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Sample records for 19id undulator beamline

  1. Optics Concept for a Pair of Undulator Beamlines for MX*

    Berman, L. E.; Allaire, M; Chance, M R; Hendrickson, W A; Héroux, A; Jakoncic, J.; Liu, Q.; Orville, A.M.; Robinson, H.H.; Schneider, D. K.; SHI, W.; Soares, A.S.; Stojanoff, V.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R M

    2011-01-01

    We describe a concept for x-ray optics to feed a pair of macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines which view canted undulator radiation sources in the same storage ring straight section. It can be deployed at NSLS-II and at other low-emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources where canted undulators are permitted, and makes the most of these sources and beamline floor space, even when the horizontal angle between the two canted undulator emissions is as little as 1-2 mrad. ...

  2. Elliptically polarizing undulator beamlines at the Advanced Light Source

    Circular polarization insertion devices and beamlines at the Advanced Light Source are described. The facility will consist of multiple undulators feeding two independent beamlines, one optimized for microscopy and the other for spectroscopy. The energy range of the beamlines will go from below 100 eV to 1,800 eV, enabling studies of the magnetically important L2,3 edges of transition metals and the M4,5 edges of rare earths

  3. Elliptically polarizing undulator beamlines at the Advanced Light Source

    Circular polarization insertion devices and beamlines at the Advanced Light Source are described. The facility will consist of multiple undulators feeding two independent beamlines, one optimized for microscopy and the other for spectroscopy. The energy range of the beamlines will go from below 100 eV to 1800 eV, enabling studies of the magnetically important L2,3 edges of transition metals and the M4,5 edges of rare earths. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  5. Using metallic filters in APS undulator beamlines

    Metallic filters are needed by APS users in their beamlines. Two general areas of use for the white-beam metallic filters are: (1) to attenuate the x-ray beam to reduce the thermal load during routine operations and (2) to attenuate the x-ray beam during alignment and for special testing of optics at low power. Metallic filters are important for users who will be working primarily in the high energy x-ray range because unwanted lower energy photons are absorbed through the metallic filters. Notwithstanding their high thermal conductivity, the metals, in general, absorb x-rays significantly near surface layers and hence can attain very large temperatures causing structural deformations and/or damage. Thermomechanical behavior and failure prediction need to be done carefully. In this paper, particulars of metallic filters are discussed and generalized analytical solutions are offered to help users of metallic filters determine their applicability for x-ray beamlines copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. A new VUV high resolution undulator-based beamline at Super-ACO

    The VUV undulator-based high resolution SU5 beamline, designed to operate in the 5-45 eV photon energy range, is under construction at Super-ACO. It is composed of three toroidal mirrors around a 6.65 m Eagle off-plane normal incidence monochromator, whose induced-astigmatism is negligible owing to an horizontal focusing onto the gratings. With an optical design minimizing the aberrations and optimizing the throughput through the entrance slit, and with a careful choice of the optical coatings, the SU5 beamline should provide in the near future more than 1010 ph/s at the sample level for a 1/50000 bandwidth in the 5-25 eV energy range. The ultimate resolving power should be higher than 105. (orig.)

  7. X1A: Second-generation undulator beamlines serving soft x-ray spectromicroscopy experiments at the NSLS

    The X1A undulator beamline is being rebuilt with two separate monochromators on its two branches. The new arrangement will deliver spatially coherent beams to imaging experiments, with spectral resolving power of up to 5000, and the capability to optimize the resolving power versus flux. The beamlines will operate simultaneously, and each will use 15 percent of the undulator beam, yet deliver high coherent flux. Because of the small beam divergence, the spherical grating monochromators can operate with fixed exit arms throughout the 250 endash 800 eV range. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Investigation on the coherence of undulator source and soft X-ray interference lithography beamline in SSRF

    Background: Synchrotron radiation (SR) has some unique features such as higher brightness and continuously adjustable wavelength. Sometimes SR source will be a unique choice in some experiments. And with the development of the SR facility, especially the appearance of various low emittance undulators, the experiments such as coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) that needs high brightness coherence source can be conducted. The traditional ray trace software, such as Shadow, using the geometrical optics methods, could not be applied for the coherent beamlines. Purpose: We want to provide a basis for the beamline design and the X-ray coherent experiment, the effective evaluation of the spatial coherence in beamlines is needed. Undulator source, which can be calculated precisely, will become a plane source with some features. As the source of the beamline, undulator was calculated. And the spatial coherence of the exit slit can be calculated too. So we can analyze the coherence of the beamline. Methods: Firstly, we used BPM to measure the intensity of the diffraction of the slit, and simulated the intensity distribution of the slit diffraction using the MCI (a software written by ourselves) to confirm the coherent length of the secondary source at slit. Secondly, we calculated the undulator supposed as a plane source, and used the MCI to numerically calculate the propagation of partially coherent X-ray in the soft X-ray interference lithography beamline from the undulator to the exit slit. Finally, we compared the difference of the coherent length at the slit by the above two methods. Results: We calculated the coherent length at the different place in the beamline, such as mirrors and slits. The most important thing was that we could not only know the coherent length with different size of the slits, but also control the spatial coherence quantitatively. When the slit size was 40 μm×40 μm, the spatial coherence was almost fully coherent. And we used the method to do

  9. Control software of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE type) for SX beamline in the SPring-8

    Hiramatsu, Yoichi [Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan); Shimada, Taihei; Miyahara, Yoshikazu

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the control software of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE Type) that was installed at the SX beamline (cell number 23) in the SPring-8 storage ring in February, 1998. This undulator produces a polarized radiation in the energy range of soft X-ray by changing the gap distance between two pairs of permanent magnet arrays (gap movement). The main characteristic of the undulator is a capability to generate right and left circular polarization alternately at a period of 2 sec (0.5 Hz) by high speed phase-shifting (periodic phase movement). The developed software makes a fast correction of the closed orbit distortion (COD) of an electron beam by exciting steering magnets at a rate of time interval of 24 msec (42 Hz) during the movement of magnet arrays. Also, the software is capable to put these magnet arrays into a constant periodic phase movement with an error less than 0.1% for the period of 2 sec. The software was developed in accordance with the directions of SPring-8 standard for software development. (author)

  10. Conceptual design of an undulator system for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a future possible upgrade of the European XFEL consisting in the construction of an undulator beamline dedicated to life science experiments. The availability of free undulator tunnels at the European XFEL facility offers a unique opportunity to build a beamline optimized for coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules, like proteins and other biologically interesting structures. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging beamline are photon energy range, peak power, and pulse duration. Key component of the setup is the undulator source. The peak power is maximized in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 13 keV by the use of a very efficient combination of self-seeding, fresh bunch and tapered undulator techniques. The unique combination of ultra-high peak power of 1 TW in the entire energy range, and ultrashort pulse duration tunable from 2 fs to 10 fs, would allow for single shot coherent imaging of protein molecules with size larger than 10 nm. Also, the new beamline would enable imaging of large biological structures in the water window, between 0.3 keV and 0.4 keV. In order to make use of standardized components, at present we favor the use of SASE3-type undulator segments. The number segments, 40, is determined by the tapered length for the design output power of 1 TW. The present plan assumes the use of a nominal electron bunch with charge of 0.1 nC. Experiments will be performed without interference with the other three undulator beamlines. Therefore, the total amount of scheduled beam time per year is expected to be up to 4000 hours.

  11. Conceptual design of an undulator system for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-01-01

    We describe a future possible upgrade of the European XFEL consisting in the construction of an undulator beamline dedicated to life science experiments. The availability of free undulator tunnels at the European XFEL facility offers a unique opportunity to build a beamline optimized for coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules, like proteins and other biologically interesting structures. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging beamline are photon energy range, peak power, and pulse duration. Key component of the setup is the undulator source. The peak power is maximized in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 13 keV by the use of a very efficient combination of self-seeding, fresh bunch and tapered undulator techniques. The unique combination of ultra-high peak power of 1 TW in the entire energy range, and ultrashort pulse duration tunable from 2 fs to 10 fs, would allow for single shot coherent imaging of protein molecules with size larger than 10 nm. Also, the new beamline would enable imagin...

  12. The nuclear-resonance-scattering station at the PETRA II undulator beamline

    Franz, H.; Hukelmann, B.; Schneider, J.R. [HASYLAB at DESY (Germany)

    2000-07-15

    PETRA II, a 12 GeV accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, is used to produce synchrotron radiation (SR) for experiments in the hard X-ray regime when it is not running as injector for HERA. The beam from an undulator is split by a diamond crystal in Laue geometry to feed two experimental stations, one of which is now dedicated for nuclear resonance experiments. The X-ray energy may be chosen in the range from 5 to 55 keV covering all isotopes already observed with SR and many interesting candidates for new resonances. Tuning may be performed by optimising the magnetic gap and the storage ring energy. In particular, the opportunities for timing experiments are unique due to a very flexible filling mode of the storage ring. The flux at the sample position is comparable to undulator beams at ESRF. The second beamline covers higher energies up to some 300 keV and may also be used for nuclear resonance experiments.

  13. The nuclear-resonance-scattering station at the PETRA II undulator beamline

    Franz, H.; Hukelmann, B.; Schneider, J. R.

    2000-07-01

    PETRA II, a 12 GeV accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, is used to produce synchrotron radiation (SR) for experiments in the hard X-ray regime when it is not running as injector for HERA. The beam from an undulator is split by a diamond crystal in Laue geometry to feed two experimental stations, one of which is now dedicated for nuclear resonance experiments. The X-ray energy may be chosen in the range from 5 to 55 keV covering all isotopes already observed with SR and many interesting candidates for new resonances. Tuning may be performed by optimising the magnetic gap and the storage ring energy. In particular, the opportunities for timing experiments are unique due to a very flexible filling mode of the storage ring. The flux at the sample position is comparable to undulator beams at ESRF. The second beamline covers higher energies up to some 300 keV and may also be used for nuclear resonance experiments.

  14. Design of high heat load white-beam slits for wiggler/undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source wiggler/undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. While this slit set can handle the high heat flux from on e APS undulator source, it has large enough aperture to be compatible with a wiggler source also. A grazing-incidence, knife-edge configuration has been used in the design to eliminate downstream X-ray scattering. Enhanced heat transfer technology has been used in the water-cooling system. A unique stepping parallelogram driving structure provides precise vertical slit motion with large optical aperture. The full design detail is presented in this paper

  15. Design of high heat load white-beam slits for wiggler/undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source wiggler/undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. While this slit set can handle the high heat flux from one APS undulator source, it has a large enough aperture to be compatible with a wiggler source also. A grazing-incidence, knife-edge configuration has been used in the design to eliminate downstream x-ray scattering. Enhanced heat transfer technology has been used in the water-cooling system. A unique stepping parallelogram driving structure provides precise vertical slit motion with large optical aperture. The full design detail is presented in this paper

  16. Construction of the undulator beamline equipped with a UHV-STM for observations of synchrotron-radiation-stimulated surface reaction

    An undulator beamline equipped with a UHV-scanning tunneling electron microscopy (STM) system has been designed and constructed at the UVSOR facility to investigate synchrotron-radiation-stimulated reactions. Using this undulator beamline, we have observed irradiation effects on the hydrogen terminated-(H-) Si(1 1 1) surfaces in atomic scale. The small protrusions, which are assigned to the rest-atom with missing H, appeared on the monohydride surface after irradiation. The density of them monotonically increased with irradiation dose. This phenomenon has been observed almost independent on the Si 2p core electron excitation threshold, indicating the significant contribution of the valence electron excitations to the Si-H bond dissociations

  17. Thermomechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for a wiggler/undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision, vertical, white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator/wiggler beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The slit, a knife-edge-type precision device, is required to have very small thermal distortion during operation with beam. The traditional slit consists of a cooling block and an OFHC cooling channel inside the block. The design consists of one large block and an OFHC cooling tube (filled with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. This design will accommodate the x-ray source from both undulators and wigglers. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux coming from APS Undulator A, it is an exceedingly difficult problem to reduce the thermal distortion to less than 50 μm as required by some users

  18. Fiber diffraction using the BioCAT undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    Irving, T C; Rosenbaum, G; Bunker, G B

    2000-01-01

    The BioCAT undulator-based beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA is designed to be a state-of-the-art instrument for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The optics consist of double crystal monochromators with sagitally focussing second crystals followed by a vertically focussing mirror which allow independent focussing of the beam in the vertical and horizontal directions virtually anywhere along the length of the 12 m experimental enclosure. When configured for a 2 m fiber diffraction camera, a focal spot of less than 40x200 mu m (FWHM) has been observed which contained essentially all of the 1.5-2.5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ph/s delivered by the cryogenically-cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. This combination of highly demagnifying optics and the very low divergence of the very small source have yielded excellent quality patterns from various muscle specimens and collagen-containing tissues. Detectors available include a Fuji BAS2500 image plate sc...

  19. Purified SASE undulator configuration to enhance the performance of the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    The purified SASE (pSASE) undulator configuration recently proposed at SLAC promises an increase in the output spectral density of XFELs. In this article we study a straightforward implementation of this configuration for the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL. A few undulator cells, resonant at a subharmonic of the FEL radiation, are used in the middle of the exponential regime to amplify the radiation, while simultaneously reducing the FEL bandwidth. Based on start-to-end simulations, we show that with the proposed configuration the spectral density in the photon energy range between 1.3 keV and 3 keV can be enhanced of an order of magnitude compared to the baseline mode of operation. This option can be implemented into the tunable-gap SASE3 baseline undulator without additional hardware, and it is complementary to the self-seeding option with grating monochromator proposed for the same undulator line, which can cover the photon energy range between about 0.26 keV and 1 keV.

  20. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux emitted by the undulator, it is difficult to control the thermal distortion within the desired range of 1--2 μm. We analyzed many conceptual designs in an attempt to minimize the thermal distortion of the slits. Even with 1-mm-thick, low-Z material (graphite) coated on the heating surface of a traditional slit, the maximum thermal distortion is over 25 μm. A three-piece slit was then designed to satisfy the requirements. It consists of one large block, two tungsten knife edges, and an OFHC cooling tube (filled with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. The thermal distortion at the knife edges of this three-piece slit is less than 2 μm

  1. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the white-beam slits for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. Due to the powerful x-ray heat flux emitted by the undulator, it is difficult to control the thermal distortion within the desired range of 1-2 microns. We analyzed many conceptual designs in an attempt to minimize the thermal distortion of the slits. Even with 1-mm-thick, low-Z material (graphite) coated on the heating surface of a traditional slit, the maximum thermal distortion is over 25 microns. A three-piece slit was then designed to satisfy the requirements. It consists of one large block, two tungsten knife edges, and an OFHC cooling tube (filled with copper mesh) brazed inside the large block. The thermal distortion at the knife edges of this three-piece slit has a relative displacement of less than 2 microns

  2. Magnetic field calculation of variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) for SX beamline in the SPring-8

    This paper describes the design of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) to be installed in soft X-ray beamline in the SPring-8 facility. The magnetic field distribution and radiation spectrum expected from this undulator were calculated. The magnetic field strength is varied by changing the gap distance of upper and lower jaws, so it changes the photon energy in soft X-ray range. By moving the relative position of pairs of magnet rows (phase shift), the polarization of radiation is varied circularly, elliptically and linearly in the horizontal and vertical direction. We expect that right and left handed circular polarizations are obtained alternately at a rate of 1 Hz by high speed phase shifting. The repulsive and attractive magnetic force working on the magnet rows were calculated which interfere in phase shifting at high speed. The magnetic force changes with gap distance and phase shift position, and the magnetic force working on a row in the direction of phase shift becomes up to 500 kgf. The construction of this undulator is started in 1996, that will be inserted in the storage ring in 1997. (author)

  3. Precision white-beam slit design for high power density x-ray undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) X-ray undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. There are several new design concepts applied in this slit set, including: grazing-incidence knife-edge configuration to minimize the scattering of X-rays downstream, enhanced heat transfer tubing to provide water cooling, and a second slit to eliminate the thermal distortion on the slit knife edge. The novel aspect of this design is the use of two L-shaped knife-edge assemblies, which are manipulated by two precision X-Z stepping linear actuators. The principal and structural details of the design for this slit set are presented in this paper

  4. A small and robust active beamstop for scattering experiments on high-brilliance undulator beamlines

    Using an indirect detection scheme, a small-size beamstop was developed to accurately measure X-ray beam flux in a wide energy range with reduced radiation level on the electronics and significantly increased in-beam lifetime. A small active in-vacuum beamstop has been developed to monitor the flux of intense third-generation synchrotron X-ray beams protecting the downstream detector from the direct beam. Standard active beamstops, where a built-in diode directly absorbs the beam, have limitations in size and lifetime. In the present design, a silicon PIN diode detects the photons back-scattered from a cavity in the beamstop. This approach drastically reduces the radiation dose on the diode and thus increases its lifetime. The beamstop with a diameter of 2 mm has been fabricated to meet the requirements for the P12 bioSAXS beamline of EMBL Hamburg at PETRA III (DESY). The beamstop is in regular user operation at the beamline and displays a good response over the range of energies tested (6–20 keV). Further miniaturization of the diode is easily possible as its size is not limited by the PIN diode used

