's water Cherenkov detector, the external muon tracking system was able to constrain the uncertainty on the muon direction to better than 0.6o. - Highlights: → This paper describes a novel technique for calibrating tracking algorithms. → The experimental accuracy achieved by this system was better than 1o. → The principle behind the technique can be used in future underground experiments.

  14. Installation of the first of the big wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons

  15. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  16. Muon Identification with the Event Filter of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN LHC's

    Dos Anjos, A; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Bosman, M; Carlino, G; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Comune, G; Conde, P; Conventi, F; Crone, G; Damazio, D; De Santo, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Di Mattia, A; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Garitaonandia, H; George, S; Ghete, V; Goncalo, R; Gorini, E; Haller, J; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lankford, A J; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N; Nisati, A; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Primavera, M; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Sánchez, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sobreira, A; Soluk, R A; Spagnolo, S; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Usai, G; Venda-Pinto, B; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S J; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; 14th IEEE - NPSS Real Time Conference 2005 Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN offers unprecedented challenges to the design and construction of detectors and trigger/data acquisition systems. For ATLAS, a three level trigger system has been developed to extract interesting physics signatures with a 10^6 rate reduction. To accomplish this, components of physics analysis traditionally deferred to offline physics analysis must be embedded within the online trigger system. For the Muon trigger, the specific off-line algorithms MOORE (Muon Object Oriented REconstruction) and MuId (Muon Identification) have been adopted so far for the on-line use, imposing an operation in a Bayesian-like environment where only specific hypotheses must be validated. After a short review of the ATLAS trigger, the paper shows the general strategy of the Muon Identification and Selection accessing the full event data, or being seeded from results derived at a previous stage of the trigger chain.

  17. MUON DETECTOR

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  19. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    The RPC muon detector and trigger are working very well, contributing positively to the high quality of CMS data. Most of 2011 has been used to improve the stability of our system and the monitoring tools used online and offline by the shifters and experts. The high-voltage working point is corrected, chamber-by-chamber, for pressure variation since July 2011. Corrections are applied at PVSS level during the stand-by mode (no collision) and are not changed until the next fill. The single detector calibration, HV scan, of February and the P-correction described before were very important steps towards fine-tuning the stability of the RPC performances. A very detailed analysis of the RPC performances is now ongoing and from preliminary results we observe an important improvements of the cluster size stability in time. The maximum oscillation of the cluster size run by run is now about 1%. At the same time we are not observing the same stability in the detection efficiency that shows an oscillation of about ...

  20. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  1. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

  2. Deep inelastic muon scattering at Fermilab

    As a second-generation Fermilab muon experiment, E203/391 was designed to have high sensitivity to any number of muons in the final state. This allowed a broad range of lepto-induced physics to be studied ranging from exotic 4- and 5-muon final states to deeply fundamental inelastic structure function measurements. The experimental apparatus and triggers are described along with the general scheme of the analysis. Next, a brief outline is given of some of the rich results of the multimuon final states to give a feeling for the apparatus performance and also a feeling for what to look forward to in the coming year. And, finally, a more detailed discussion of the early work on deep inelastic structure functions. 17 references

  3. Deep inelastic muon scattering at FERMILAB

    As a second-generation Fermilab muon experiment, E203/391 was designed to have high sensitivity to any number of muons in the final state. This allowed a broad range of lepto-induced physics to be studied ranging from exotic 4- and 5-muon final states to deeply fundamental inelastic structure function measurements. The experimental apparatus and triggers are described along with the general scheme of the analysis. Next, a brief outline of some of the rich results of the multimuon final state to give a feeling for the apparatus performance and also a feeling for what to look forward to in the coming year. And, finally, a more detailed discussion of the early work on deep inelastic structure functions

  4. Performance of CMS Muon Reconstruction in Cosmic-Ray Events

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Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The performance of muon reconstruction in CMS is evaluated using a large data sample of cosmic-ray muons recorded in 2008. Efficiencies of various high-level trigger, identification, and reconstruction algorithms have been measured for a broad range of muon momenta, and were found to be in good agreement with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. The relative momentum resolution for muons crossing the barrel part of the detector is better than 1% at 10 GeV/c and is about 8% at 500 GeV/c, the latter being only a factor of two worse than expected with ideal alignment conditions. Muon charge misassignment ranges from less than 0.01% at 10 GeV/c to about 1% at 500 GeV/c.

  5. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  6. FERMILAB: Prompt forward muons

    There have been theoretical conjectures that the large diffractive charm cross-sections seen at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings result from an intrinsic charm quark component at the one per cent level in the hadron. The semileptonic decays of such charm states would result in high energy prompt muons in the forward direction. A recent prompt muon experiment by a Caltech/Chicago/Fermilab/Rochester/Stanford collaboration indicates a very low rate for such prompt muons

  7. Precision Muon Physics

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinat...

  8. Muon lifetime measurement

    A simple experimental setup to measure the muon lifetime is presented. The muon detector consists of a sealed container with liquid scintillator coupled to a 2.5'' photomultiplier (PMT). A home-made electronics module controlled by the parallel port of a personal computer (PC) digitizes the time interval between two consecutive PMT pulses in a time window of 25.6 μs. The muon lifetime is obtained by analysing thousands of double-pulse events in which the first pulse corresponds to a cosmic ray muon that stops inside the detector and the second to the decay electron coming from the weak decay of the muon. The background noise comes from random coincidences of pulses due to muons crossing the detector within the same time window. The PC is used as the data adquisition (DAQ) and data analysis computer. In addition to the muon lifetime, the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons and the capture rate of negative muons by carbon nuclei can be measured if the number of events is sufficiently high

  9. The LHCb Trigger System

    Rodrigues, E

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb detector has been conceived to study with high precision CP violation and rare decays of b-flavoured hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb trigger is of crucial importance in selecting among the bulk of collisions those that are of interest for b-physics studies. The trigger is based on a two-level system. The first level, Level-0, is implemented in hardware and uses information from the calorimeter, muon and pile-up systems to select events containing particles with relatively large transverse momentum, typically above 1-2 GeV. The Level-0 trigger accepts events at a rate of 1 MHz. All the detector information is then read out and fed into the High Level Trigger. This software trigger runs in the event filter farm composed of about 1800 CPU nodes. Events are selected at a rate of 2kHz and sent for mass storage and subsequent offline reconstruction and analysis. The current status and expected performance of the trigger system are described.

  10. Muon Event Filter Software for the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    Biglietti, M; Assamagan, Ketevi A; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Bellomo, M; Bogaerts, J A C; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Conde, P; Conde-Muíño, P; De Santo, A; De Seixas, J M; Di Mattia, A; Dos Anjos, A; Dosil, M; Díaz-Gómez, M; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Epp, B; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kabana, S; Khomich, A; Kilvington, G; Konstantinidis, N P; Kootz, A; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Maeno, T; Masik, J; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Moore, R; Morettini, P; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Primavera, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Qian, Z; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Soluk, R A; Stefanidis, E; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Sánchez, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thomas, E; Touchard, F; Venda-Pinto, B; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; Computing In High Energy Physics

    2005-01-01

    At LHC the 40 MHz bunch crossing rate dictates a high selectivity of the ATLAS Trigger system, which has to keep the full physics potential of the experiment in spite of a limited storage capability. The level-1 trigger, implemented in a custom hardware, will reduce the initial rate to 75 kHz and is followed by the software based level-2 and Event Filter, usually referred as High Level Triggers (HLT), which further reduce the rate to about 100 Hz. In this paper an overview of the implementation of the offline muon recostruction algortihms MOORE (Muon Object Oriented REconstruction) and MuId (Muon Identification) as Event Filter in the ATLAS online framework is given. The MOORE algorithm performs the reconstruction inside the Muon Spectrometer providing a precise measurement of the muon track parameters outside the calorimeters; MuId combines the measurements of all ATLAS sub-detectors in order to identify muons and provides the best estimate of their momentum at the production vertex. In the HLT implementatio...

  11. Muons and Neutrinos 2007

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the written version of the rapporteur talk on Section HE-2, muons and neutrinos, presented at the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Merida, Yucatan, July 11, 2007. Topics include atmospheric muons and neutrinos, solar neutrinos and astrophysical neutrinos as well as calculations and instrumentation related to these topics.

  12. JADE muon detector

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-08-01

    The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.).

  13. CMS muon system performance

    This note contains a description of the muon system constructed for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at LHC. A description of all three different subdetectors composing the spectrometer (Drift Tube Chambers, Cathode Strip Chambers and Resistive Plate Chambers), their construction and commissioning will be reviewed, together with some results obtained in different campaigns of cosmic data taking.

  14. Slow Muons and Muonium

    Kirch, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland operates the high intensity proton accelerator facility HIPA. A 590 MeV kinetic energy proton beam of presently up to 2.4 mA is sent to target stations producing pions, muons and neutrons for fundamental and applied physics. The beam power of 1.4 MW provides the world's highest intensities of low momentum muons which can be stopped in low mass targets. Rates of surface muons of up to about $10^8$/s are being provided to various unique precision particle physics experiments. Two feasibility studies are ongoing to considerably improve the available muon beams. The high intensity muon beamline, HiMB, could deliver on the order of $10^{10}$/s surface muons and the stopped muon cooler, muCool, aims at a gain factor of $10^{10}$ in phase space quality while sacrificing only less than 3 orders of magnitude in intensity for low energy $\\mu^+$. These beams will allow a new generation of precision physics experiments with stopped muons and muonium atoms.

  15. Precision Muon Physics

    Gorringe, T P

    2015-01-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio $\\mu_\\mu / \\mu_p$, lepton mass ratio $m_{\\mu} / m_e$, and proton charge radius $r_p$. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiment...

  16. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  17. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    Ero, Janos; Ioannis Flouris; Fountas, Konstantinos; Guiducci, Luigi; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Triossi, Andrea; Wulz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray and pp data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards which use a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  18. First test of a CMS DT chamber equipped with full electronics in a muon beam

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    A CMS DT chamber of MB3 type, equipped with the final version of a minicrate (containing all on-chamber trigger and readout electronics), was tested in a muon beam for the first time. The beam was bunched in 25 ns spills, allowing an LHC-like response of the chamber trigger. This test confirmed the excellent performance of the trigger design.

  19. The CMS trigger system

    Khachatryan, Vardan; CMS Collaboration; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; 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Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; 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Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; 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Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  20. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  1. Muons and electrons in general

    Nodulman, L.; Bensinger, J.

    1983-01-01

    We address the problem of simultaneously identifying electrons and muons in a general-purpose detector at a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. Those discoveries and important measurements which are reasonably well predicted now are under way and likely to be fairly complete before turn on. The signatures of new effects to be found at high rates are not well predicted, and for flexibility it may be necessary to look simultaneously for some combination of jets, missing E/sub T/, electrons, and muons. This leads immediately to an open geometry with magnetic tracking and calorimetry. At high luminosity, getting out trigger informtion quickly is a prime concern. Note that if a given signature requires isolating individual events then even for an optimistic integration time of 20 ns, the optimal luminosity is about 2x10/sup 32/cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. We have not had the opportunity to be very specific in design or to consider the extended momentum range implied by 10 to 20 TeV collisions.