  5. An undulator based high flux and high resolution beamline for atomic, molecular and optical science (AMOS) research at INDUS-2 synchrotron radiation source (SRS)

    A dedicated UV-VUV and soft X-ray beamline to provide several new research opportunities in Photon induced processes in the energy range of 6-250 eV for Atomic Molecular and Optical Science (AMOS) research, a domain still less explored both at national as well international level, has been proposed by Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC. This beamline will use a planar permanent magnet (PPM) undulator based on Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), a 2.5 GeV third generation electron storage ring at RRCAT, Indore, India and is expected to offer a variety of opportunities for more advanced and sustained investigations for AMOS research. A plane mirror and a toroidal mirror are used as the pre-focusing optics of the AMOS beamline. A varied line spacing plane grating monochromator (VLSPGM) in a converging beam, constant included angle mode containing one toroidal focusing mirror and four interchangeable gratings is to be used to cover the energy range of 6 to 250 eV and obtain resolving powers ∼104 and intensity ∼1012 ph/s at the sample position. A toroidal mirror is used to focus the diverging monochromatic light from the monochromator at a distance of 150 cm with a 1:1 magnification. As the first step towards the beamline optics design, the evaluation of the PPM undulator radiation characteristics relevant to beamline design has been performed using the Indus-2 SRS parameters in the long straight section of the ring, PPM undulator parameters, and the empirical expressions available in literature. The software resources such as XOPS, ESRF, France and SPECTRA, Photon factory, Japan have been used for detailed modelling and verification of the empirical computations. Beamline layout preparation, optimization, imaging performance evaluation, and resolving power calculations for ideal beamline optics are carried out using SHADOWVUI, an extension of XOPS software resource. A new mounting of the optical components in the monochromator has been proposed to

  6. The performance of a cryogenically cooled monochromator for an in-vacuum undulator beamline.

    Zhang, Lin; Lee, Wah Keat; Wulff, Michael; Eybert, Laurent

    2003-07-01

    The channel-cut silicon monochromator on beamline ID09 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is indirectly cooled from the sides by liquid nitrogen. The thermal slope error of the diffracting surface is calculated by finite-element analysis and the results are compared with experiments. The slope error is studied as a function of cooling coefficients, beam size, position of the footprint and power distribution. It is found that the slope error versus power curve can be divided into three regions: (i). The linear region: the thermal slope error is linearly proportional to the power. (ii). The transition region: the temperature of the Si crystal is close to 125 K; the thermal slope error is below the straight line extrapolated from the linear curve described above. (iii). The non-linear region: the temperature of the Si crystal is higher than 125 K and the thermal slope error increases much faster than the power. Heat-load tests were also performed and the measured rocking-curve widths are compared with those calculated by finite-element modeling. When the broadening from the intrinsic rocking-curve width and mounting strain are included, the calculated rocking-curve width versus heat load is in excellent agreement with experiment. PMID:12824931

  7. Design and Performance of Undulator Beamline (BL7U) for in-situ Observation of Synchrotron Radiation Stimulated Etching by STM

    An undulator beamline (BL7U) equipped with an ultra-high vacuum STM system is constructed at the UVSOR facility to investigate excitation energy dependence in synchrotron radiation (SR) stimulated etching. The SR beam is focused using two cylindrical mirrors on the sample surface just under the STM tip. The sample is cleaned by direct current heating and transferred to the sample holder for the STM measurements. The photon flux density is calculated to be 1019 photons (cm2 sec 100mA)-1 within the spot of 0.67 mm (H) x 0.17 mm (V) on the sample surface at the first harmonic tuned to 100 eV. The hydrogen adsorbed Si (111) surfaces were investigated using the STM apparatus before the undulator irradiation experiments were performed

  8. Precision white-beam slit design for high power-density x-ray undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    Shu, D.; Brite, C.; Nian, T.; Yun, W.; Haeffner, D. R.; Alp, E. E.; Ryding, D.; Collins, J.; Li, Y.; Kuzay, T. M.

    1995-02-01

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source x-ray undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. There are several new design concepts applied in this slit set, including a grazing-incidence knife-edge configuration to minimize the scattering of x rays downstream, enhanced heat transfer tubing to provide water cooling, and a secondary slit to eliminate the thermal distortion on the slit knife edge. The novel aspect of this design is the use of two L-shaped knife-edge assemblies, which are manipulated by two precision X-Z stepping linear actuators. The principal and structural details of the design for this slit set are presented in this paper.

  9. In situ X-ray data collection and structure phasing of protein crystals at Structural Biology Center 19-ID

    Michalska, Karolina; Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Li, Hui; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Molitsky, Michael; Alkire, Randy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-10-15

    A prototype of a 96-well plate scanner forin situdata collection has been developed at the Structural Biology Center (SBC) beamline 19-ID, located at the Advanced Photon Source, USA. The applicability of this instrument for protein crystal diffraction screening and data collection at ambient temperature has been demonstrated. Several different protein crystals, including selenium-labeled, were used for data collection and successful SAD phasing. Without the common procedure of crystal handling and subsequent cryo-cooling for data collection atT= 100 K, crystals in a crystallization buffer show remarkably low mosaicity (<0.1°) until deterioration by radiation damage occurs. Data presented here show that cryo-cooling can cause some unexpected structural changes. Based on the results of this study, the integration of the plate scanner into the 19-ID end-station with automated controls is being prepared. With improvement of hardware and software,in situdata collection will become available for the SBC user program including remote access.

  10. Plasma undulator

    Two types of the undulator which is developed as a generator of the highly brilliant light for the synchrotron radiation sources and the free electron lasers, are newly proposed using the array of slender plasmas columns. One is the magnetic field type, in which the undulator force on the relativistic electron beam is generated with the electric current flowing through the plasma columns. The other is the electric field type, in which the undulator force is generated with the periodic variation of the density between the slender plasma columns. The production methods and stabilization ones of plasma columns are discussed. (author)

  11. Optics Compensation for Variable-gap Undulator Systems at FLASH

    Amstutz, Philipp; Lechner, Christoph; Plath, Tim; Ackermann, Sven; Boedewadt, Joern; Vogt, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Variable-gap undulator systems are widely used in storage rings and linear accelerators to generate soft- and hard x-ray radiation for the photon science community. For cases where the effect of undulator focusing significantly changes the electron beam optics, a compensation is needed in order to keep the optics constant in other parts of the accelerator. Since 2010, the free-electron laser (FEL) facility FLASH is equipped with two undulator sections along the same electron beamline. The fir...

  12. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  13. Operation of the ANKA Synchrotron Light Source with Superconductive Undulators

    Rossmanith, Robert; Bernhard, Axel; Hagelstein, Michael; Kostka, Barbara; Steffens, Erhard; Weisser, Matthias; Wollmann, D

    2005-01-01

    The synchrotron light source ANKA (2.5 GeV, 200 mA) is a versatile multi-purpose storage ring with beam lines for coherent IR and THz radiation (IR-laser), LIGA applications and high brilliance X-rays. It is now plannned to install in addition several superconductive undulators for a wide range of applications: fast tunable X-rays for material research, imaging applications and an undulator with variable polarization direction for a dichroism beamline. This development of ANKA is the result of successful research on superconductive undulators which surpass the performance of permanent undulators by far (collaboration between ANKA, the University of Karlsruhe and the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg). The basic layout of the undulators and the required changes to a storage ring to accommodate the superconductive undulators is described in this paper.

  14. First test results for an adjustable phase undulator

    An Adjustable Phase Undulator (APU) was installed and tested on the beamline 5 of the SPEAR storage ring. The APU has the same magnetic structure as a conventional adjustable gap undulator (AGU), but its magnetic field is varied by changing the longitudinal position between the rows of magnets, while keeping the gap between them fixed. The tests described here show that this undulator performs according to theoretical predictions and numerical models. The main reason to consider a phase adjustable design is the substantial reduction in size, complexity, and cost over comparable conventional designs. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  15. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  16. Interferometry using undulator sources

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), 18, 1089, and D. Attwood et al., Appl. Opt. 32, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg et al., in Extreme Ultra Lithography, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg et al., Proc. SPIE 2437, to be published, and K. Goldberg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Tuning The Laser Heater Undulator

    Wolf, Zackary

    2010-12-03

    The laser heater undulator for the LCLS requires different tuning techniques than the main undulators. It is a pure permanent magnet (PPM) undulator, rather than the hybrid design of the main undulators. The PPM design allows analytic calculation of the undulator fields. The calculations let errors be introduced and correction techniques be derived. This note describes how the undulator was modelled, and the methods which were found to correct potential errors in the undulator. The laser heater undulator for the LCLS is a pure permanent magnet device requiring different tuning techniques than the main undulators. In this note, the laser heater undulator is modelled and tuning techniques to compensate various errors are derived.

  18. Undulators for SASE FELs

    Pflüger, J

    2000-01-01

    In this contribution, the requirements on undulators for linac driven SASE FELs will be discussed. Differences between long and short wavelength SASE FELs will be worked out. The problematic influencing the choice of minimum gap and undulator peak field which are special for SASE FELs driven by multi GeV electron beams with sub picosecond pulses, peak currents of several kiloamperes will be pointed out. Special attention is given to the magnetic design of combined strong focusing undulators as are needed for VUV FELs. As an example results will be presented of the undulator for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility which has just been completed.

  19. In vacuum figure-8 undulator for hard X-rays with both horizontal and vertical polarization

    A figure-8 undulator of the in-vacuum type has been adopted as an insertion device for BL24XU, the Hyogo Beamline at SPring-8, to provide hard X-rays with both horizontal and vertical polarization instead of a tandem undulator consisting of horizontal and vertical undulators. The undulator will be operated with the gap almost fixed at 11.6 mm to provide the fundamental radiation with horizontal polarization at 9.5 keV and the 1.5th harmonic with vertical polarization at 14 keV

  20. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    Nuhn, H. D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Field, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mao, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Levashov, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Santana, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Welch, J. N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wolf, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  1. Magnetic design for Knot-APPLE undulator and its performance

    In order to generate a low energy photon beam in a high energy storage ring with an insertion device, it is necessary to increase the undulator's deflection parameter, K. If this is the case, a high heat load on beamline elements is a serious problem because the on-axis radiation power increases drastically as increasing K parameter for a linear undulator. To overcome this problem, a Figure-8, a Pera, a Knot undulator were proposed. However, these undulators cannot change polarizations. On the other hand, APPLE undulator is capable for generating variable polarization. A novel Knot-APPLE undulator was proposed. It is capable for reducing on-axis high heat load and generating every polarization state. But we have some difficulties for displacing radiation power peak from higher harmonics off-axis due to differences in gap dependence between horizontal field and vertical one especially in vertical linear mode for a present magnet structure. In this paper, we looked for most appropriate magnet size and structure to obtain ideal magnetic field in every polarization state. In the presentation, we show radiation spectra and corresponding power density distributions expected from another possible magnet structure for Knot-APPLE undulator. (author)

  2. JSR undulator experiment

    JSR has an 1.5m long straight section for a insertion device. An undulator was installed in this straight section in July, 1991. The first observation of spontaneous radiation from this undulator was performed in August. The wavelength change due to K-parameter change was measured at the beam energy of 138.9MeV and 174.6MeV, and also measured was the tune shift due to the undulator insertion. These experimental results are in good agreements with calculations. (author)

  3. The Full Potential of the Baseline SASE Undulators of the European XFEL

    Agapov, Ilya; Feng, Guangyao; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Zagorodnov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL, recently used in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics, have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators without considering the potential of undulator tapering in the SASE regime. Here we demonstrate that the performance of European XFEL sources can be significantly improved without additional hardware. The procedure simply consists in the optimization of the undulator gap configuration for each X-ray beamline. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the soft X-ray photon beam properties as a function of wavelength and bunch charge. Based on nominal parameters for the electron beam, we demonstrate that undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime. We illustrate this fact for the SASE3 beamline. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. Based on these findings we suggest that the requirements for the...

  4. Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator

    Ji, Fuhao [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai 200438, People’s Republic of (China); Chang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201204, People’s Republic of (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Sasaki, Shigemi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Qiao, Shan, E-mail: qiaoshan@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, People’s Republic of (China)

    2015-06-09

    The design and performance of the Apple-Knot undulator which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization and low on-axis heat load are presented. Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported.

  5. In vacuum undulator task force report

    Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Stefan, P. [and others

    1998-06-01

    Historically the NSLS has been active in R&D for state-of-the-art electron beams, photon beams and x-ray optics. One of the available straight sections has therefore been dedicated to insertion device R&D. Over the past five to seven years a program aimed at exploiting the very small vertical {beta} function in the straight sections has yielded first a prototype small gap undulator (PSGU) and then an in-vacuum undulator (IVUN). The IVUN sources attain a brightness similar to the existing hybrid wigglers in X21 and X25. They radiate significantly lower total power than the wigglers but produce higher power densities. They provide undulator rather than wiggler spectra. Because of the small gaps and small periods there is not much tunability in these devices and they will have to be purpose-built for a specific scientific program. The original IVUN parameters were chosen for in-elastic x-ray scattering, similar to the scientific program on X21. This put the fundamental at 4.6 keV and the third harmonic at 13.8 keV. The question that this new possible insertion device poses is what science programs can best take advantage of this new insertion device source? To answer this, a task force was formed by M. Hart, NSLS Department Chair and charged with identifying viable scientific programs that could seek outside funding to construct IVUN beamlines. The task force concentrated on experimental programs that are presently being pursued on new insertion devices worldwide. For example, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, which takes advantage of the large coherent flux from undulator sources, was considered. However, this program was not considered as the highest priority. The general area of protein crystallography, however, is ideal for the IVUN source. The unique electron beam optics that makes the IVUN possible in the first place also makes the IVUN ideal as a source for microdiffraction.

  6. Improvement of optical properties of synchrotron radiation by undulator segmentation and phase control

    Two simple schemes to improve optical properties of undulator radiation (UR) are reported. One is to suppress the intensity of higher harmonics, and the other is to obtain variable polarization. Both of them are based on a segmentation of undulator and control of the relative phase between segments. A simple analysis of UR emitted from the segmented undulator is made to explain the principle of the two schemes, which is followed by a detailed discussion on the effects of the finite emittance of the electron beam and angular acceptance of the beamline. Several practical examples are shown to reveal the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. (author)

  7. The JLAB UV Undulator

    Gottschalk, Steven C. [STI, Washington, USA; Benson, Steven V. [JLAB; Moore, Steven Wesley [JLAB

    2013-05-01

    Recently the JLAB FEL has demonstrated 150 W at 400 nm and 200 W at 700 nm using a 33mm period undulator designed and built by STI Optronics. This paper describes the undulator design and performance. Two key requirements were low phase error, zero steering and offset end fields and small rms trajectory errors. We will describe a new genetic algorithm that allowed phase error minimization to 1.8 degrees while exceeding specifications. The mechanical design, control system and EPICS interface will also be summarized.

  8. Self-Stimulated Undulator Klystron

    Bessonov, E. G.; Osipov, A. L.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Self Stimulated Undulator Klystron (SSUK) and its possible applications in the Particle Accelerator Physics, incoherent Self-Stimulated Undulator Radiation Sources (SSUR) and Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) are discussed.

  9. Modelling of undulator sources

    We present a new code capable of realistically modelling the radiation from ideal undulator sources, including explicit electron emittance effects. The code has been developed as part of the SHADOW X-ray optics ray tracing program, in order to predict the performances of undulator-based optical systems. The approach is based on a simplified field distribution that allows an efficient calculation of the trajectory and of the radiation field. We show explicitly that the undulator radiation pattern is shift-invariant with respect to the electron trajectory angles, so that the emittance effects can be included without recomputing the radiation distribution. Furthermore, the time consuming computation of the undulator emission patterns is decoupled from the Monte Carlo sampling of the wavefront, leading to a very fast code. This is achieved by computing the three-dimensional source probability distribution function and by using an inversion algorithm to generate a random variate with the same distribution as the source. The physical basis of the code and the algorithm used are discussed in detail and some results presented

  10. The SEXTANTS beamline at SOLEIL: a new facility for elastic, inelastic and coherent scattering of soft X-rays

    Sacchi, M.; Jaouen, N.; Popescu, H.; Gaudemer, R.; Tonnerre, J. M.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Hague, C. F.; Delmotte, A.; Dubuisson, J. M.; Cauchon, G.; Lagarde, B.; Polack, F.

    2013-03-01

    SEXTANTS is a new SOLEIL beamline dedicated to soft X-ray scattering techniques. The beamline, covering the 50-1700 eV energy range, features two Apple-II undulators for polarization control and a fixed-deviation monochromator. Two branch-lines host three end-stations for elastic, inelastic and coherent scattering experiments.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg

    length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a shoreline stability analysis based on the numerical model. The analysis shows that the length of the undulations in the linear regime depends on the incoming wave conditions and on the coastal profile. For larger waves and...... relationship between the shoreline undulations and longshore bars and the relationship between the morphology and the hydrodynamics. In one of the data sets the shoreline undulations are well correlated with undulations on the depth contours between -5 m and +2 m relative to mean sea level. An analysis of the...

  12. Performance of photon position monitors and stability of undulator beams at the Advanced Light Source

    Position monitors are implemented in three undulator beamlines at the ALS. Their performance has been studied carefully on one of these lines and is reviewed. The monitors work as expected and show the ALS to be an exceptionally stable source of synchrotron radiation

  13. Measurement of position and profile of undulator radiation in Indus-2 using scanning wire monitor

    Two planar undulators (U1 and U2) for Atomic Molecular Spectroscopy (AMOS) beamline and Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES) beamline have been installed in Indus-2. The U1 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 6 eV to 250 eV and U2 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 30 eV to 600 eV. In order to measure the position and vertical profile of photon beams emitted from these undulators, one scanning wire monitor has been installed in each beamline front end. In these scanning wire monitors, a gold coated tungsten wire of 100 μm thickness, stretched between a fork shaped alumina ceramic holder, is scanned vertically perpendicular to the direction of propagation of photon beam by using a precisely controlled stepper motor. The photo-electron current generated in the wire is measured by an electrometer. A graphical user interface has been developed which facilitates the scanning as per the given range, plots the graphs and stores the scanned data in Excel file. This paper describes our experience and usefulness of these wire monitors during commissioning of planar undulators in Indus-2. (author)

  14. Undulators at the ALS

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  15. Tapered undulators for SASE FELs

    Fawley, W M; Vinokurov, N A

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the use of tapered undulators to enhance the performance of free-electron lasers (FELs) based upon self-amplified spontaneous emission, where the radiation tends to have a relatively broad bandwidth and limited temporal coherence. Using the polychromatic FEL simulation code GINGER, we numerically demonstrate the effectiveness of tapered undulators for parameters corresponding to the Argonne low-energy undulator test line FEL and the proposed linac coherent light source.

  16. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source.

    Willmott, P R; Meister, D; Leake, S J; Lange, M; Bergamaschi, A; Böge, M; Calvi, M; Cancellieri, C; Casati, N; Cervellino, A; Chen, Q; David, C; Flechsig, U; Gozzo, F; Henrich, B; Jäggi-Spielmann, S; Jakob, B; Kalichava, I; Karvinen, P; Krempasky, J; Lüdeke, A; Lüscher, R; Maag, S; Quitmann, C; Reinle-Schmitt, M L; Schmidt, T; Schmitt, B; Streun, A; Vartiainen, I; Vitins, M; Wang, X; Wullschleger, R

    2013-09-01

    The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs. PMID:23955029

  17. Training and magnetic field measurements of the ANKA superconducting undulator

    In 2011 a 1.5 m long superconducting undulator with a period length of 15mm is scheduled to be installed in ANKA. This insertion device is planned to be the light source of the new beamline NANO for high resolution X-ray diffraction. The key specifications of the system are an undulator parameter K higher than 2 (for a magnetic gap of 5mm) and a phase error smaller than 3.5 degrees. In order to characterize the magnetic field properties of the superconducting coils local field measurements have been performed by moving a set of Hall probes on a sledge in a liquid helium bath. The results of these investigations are presented.

  18. Training and magnetic field measurements of the ANKA superconducting undulator

    Saez de Jauregui, David; Baumbach, Tilo; Casalbuoni, Sara; Gerstl, Stefan; Hagelstein, Michael [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Boffo, Cristian; Walter, Wolfgang [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2011 a 1.5 m long superconducting undulator with a period length of 15mm is scheduled to be installed in ANKA. This insertion device is planned to be the light source of the new beamline NANO for high resolution X-ray diffraction. The key specifications of the system are an undulator parameter K higher than 2 (for a magnetic gap of 5mm) and a phase error smaller than 3.5 degrees. In order to characterize the magnetic field properties of the superconducting coils local field measurements have been performed by moving a set of Hall probes on a sledge in a liquid helium bath. The results of these investigations are presented.

  19. Design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of water-cooled beam viewer for undulator front-ends of Indus-2

    A water-cooled beam viewer is developed indigenously to observe the bright synchrotron light coming from recently installed undulators in Indus-2 storage ring at RRCAT, Indore. The beam viewer is installed in the undulator front-end. The frontend is a long ultra high vacuum (UHV) assembly consisting of UHV valves, shutters, vacuum pumps and beam diagnostic devices. The front-end acts as an interface between Indus-2 ring and beamline. The beam viewer uses a fluorescent sheet of Chromium doped Alumina (CHROMOX) which produces visible fluorescent light when bright synchrotron light from the undulator falls on it. This visible fluorescent light is observed through a glass window by a CCD camera. The beam viewer has been successfully tested and commissioned in Indus-2 front-end for undulator. At present, the beam viewer is operating under vacuum of 5 x 10-10 mbar in the Indus-2 undulator front-end

  20. Thermal Tests of Undulator Quad

    Running at the nominal temperature, the undulator quadrupole has a several degree temperature increase. This note describes the test used to determine the effect on the undulator integrals from the temperature gradient caused by the heat from the quadrupole conducting down the beam pipe. The undulator quadrupoles running at their nominal current of 4 amps heat up approximately 4 degrees Celsius; this magnet in turn heats up the beampipe which goes into the undulator. The heating ends up introducing a thermal gradient across the undulator which causes small changes in the magnetic field of the heated poles. By measuring the temperature change in the poles we can model the effects on the field and determine what the magnetic errors will be.

  1. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided

  2. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    Bowler, Matthew W., E-mail: mbowler@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes-EMBL-CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Nurizzo, Didier, E-mail: mbowler@embl.fr; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-03

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is a new beamline dedicated to the completely automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined.

  3. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is a new beamline dedicated to the completely automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined

  4. Properties of undulator radiation

    Properties of the radiation emitted by a plane sinusoidal undulator are calculated in the far field approximation. Software has been developed to calculate the spectral distribution and polarization of the radiated intensity I(E) at a point on (or integrated over) a cross sectional observation plane of the photon beam. Spatial distribution of monochromatic radiation and power density contours are also calculated. Spectral broadening caused by an electron beam of finite spatial distribution is considered. Dispersive properties of the photon beam, including the dependence on deflection parameter, are analyzed. It is shown that reasonably constant intensity distribution I(E) can be obtained by properly shaping the beam acceptance aperture. 5 refs., 11 figs

  5. Knot undulator to generate linearly polarized photons with low on-axis power density.

    Qiao, S; Ma, Dewei; Feng, Donglai; Marks, S; Schlueter, R; Prestemon, S; Hussain, Z

    2009-08-01

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious obstacle for devices designed to generate pure linearly polarized photons in third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. For permanent magnet undulators, this problem can be overcome by implementing a figure-eight design configuration. As yet there has been no good method to tackle this problem for electromagnetic elliptical undulators. Here, a novel design and operational mode is suggested, which can generate pure linearly polarized photons with very low on-axis heat load. Additionally, the minimum photon energy capability of linearly polarized photons can be significantly extended by this method. PMID:19725682

  6. Knot undulator to generate linearly polarized photons with low on-axis power density

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious obstacle for devices designed to generate pure linearly polarized photons in third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. For permanent magnet undulators, this problem can be overcome by implementing a figure-eight design configuration. As yet there has been no good method to tackle this problem for electromagnetic elliptical undulators. Here, a novel design and operational mode is suggested, which can generate pure linearly polarized photons with very low on-axis heat load. Additionally, the minimum photon energy capability of linearly polarized photons can be significantly extended by this method.

  7. Light's orbital angular momentum carried by helical undulator harmonics

    Spiral interference patterns between two different harmonic radiations from two tandem-aligned helical undulators were observed by a scanning fiber multi-channel spectrometer and a UV-CCD camera placed at the end of beamline downstream of S1 straight section in UVSOR-III. Using these measurements, various interference patterns such as single, double, and triple spirals were observed which concur with the theoretical predictions for every mode in the right or left circular polarization. The rotation of an interference pattern by rotating a polarizer was also observed. In this article, a theoretical background and a series of experimental results are described for the exotic property of undulator harmonics. (author)

  8. Observation of light's orbital angular momentum from helical undulator harmonics

    A spiral interference pattern between fundamental and second harmonic radiations form two tandem-aligned helical undulators was observed by scanning a fiber multi-channel spectrometer placed at the end of beamline downstream of S1 straight section in UVSOR. With these experiments, interference patterns were in good agreement with those by theoretical prediction for right and left circular polarization modes. Also, similar interference measurement was done by using a CCD camera. With this measurement, we observed a rotation of spiral pattern by changing the undulator gap. (author)

  9. Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source

    We report the basic beamline design and current status of a new full-field X-ray imaging facility at Sector 32 of the Advanced Photon Source. The beamline consists of an existing hutch at 40 m and a new experiment enclosure at 77 m from the source, with both monochromatic and white-beam undulator X-ray capabilities. Experimental programs being planned for the beamline include high-speed time-resolved imaging, phase-contrast and coherent imaging, diffraction-enhanced imaging, ultra-small-angle scattering imaging, and phase- and absorption-contrast transmission X-ray microscopy

  10. Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source

    Shen Qun [Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: qshen@aps.anl.gov; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Chu, Yong S.; De Carlo, Francesco; Jemian, Peter; Ilavsky, Jan; Erdmann, Mark; Long, Gabrielle G. [Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We report the basic beamline design and current status of a new full-field X-ray imaging facility at Sector 32 of the Advanced Photon Source. The beamline consists of an existing hutch at 40 m and a new experiment enclosure at 77 m from the source, with both monochromatic and white-beam undulator X-ray capabilities. Experimental programs being planned for the beamline include high-speed time-resolved imaging, phase-contrast and coherent imaging, diffraction-enhanced imaging, ultra-small-angle scattering imaging, and phase- and absorption-contrast transmission X-ray microscopy.

  11. Radiation shielding considerations against gas bremsstrahlung for the BioXAS beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    The BioXAS beamlines consist of an undulator beamline followed by two wiggler beamlines sharing the same insertion device. To contain gas bremsstrahlung in the primary optical enclosure (POE), three tungsten blocks are placed, one of which is common to all the three beamlines. A radiation shielding study is carried out for primary and secondary gas bremsstrahlung of the BioXAS beamlines. Dose rates behind the back wall, side wall and the top of the roof are obtained by calculating energy depositions in a water phantom, which surrounds the POE. Discussion is made regarding the adequacy of radiation shielding for the BioXAS beamlines, which will be built in the near future at the Canadian Light Source.

  12. The full potential of the baseline SASE undulators of the European XFEL

    The output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL, recently used in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics, have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators without considering the potential of undulator tapering in the SASE regime. Here we demonstrate that the performance of European XFEL sources can be significantly improved without additional hardware. The procedure simply consists in the optimization of the undulator gap configuration for each X-ray beamline. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the soft X-ray photon beam properties as a function of wavelength and bunch charge. Based on nominal parameters for the electron beam, we demonstrate that undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime. We illustrate this fact for the SASE3 beamline. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. Based on these findings we suggest that the requirements for the SASE3 instrument (SCS, SQS) and for the SASE3 beam transport system be updated.

  13. The properties of undulator radiation

    A new generation of synchrotron radiation light sources covering the VUV, soft x-ray, and hard x-ray spectral regions is under construction in several countries. These sources are designed specifically to use periodic magnetic undulators and low-emittance electron or positron beams to produce high-brightness near-diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation beams. Some of the novel features of the new sources are discussed, along with the characteristics of the radiation produced, with emphasis on the Advanced Light Source, a third-generation 1.5 GeV storage ring optimized for undulator use. A review of the properties of undulator radiation is presented, followed by a discussion of some of the unique challenges being faced by the builders and users of the new undulator sources. These include difficult mechanical and magnetic tolerance limits, a complex interaction with the storage ring, high x-ray beam power, partial coherence, harmonics, optics contamination, and the unusual spectral and angular properties of undulator radiation

  14. Visa undulator fiducialization and alignment

    As part of the R and D program towards a fourth generation light source, a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) demonstration is being prepared. The Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) undulator will be installed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the end of the year. The VISA undulator is an in-vacuum, 4-meter long, 1.8 cm period, pure-permanent magnet device, with a novel, strong focusing, permanent magnet FODO array included within the fixed, 6 mm undulator gap. The undulator is constructed of 99 cm long segments. To attain maximum SASE gain requires establishing overlap of electron and photon beams to within 50 μm rms. This imposes challenging tolerances on mechanical fabrication and magnetic field quality, and necessitates use of laser straightness interferometry for calibration and alignment of the magnetic axes of the undulator segments. This paper describes the magnetic centerline determination, and the fiducialization and alignment processes which were performed to meet the tolerance goal. (authors)

  15. Construction of CHESS compact undulator magnets at Kyma

    Temnykh, Alexander B.; Lyndaker, Aaron; Kokole, Mirko; Milharcic, Tadej; Pockar, Jure; Geometrante, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    In 2014 KYMA S.r.l. has built two CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) magnets that are at present installed and successfully operate at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. This type of undulator was developed for upgrade of Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source beam-lines, but it can be used elsewhere as well. CCU magnets are compact, lightweight, cost efficient and in-vacuum compatible. They are linearly polarized undulators and have a fixed gap. Magnetic field tuning is achieved by phasing (shifting) top magnetic array relative bottom. Two CCUs constructed by KYMA S.r.l. have 28.4 mm period, 6.5 mm gap, 0.93 T peak field. Magnetic structure is of PPM type, made with NdFeB (40UH grade) permanent magnet material. Transitioning from the laboratory to industrial environment for a novel design required additional evaluation, design adjusting and extensive testing. Particular attention was given to the soldering technique used for fastening of the magnetic blocks to holders. This technique had thus far never been used before for undulator magnet construction by industry. The evaluation included tests of different types of soldering paste, measurements of strength of solder and determining the deformations of the soldered magnet and holder under simulated loading forces. This paper focuses on critical features of the CCU design, results of the soldering technique testing and the data regarding permanent magnets magnetization change due to soldering. In addition it deals with optimization-assisted assembly and the performance of the assembled devices and assesses some of the results of the CCU magnets operation at CESR.

  16. The planned photon diagnostics beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    We present the planned photon diagnostics beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source. The photon diagnostics beamlines of the storage ring include two bending magnet sources and a dedicated diagnostic undulator. The bending magnet lines will employ the conventional UV/visible imaging techniques (resolution σ congruent 10 μm) and the x-ray pinhole camera (resolution σ congruent 15 μm) for the measurement of the positron beam-size (design value: σ congruent 100 μm). The opening angle of die undulator radiation will be around σ congruent 3 μrad for its first hamionic (23.2--25.8 keV), and σ congruent=1.7 μrad for its third harmonic (70--72 keV), providing a good resolution for measuring the positron beam divergence size (design values: σ congruent 9 μrad for 10% vertical coupling and 3 μrad for 1% coupling). The undulator and its x-ray, optics are specifically optimized for full emittance measurement of the positron beam. A major developmental effort will be in the area of detecting very fast phenomena (nanosecond and sub-nanosecond) in particle dynamics

  17. APS undulator radiation: First results

    The first undulator radiation has been extracted from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The results from the characterization of this radiation are very satisfactory. With the undulator set at a gap of 15.8 mm (K=1.61), harmonics as high as the 17th were observed using a crystal spectrometer. The angular distribution of the third-harmonic radiation was measured, and the source was imaged using a zone plate to determine the particle beam emittance. The horizontal beam emittance was found to be 6.9 ± 1.0 nm-rad, and the vertical emittance coupling was found to be less than 3%. The absolute spectral flux was measured over a wide range of photon energies, and it agrees remarkably well with the theoretical calculations based on the measured undulator magnetic field profile and the measured beam emittance. These results indicate that both the emittance of the electron beam and the undulator magnetic field quality exceed the original specifications

  18. APPLE-II type quasi-periodic variably polarizing undulator at HiSOR

    A 1.8-m-long 78-mm-period quasi-periodic APPLE-II undulator was installed in the 700-MeV HiSOR storage ring of Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. At the nominal minimum gap, achievable lowest photon energies are 3.1 eV, 6.5 eV, and 4.8 eV for horizontal linear, vertical linear, and circular polarization, respectively. Observed photon energies of fundamental and higher harmonic radiations are in good agreement with those of model calculations using measured magnetic field of undulator and the HiSOR beam parameters. Also, observed flux thorough a slit and a grating monochromator was more than twice larger than that from previously installed 100-mm-period helical undulator for the whole range of radiation spectra. The feedforward COD correction was done to avoid the intensity fluctuation of photon beam in other beamlines due to the gap and phase motion of undulator. No fatal effect on the stored electron beam by installing the undulator was observed though a slight beam size change was observed at the minimum gap. (author)

  19. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/γ, where γ is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron's longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristics of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets

  20. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  1. The bio-crystallography beamline (BL41XU) at SPring-8

    Kawamoto, M; Kamiya, N

    2001-01-01

    The bio-crystallography beamline (BL41XU), one of two pilot beamlines at SPring-8, was constructed using a standard in-vacuum-type undulator and opened for general users from domestic and overseas countries. Many tests and improvements were carried out on beamline elements and equipment for macromolecular crystallography, especially on the so-called 'pin-post' water cooling crystal of rotated-inclined double crystal monochromator. The maximum brilliance at sample position reached to 4x10 sup 1 sup 5 photons/s/mm sup 2 /mrad sup 2 at an X-ray energy of 11 keV. Commercially available X-ray detectors of CCD and imaging plate were installed in the experimental station. A beamline control software system for beam tracking and an on-line reader for large-format imaging plate were newly developed.