  2. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  3. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  4. Z to Muon Muon Collision Event Animation

    ATLAS experiment

    2010-01-01

    This animation was created of an actual ATLAS collision event in 2010. This animation shows from the particle view the race through the LHC, ending in the detector where the particle collision occurs. Candidate for an event with a Z boson decaying to two muons.

  5. A Front-End Readout Architecture for the CMS Barrel Muon Detector: A Feasibility Study

    A feasibility study of a possible architecture for the CMS barrel muon detector readout electronics is presented. some aspects of system reliability are discussed. Values for the required FIFO's to store data during the first level trigger latency are given

  6. The Muon Collider

    We describe the scientific motivation for a new type of accelerator, the muon collider. This accelerator would permit an energy-frontier scientific program and yet would fit on the site of an existing laboratory. Such a device is quite challenging, and requires a substantial R and D program. After describing the ingredients of the facility, the ongoing R and D activities of the Muon Accelerator Program are discussed. A possible U.S. scenario that could lead to a muon collider at Fermilab is briefly mentioned.

  7. CMS Technical Design Report for the Muon Endcap GEM Upgrade

    Colaleo, A; Sharma, A; Tytgat, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    This report describes both the technical design and the expected performance of the Phase-II upgrade, using Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, of the first endcap station of the CMS muon system. The upgrade is targeted for the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC and is designed to improve the muon trigger and tracking performance at high luminosity. The GEM detectors will add redundancy to the muon system in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 pseudorapidity region, where the amount of detection layers is lowest while the background rates are highest and the bending of the muon trajectories due to the CMS magnetic field is small. GEM detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment present in that region. The first muon endcap station will be instrumented with a double layer of triple-GEM chambers in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 region. The detector front-end electronics uses the custom designed VFAT3 chip to provide both fast input for the level-1 muon trigger ...

  8. Instruments for calibration and monitoring of the LHCb Muon Detector

    Deplano, C; Lai, A

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this Ph. D. thesis is the study and the development of the instruments needed to monitor and calibrate the Muon Detector of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment. LHCb is currently under installation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will start to take data during 2007. The experiment will study B mesons decays to achieve a profound understanding of favour physics in the Standard Model framework and to search signs of new physics beyond. Muons can be found in the final states of many B-decays which are sensitive to CP violation. The Muon Detector has the crucial role to identify the muon particles generated by the b-hadron decays through a measurement of their transverse momentum, already at the first trigger level (Level-0). A 95% effciency in events selection is required for the Muon Trigger, which operates at the Level-0. 1380 detectors are used to equip the whole Muon System and the corresponding 122,112 readout channels must be time aligned and monitored with a resol...

  9. Investigating students' academic numeracy in 1st level university courses

    Galligan, Linda; Hobohm, Carola

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates how an online test (`Self-Test' developed at the University of Southern Queensland) can enrich students' understanding of their academic numeracy, through a purpose-built, self-assessment tool aligned with online modules. Since its creation and evaluation, the tool has been developed and tailored to suit other first year courses based around an academic numeracy framework of competence, confidence and critical awareness (Galligan 2013a). This paper will highlight how the new Self-Test is underpinned by this framework and how students' levels of numeracy can be better understood by the lecturer through Self-Test in a first year nursing for numeracy course and a maths for teachers course. It particularly addresses over- and under-confidence, error analysis and students' reflective comments, and how this understanding can better inform course development and teaching.

  10. Muon identification in JADE

    The method of identification of high energy muons in the JADE detector is described in detail. The performance of the procedure is discussed in detail for the case of prompt identification in multihadronic final states. (orig.)

  11. Muon identification in JADE

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-08-01

    The method of identification of high energy muons in the JADE detector is described in detail. The performance of the procedure is discussed in detail for the case of prompt identification in multihadronic final states. (orig.).

  12. Musing over muons

    The Standard Model of modern physics looks simple - six types of quark grouped pairwise into three families, each associated with a different type of weakly interacting particle, or lepton - the electron, the muon and the tau. Despite its many successes, this picture cannot be the end of the road. Why is the muon about two hundred times heavier than the electron? The answer is hidden by the Standard Model's price tag. The physicists attending a workshop on Low Energy Muon Science in the 1990s, held at the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in April, were looking for ways to learn more about the muon and uncover what lies behind the Standard Model

  13. Muons in chemistry

    Clayden, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Positive muons have long been used as extrinsic probes in chemistry, offering unique properties for the investigation of local magnetism, dynamics, transport and radical kinetics. Exciting new developments in muon beam lines offer the opportunity of extending these studies selectively to surfaces permitting, for example, the detection of increased mobility of polymer chains at the surface of a polymer film. So called pump and probe methods, involving external perturbations by laser irradiation to manipulate vibrational and electronic states, can be followed by muon pulses allowing the probing of the properties of these states. Muoniated radical probes are finding greater use in soft matter. Selectivity is achieved in these complex systems through an appropriate target molecule giving the chance to measure partitioning and interfacial transfer in surfactant systems. Improvements in sample environments allow the observation of muons in increasingly extreme combinations of temperature and pressure, such as supercritical water, allowing the characterization of the chemistry in these systems.