  2. Interferometry using undulator sources (invited, abstract)

    Beguiristain, R.; Goldberg, K. A.; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J.; Medecki, H.; Attwood, D. T.; Jackson, K.

    1996-09-01

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), 18, 1089, and D. Attwood et al., Appl. Opt. 32, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg et al., in Extreme Ultra Lithography, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg et al., Proc. SPIE 2437, to be published, and K. Goldberg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown.

  3. Indus-1 beamline for reflectometry

    One of the first beamlines setup and commissioned on Indus-1 is the reflectivity beamline, which was designed and constructed by CAT scientists. The beamline is based on a toroidal grating monochromator and is coupled to a reflectometer, operating in high vacuum, which acts as the experimental station of this beamline. This is a multipurpose beamline that can be used for a variety of applications including study of materials (metals, semiconductors, thin films, etc.) in vacuum ultra violet and soft x-ray regime. In particular, this beamline is well studied to perform reflectometry of thin films and multilayer specimen and in the VUV - soft x-ray regime. Details of the reflectivity beamline and some recent results obtained from this beamline are presented here. (author)

  4. Damping Undulators vs Damping Wigglers

    Muchnoi, Nickolai

    2016-01-01

    Use of damping wigglers is a common technique for beam emittance reduction in the electron storage rings. The general approach to estimate damping effect is based on evaluation of several radiation integrals for a storage ring itself as well as for insertion devices. In this letter we show that a wiggler radiation integrals should be tweaked to account for the impact of lower harmonics of undulator radiation, which is an equivalent of Thomson scattering. Under certain conditions, these amendm...

  5. Microbeam MAD Beamline for Challenging Protein Crystallography in TPS

    The TPS-05A beamline is the first X-ray beamline at NSRRC built for micro protein crystallography experiment as well as one of the seven ID beamlines in phase I at the TPS synchrotron facility. A 2-meter in-vacuum undulator (IU22) serves as the photon source from which the harmonics no. 3 to no. 9 will provide brilliance of 1018−1020 photons s−1 mrad−2 mm−2 (0.1% bandwidth)−1 and photon flux of 1013−1014 photons s−1 (0.1% bandwidth)−1 in the required energy range of 5.7−20 keV (2.175−0.620 Å) to cover MAD phasing experiments at 1 Å and SAD phasing experiments at 2 Å. The beamline optics consists of a cryo-cooled double crystal monochromator (DCM) and a pair of focusing K-B mirrors. Requirements from the user group include a target focus size of 50 μm × 50 μm (H × V) at the sample position, photon flux greater than 2 × 1012 photons s−1 at Se K-edge (0.9795 Å), pinholes for adjusting the beam size down to 5 μm. Calculation of heat load for the first optical element, i.e. the first crystal of DCM, is included in this paper.

  6. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS) at PETRA III

    Schell, Norbert; King, Andrew; Beckmann, Felix; Ruhnau, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchhof, René; Kiehn, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    The HEMS Beamline at the German high-brilliance synchrotron radiation storage ring PETRA III is fully tunable between 30 and 250 keV and optimized for sub-micrometer focusing. Approximately 70 % of the beamtime will be dedicated to Materials Research. Fundamental research will encompass metallurgy, physics and chemistry with first experiments planned for the investigation of the relationship between macroscopic and micro-structural properties of polycrystalline materials, grain-grain-interactions, and the development of smart materials or processes. For this purpose a 3D-microsctructure-mapper has been designed. Applied research for manufacturing process optimization will benefit from high flux in combination with ultra-fast detector systems allowing complex and highly dynamic in-situ studies of micro-structural transformations, e.g. during welding processes. The beamline infrastructure allows accommodation of large and heavy user provided equipment. Experiments targeting the industrial user community will be based on well established techniques with standardized evaluation, allowing full service measurements, e.g. for tomography and texture determination. The beamline consists of a five meter in-vacuum undulator, a general optics hutch, an in-house test facility and three independent experimental hutches working alternately, plus additional set-up and storage space for long-term experiments. HEMS is under commissioning as one of the first beamlines running at PETRA III.

  7. A beamline for 1 endash 4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source

    The third-generation Advanced Photon Source will open up dramatic new opportunities for experiments requiring coherent x-rays, such as scanning x-ray microscopy, interferometry, and coherent scattering. We are building a beamline at the Advanced Photon Source to exploit the potential of coherent x-ray applications in the 1 endash 4 keV energy region. A high brightness 5.5-cm-period undulator supplies the coherent x-rays. The beamline uses horizontally deflecting grazing-incidence optical elements to preserve the coherence of the undulator beam. The optics have multilayer coatings for operation at energies above 1.5 keV. This paper discusses the beamline design and its expected performance. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Photon transport of the superradiant TeraFERMI THz beamline at the FERMI free-electron laser.

    Svetina, Cristian; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Lupi, Stefano; Schmidt, Bernhard; Zangrando, Marco

    2016-01-01

    TeraFERMI is the new terahertz (THz) beamline for pump-probe studies on the femtosecond time-scale, under construction at the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) facility in Trieste, Italy. The beamline will take advantage of the coherent radiation emitted by the spent electrons from the FEL undulators, before being dumped. This will result in short, coherent, high-power THz pulses to be used as a pump beam, in order to modulate structural properties of matter, thereby inducing phase transitions. The TeraFERMI beamline collects THz radiation in the undulator hall and guides it along a beam pipe which is approximately 30 m long, extending across the safety hutch and two shielding walls. Here the optical design, which will allow the efficient transport of the emitted THz radiation in the experimental hall, is presented. PMID:26698051

  9. High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF

    Xue, Chaofan; Wang, Yong; Guo, Zhi; Wu, Yanqing; Zhen, Xiangjun; Chen, Min; Chen, Jiahua; Xue, Song; Peng, Zhongqi; Lu, Qipeng; Tai, Renzhong

    2010-10-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is the first third-generation synchrotron facility in China and operated at an electron energy of 3.5 GeV. One of the seven beamlines in the first construction phase is devoted to soft x-ray spectromicroscopy and is equipped with an elliptically polarized undulator light source, a plane grating monochromator, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope end station. Initial results reveal the high performance of this beamline, with an energy resolving power estimated to be over 10 000 at the argon L-edge and a spatial resolution better than 30 nm.

  10. The X-ray microscopy beamline UE46-PGM2 at BESSY

    Follath, R.; Schmidt, J. S.; Weigand, M.; Fauth, K.

    2010-06-01

    The Max Planck Institute for Metal Physics in Stuttgart and the Helmholtz Center Berlin operate a soft X-ray microscopy beamline at the storage ring BESSY II. A collimated PGM serves as monochromator for a scanning X-ray microscope and a full field X-ray microscope at the helical undulator UE46. The selection between both instruments is accomplished via two switchable focusing mirrors. The scanning microscope (SM) is based on the ALS STXM microscope and fabricated by the ACCEL company. The full field microscope (FFM) is currently in operation at the U41-SGM beamline and will be relocated to its final location this year.

  11. New developments in high pressure x-ray spectroscopy beamline at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    Xiao, Y. M., E-mail: yxiao@carnegiescience.edu; Chow, P.; Boman, G.; Bai, L. G.; Rod, E.; Bommannavar, A.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Sinogeikin, S.; Shen, G. Y. [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The 16 ID-D (Insertion Device - D station) beamline of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source is dedicated to high pressure research using X-ray spectroscopy techniques typically integrated with diamond anvil cells. The beamline provides X-rays of 4.5-37 keV, and current available techniques include X-ray emission spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering, and nuclear resonant scattering. The recent developments include a canted undulator upgrade, 17-element analyzer array for inelastic X-ray scattering, and an emission spectrometer using a polycapillary half-lens. Recent development projects and future prospects are also discussed.

  12. New developments in high pressure x-ray spectroscopy beamline at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    The 16 ID-D (Insertion Device - D station) beamline of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source is dedicated to high pressure research using X-ray spectroscopy techniques typically integrated with diamond anvil cells. The beamline provides X-rays of 4.5-37 keV, and current available techniques include X-ray emission spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering, and nuclear resonant scattering. The recent developments include a canted undulator upgrade, 17-element analyzer array for inelastic X-ray scattering, and an emission spectrometer using a polycapillary half-lens. Recent development projects and future prospects are also discussed

  13. Thermal neutron beamline monitor

    A detector has been developed which has characteristics that make it suitable for use as a neutron beamline monitor on the Spallation Neutron Source. Efficiency has been reduced to 10-4, pulse pair resolution is 50 nSecs and it presents minimal obstruction to the neutron beam. (author)

  14. Progress on the superconducting undulator for ANKA and on the instrumentation for R and D

    Superconducting undulators show a larger magnetic field strength for the same gap and period length, as compared to permanent magnet devices, which allows to generate X-ray beams of higher brilliance and with harder spectrum. The worldwide first short period length superconducting undulator is in operation since 2005 at the synchrotron light source ANKA in Karlsruhe [1]. To further drive the development in this field a research and development program is being carried out. In this contribution we report on the last progress of the construction of a 1.5 m long superconducting undulator with a period length of 15 mm, planned to be installed in ANKA beginning 2010 to be the light source of the new beamline NANO for high resolution X-ray scattering. The key specifications of the system are an undulator parameter K higher than 2 (with a magnetic gap of 5 mm) and a phase error smaller than 3.5 degrees. Cryocoolers will keep the coils at 4.2 K for a beam heat load of 4 W. The ongoing R and D includes improvements in understanding of the magnetic field properties and of the beam heat load mechanisms. The tools and instruments under development to fulfill these tasks are also discussed.

  15. Damping Undulators vs Damping Wigglers

    Muchnoi, Nickolai

    2016-01-01

    Use of damping wigglers is a common technique for beam emittance reduction in the electron storage rings. The general approach to estimate damping effect is based on evaluation of several radiation integrals for a storage ring itself as well as for insertion devices. In this letter we show that a wiggler radiation integrals should be tweaked to account for the impact of lower harmonics of undulator radiation, which is an equivalent of Thomson scattering. Under certain conditions, these amendments play a decisive role in a formation of equilibrium emittance.

  16. Canted Undulator Upgrade for GeoSoilEnviroCARS Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source

    Sutton, Stephen

    2013-02-02

    Support for the beamline component of the canted undulator upgrade of Sector 13 (GeoSoilEnviroCARS; managed and operated by the University of Chicago) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory) was received from three agencies (equally divided): NASA-SRLIDAP (now LARS), NSF-EAR-IF (ARRA) and DOE-Single Investigator Small Group (SISGR). The associated accelerator components (undulators, canted front end) were provided by the APS using DOE-ARRA funding. The intellectual merit of the research enabled by the upgrade lies in advancing our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials; the processes they control; and the processes that produce them. The upgrade will facilitate scientific advances in the following areas: high pressure mineral physics and chemistry, non-crystalline and nano-crystalline materials at high pressure, chemistry of hydrothermal fluids, reactions at mineral-water interfaces, biogeochemistry, oxidation states of magmas, flow dynamics of fluids and solids, and cosmochemistry. The upgrade, allowing the microprobe to operate 100% of the time and the high pressure and surface scattering and spectroscopy instruments to receive beam time increases, will facilitate much more efficient use of the substantial investment in these instruments. The broad scientific community will benefit by the increase in the number of scientists who conduct cutting-edge research at GSECARS. The user program in stations 13ID-C (interface scattering) and 13ID-D (laser heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press) recommenced in June 2012. The operation of the 13ID-E microprobe station began in the Fall 2012 cycle (Oct.-Dec 2012). The upgraded canted beamlines double the amount of undulator beam time at Sector 13 and provide new capabilities including extended operations of the X-ray microprobe down to the sulfur K edge and enhanced brightness at high energy. The availability of the upgraded beamlines will advance the

  17. Secure network for beamline control

    In SPring-8, beamline control system is constructed with a highly available distributed network system. The socket based communication protocol is used for the beamline control mainly. Beamline users can control the equipment by sending simple control commands to a server process, which is running on a beamline-managing computer (Ohata et al., SPring-8 beamline control system, ICALEPCS'99, Trieste, Italy, 1999). At the beginning the network was based on the shared topology at all beamlines. Consequently, it has a risk for misapplication of the user's program to access different machines on the network system cross over beamlines. It is serious problem for the SPring-8 beamline control system, because all beamlines controlled with unified software interfaces. We introduced the switching technology and the firewalls to support network access control. Also the virtual networking (VLAN: IEEE 802.1Q) and the gigabit Ethernet technology (IEEE 802.3ab) are introduced. Thus the network security and the reliability are guaranteed at the higher level in SPring-8 beamline

  18. Beamline for schools

    2015-01-01

    This video is about BL4S Snapshot 22 Sep 2015 12:02:47From 10–20 September, winners of the Beamline for Schools competition visited CERN to perform their experiments. Two teams of high-school students – “Accelerating Africa” from South Africa and “Leo4G” from Italy – were chosen from a total of 119 teams, adding up to 1050 high-school students. “When we were told we’d won we never believed it. People’s parents thought we were lying,” says Michael Copeland from Accelerating Africa. The two teams shared a fully equipped accelerator beamline and conducted their experiment just like other researchers at CERN.

  19. Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Undulator Sector at the Advanced Photon Source

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) has designed and built a multipurpose undulator beamline at Sector 12 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The first optical enclosure contains all the white light components including a high performance thin, cryogenically cooled Si (1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. All the experimental stations are equipped with an exhaust for reactive gases that allows in-situ studies of chemical reactions. The monochromatic windowless beamline is used for elastic and inelastic X-ray scattering, surface scattering, small-angle scattering, and spectroscopy research. Each of these activities is in general confined to one of the three experimental stations. The end station (12-ID-D) is a monochromatic enclosure that is used for surface scattering and includes MOCVD equipment for in-situ measurements

  20. APS beamline standard components handbook

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  1. MaRIE Undulator & XFEL Systems

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-03-23

    The 22 slides in this presentation treat the subject under the following headings: MaRIE XFEL Performance Parameters, Input Electron Beam Parameters, Undulator Design, Genesis Simulations, Risks, and Summary It is concluded that time-dependent Genesis simulations show the MaRIE XFEL can deliver the number of photons within the required bandwidth, provided a number of assumptions are met; the highest risks are associated with the electron beam driving the XFEL undulator; and risks associated with the undulator and/or distributed seeding technique may be evaluated or retired by performing early validation experiments.

  2. High harmonic generation in undulators for FEL

    Zhukovsky, K.

    2016-02-01

    The analytical study of the undulator radiation (UR), accounting for major sources of the spectral line broadening is presented. Analytical expressions for the UR spectrum and intensity are obtained. They demonstrate possibilities of the compensation of the divergency by the constant magnetic component. Some examples of single and double frequency undulators are considered. Generation of harmonics is studied with account for homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening in real devices. The obtained results with account for all broadening sources are applied for evaluation of free electron laser (FEL) performance and compared with those, obtained with the ideal undulator.

  3. Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.

    2016-05-31

    A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.

  4. Photon transport of the superradiant TeraFERMI THz beamline at the FERMI free-electron laser

    Svetina, Cristian; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Perucchi, Andrea; Pietro, Paola Di; Lupi, Stefano; Zangrando, Marco; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    TeraFERMI is the new terahertz (THz) beamline for pump–probe studies on the femtosecond time-scale, under construction at the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) facility in Trieste, Italy. The beamline will take advantage of the coherent radiation emitted by the spent electrons from the FEL undulators, before being dumped. This will result in short, coherent, high-power THz pulses to be used as a pump beam, in order to modulate structural properties of matter, thereby inducing phase transitions....

  5. Photophysics beamline at Indus-1

    Meenakshi-Raja-Rao, P; Raja-Sekhar, B N; Padmanabhan, S; Shastri, A; Bhattacharya, S; Roy, A P

    2001-01-01

    The first Indian synchrotron radiation source, Indus-1 has been commissioned recently at the Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. Using the soft X-ray and VUV radiation from this 450 MeV storage ring, a variety of atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics experiments are planned. Several beamlines are being set up for this purpose. One of these beamlines, the Photophysics beamline is a medium resolution beamline meant for photoabsorption, fluorescence and reflectivity experiments in the wavelength region 500-2000 A (6-25 eV). It is currently being installed at the Indus-1 storage ring. Details of the optical and mechanical design, fabrication and testing of this beamline are discussed.

  6. NOVEL CHAMBER DESIGN FOR AN IN-VACUUM CRYO-COOLED MINI-GAP UNDULATOR

    A stainless steel, Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) chamber, featuring a large vertical rectangular port (53''W by 16''H), has been fabricated to house the one-meter magnet assembly of a newly installed undulator insertion device for beamline X-25 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. To achieve UHV, the new chamber is equipped with a differential ion pump, NEG pump, nude ion gauge, residual gas analyzer, and an all metal roughing valve. Temperature of the magnet assembly is maintained below 90 C during vacuum bake. The large rectangular port cover is sealed to the main flange of the chamber using a one-piece flat aluminum gasket and special sealing surfaces developed exclusively by Nor-Cal Products, Inc. The large flange provides easy access to the gap of the installed magnet girders for in situ magnetic measurements and shimming. Special window ports were designed into the cover and chamber for manipulation of optical micrometers external to the chamber to provide precise measurements of the in-vacuum magnet gap. The vacuum chamber assembly features independently vacuum-isolated feedthroughs that can be used for either water-or-cryogenic refrigeration-cooling of the monolithic magnet girders. This would allow for cryogenic-cooled permanent magnet operation and has been successfully tested within temperature range of +100 C to -150 C. Details of the undulator assembly for beamline X-25 is described in the paper

  7. Measurement and Optimization of the VISA Undulator

    The Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) undulator is an in-vacuum, 4-meter long, 1.8 cm period, pure-permanent magnet device, with a novel, strong focusing, permanent magnet FODO array included within the fixed, 6 mm undulator gap. The undulator magnet is constructed of 99-cm long segments, joined into a continuous structure. To attain maximum SASE gain requires establishing overlap of electron and photon beams to within 50 microns rms. This imposes challenging tolerances on mechanical fabrication and magnetic field quality, and necessitates use of laser straightness interferometry for calibration and alignment of the magnetic axes of the undulator segments. This paper describes the computerized magnet sorting, pulsed-wire magnetic measurements, trajectory shimming and magnetic axis calibration performed to meet this goal

  8. Experience with small-gap undulators

    Over the past year, we have gained some experience with small-gap undulators through operation of the NSLS Prototype Small-Gap Undulator (PSGU). PSGU is a small R ampersand D insertion device intended for investigation of the fundamental limitations of small-gap devices. At the same time, PSGU aptly demonstrates the enhanced performance offered by such devices, through generation of radiation with a 16 mm period pure-permanent-magnet undulator. In what follows, we present a brief description of PSGU and a summary of operating experience to date. This includes a spectrum of the undulator radiation produced at a 5.6 mm magnet gap, and the appearance of operational limitations, namely lifetime degradation, beam instabilities, and increased bremsstrahlung radiation

  9. Algorithms to Automate LCLS Undulator Tuning

    Automation of the LCLS undulator tuning offers many advantages to the project. Automation can make a substantial reduction in the amount of time the tuning takes. Undulator tuning is fairly complex and automation can make the final tuning less dependent on the skill of the operator. Also, algorithms are fixed and can be scrutinized and reviewed, as opposed to an individual doing the tuning by hand. This note presents algorithms implemented in a computer program written for LCLS undulator tuning. The LCLS undulators must meet the following specifications. The maximum trajectory walkoff must be less than 5 (micro)m over 10 m. The first field integral must be below 40 x 10-6 Tm. The second field integral must be below 50 x 10-6 Tm2. The phase error between the electron motion and the radiation field must be less than 10 degrees in an undulator. The K parameter must have the value of 3.5000 ± 0.0005. The phase matching from the break regions into the undulator must be accurate to better than 10 degrees. A phase change of 113 x 2π must take place over a distance of 3.656 m centered on the undulator. Achieving these requirements is the goal of the tuning process. Most of the tuning is done with Hall probe measurements. The field integrals are checked using long coil measurements. An analysis program written in Matlab takes the Hall probe measurements and computes the trajectories, phase errors, K value, etc. The analysis program and its calculation techniques were described in a previous note. In this note, a second Matlab program containing tuning algorithms is described. The algorithms to determine the required number and placement of the shims are discussed in detail. This note describes the operation of a computer program which was written to automate LCLS undulator tuning. The algorithms used to compute the shim sizes and locations are discussed.

  10. A preliminary design of a knot undulator.

    Xi, Fuchun; Shi, Tan; Fan, Qingyan; Prestemon, Soren; Wan, Weishi; An, Zhenghua; Qiao, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field configuration of the previously proposed knot undulator [Qiao et al. (2009). Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 085108] is realised in the design of a hybridized elliptically polarized undulator, which is presented. Although the details of the field distribution are not the same as those in the theoretical proposal, it is demonstrated that the practical knot undulator could work perfectly. In order to understand the minor discrepancies of the two, mathematical formulae of the synchrotron radiation are derived based on the Fourier transform of the magnetic field. From the results of calculations by simulation program, the discrepancies could be well interpreted by the corresponding formulae. The results show the importance of optimization of the end sections of the knot undulator to suppress the on-axis heat load. Furthermore, a study of the impact of the undulator on beam dynamics of the storage ring was conducted using the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility as an example and the results show that the knot undulator has little effect on the beam. PMID:23254667

  11. Universal imaging: Dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules, chemical dynamics beamline 9.0.2

    A third endstation was recently added to the Chemical Dynamics beamline, designed to exploit the high flux broadband undulator light for a range of studies of reactive scattering, photochemistry and photoionization processes using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy coupled with position-sensitive detection. Two molecular beam sources are fixed at right angles, with the undulator light, or laser beams, intersecting the molecular beams at 45 degrees. To date, beamline experiments have included a study of dissociative photoionization of a variety of molecules including N2O and SF6. In this mode, a single molecular beam source is used, with the tunable undulator light inducing, in SF6 for example, the process SF6 → SF6+ + e- → SF5+ + F + e-. The SF5+ ions are accelerated up the flight tube, mass selected and detected as a function of position on a phosphor screen viewed by a CCD camera. The position directly reveals the recoil speed (or translational energy release) and angular distribution for the dissociative ionization process. Furthermore, this measurement is obtained for all recoil speeds and angles simultaneously. Such detailed angular information has not previously been obtained for dissociative ionization processes; typically ion time-of-flight profiles are deconvoluted to yield rough insight into the angular distributions. The recorded image is actually a 2-dimensional projection of the nascent 3-dimensional velocity distribution, but established tomographic techniques enable the authors to reconstruct the 3-D distribution

  12. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-To-Ring Positron beamline

    Kovalenko, Valentyn; Ushakov, Andriy [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with vertical stroke Pe{sup +} vertical stroke {>=} 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented. (orig.)

  13. A New PLS-II In-Vacuum Undulator and Characterization of Undulator Radiation

    Kim, D-E; Park, K-H; Seo, H-S; Ha, T; Jeong, Y-G; Han, H-S; Lee, W W; Huang, J-Y; Nam, S; Kim, K-R; Shin, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the result of overall studies from development to characterization of undulator radiation. After three years of upgrading, PLS-II [1, 2] has been operating successfully since 21st March 2012. During the upgrade, we developed and installed an in-vacuum undulator (IVU) that generates brilliant X-ray beam. The IVU with 3 GeV electron beam generates undulator radiation up to ~ 21 keV using 11th higher harmonic. The characterizations of the undulator radiation at an X-ray beam line in PLS-II agreed well with the simulation. Based on this performance demonstration, the in-vacuum undulator is successfully operating at PLS-II.

  14. SRI CAT Section 1 bending magnet beamline description

    This report discusses: APS bending magnet source; beamline layout; beamline optical components; beamline operation; time-resolved studies station; polarization studies station; and commissioning and operational schedule

  15. Coherent Radiation Effects in the LCLS Undulator

    For X-ray Free-Electron Lasers such as LCLS and TESLA FEL, a change in the electron energy while amplifying the FEL radiation can shift the resonance condition out of the bandwidth of the FEL. The largest sources of energy loss is the emission of incoherent undulator radiation. Because the loss per electron depends only on the undulator parameters and the beam energy, which are fixed for a given resonant wavelength, the average energy loss can be compensated for by a fixed taper of the undulator. Coherent radiation has a strong enhancement proportional to the number of electrons in the bunch for frequencies comparable to or longer than the bunch dimension. If the emitted coherent energy becomes comparable to that of the incoherent emission, it has to be included in the taper as well. However, the coherent loss depends on the bunch charge and the applied compression scheme and a change of these parameters would require a change of the taper. This imposes a limitation on the practical operation of Free-Electron Lasers, where the taper can only be adjusted manually. In this presentation we analyze the coherent emission of undulator radiation and transition undulator radiation for LCLS, and estimate whether the resulting energy losses are significant for the operation of LCLS.

  16. NSLS prototype small-gap undulator (PSGU)

    The NSLS Prototype Small-Gap Undulator (PSGU) will serve as a tool to study lifetime degradation and the onset of beam instabilities as the beam duct aperture is decreased. The device will consist of variable-gap vacuum vessel had a permanent magnet undulator, with independent magnet-gap control. The vacuum vessel design attempts to minimize both residual gas pressures and beam impedances. The undulator will be 320 mm long and utilizes a pure-permanent-magnet structure with 6 blocks per 16 mm period. For a nominal operating aperture of 4 mm, PSGU will produce a peak brightness in the fundamental and third harmonic of 7 x 1016 and 1 x 1016 photons sm-bullet sec-1 sm-bullet mrad-2mm-2 sm-bullet(0.1% BW)-1 at photon energies of 2.5 keV and 7.5 keV, respectively. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Experimental characterization of ALS undulator radiation

    The radiation from the 5 cm period undulator at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been characterized using a transmission grating spectrometer. Spectral and angular distributions of radiation were measured for deflection parameter K values between 0.45 and 2.12 at low storage ring current (0.1--0.5 mA). From the calibration of the spectrometer, the absolute flux density of the undulator harmonics has been determined together with the spectral linewidth. The electron the beam emittance was determined by analyzing the angular distribution of the red-shifted fundamental. Comparison has been made with radiation calculations based upon the measured magnetic field data of the undulator. Including field errors, electron beam emittance and energy spread, good agreement is found between theoretically and experimentally determined harmonic widths and peak brightness

  18. Optical Fibre Dosimeter for SASE FEL Undulators

    Körfer, M

    2003-01-01

    Single pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) are developed for high brightness and short wavelength applications. They use permanent magnet undulators which are radiation sensitive devices. During accelerator commissioning beam losses can appear anywhere along the undulator line. To avoid damage of the permanent magnets due to radiation, an optical fibre dosimeter system can be used. The increase of absorption caused by ionizing radiation is measured in radiation sensitive optical fibers. The dose system enables relatively fast particle loss tuning during accelerator operation and allows the monitoring of the accumulated dose. Dose measurements in narrow gaps which are inaccessible for any other (online) dosimeter type become possible. The electromagnetic insensitivity of optical fibre sensor is an advantage of applications in strong magnetic undulator fields. At each location the light absorption is measured by using an optical power-meter. The dynamic range is ...

  19. Field Optimization for short Period Undulators

    Peiffer, P; Rossmanith, R; Schoerling, D

    2011-01-01

    Undulators dedicated to low energy electron beams, like Laser Wakefield Accelerators, require very short period lengths to achieve X-ray emission. However, at these short period length (LambdaU ~ 5 mm) it becomes difficult to reach magnetic field amplitudes that lead to a K parameter of >1, which is generally desired. Room temperature permanent magnets and even superconductive undulators using Nb-Ti as conductor material have proven insufficient to achieve the desired field amplitudes. The superconductor Nb3Sn has the theoretical potential to achieve the desired fields. However, up to now it is limited by several technological challenges to much lower field values than theoretically predicted. An alternative idea for higher fields is to manufacture the poles of the undulator body from Holmium instead of iron or to use Nb-Ti wires with a higher superconductor/copper ratio. The advantages and challenges of the different options are compared in this contribution.

  20. Advanced photoelectric effect experiment beamline at Elettra: A surface science laboratory coupled with Synchrotron Radiation

    We report the main characteristics of the advanced photoelectric effect experiments beamline, operational at Elettra storage ring, featuring a fully independent double branch scheme obtained by the use of chicane undulators and able to keep polarization control in both linear and circular mode. The paper describes the novel technical solutions adopted, namely, (a) the design of a quasiperiodic undulator resulting in optimized suppression of higher harmonics over a large photon energy range (10-100 eV), (b) the thermal stability of optics under high heat load via cryocoolers, and (c) the end station interconnected setup allowing full access to off-beam and on-beam facilities and, at the same time, the integration of users' specialized sample growth chambers or modules.

  1. Canonical particle tracking in undulator fields

    A new algebraic mapping routine for particle tracking across wiggler and undulator fields in presented. It is based on a power series expansion of the generating function to guarantee fully canonical transformations. This method is 10 to 100 times faster than integration routines, applied in tracking codes like BETA or RACETRACK. The tracking method presented is not restricted to wigglers and undulators, it can be applied to other magnetic fields as well such as fringing fields of quadrupoles or dipoles if the suggested expansion converges

  2. Wide Band Energy Beamline using Si (111) Crystal Monochromators at BL22XU in SPring-8

    A new JAEA beamline with an in-vacuum undulator has been constructed at BL22XU in SPring-8. The wide band energy X-rays facilitate crystal structure studies under pressure, resonant X-ray scattering experiments, X-ray absorption fine structure as well as stress measurements. The energy range from 3 to 70keV with a high flux of X-rays has been achieved at the beamline, using two sets of double crystal monochromators equipped with liquid nitrogen cooling Si (111) crystals. The photon flux at 3, 9, 25 and 70keV with ΔE/E f-dot 10-4 are about 2 x 1010, 3 x 1013, 5 x 1012 and 5 x 1010 photons/sec, respectively. Fluctuations in X-ray intensities and position caused by the liquid nitrogen cooling system have been prevented by using MOSTAB, a feedback control system

  3. Design, development, installation and commissioning of water-cooled pre-masks for undulator front-ends of Indus-2

    Recently two undulators U1 and U2 are installed in Indus-2 storage ring at RRCAT, Indore. When U1 and U2 are put in operation, a bright synchrotron radiation (SR) is produced which is transmitted through the zero degree port of the dipole vacuum chamber. In addition, a part of SR beam from the bending magnets, at the upstream and downstream of the undulator, is also overlapped with the undulator SR beam and transmitted in to the front-end through the same port. The front-end is a long ultra high vacuum (UHV) assembly consisting of water-cooled pre-mask, water-cooled shutters, UHV valves, diagnostic devices, safety shutter, vacuum pumps etc which acts as an interface between Indus-2 ring and beamline. Water-cooled pre- masks have been designed to cut a part of unwanted SR beam from the bending magnets. The pre-mask is a first active component in the undulator front-end which is also capable of absorbing high thermal load due to mis-steering of the SR beam from the undulator in the worst case scenario. The watercooled pre-mask consists of a copper block which has fixed aperture with slant faces to distribute the heat flux over a large surface area. The cooling channels are made on outer periphery of the block. The copper block is vacuum brazed with two conflat flanges of stainless steel at the two ends. The pre-mask is designed to absorb thermal load of 3 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U1 and 2 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U2. The thermal analysis of the pre-masks was carried out with the help of ANSYS® and the design was optimized with different cooling configurations. The main design criteria was to limit the maximum temperature of the mask less than 60 °C. This is to avoid substantial thermal outgassing from the heated portion which may deteriorate the ultra high vacuum. Pre-masks have been successfully tested, installed and commissioned with synchrotron beam in the undulator front-ends and are operating under vacuum of 5x10-10 mbar. (author)

  4. KIAE-1.5-3 undulator performance

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenko, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid type undulator with 60 periods of {lambda}{sub w} = 1.5 cm and tunable gap in wide range has been designed and manufactured. Additional side magnet arrays provide high magnetic field (near Halbach limit) along with transverse field profiles for e.b. focusing.

  5. Generation and characterization of superradiant undulator radiation

    Bocek, D.