  14. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer with Cosmic Rays

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergey; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Becerici, Neslihan; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benincasa, Gianpaolo; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawson, Ian; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De Mora, Lee; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dushkin, Andrei; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fayette, Florent; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Green, Barry; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Groh, Manfred; Groll, Marius; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Härtel, Roland; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hashemi, Kevan; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Hori, Takuya; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howe, Travis; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issakov, Vladimir; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jez, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kalinowski, Artur; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Klute, Markus; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostka, Peter; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kwee, Regina; La Rotonda, Laura; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Vine, Micheal; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Leyton, Michael; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shumin; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lilley, Joseph; Lim, Heuijin; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Luisa, Luca; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martini, Agnese; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Misawa, Shigeki; Miscetti, Stefano; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mladenov, Dimitar; Moa, Torbjoern; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Notz, Dieter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, John; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Ottersbach, John; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parker, Sherwood; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Patwa, Abid; Pauly, Thilo; Peak, Lawrence; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poffenberger, Paul; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Ponsot, Patrick; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Popule, Jiri; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potekhin, Maxim; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Potter, Keith; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puigdengoles, Carles; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qi, Ming; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Weiming; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; 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Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybkin, Grigori; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sanny, Bernd; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Savard, Pierre; Savine, Alexandre; Savinov, Vladimir; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schroers, Marcel; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Sluka, Tomas; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yuri; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soluk, Richard; Sondericker, John; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spencer, Edwin; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stastny, Jan; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Su, Dong; Soh, Dart-yin; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Takuya; Suzuki, Yu; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szymocha, Tadeusz; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Ryan P.; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thomson, Evelyn; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomasek, Michal; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuggle, Joseph; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasilyeva, Lidia; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vellidis, Constantine; 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Wall, Richard; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Wastie, Roy; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Manuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Dennis; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xu, Da; Xu, Neng; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zambrano, Valentina; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qizhi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider has collected several hundred million cosmic ray events during 2008 and 2009. These data were used to commission the Muon Spectrometer and to study the performance of the trigger and tracking chambers, their alignment, the detector control system, the data acquisition and the analysis programs. We present the performance in the relevant parameters that determine the quality of the muon measurement. We discuss the single element efficiency, resolution and noise rates, the calibration method of the detector response and of the alignment system, the track reconstruction efficiency and the momentum measurement. The results show that the detector is close to the design performance and that the Muon Spectrometer is ready to detect muons produced in high energy proton-proton collisions.

  15. Muon capture by tritium

    The muon capture rate is computed with realistic wave function for the initial tritium nuclei (Faddeev equations on configuration space with realistic potentials), and plane wave approximation for the final three neutrons, with the effective Hamiltonian of Fujii and Primakoff for muon capture and via a non energy weighted sum rule. Such a forbidden transition is hoped to be a probe for exchange current contributions

  16. Muon-proton Scattering

    Borie, E.

    2012-01-01

    A recent proposal to measure the proton form factor by means of muon-proton scattering will use muons which are not ultrarelativistic (and also not nonrelativistic). The usual equations describing the scattering cross section use the approximation that the scattered lepton (usually an electron) is ultrarelativistic, with v/c approximately equal to 1. Here the cross section is calculated for all values of the energy. It agrees with the standard result in the appropriate limit.

  17. Commissioning and Performance of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker with Cosmic Ray Muons

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Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; 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Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    During autumn 2008, the Silicon Strip Tracker was operated with the full CMS experiment in a comprehensive test, in the presence of the 3.8 T magnetic field produced by the CMS superconducting solenoid. Cosmic ray muons were detected in the muon chambers and used to trigger the readout of all CMS sub-detectors. About 15 million events with a muon in the tracker were collected. The efficiency of hit and track reconstruction were measured to be higher than 99% and consistent with expectations from Monte Carlo simulation. This article details the commissioning and performance of the Silicon Strip Tracker with cosmic ray muons.

  18. Impact of the GE1/1 upgrade on CMS muon system performance

    Magnani, Alice

    2015-01-01

    During the future LHC upgrade planned in 2018, the forward endcap region of the CMS muon spectrometer will be upgraded with GEM chambers. GEM technology is able to withstand the radiation environment expected in the forward region. The GE1/1 station will be included in the muon L1 trigger, allowing to keep low pT threshold even at high luminosity. Moreover, it will bring detection redundancy in the most critical part of the CMS muon system, along with benefits to muon reconstruction performance.

  19. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  1. The second level trigger system of FAST

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  2. The Performance and Long Term Stability of the D0 Run II Forward Muon Scintillation Counters

    Bezzubov, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Denisov, D. [Fermilab; Evdokimov, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Lipaev, V. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Shchukin, A. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Vasilyev, I. [Serpukhov, IHEP

    2014-07-21

    The performance of the D0 experiment forward muon scintillation counters system during Run II of the Tevatron from 2001 to 2011 is described. The system consists of 4214 scintillation counters in six layers. The long term stability of the counters amplitude response determined using LED calibration system and muons produced in proton-antiproton collisions is presented. The average signal amplitude for counters of all layers has gradually decreased over ten years by 11%. The reference timing, determined using LED calibration, was stable within 0.26 ns. Average value of muon timing peak position was used for periodic D0 clock signal adjustments to compensate seasonal drift caused by temperature variations. Counters occupancy for different triggers in physics data collection runs and for minimum bias triggers are presented. The single muon yields versus time and the luminosity dependence of yields were stable for the forward muon system within 1% over 10 years.

  3. Electron-Muon Ranger: performance in the MICE Muon Beam

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bene, P.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 9...