    1997-06-01

    High-power, pulsed, coherent, far-infrared (FIR) radiation has many scientific applications, such as pump-probe studies of surfaces, liquids, and solids, studies of high-T{sub c} superconductors, biophysics, plasma diagnostics, and excitation of Rydberg atoms. Few sources of such FIR radiation currently exist. Superradiant undulator radiation produced at the SUNSHINE (Stanford UNiversity SHort INtense Electron-source) is such a FIR source. First proposed in the mm-wave spectral range by Motz, superradiant undulator radiation has been realized in the 45 {micro}m to 300 {micro}m spectral range by using sub-picosecond electron bunches produced by the SUNSHINE facility. The experimental setup and measurements of this FIR radiation are reported in this thesis. In addition, to being a useful FIR source, the superradiant undulator radiation produced at SUNSHINE is an object of research in itself. Measured superlinear growth of the radiated energy along the undulator demonstrates the self-amplification of radiation by the electron bunch. This superlinear growth is seen at 47 {micro}m to 70 {micro}m wavelengths. These wavelengths are an order of magnitude shorter than in previous self-amplification demonstrations.

  6. Photophysics beamline at Indus-1

    An experimental facility to perform photoabsorption studies on gases and solids using synchrotron radiation from Indus-1, Indian synchrotron light source, RRCAT, Indore, India has been setup, This beamline uses synchrotron light from Indus-1 as the background continuum source for experiments in the wavelength range of 500 to 2000A with an average resolution of 1.5 A. Using this facility many absorption experiments on a variety of gaseous and solid samples have been performed. The details of the experimental facility, beamline and some of the results obtained on polyatomic molecules like CH2F2, NH3, HCHO, N2O etc. will be presented in this paper. Experimental results on gamma ray induced defect studies on Nd doped glass, Lithium fluoride etc. carried out using this beamline will also be presented. (author)

  7. Design and performance of the UNICAT insertion device beamline at the APS

    The UNICAT collaboration at the APS has constructed an insertion device beamline facility to support fundamental research in advanced materials and condensed matter physics. The primary research techniques used by UNICAT members include structural crystallography, diffuse x-ray scattering, magnetic x-ray scattering, ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering, micro-beam scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and spectroscopy, surface and interface scattering, coherent x-ray diffraction, and time-resolved techniques. To support these advanced x-ray techniques for a diverse scientific community, we chose a liquid-nitrogen cooled Si (111) double crystal monochromator, and a pair of coated, striped mirrors. Important parameters considered in the design of the beamline are x-ray flux, energy range and bandwidth, source demagnification, and harmonic contamination. The APS type A undulator is used to produce high-brilliance X-rays between 4 and 40 KeV. We achieve sagittal focusing by dynamically bending the monochromator second crystal, and meridional focusing by cylindrically bending one of the flat mirrors. The resulting x-ray beam delivered to the experimental stations can be focused, unfocused, or collimated. The overall design of this beamline layout and the major beamline components are described, and its performance is discussed with respect to impact on the scientific programs proposed for the facility

  8. EPR spectrometer installed in a soft X-ray beamline at SPring-8 for biophysical studies

    Yokoya, Akinari E-mail: yokoya@spring8.or.jp; Akamatsu, Ken

    2001-07-21

    We have developed an Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system combined with a synchrotron beamline (Synchrotron Light Excited Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrometer (SLEEPRS)) to detect radicals in biomolecules caused by irradiating with soft X-rays below 2 keV. SLEEPRS was installed in a soft X-ray undulator beamline equipped with a grazing incidence grating monochromator (BL23SU, SPring-8). The cavity of the X-band microwave was set in a high vacuum chamber connected with the beamline transport channel. The sample temperature was controlled from 10 to 300 K by a closed-cycle cryogenic system during the soft X-ray irradiation and the EPR measurements. Typical EPR signals of a deaminated alanine radical from L-{alpha}-alanine were observed by irradiating 1.5 keV soft X-rays. The calculated absorbed dose shows that a dose of the same order or less gives the same EPR signal intensity as that generated by a conventional 100 kVp X-ray source. Thus the combination of an EPR spectrometer and synchrotron soft X-ray beamline may open a way for investigating the radical processes involved in biomolecular damages induced by a selective K-photoabsorption of a specific atom.

  9. EPR spectrometer installed in a soft X-ray beamline at SPring-8 for biophysical studies

    We have developed an Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system combined with a synchrotron beamline (Synchrotron Light Excited Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrometer (SLEEPRS)) to detect radicals in biomolecules caused by irradiating with soft X-rays below 2 keV. SLEEPRS was installed in a soft X-ray undulator beamline equipped with a grazing incidence grating monochromator (BL23SU, SPring-8). The cavity of the X-band microwave was set in a high vacuum chamber connected with the beamline transport channel. The sample temperature was controlled from 10 to 300 K by a closed-cycle cryogenic system during the soft X-ray irradiation and the EPR measurements. Typical EPR signals of a deaminated alanine radical from L-α-alanine were observed by irradiating 1.5 keV soft X-rays. The calculated absorbed dose shows that a dose of the same order or less gives the same EPR signal intensity as that generated by a conventional 100 kVp X-ray source. Thus the combination of an EPR spectrometer and synchrotron soft X-ray beamline may open a way for investigating the radical processes involved in biomolecular damages induced by a selective K-photoabsorption of a specific atom

  10. Concept of quasi-periodic undulator - control of radiation spectrum

    Sasaki, Shigemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    A new type of undulator, the quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) is considered which generates the irrational harmonics in the radiation spectrum. This undulator consists of the arrays of magnet blocks aligned in a quasi-periodic order, and consequentially lead to a quasi-periodic motion of electron. A combination of the QPU and a conventional crystal/grating monochromator provides pure monochromatic photon beam for synchrotron radiation users because the irrational harmonics do not be diffracted in the same direction by a monochromator. The radiation power and width of each radiation peak emitted from this undulator are expected to be comparable with those of the conventional periodic undulator.

  11. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Plans for production of undulator X-rays on AR and its applications to material and biological sciences

    This report carries 19 studies. The first two describe 'Hope for Andulator X-Rays' and 'A Plan for Application of AR Synchrotron Radiation Beam'. Three studies on undulator X-rays are presented, which are entitled 'Development of X-Ray Undulator', 'AR-BL-NE Triple Beamline' and 'Fluctuations of Synchrotron Radiation Beam Position and Development of a Beam Position Feedback System for a Beamline of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring'. Two studies on application to Moessbauer X-rays are contained, which are entitled 'Nuclear Resonant Scattering of Synchrotron Radiation X-Rays' and 'Biological Action of Moessbauer Effect -- Feasibility of Application to Treatment of Cancer'. Two studies on application to research on surface and interface are addressed, which are entitled 'Application to Research on Surface and Interface; Research by Diffraction' and 'How Can Compton Scattering Serve for Study on Surface Layer?'. Five studies on the application to research on submicron crystal structure' are presented, which are entitled Application to Research on Submicron Crystal Structure; Inorganic and Mineral Substances', 'Comments on Application to Research on Submicron Crystal Structure', etc. The report also contains two studies on abnormal scattering and three studies on microbeam X-rays. (N.K.)

  13. Exact relativistic theory of geoid's undulation

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Precise determination of geoid is one of the most important problem of physical geodesy. The present paper extends the Newtonian concept of the geoid to the realm of Einstein's general relativity and derives an exact relativistic equation for the unperturbed geoid and level surfaces under assumption of axisymmetric distribution of background matter in the core and mantle of the Earth. We consider Earth's crust as a small disturbance imposed on the background distribution of matter, and formulate the master equation for the anomalous gravity potential caused by this disturbance. We find out the gauge condition that drastically simplifies the master equation for the anomalous gravitational potential and reduces it to the form closely resembling the one in the Newtonian theory. The master equation gives access to the precise calculation of geoid's undulation with the full account for relativistic effects not limited to the post-Newtonian approximation. The geoid undulation theory, given in the present paper, uti...

  14. Conceptual design of a plasma undulator

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    1993-07-01

    A micropitched plasma undulator is proposed for the first time. It is composed of an array of hundreds of discharged and pinched slender columns of plasma. Two kinds of undulating forces on the electron beam can be considered: one is a periodic magnetic field generated by the electric currents flowing through the array of the small radius plasma columns and the other is a periodic electrostatic field generated by the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with the rippled density of the plasma. Methods for both producing and stabilizing the array of the plasma columns are discussed. The effects of collisions between the plasma particles and the electron beam on the orbit and the momentum of the electrons are also discussed, leading to the conclusion that they can be negligibly small, as far as the gas pressure in the chamber leaking from the plasma region does not disturb the performance of the electron accelerator.

  15. Thermal analysis of superconducting undulator cryomodules

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Harkay, K.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.

    2015-12-01

    A cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator (SCU0) has been operating in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring since January of 2013. Based on lessons learned from the construction and operation of SCU0, a second superconducting undulator (SCU1) has been built and cold tested stand-alone. An excess cooling capacity measurement and static heat load analysis show a large improvement of cryogenic performance of SCU1 compared with SCU0. ANSYS-based thermal analysis of these cryomodules incorporating all the cooling circuits was completed. Comparisons between measured and calculated temperatures at the three operating conditions of the cryomodule (static, beam heat only, beam heat and magnet current) will be presented.

  16. Wavefront propagation simulations for a UV/soft x-ray beamline: Electron Spectro-Microscopy beamline at NSLS-II

    Canestrari, N.; Bisogni, V.; Walter, A.; Zhu, Y.; Dvorak, J.; Vescovo, E.; Chubar, O.

    2014-09-01

    A "source-to-sample" wavefront propagation analysis of the Electron Spectro-Microscopy (ESM) UV / soft X-ray beamline, which is under construction at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) in the Brookhaven National Laboratory, has been conducted. All elements of the beamline - insertion device, mirrors, variable-line-spacing gratings and slits - are included in the simulations. Radiation intensity distributions at the sample position are displayed for representative photon energies in the UV range (20 - 100 eV) where diffraction effects are strong. The finite acceptance of the refocusing mirrors is the dominating factor limiting the spatial resolution at the sample (by ~3 μm at 20 eV). Absolute estimates of the radiation flux and energy resolution at the sample are also obtained from the electromagnetic calculations. The analysis of the propagated UV range undulator radiation at different deflection parameter values demonstrates that within the beamline angular acceptance a slightly "red-shifted" radiation provides higher flux at the sample and better energy resolution compared to the on-axis resonant radiation of the fundamental harmonic.

  17. Feasibility of Diagnostics Undulator Studies at ASTA

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Wendt, M.; Byrd, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility is currently under construction at Fermilab. With a 1-ms macropulse composed of up to 3000 micropulses and with beam energies projected from 45 to 800 MeV, the need for non-intercepting diagnostics for beam size, position, energy, and bunch length is clear. In addition to the rf BPMs, optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), and optical diffraction radiation (ODR) techniques already planned, we propose the use of undulator radiation fr...

  18. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    Alexander, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Barley, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Batygin, Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (US)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9 MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a one-meter-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6 GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of GEANT4 that includes the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons with matter. The measurements agree with calculations, corresponding to 80% polarization for positrons near 6 MeV and 90% for electrons near 7 MeV. (orig.)

  19. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons

    Alexander, Gideon; Batygin, Yuri; Berridge, Steven; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Bower, Gary; Bugg, William; Decker, Franz-Josef; Dollan, Ralph; Efremenko, Yuri; Floettmann, Klaus; Gharibyan, Vahagn; Hast, Carsten; Iverson, Richard; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kovermann, Jan W; Laihem, Karim; Lohse, Thomas; McDonald, Kirk T; Mikhailichenko, Alexander A; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid; Pahl, Philipp; Pitthan, Rainer; Poeschl, Roman; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Riemann, Sabine; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schueler, Klaus-Peter; Schweizer, Thomas; Scott, Duncan; Sheppard, John C; Stahl, Achim; Szalata, Zenon; Walz, Dieter R; Weidemann, Achim

    2009-01-01

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a one-meter-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of Geant4...

  20. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9 MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a one-meter-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6 GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of GEANT4 that includes the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons with matter. The measurements agree with calculations, corresponding to 80% polarization for positrons near 6 MeV and 90% for electrons near 7 MeV. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-01-01

    We recently proposed a basic concept for design and layout of the undulator source for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European XFEL. The goal of the optimized scheme proposed here is to enable experimental simplification and performance improvement. The core of the scheme is composed by soft and hard X-ray self-seeding setups. Based on the use of an improved design for both monochromators it is possible to increase the design electron energy up to 17.5 GeV in photon energy range between 2 keV and 13 keV, which is the most preferable for life science experiments. An advantage of operating at such high electron energy is the increase of the X-ray output peak power. Another advantage is that 17.5 GeV is the preferred operation energy for SASE1 and SASE2 beamline users. Since it will be necessary to run all the XFEL lines at the same electron energy, this choice will reduce the interference with other undulator lines and increase the total amount of scheduled beam time. In this work we also propose a stu...

  2. A short-pulse X-ray beamline for spectroscopy and scattering.

    Reininger, R; Dufresne, E M; Borland, M; Beno, M A; Young, L; Evans, P G

    2014-09-01

    Experimental facilities for picosecond X-ray spectroscopy and scattering based on RF deflection of stored electron beams face a series of optical design challenges. Beamlines designed around such a source enable time-resolved diffraction, spectroscopy and imaging studies in chemical, condensed matter and nanoscale materials science using few-picosecond-duration pulses possessing the stability, high repetition rate and spectral range of synchrotron light sources. The RF-deflected chirped electron beam produces a vertical fan of undulator radiation with a correlation between angle and time. The duration of the X-ray pulses delivered to experiments is selected by a vertical aperture. In addition to the radiation at the fundamental photon energy in the central cone, the undulator also emits the same photon energy in concentric rings around the central cone, which can potentially compromise the time resolution of experiments. A detailed analysis of this issue is presented for the proposed SPXSS beamline for the Advanced Photon Source. An optical design that minimizes the effects of off-axis radiation in lengthening the duration of pulses and provides variable X-ray pulse duration between 2.4 and 16 ps is presented. PMID:25178012

  3. Review of window and filter requirements for commissioning of the Advanced Photon Source insertion device beamlines

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is building 16 insertion device (ID) front ends for the first phase of the project. Eleven of these are to be equipped with the APS Undulator A and the other five with a Wiggler-A-type source. The Undulator A front ends are designed to operate in a ''windowless'' mode using an APS-designed differential pump. However, during beamline commissioning and early operations of the storage ring, it is prudent to install windows to ensure storage ring vacuum safety before easing into windowless operation. However, the window designed for this interim period may not meet all the needs of a user's scientific program. In the early phases of the project through commissioning and start of operations, such a window will permit the user to prepare for his program, while allowing both the user and the facility operators to gain experience for safe phasing into eventual windowless operations. In this report, we will present analysis and design options for a variety of windows particularly suited to either the APS Undulator A front ends or as user windows located in the first optics enclosure (FOE)

  4. Universal imaging: Dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules, chemical dynamics beamline 9.0.2

    Ahmed, M.; Chen, D.; Suits, A.G. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A third endstation was recently added to the Chemical Dynamics beamline, designed to exploit the high flux broadband undulator light for a range of studies of reactive scattering, photochemistry and photoionization processes using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy coupled with position-sensitive detection. Two molecular beam sources are fixed at right angles, with the undulator light, or laser beams, intersecting the molecular beams at 45{degrees}. To date, beamline experiments have included a study of dissociative photoionization of a variety of molecules including N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6}. In this mode, a single molecular beam source is used, with the tunable undulator light inducing, in SF{sub 6} for example, the process SF{sub 6} {r_arrow} SF{sub 6}{sup +} + e{sup {minus}} {r_arrow} SF{sub 5}{sup +} + F + e{sup {minus}}. The SF{sub 5}{sup +} ions are accelerated up the flight tube, mass selected and detected as a function of position on a phosphor screen viewed by a CCD camera. The position directly reveals the recoil speed (or translational energy release) and angular distribution for the dissociative ionization process. Furthermore, this measurement is obtained for all recoil speeds and angles simultaneously. Such detailed angular information has not previously been obtained for dissociative ionization processes; typically ion time-of-flight profiles are deconvoluted to yield rough insight into the angular distributions. The recorded image is actually a 2-dimensional projection of the nascent 3-dimensional velocity distribution, but established tomographic techniques enable the authors to reconstruct the 3-D distribution.