  4. Electron-muon ranger: performance in the MICE muon beam

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bene, P.; Bertoni, R.; Oates, A; Onel, Y.; D. Orestano; Overton, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a detailed study of ionization cooling to evaluate the feasibility of the technique. To carry out this program, MICE requires an efficient particle-identification (PID) system to identify muons. The Electron-Muon Ranger (EMR) is a fully-active tracking-calorimeter that forms part of the PID system and tags muons that traverse the cooling channel without decaying. The detector is capable of identifying electrons with an efficiency of 9...

  5. Precision muon physics

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  6. Fukushima Daiichi Muon Imaging

    Miyadera, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    Japanese government announced cold-shutdown condition of the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi by the end of 2011, and mid- and long-term roadmap towards decommissioning has been drawn. However, little is known for the conditions of the cores because access to the reactors has been limited by the high radiation environment. The debris removal from the Unit 1 - 3 is planned to start as early as 2020, but the dismantlement is not easy without any realistic information of the damage to the cores, and the locations and amounts of the fuel debris. Soon after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi, several teams in the US and Japan proposed to apply muon transmission or scattering imagings to provide information of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors without accessing inside the reactor building. GEANT4 modeling studies of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 and 2 showed clear superiority of the muon scattering method over conventional transmission method. The scattering method was demonstrated with a research reactor, Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA), where a fuel assembly was imaged with 3-cm resolution. The muon scattering imaging of Fukushima Daiichi was approved as a national project and is aiming at installing muon trackers to Unit 2. A proposed plan includes installation of muon trackers on the 2nd floor (operation floor) of turbine building, and in front of the reactor building. Two 7mx7m detectors were assembled at Toshiba and tested.

  7. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    Spiwoks, Ralf; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP) combines information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). In addition to the event-selection decision, the CTP also provides trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and the data acquisition system. It further provides accumulated and bunch-by-bunch scaler data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The CTP is presented and results are shown from tests with the calorimeter adn muon trigger processors connected to detectors in a particle beam, as well as from stand-alone full-system tests in the laboratory which were used to validate the CTP.

  8. The CMS Muon Reconstruction Software

    Trocino, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Muonic final states will provide clean signatures for many physics processes at the LHC. One of the main goals of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) design is thus to ensure efficient and accurate identification and reconstruction of muons. A sophisticated muon system is used for muon identification and stand-alone reconstruction and the inner silicon tracker exploits the high magnetic field to ensure a very precise transverse momentum resolution. The global reconstruction algorithms combine muons reconstructed in the dedicated spectrometer with tracks reconstructed in the inner detector. The CMS reconstruction software is well suited for both offline reconstruction and online event selection (HLT) and its performance has been studied in detail using Monte Carlo simulations. The muon reconstruction has also been employed successfully to reconstruct cosmic muons traversing the CMS detector. The design of the CMS muon identification and reconstruction is presented, as well as its performance on simulated and cosmi...

  9. Muon capture in hydrogen

    In this lecture I will mainly speak about the recent results obtained by the Saclay-CERN-Bologna (SCB) collaboration on the muon capture rate at rest in liquid hydrogen.In the first talk I shall first briefly remind the theoretical description of the capture process, then describe the experimental difficulties and procedures and finally present the results obtained. In the second talk I shall compare them to other capture experiments on the proton and present the informations that are provided by muon capture in hydrogen, especially for the PCAC hypothesis, the second class currents and the μ-e universality. Finally I shall present the possible muon capture experiments on the proton that could still be undertaken in order to improve our present knowledge of the subject

  10. Status of triple GEM muon chambers for the LHCb experiment

    Muon triggering and offline muon identification are fundamental requirements for the LHCb experiment, which will begin to take data at the start-up of the LHC machine. The identification of muon particles and an estimate of the transverse momentum (ΔpT/pT∼20%) in the near-beam area of the first muon station is achieved by a set of 12 double triple-GEM detectors which covers an area of about 0.6m2. Since b-quark production is peaked in the forward direction, GEM detectors will trigger about 20% of muons from B-particle decays. In this paper the results of the detector quality checks on anode and cathode panels planarity, GEM foil HV test, chamber gas leak and gain uniformity are presented. The performance of a chamber, composed of two triple-GEM detectors logically OR-ed, has been measured in a recent test beam at the SPS, with particle bunches with a time structure of 25 ns similar to the LHC running conditions. In this test the final front-end electronics and the final LHCb DAQ have been used. This result demonstrates that the detector can achieve the required performances (efficiency larger than 96%) at a detector gain of 4000, thus ensuring a long detector lifetime in the harsh LHCb environment

  11. Muon Collider design status

    Alexahin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Muon Collider (MC) - proposed by G. I. Budker and A. N. Skrinsky a few decades ago - is now considered as the most exciting option for the energy frontier machine in the post-LHC era. A national Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) is being formed in the USA with the ultimate goal of building a MC at the Fermilab site with c.o.m. energy in the range 1.5-3 TeV and luminosity of ~1-5 \\times 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}1. As the first step on the way to MC it envisages construction of a Neutrino Factory (NF)...