  5. Optimization of a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We recently proposed a basic concept for design and layout of the undulator source for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European XFEL. The goal of the optimized scheme proposed here is to enable experimental simplification and performance improvement. The core of the scheme is composed by soft and hard X-ray self-seeding setups. Based on the use of an improved design for both monochromators it is possible to increase the design electron energy up to 17.5 GeV in photon energy range between 2 keV and 13 keV, which is the most preferable for life science experiments. An advantage of operating at such high electron energy is the increase of the X-ray output peak power. Another advantage is that 17.5 GeV is the preferred operation energy for SASE1 and SASE2 beamline users. Since it will be necessary to run all the XFEL lines at the same electron energy, this choice will reduce the interference with other undulator lines and increase the total amount of scheduled beam time. In this work we also propose a study of the performance of the self-seeding scheme accounting for spatiotemporal coupling caused by the use of a single crystal monochromator. Our analysis indicates that this distortion is easily suppressed by the right choice of diamond crystal planes and that the proposed undulator source yields about the same performance as in the case for a X-ray seed pulse with no coupling. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 2 TW in the 3 keV-5 keV photon energy range, which is the most preferable for single biomolecule imaging.

  6. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    Papadimitriou, V; Hylen, J; Kobilarcik, T; Marchionni, A; Moore, C D; Schlabach, P; Tariq, S

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60 -120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW, however the facility is desi...

  7. Design of the LBNF Beamline

    Papadimitriou, V.; Andrews, R.; Hylen, J.; Kobilarcik, T.; Krafczyk, G.; Marchinonni, A.; Moore, C. D.; Schlabach, P.; Tariq, S.

    2015-08-30

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band neutrino beam toward underground detectors placed at the SURF Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial proton beam power is expected to be 1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable to 2.4 MW. We discuss here the design status and the associated challenges as well as plans for improvements before baselining the facility.

  8. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    Papadimitriou, Vaia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Andrews, Richard [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hylen, James [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kobilarcik, Thomas [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchionni, Alberto [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, Craig D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schlabach, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tariq, Salman [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-05

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable for 2.3 MW operation. We discuss here the status of the design and the associated challenges.

  9. Undulator systems for the TESLA X-FEL

    A large X-ray FEL lab is under consideration within the TESLA project and is supposed to be operated in parallel with the TESLA linear collider. There will be five SASE FELs and five conventional spontaneous undulators. A conceptual design study has been made for the undulator systems for these X-FELs. It includes segmentation into 6.1 m long undulator 'cells'. Each consists of a 5 m long undulator 'segment', a separate quadrupole, one horizontal and one vertical corrector, and a phase shifter. These items are presented and discussed

  10. Undulator radiation carrying spin and orbital angular momentum

    Sasaki, Shigemi [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: sasaki@aps.anl.gov; McNulty, Ian; Dejus, Roger [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We show that the radiation from a helical undulator not only carries spin angular momentum (circular polarization) but also orbital angular momentum. This exotic property of the undulator radiation may be useful in coherent X-ray imaging and scattering experiments and to probe electronic transitions in matter by orbital dichroism spectroscopy. Also, we present that a new magnet configuration, similar to the structure of Figure-8 undulator or the PERA undulator, may generate right- and left-hand circularly polarized off-axis radiation simultaneously.

  11. Undulator radiation carrying spin and orbital angular momentum.

    Sasaki, S.; McNulty, I.; Dejus, R.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-11-11

    We show that the radiation from a helical undulator not only carries spin angular momentum (circular polarization) but also orbital angular momentum. This exotic property of the undulator radiation may be useful in coherent X-ray imaging and scattering experiments and to probe electronic transitions in matter by orbital dichroism spectroscopy. Also, we present that a new magnet configuration, similar to the structure of Figure-8 undulator or the PERA undulator, may generate right- and left-hand circularly polarized off-axis radiation simultaneously.

  12. Research on Complexity of Surface Undulating Shapes of Rock Joints

    1998-01-01

    The surface undulating shapes of rock joints have been described qualitatively or experimental-quantitatively for a long time. The non-determined describing method can not fit quantitative evaluation of mechanical parameters of rock joints in engineering. In this paper, relative amplitude (RA) is chosen as a quantitative-describing index of surface measurement of 1 023 surface undulating curves which conducted by profile curve device(PCD). We discuss the nonuniformity,anisotropy and unhomogeneity of surface undulating shapes of joints. A new method that analyzes the complexity of surface undulating shapes of rock joints directional-statistically in various rock joints is also put forward.

  13. Analysis of misalignment effects on optical Klystron undulator radiation

    In an optical klystron undulator, a long drift space or a shorter dispersive magnet is placed in between the two undulator sections. The resonance interaction between the electron and the electromagnetic wave is turned off in the drift/dispersive magnet section which leads to a change of the electron phase. The electrons under go bunching and density modulation in response to the change of electron phase and the radiation is enhanced. A requirement of the dispersive magnet field is that both the first and second field integral in the length of the dispersive section must be zero to ensure zero net transverse and zero angular displacement of the electron at the input of the second undulator section of the optical klystron. Similar condition too holds good for the long drift space case where the electron is made to enter the second undulator without any change in its angular or transverse displacement. In this paper, we remove these constraints to analyze the important effects of optical klystron undulator radiation with an angular and axial offset of the relativistic electron beam in the second undulator section through an analytic approach. An analytical expression for the undulator radiation is obtained through a simple and transparent procedure. It is shown that the misalignment effects are more severe for longer undulator lengths and with higher dispersive field strengths. Both these effects are less pronounced for undulators with large K values. (author)

  14. New Synchrotron Radiation Center beamlines at Aladdin

    In the past year, the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) staff has installed five new beamlines at SRC. Three of these beamlines are ''public'' beamlines operated by SRC for experiments selected from peer-reviewed proposals. Fifty to seventy-five percent of the experimental time on the other two beamlines is managed by the SRC as a consequence of the SRC being a partner in participating research teams (PRTs). These new beamlines bring the number of VUV and soft x-ray research beamlines installed on Aladdin to 17 as of August 1988. Including two storage ring optical diagnostic ports, there will be 20 ports in use on Aladdin by the end of 1988

  15. Confining Continuous Manipulations of Accelerator Beamline Optics

    Amstutz, Philipp; Ackermann, Sven; Bödewadt, Jörn; Lechner, Christoph; Plath, Tim; Vogt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beamline will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beamline element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beamline section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by ...

  16. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beamline optics

    Amstutz, Philipp; Ackermann, Sven; Bödewadt, Jörn; Lechner, Christoph; Plath, Tim; Vogt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beamline will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beamline element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beamline section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by ...

  17. The design of the optimized muon beamline

    Choi, Suyong; Roh, Youn Jung

    2014-01-01

    We designed an optimized antimuon beamline with the simulation using G4beamline and TRANSPORT software packages for Heavy Ion Accelerator Project in South Korea. This research suggests the optimized muon beamline can transport $2.4\\times10^{8}$ antimuons per second to a circle with a radius of 3 cm. In terms of muon rate, this is competitive with world leading muon beam facilities.

  18. Undulations from amplified low frequency surface waves

    We study the linear scattering of gravity waves in longitudinal inhomogeneous stationary flows. When the flow becomes supercritical, it is known that counterflow propagating shallow waves are blocked and converted into deep waves. Here we show that in the zero-frequency limit, the reflected waves are amplified in such a way that the free surface develops an undulation, i.e., a zero-frequency wave of large amplitude with nodes located at specific places. This amplification involves negative energy waves and implies that flat surfaces are unstable against incoming perturbations of arbitrary small amplitude. The relation between this instability and black hole radiation (the Hawking effect) is established

  19. Undulations from amplified low frequency surface waves

    Coutant, Antonin

    2012-01-01

    We study the scattering of gravity waves in longitudinal stationary flows. When the flow velocity becomes supercritical, counterflow propagating waves are amplified in such a way that, in the zero-frequency limit, the free surface develops an undu- lation, i.e., a zero-frequency wave of large amplitude with nodes located at specific places. From this, we show that the unperturbed flat surface is unstable against perturbations of arbitrary small amplitude. We then show that this instability also appears when treating low frequency waves by a stochastic ensemble. The relation between the generation of undulations and black hole radiation (the Hawking effect) is discussed.

  20. SPring-8 BL41XU, a high-flux macromolecular crystallography beamline

    Hasegawa, Kazuya [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shimizu, Nobutaka [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); KEK-PF, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okumura, Hideo; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Baba, Seiki [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hirata, Kunio [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takeuchi, Tomoyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masaki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kumasaka, Takashi, E-mail: kumasaka@spring8.or.jp [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    SPring-8 BL41XU provides a high-flux X-ray beam of size 10–50 µm, and enables high-quality diffraction data to be obtained from various types of protein crystals. Details of this beamline and an upgrade project are described. SPring-8 BL41XU is a high-flux macromolecular crystallography beamline using an in-vacuum undulator as a light source. The X-rays are monochromated by a liquid-nitrogen-cooling Si double-crystal monochromator, and focused by Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror optics. The focused beam size at the sample is 80 µm (H) × 22 µm (V) with a photon flux of 1.1 × 10{sup 13} photons s{sup −1}. A pinhole aperture is used to collimate the beam in the range 10–50 µm. This high-flux beam with variable size provides opportunities not only for micro-crystallography but also for data collection effectively making use of crystal volume. The beamline also provides high-energy X-rays covering 20.6–35.4 keV which allows ultra-high-resolution data to be obtained and anomalous diffraction using the K-edge of Xe and I. Upgrade of BL41XU for more rapid and accurate data collection is proceeding. Here, details of BL41XU are given and an outline of the upgrade project is documented.

  1. Dynamic vacuum analysis for APS high heat flux beamline front ends using optical ray-tracing simulation methods

    The high-power and high-flux x-ray beams produced by third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) can cause significantly high gas desorption rates on beamline front-end components if beam missteering occurs. The effect of this gas desorption needs to be understood for dynamic vacuum analysis. To simulate beam missteering conditions, optical ray-tracing methods have been employed. The results of the ray-tracing analysis have been entered into a system-oriented vacuum program to provide dynamic vacuum calculations for determination of pumping requirements for the beamline front-ends. The APS will provide several types of synchrotron radiation sources, for example, undulators, wigglers, and bending magnets. For the purpose of this study, the wiggler source was chosen as a ''worst case'' scenario due to its high photon flux, high beam power, and relatively large beam cross section

  2. Far-infrared transition and diffraction radiation. Pt. 2. The THz beamline at the VUV-FEL linac

    Casalbuoni, S.; Schmidt, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schmueser, P.; Steffen, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2006-07-01

    In order to facilitate longitudinal bunch diagnostics with high-resolution interferometric or spectroscopic devices outside the VUV-FEL tunnel we have designed a Tera-Hertz beamline at the 140 m position of the VUV-FEL linac. The vacuum chamber housing the transition and diffraction radiation screens is located between the last acceleration module and the collimator section in front of the undulator. In Part I of this report we have presented a general scheme for computing the generation, diffraction and optical propagation of transition and diffraction radiation. In the present Part II we describe the design, technical layout and optical performance of the THz beamline at the VUV-FEL and show first measurements. (orig.)

  3. Dynamic vacuum analysis for APS high heat flux beamline front ends using optical ray-tracing simulation methods

    The high-power and high-flux x-ray beams produced by third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) can cause significantly high gas desorption rates on beamline front-end components if beam missteering occurs. The effect of this gas desorption needs to be understood for dynamic vacuum analysis. To simulate beam missteering conditions, optical ray-tracing methods have been employed. The results of the ray-tracing analysis have been entered into a system-oriented vacuum program to provide dynamic vacuum calculations for determination of pumping requirements for the beamline front-ends. The APS will provide several types of synchrotron radiation sources, for example, undulators, wigglers, and bending magnets. For the purpose of this study, the wiggler source was chosen as a worst case scenario due to its high photon flux, high beam power, and relatively large beam cross section

  4. X-ray beam stabilization at BL-17A, the protein microcrystallography beamline of the Photon Factory

    BL-17A is a new structural biology beamline at the Photon Factory, dedicated to protein crystallography of microcrystals. Here the X-ray beam stabilization techniques used at BL-17A are described. BL-17A is a new structural biology beamline at the Photon Factory, Japan. The high-brilliance beam, derived from the new short-gap undulator (SGU-17), allows for unique protein crystallographic experiments such as data collection from microcrystals and structural determination using softer X-rays. However, microcrystal experiments require robust beam stability during data collection and minor fluctuations could not be ignored. Initially, significant beam instability was observed at BL-17A. The causes of the beam instability were investigated and its various sources identified. Subsequently, several effective countermeasures have been implemented, and the fluctuation of the beam intensity successfully suppressed to within 1%. Here the instability reduction techniques used at BL-17A are presented

  5. Undulating periodization models for strength training & conditioning

    A. Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodized strength training refers to varying the training program at regular time intervals in an attempt to bring about optimal resistance gains. The main aim of this paper was to present a short review of the diferent aspects of training periodization and its effects with performance. as well as the differential effect of alternate periodization models on other populations, and specially the need for further research regarding the effectiveness of the undulating model as compared with the linear model. A focussed literature review reveals that most studies that examined strength training periodization utilized young males as their subject population, and the research has mainly focused on differences between periodized and non-periodized programs. Furthermore, the periodization training programs are designed and developed according to two different models: the linear model and the non-linear model. The Linear Model is characterized by high initial training volume and low and intensity. The Non-Linear Model enables variation in intensity and volume within each 7-10 day cycle by rotating different protocols to train various components of the neuromuscular system. The results showed at the scientific literature encourage researchers and exercise professionals to include non-linear (undulating periodization models during resistance training.

  6. Resistive Wall Wakefield in the LCLS Undulator

    Bane, Karl Leopold Freitag

    2005-01-01

    In the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a short, intense bunch (rms length 20 microns, bunch charge 1 nC) will pass through a small, long undulator beam pipe (radius 2.5 mm, length 130 m). The wakefields in the undulator, particularly the resistive wall wake of the beam pipe, will induce an energy variation along the bunch, a variation that needs to be kept to within a few times the Pierce parameter for all beam particles to continue to lase. Earlier calculations included the short-range resistive wall wake, but did not include the frequency dependence of conductivity (ac conductivity) of the beam pipe walls. We show that for copper and for the LCLS bunch structure, including the ac conductivity results in a very large effect. We show that the effect can be ameliorated by choosing aluminum and also by taking a flat, rather than round, beam pipe chamber (if the vertical aperture is fixed). The effect of the (high frequency) anomalous skin effect is also considered.

  7. The adjustable phase planar helical undulator

    The study of magnetic and biological materials which exhibit magnetic circular dichroism has created a demand for circularly polarized x-rays whose helicity may be switched between the right and left hand senses. At present, circularly polarized x-rays are obtained from storage ring bending magnets by accepting radiation from above and below the axis, but insertion device sources are desired for greater intensity. Planar helical undulators are magnetic insertion devices that generate helical magnetic fields. The charged particle beam executes a helical trajectory in the device, and produces elliptically polarized x-rays. The special case of circularly polarized x-rays is most in demand. We present here the design description of a new type of planar helical undulator, which we are constructing for the SPEAR storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It comprises four rows of pure permanent magnet blocks, one row in each quadrant about the axis defined by the electron beam. Rows may be translated longitudinally with respect to each other to change the helicity of the magnetic field they create at the position of the beam. They may also be translated longitudinally to vary the energy of the x-rays emitted, unlike designs where this function is performed by varying the gap between the rows. This work includes numerical calculations of the fields, electron trajectories, x-ray spectra, off-axis effects, and mechanical design considerations

  8. Cosmological constraints on the Undulant Universe

    Tian Lan; Yan Gong; Hao-Yi Wan; Tong-Jie Zhang

    2010-01-01

    We use the redshifi Hubble parameter H(z)data derived from relative galaxy ages,distant type Ⅰa supernovae(SNe Ⅰa),the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO)peak,and the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB)shift parameter data,to constrain cosmological parameters in the Undulant Universe.We marginalize the likelihood functions over h by integrating the probability density P ∝ e-x2/2.By using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo(MCMC)technique,we obtain the best fitting results and give the confidence regions in the b-Ωm0 plane.Then we compare their constraints.Our results show that the H(z)data play a similar role with the SNe Ia data in cosmological study.By presenting the independent and joint constraints,we find that the BAO and CMB data play very important roles in breaking the degeneracy compared with the H(z)and SNe Ⅰa data alone.Combined with the BAO or CMB data,one can remarkably improve the constraints.The SNe Ia data sets constrain Ωm0 much tighter than the H(z)data sets,but the H(z)data sets constrain b much tighter than the SNe Ⅰa data sets.All these results show that the Undulant Universe approaches the ACDM model.We expect more H(z)data to constrain cosmological parameters in the future.