  12. The Forward Muon Detector of L3

    Adam, A; Alarcon, J; Alberdi, J; Alexandrov, V S; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Ariza, M; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bakker, F; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barcala, J M; Becker, U; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Betev, B L; Biland, A; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borisov, V S; Bosseler, K; Bouvier, P; Brambilla, Elena; Burger, J D; Burgos, C; Buskens, J; Carlier, J C; Carlino, G; Causaus, J; Cavallo, N; Cerjak, I; Cerrada-Canales, M; Chang, Y H; Chen, H S; Chendvankar, S R; Chvatchkine, V B; Daniel, M; De Asmundis, R; Decreuse, G; Deiters, K; Djambazov, L; Duraffourg, P; Erné, F C; Esser, H; Ezekiev, S; Faber, G; Fabre, M; Fernández, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Fritschi, M; García-Abia, P; González, A; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haller, C; Herold, W D; Herrmann, J M; Hervé, A; Hofer, H; Höfer, M; Hofer, T; Homma, J; Horisberger, Urs; Horváth, I L; Ingenito, P; Innocente, Vincenzo; Ioudine, I; Jaspers, M; de Jong, P; Kästli, W; Kaspar, H; Kitov, V; König, A C; Koutsenko, V F; Lanzano, S; Lapoint, C; Lebedev, A; Lecomte, P; Lista, L; Lübelsmeyer, K; Lustermann, W; Ma, J M; Milesi, M; Molinero, A; Montero, A; Moore, R; Nahn, S; Navarrete, J J; Okle, M; Orlinov, I; Ostojic, R; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Parascandolo, P; Passeggio, G; Patricelli, S; Peach, D; Piccolo, D; Pigni, L; Postema, H; Puras, C; Ren, D; Rewiersma, P A M; Rietmeyer, A; Riles, K; Risco, J; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Röser, U; Romero, L; Van Rossum, W; Rykaczewski, H; Sarakinos, M E; Sassowsky, M; Shchegelskii, V; Scholz, N; Schultze, K; Schuylenburg, H; Sciacca, C; Seiler, P G; Siedenburg, T; Siedling, R; Smith, B; Soulimov, V; Sadhakar, K; Syben, O; Tonutti, M; Udovcic, A; Ulbricht, J; Veillet, L; Vergain, M; Viertel, Gert M; Von Gunten, H P; Vorobyov, A A; Vrankovic, V; De Waard, A; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wallraff, W; Walter, H C; Wang, J C; Wei, Z L; Wetter, R; Willmott, C; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, R J; Yang, K S; Zhou, L; Zhou, Y; Zuang, H L

    1996-01-01

    The Forward-Backward muon detector of the L3 experiment is presented. Intended to be used for LEP 200 physics, it consists of 96 self-calibrating drift chambers of a new design enclosing the magnet pole pieces of the L3 solenoid. The pole pieces are toroidally magnetized to form two independent analyzing spectrometers. A novel trigger is provided by resistive plate counters attached to the drift chambers. Details about the design, construction and performance of the whole system are given together with results obtained during the 1995 running at LEP.

  13. The forward muon detector of L3

    Adam, A.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alarcon, J.; Alberdi, J.; Alexandrov, V.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Ariza, M.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakker, F.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barcala, J.; Becker, U.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Betev, B. L.; Biland, A.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borissov, V.; Bosseler, K.; Bouvier, Ph.; Brambilla, E.; Burger, J. D.; Burgos, C.; Buskens, J.; Carlier, J. C.; Carlino, G.; Casaus, J.; Cavallo, N.; Cerjak, I.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, H. S.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Chvatchkine, V.; Daniel, M.; de Asmundis, R.; Decreuse, G.; Deiters, K.; Djambazov, L.; Duraffourg, P.; Erné, F. C.; Esser, H.; Ezekiev, S.; Faber, G.; Fabre, M.; Fernandez, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Fritschi, M.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haller, Ch.; Herold, W. D.; Herrmann, J.; Hervé, A.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, H.; Hofer, M.; Hofer, T.; Homma, J.; Horisberger, U.; Horvath, I.; Ingenito, P.; Innocente, V.; Ioudine, I.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, P.; Kaestli, W.; Kaspar, H.; Kitov, V.; König, A. C.; Koutsenko, V.; Lanzano, S.; Lapoint, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lecomte, P.; Lista, L.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Milesi, M.; Molinero, A.; Montero, A.; Moore, R.; Nahn, S.; Navarrete, J.; Okle, M.; Orlinov, I.; Ostojic, D.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Parascandolo, P.; Passeggio, G.; Patricelli, S.; Peach, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pigni, L.; Postema, H.; Puras, C.; Ren, D.; Rewiersma, P.; Rietmeyer, A.; Riles, K.; Risco, J.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roeser, U.; Romero, L.; van Rossum, W.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sassowsky, M.; Schegelsky, V.; Scholz, N.; Schultze, K.; Schuylenburg, H.; Sciacca, C.; Seiler, P. G.; Siedenburg, T.; Siedling, R.; Smith, B.; Soulimov, V.; Sudhakar, K.; Syben, O.; Tonutti, M.; Udovcic, A.; Ulbricht, J.; Veillet, L.; Vergain, M.; Viertel, G.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobyov, An. A.; Vrankovic, V.; de Waard, A.; Waldmeier-Wicki, S.; Wallraff, W.; Walter, H. C.; Wang, J. C.; Wei, Z. L.; Wetter, R.; Weverling, I.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, R. J.; Yang, K. S.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Y.; Zuang, H. L.

    1996-02-01

    The forward-backward muon detector of the L3 experiment is presented. Intended to be used for LEP 200 physics, it consists of 96 self-calibrating drift chambers of a new design enclosing the magnet pole pieces of the L3 solenoid. The pole pieces are toroidally magnetized to form two independent analyzing spectrometers. A novel trigger is provided by resistive plate counters attached to the drift chambers. Details about the design, construction and performance of the whole system are given together with results obtained during the 1995 running at LEP.

  14. The Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    Abbrescia, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    The CMS muon system is based on three types of gaseous detectors, RPCs, CSCs and DTs. While operating very well in the present conditions, upgrades are foreseen for each of the subsystems, necessary to cope with the increased pile-up, coming along with higher rates and radiation. Electronics can be modernized by profiting from recent developments. In addition, detector R and D is ongoing, to possibly install other types of detectors, allowing to improve the trigger and tracking capabilities in the forward region. The upgrade programs will be outlined in this presentation.

  15. ATLAS Trigger: design and commissioning

    Pastore, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system was designed to select potentially interesting events and reduce the incoming rate to 100-200 Hz. The first trigger level (LVL1) is implemented in custom-built electronics, the second and third trigger levels are realised in software. Based on calorimeter information and hits in dedicated muon-trigger detectors, the LVL1 decision is made by the central-trigger processor yielding an output rate of less than 100 kHz. The allowed latency for the trigger decision at this stage is less than 2.5 micro seconds. The two subsequent levels, called, High-Level Trigger (HLT) further reduce the rate to the offline storage rate while retaining the most interesting physics. The HLT is implemented in software running in commercially available computer farms and consists of Level 2 and Event Filter. To reduce the network data traffic and the processing time to managea...

  16. Online Muon Reconstruction in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at the Level-2 stage of the Event Selection

    Di Mattia, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the 40 MHz event production rate of LHC, the ATLAS experiment uses a multi level trigger architecture that selects events in three sequential steps, increasing the complexity of reconstruction algorithms and accuracy of measurements with each step. The Level-1 is implemented with custom hardware and provides a first reduction of the event rate to 75KHz, identifying physics candidates within a small detector region (Region of Interest, RoI). The higher trigger levels, the Level-2 and the Event Filter, are running on dedicated PC farms where the event rate is further reduced to O(400) Hz by software algorithms. At Level-2, the selection of the muon events is initiated by the MuFast algorithm, which confirms the muon candidates by means of a precise measurement of the muon candidate momentum. Designed to use a negligible fraction of the Level-2 latency, this algorithm exploits fast tracking and Look Up Table (LUT) techniques to perform the muon reconstruction with the precision muon chamber data wit...

  17. Online Muon Reconstruction in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at the Level-2 stage of the Event Selection

    Di Mattia, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the 40 MHz event production rate of LHC, the ATLAS experiment uses a multi level trigger architecture that selects events in three sequential steps, increasing the complexity of reconstruction algorithms and accuracy of measurements with each step. The Level-1 is implemented with custom hardware and provides a first reduction of the event rate to 75KHz, identifying physics candidates within a small detector region (Region of Interest, RoI). The higher trigger levels, the Level-2 and the Event Filter, are running on dedicated PC farms where the event rate is further reduced to O(400) Hz by software algorithms. At Level-2, the selection of the muon events is initiated by the “MuFast” algorithm, which confirms the muon candidates by means of a precise measurement of the muon candidate momentum. Designed to use a negligible fraction of the Level-2 latency, this algorithm exploits fast tracking and Look Up Table (LUT) techniques to perform the muon reconstruction with the precision muon chamber da...

  18. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  19. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  20. Muon System alignment with tracks

    Calderón, Alicia; Virto, A L; Martínez, P; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Sobron, M; Vila, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    We describe here some of the techniques foreseen to align the Muon System with muon tracks. Two methods are proposed, one based on the Tracker which measures the position of a Muon chamber with respect to the Tracker, and another one which aligns internally the Muon System. A mathematical model is described for the general case. It is simplified for several particular cases of the Muon System alignment and applied to realistic examples on full simulation. Some estimates of the expected precision and limitation of the method are presented.

  1. The online muon identification with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    Marx, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a proton-proton collider providing the highest energy and the highest instantaneous luminosity ever achieved at a hadron collider. During 2012 runs, bunch crossings occurred every 50 ns. The online event selection system should reduce the event recording rate down to a few 100 Hz in the harsh conditions with many overlapping pp collisions occurring in one bunch crossing. Muons provide a clear signature for many physics processes and often play an important role for example in the 2012 discovery of a Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment deploys a three-level online processing scheme. The Level 1 (L1) muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software-based and encompasses a Level 2 (L2) and an Event Filter (EF) trigger for a staged trigger approach. It has acce...

  2. The online muon identification with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    Marx, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a proton-proton collider providing the highest energy and the highest instantaneous luminosity ever achieved at a hadron collider. During 2012 runs, bunch crossings occurred every 50 ns. The online event selection system should reduce the event recording rate down to a few 100 Hz in the harsh conditions with many overlapping $pp$ collisions occurring in one bunch crossing. Muons provide a clear signature for many physics processes and often play an important role for example in the 2012 discovery of a Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment deploys a three-level online processing scheme. The Level 1 (L1) muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software-based and encompasses a Level 2 (L2) and an Event Filter (EF) trigger for a staged trigger approach. It has ac...

  3. Muon capture at PSI

    Winter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Measuring the rate of muon capture in hydrogen provides one of the most direct ways to study the axial current of the nucleon. The MuCap experiment uses a negative muon beam stopped in a time projection chamber operated with ultra-pure hydrogen gas. Surrounded by a decay electron detector, the lifetime of muons in hydrogen can be measured to determine the singlet capture rate Lambda_s to a final precision of 1%. The capture rate determines the nucleon's pseudoscalar form factor g_p. A first result, g_p = 7.3 +- 1.1, has been published and the final analysis of the full statistics will reduce the error by a factor of up to 3. Muon capture on the deuteron probes the weak axial current in the two-nucleon system. Within the framework of effective field theories the calculation of such two-nucleon processes involving the axial current requires the knowledge of one additional low energy constant which can be extracted from the doublet capture rate Lambda_d. The same constant then allows to model-independently calcu...

  4. Muon-induced fission

    A review of recent experimental results on negative-muon-induced fission, both of 238U and 232Th, is given. Some conclusions drawn by the author are concerned with muonic atoms of fission fragments and muonic atoms of the shape isomer of 238U. (author)

  5. Bridging nations through muons

    2006-01-01

    From America to Israel and Japan, a team of international technicians and scientists are working together to build the ATLAS endcap muon chambers. The Israeli and Pakistani teams stand in front of part of the ATLAS endcap muon spectrometer. They are working on the project along with...... a team from American universities and research institutions. It's a small world; at least you might think so after a visit to Building 180. Inside, about 30 engineers and physicists weld, measure and hammer away, many of whom are miles from their homes and families. They hail from Pakistan, Israel, Japan, China, Russia and the United States. Coordinated by a group of CERN engineers, the team represents an international collaboration in every sense. Whether they've been here for years or months, CERN is their temporary home as they work toward one common goal: the completion of the ATLAS muon chamber endcaps. When finished, the ATLAS muon spectrometer will include four moving 'big wheel'structures on each end of the detecto...

  6. Validation Tools for ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Commissioning

    Benekos, N.Chr. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Dedes, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Laporte, J.F.; Nicolaidou, R.; Ouraou, A. [CEA-Saclay, DAPNIA (France)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer (MS), currently being installed at CERN, is designed to measure final state muons of 14 TeV proton-proton interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a good momentum resolution of 2-3% at 10-100 GeV/c and 10% at 1 TeV, taking into account the high level background enviroment, the inhomogeneous magnetic field, and the large size of the apparatus (24 m diameter by 44 m length). The MS layout of the ATLAS detector is made of a large toroidal magnet, arrays of high-pressure drift tubes for precise tracking and dedicated fast detectors for the first-level trigger, and is organized in eight Large and eight Small sectors. All the detectors of the barrel toroid have been installed and the commissioning has started with cosmic rays. In order to validate the MS performance using cosmic events, a Muon Commissioning Validation package has been developed and its results are presented in this paper. Integration with the rest of the ATLAS sub-detectors is now being done in the ATLAS cavern.

  7. Electronics design of the RPC system for the OPERA muon

    The present document describes the front-end electronics of the RPC system that instruments the magnet muon spectrometer of the OPERA experiment. The main task of the OPERA spectrometer is to provide particle tracking information for muon identification and simplify the matching between the Precision Trackers. As no trigger has been foreseen for the experiment, the spectrometer electronics must be self-triggered with single-plane readout capability. Moreover, precision time information must be added within each event frame for off-line reconstruction. The read-out electronics is made of three different stages: the Front-End Boards (FEBs) system, the Controller Boards (CBs) system and Trigger Boards (TBs) system. The FEB system provides discrimination of the strip incoming signals; a FAST-OR output of the input signals is also available for trigger plane signal generation. FEB signals are required by the CB system that provides the zero suppression and manages the communication to the DAQ and Slow Control. A Trigger Board allows to operate in both self-trigger mode (the FEB's FAST-OR signal starts the plane acquisition) or in external-trigger mode (different conditions can be set on the FAST-OR signals generated from different planes)

  8. D0 upgrade muon electronics design

    The planned luminosity for the TEVATRON upgrade is ten times higher than at present (L ∼ 1032cm-2s-1) and involves a time between collisions as small as 132 ns. To operate the D0 muon system in this environment, completely new electronics is required for its 17,500 proportional drift tubes. These electronics include a dead timeless readout, a digital TDC with about 1 ns binning for the wire signals, fast charge integrators and pipelined ADCs for digitizing the pad electrode signals, a new wire signal triggering scheme and its associated trigger logic, and high level DSP processing. Some test results of measurements performed on prototype channels and a comparison with the existing electronics are presented

  9. Muon tracking system with Silicon Photomultipliers

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Dahal, S. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Di Giovanni, A., E-mail: adriano.digiovanni@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Pazos Clemens, L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Candela, A.; D' Incecco, M.; Sablone, D. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN, Assergi (Italy); Franchi, G. [AGE Scientific Srl, Capezzano Pianore (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    We report the characterisation and performance of a low cost muon tracking system consisting of plastic scintillator bars and Silicon Photomultipliers equipped with a customised front-end electronics based on a fast preamplifier network. This system can be used as a detector test bench for astroparticle physics and for educational and outreach purposes. We investigated the device behaviour in self-trigger and coincidence mode, without using LED and pulse generators, showing that with a relatively simple set up a complete characterisation work can be carried out. A high definition oscilloscope, which can easily be found in many university physics or engineering departments, has been used for triggering and data acquisition. Its capabilities have been exploited to discriminate real particles from the background.

  10. Muon tracking system with Silicon Photomultipliers

    We report the characterisation and performance of a low cost muon tracking system consisting of plastic scintillator bars and Silicon Photomultipliers equipped with a customised front-end electronics based on a fast preamplifier network. This system can be used as a detector test bench for astroparticle physics and for educational and outreach purposes. We investigated the device behaviour in self-trigger and coincidence mode, without using LED and pulse generators, showing that with a relatively simple set up a complete characterisation work can be carried out. A high definition oscilloscope, which can easily be found in many university physics or engineering departments, has been used for triggering and data acquisition. Its capabilities have been exploited to discriminate real particles from the background