  9. Cosmological constraints on the Undulant Universe

    We use the redshift Hubble parameter H(z) data derived from relative galaxy ages, distant type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) peak, and the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) shift parameter data, to constrain cosmological parameters in the Undulant Universe. We marginalize the likelihood functions over h by integrating the probability density P ∝ e-χ2/2 By using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, we obtain the best fitting results and give the confidence regions in the b - Ωm0 plane. Then we compare their constraints. Our results show that the H(z) data play a similar role with the SNe Ia data in cosmological study. By presenting the independent and joint constraints, we find that the BAO and CMB data play very important roles in breaking the degeneracy compared with the H(z) and SNe Ia data alone. Combined with the BAO or CMB data, one can remarkably improve the constraints. The SNe Ia data sets constrain Ωm0 much tighter than the H(z) data sets, but the H(z) data sets constrain b much tighter than the SNe Ia data sets. All these results show that the Undulant Universe approaches the ΛCDM model. We expect more H(z) data to constrain cosmological parameters in the future. (research papers)

  10. Short-Period RF Undulator for a SASE Nanometer source

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2001-12-21

    Analysis is described towards development of a RF undulator with a period < 1 cm, an undulator parameter K of the order of unity, and a gap greater than 2.25 mm. The application for the undulator is for a SASE source to produce 1 nm wavelength radiation using a low energy electron beam in the range 1-2 GeV. Particle orbit calculations in a conventional standing-wave resonator configuration show that the presence of a co-propagating component of RF field can cause deleterious motion for the undulating electrons that can seriously degrade their radiation spectrum. To obviate this problem, resonator designs were devised in which only the counter-propagating field components interact with the particles. Two resonator configurations with the same undulator parameter K = 0.4 have been devised and are described in this report.

  11. Auroral Undulations During Magnetic Storms: TIMED/GUVI Observations

    Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.; Morrison, D.; Lui, T.; Kil, H.; Wolven, B.; Meng, C. I.

    2005-05-01

    Giant undulations on the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora have been identified in TIMED/GUVI auroral images in the far ultraviolet wavelengths. Some new features have been observed: (1) The GUVI 121.6nm auroral images provide direct optical evidence that the undulations occur in the proton aurora, (2) Undulations are not limited to the dusk sector, they can occur in all local time sectors, (3) Both large ionospheric ion drift velocity (1000 m/s and above) and strong velocity shear (> 0.1 1/s) appear to be a necessary condition for the undulation to occur, (4) While almost all of the undulation events are observed during magnetic storms (Dst K-H instability.

  12. Beamline for Schools Safety Awareness Day

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their first day at CERN at the Safety Training Center in Prévessin. They covered amongst others radiation protection, cryogenics and fire-fighting. The teams will spend the rest of the week at the T9 beamline.

  13. Radiation-resistant beamline components at LAMPF

    A variety of highly radiation-resistant beamline components have been successfully developed at LAMPF primarily for use in the target cells and beam stop area of the intense proton beamline. Design features and operating experience are reviewed for magnets, instrumentation, targets, vacuum seals, vacuum windows, collimators, and beam stops

  14. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  15. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    Fedurin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Swinson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  16. Optical video disks with undulating tracks.

    Braat, J J; Bouwhuis, G

    1978-07-01

    The signal components of a video signal (luminance, color, and sound) are modulated on a main carrier and several subcarriers and then recorded on the video master disk. Apart from the signal distortion that can arise during master and disk manufacture, the optical readout of the disk also yields a nonlinear transfer of the signal. The result of nonlinearities is intermodulation between signal components. Intermodulation products affect the quality of the final TV picture. In this paper a method is described which reduces the contribution of the optical readout system to the intermodulation. An optical coding is introduced such that two signal components hardly influence one another. The spacing of the pits in the track direction carries the luminance information, while the undulation of the track carries the color or sound information. A quadrant photodetector positioned in the far field of the video disk restores the luminance and color or sound bands with a very low amount of intermodulation. PMID:20203718

  17. Feasibility of Diagnostics Undulator Studies at ASTA

    Lumpkin, A H; Byrd, J M

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility is currently under construction at Fermilab. With a 1-ms macropulse composed of up to 3000 micropulses and with beam energies projected from 45 to 800 MeV, the need for non-intercepting diagnostics for beam size, position, energy, and bunch length is clear. In addition to the rf BPMs, optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), and optical diffraction radiation (ODR) techniques already planned, we propose the use of undulator radiation from a dedicated device for diagnostics. with a nominal period of 4-5 cm, a tunable field parameter K, and a length of several meters. The feasibility of extending such techniques in the visible regime at a beam energy of 125 MeV into the UV and VUV regimes with beam energies of 250 and 500 MeV will be presented.

  18. Diagnostic X-Multi-Axis Beamline

    Paul, A C

    2000-04-05

    Tomographic reconstruction of explosive events require time resolved multipal lines of sight. Considered here is a four (or eight) line of sight beam layout for a nominal 20 MeV 2000 Ampere 2 microsecond electron beam for generation of x-rays 0.9 to 5 meters from a given point, the ''firing point''. The requirement of a millimeter spatial x-ray source requires that the electron beam be delivered to the converter targets with sub-millimeter precision independent of small variations in beam energy and initial conditions. The 2 usec electron beam pulse allows for four bursts in each line, separated in time by about 500 microseconds. Each burst is divided by a electro-magnetic kicker into four (or eight) pulses, one for each beamline. The arrival time of the four (or eight) beam pulses at the x-ray target can be adjusted by the kicker timing and the sequence that the beams of each burst are switched into the different beamlines. There exists a simple conceptual path from a four beamline to a eight beamline upgrade. The eight line beamline is built up from seven unique types of sub-systems or ''blocks''. The beamline consists of 22 of these functional blocks and contains a total of 455 individual magnets, figure 1. The 22 blocks are inter-connected by a total of 30 straight line inter-block sections (IBS). Beamlines 1-4 are built from 12 blocks with conceptual layout structure shown in figure 2. Beamlines 5-8 are built with an additional 10 blocks with conceptual layout structure shown in figure 3. This beamline can be thought of as looking like a lollipop consisting of a 42 meter long stick leading to a 60 by 70 meter rectangular candy blob consisting of the eight lines of sight. The accelerator providing the electron beam is at the end of the stick and the firing point is at the center of the blob. The design allows for a two stage implementation. Beamlines 1-3 can be installed to provide a tomographic azimuthal resolution of 45

  19. Study of undulator magnetic field measurement using vibrating wire method

    A test accelerator for a terahertz source project (t-ACTS) has been progressed at the Electron Light Science Centre, Tohoku University, in which a generation of intense coherent terahertz radiation from the very short electron bunch will be demonstrated. A narrow-band coherent terahertz radiation using an undulator has been considered to be implemented. We have constructed a planer undulator that is basically a Halbach type composed of permanent magnet blocks. The period length of the undulator and the number of periods are 100 mm and 25, respectively. The vibrating wire method is studied to measure the periodic magnetic field of the undulator. A thin copper-beryllium wire is placed on beam axis in the undulator, and an AC current flow is applied in the wire. By measuring amplitudes and phases of standing waves excited on the wire by the Lorentz force between AC current and magnetic field, we can reconstruct the magnetic field distribution along the wire. We discuss relations between reproducibility of the undulator field and the mode harmonics number used for the reconstruction of undulator field. (author)

  20. Spontaneous emission spectra from a staggered-array undulator

    A staggered-array undulator set inside the superconducting solenoid coils is shown to be able to provide high undulator fields larger than the longitudinal magnetic fields, a small undulator period, easy tunability through the solenoid coil current, and compact and easy fabrication. The overall performance characteristics of this undulator were studied mainly with respect to iron and aluminum disk widths, and spontaneous emission spectra through the numerical calculations. The maximum undulator field is found to be obtained for the ratio of the aluminum disk width to the undulator period of 0.45. The line widths (FWHM) of the spontaneous emission spectra, however, do not show Nw-1 dependence on the number of the undulator period Nw for practical beams with a Gaussian distribution, compared with for a single electron. The energy spread among various parameters is seen to play an important role in reducing the FWHM with increase of Nw. The large tunability of the wavelength is proved to cover 6-10 mm by changing the solenoid magnetic field from 0.4 T to 1.6 T. (author)

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of diluted system by undulator photon source and multi-element solid-state detector

    Tanida, H

    2001-01-01

    In order to measure the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum of an ultra-diluted system, an optics and detector control system for a synchrotron radiation beamline is developed. The undulator gap width is continuously tuned to obtain the maximum X-ray photon flux during the energy scan for the EXAFS measurement. A piezoelectric translator optimizes the parallelism of the double crystal in a monochromator at each measurement point to compensate for mechanical errors of the monochromator, resulting in a smooth and intense X-ray photon flux during the measurement. For a detection of a weak fluorescence signal from diluted samples, a 19-element solid-state detector and digital signal processor are used. A K-edge EXAFS spectrum of iron in a myoglobin aqueous solution with a concentration of 5.58 parts per million was obtained by this system.

  2. Desing considerations for a fast modulator in a 'crossed undulator'

    The modulator, a short electromagnetic wiggler, can be used to generate a phase shift between the synchrotron radiation of the two undulators in a crossed undulator. The switching frequency between two polarization states can be as high as 10 Hz. This paper discusses some physical requirements for the modulator and a conceptual design of the magnet for a crossed undulator at the Aladdin storage ring (Synchrotron Radiation center, University of Wisconsin, Madison) as a prototype development for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

  3. Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence with a brillant undulator x-ray source

    Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a highly sensitive technique for analyzing trace elements, because of the very low background from the sample support. Use of third-generation synchrotron x-ray source could further enhance the detection power. However, while such high sensitivity permits the detection of signals from trace elements of interest, it also means that one can observe weak parasitic x-rays as well. If the sample surface becomes even slightly contaminated, owing to air particulates near the beamline, x-ray fluorescence lines of iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, and titanium can be observed even for a blank sample. Another critical problem is the low-energy-side tail of the scattering x-rays, which ultimately restricts the detection capability of the technique using a TXRF spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector. The present paper describes our experiments with brilliant undulator x-ray beams at BL39XU and BL40XU, at the SPring-8, Harima, Japan. The emphasis is on the development of instruments to analyze a droplet of 0.1 μl containing trace elements of ppb level. Although the beamline is not a clean room, we have employed equipment for preparing a clean sample and also for avoiding contamination during transferring the sample into the spectrometer. We will report on the successful detection of the peak from 0.8 ppb selenium in a droplet (absolute amount 80 fg). We will also present the results of recent experiments obtained from a Johansson spectrometer rather than a Si(Li) detector. (author)

  4. Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL).

    Moe, H.J.

    1998-11-11

    The Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is a facility that uses the existing APS linac to accelerate electrons up to an energy of 700 MeV. These electrons are transported through the Pm into a portion of the booster synchrotrons and on into the LEUTL main enclosure (MIL 97). Figure 1 shows the layout of the LEUTL building, which consists of an earth-benned concrete enclosure and an end-station building. The concrete enclosure houses the electron beamline, test undulator, and beam dump. This facility is about 51 m long and 3.66 m wide. Technical components and diagnostics for characterizing the undulator light are found in the end station. This building has about 111 m{sup 2} of floor space. This note deals with the radiological considerations of operations using electrons up to 700 MeV and at power levels up to the safety envelope of 1 kW. Previous radiological considerations for electron and positron operations in the linac, PAR, and synchrotrons have been addressed else-where (MOE 93a, 93b, and 93c). Much of the methodology discussed in the previous writeups, as well as in MOE 94, has been used in the computations in this note. The radiological aspects that are addressed include the following: prompt secondary radiation (bremsstrahlung, giant resonance neutrons, medium- and high-energy neutrons) produced by electrons interacting in a beam stop or in component structures; skyshine radiation, which produces a radiation field in nearby areas and at the nearest off-site location; radioactive gases produced by neutron irradiation of air in the vicinity of a particle loss site; noxious gases (ozone and others) produced in air by the escaping bremsstrahlung radiation that results from absorbing particles in the components; activation of the LEUTL components that results in a residual radiation field in the vicinity of these materials following shutdown; potential activation of water used for cooling the magnets and other purposes in the tunnel; and evaluation of the

  5. Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL)

    The Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is a facility that uses the existing APS linac to accelerate electrons up to an energy of 700 MeV. These electrons are transported through the Pm into a portion of the booster synchrotrons and on into the LEUTL main enclosure (MIL 97). Figure 1 shows the layout of the LEUTL building, which consists of an earth-benned concrete enclosure and an end-station building. The concrete enclosure houses the electron beamline, test undulator, and beam dump. This facility is about 51 m long and 3.66 m wide. Technical components and diagnostics for characterizing the undulator light are found in the end station. This building has about 111 m2 of floor space. This note deals with the radiological considerations of operations using electrons up to 700 MeV and at power levels up to the safety envelope of 1 kW. Previous radiological considerations for electron and positron operations in the linac, PAR, and synchrotrons have been addressed else-where (MOE 93a, 93b, and 93c). Much of the methodology discussed in the previous writeups, as well as in MOE 94, has been used in the computations in this note. The radiological aspects that are addressed include the following: prompt secondary radiation (bremsstrahlung, giant resonance neutrons, medium- and high-energy neutrons) produced by electrons interacting in a beam stop or in component structures; skyshine radiation, which produces a radiation field in nearby areas and at the nearest off-site location; radioactive gases produced by neutron irradiation of air in the vicinity of a particle loss site; noxious gases (ozone and others) produced in air by the escaping bremsstrahlung radiation that results from absorbing particles in the components; activation of the LEUTL components that results in a residual radiation field in the vicinity of these materials following shutdown; potential activation of water used for cooling the magnets and other purposes in the tunnel; and evaluation of the

  6. Beamlines on Indus-1 with special reference to a toroidal grating monochromator based beamline

    A brief account of the beamlines available on Indus-1 and typical applications is given. A toroidal grating monochromator based beamline is discussed with more details. By performing the design calculations sing ray tracing one can obtain a reasonable idea about the characteristics of the beam with respect to resolution, photon flux and the spot size. In the case of the above mentioned beamline the spot size at the sample will be 2 mm x 0.5 mm and a photon flux of 1012 photons/sec. at 100 mA Indus-1 current. This will help the experimentalists to plan their experiment on Indus-1 toroidal grating monochromator beamline

  7. UNDULATOR-BASED LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR ELECTRON BEAM DIAGNOSTIC

    We discuss the design and current status of experiments to couple the THUNDER undulator to the LOASIS Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Currently the LWFA has achieved quasi-monoenergetic electron beams with energies up to 1 GeV. These ultra-short, high-peak-current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact XUV free electron laser (FEL). Understanding the electron beam properties such as the energy spread and emittance is critical for achieving high quality light sources with high brightness. By using an insertion device such as an undulator and observing changes in the spontaneous emission spectrum, the electron beam energy spread and emittance can be measured with high precision. The initial experiments will use spontaneous emission from 1.5 m of undulator. Later experiments will use up to 5 m of undulator with a goal of a high gain, XUV FEL.

  8. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beamline optics

    Amstutz, Philipp; Bödewadt, Jörn; Lechner, Christoph; Plath, Tim; Vogt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beamline will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beamline element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beamline section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by adjusting a number of additional corrector magnets that restore the initial optics after the manipulated section. In that case, the effect of the manipulation is confined in the region between the manipulated and the correcting beamline elements. Introducing a manipulation continuously, while the machine is operating, therefore requires continuous correction functions to be applied to the correcting quadrupole magnets. In this paper we present an analytic approach to calculate such continuous correction functions for six ...

  9. Imaging beamline for high energy proton radiography

    WEI Tao; YANG Guo-Jun; LONG Ji-Dong; WANG Shao-Heng; HE Xiao-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiography is a new tool for advanced hydrotesting.This article will discuss the basic concept of proton radiography first,especially the magnetic lens system.Then a scenario of 50 GeV imaging beamline will be described in every particular,including the matching section,Zumbro lens system and imaging system.The simulation result shows that the scenario of imaging beamline performs well,and the influence of secondary particles can be neglected.

  10. Feasibility and electromagnetic analysis of a REBCO superconducting undulator

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Kasa, Matthew; Doose, Charles; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Zhang, Yifei; Knoll, Alan; Brownsey, Paul; Hazelton, Drew; Welp, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in second-generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) have made them very attractive for new applications such as undulators. In this paper, we have, for the first time, experimentally evaluated a design to validate applicability of 2G-HTS tapes for next generation undulator magnetic structures. A two-period undulator magnetic core was fabricated and 2G-HTS CCs were successfully wound onto the undulator core. The performance of the undulator magnetic structure was investigated and the highest engineering current density, J e, in such configuration reported yet was obtained. A new U-slit tape configuration was used to reduce the number of resistive joints and it was shown that with this new technique affordable levels of resistance values can be achieved for short length undulators. The ferromagnetic core was designed such as to accommodate winding the U-slit tapes. Test results indicated that the winding and the soldering procedures are successful and do not deteriorate the performance of the 2G-HTS tapes.

  11. The PNC-CAT insertion device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    The PNC-CAT is a consortium of Pacific Northwest institutions formed to instrument a sector (number 20) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Research is planned in a variety of areas, with an emphasis on environmentally based problems. The insertion device beamline is based on the APS undulator A and will be optimized for producing microbeams as well as for applications requiring energy scanning capabilities. This paper describes the basic layout and some special features of the beamline. Two experimental stations are planned: one general purpose and one dedicated to MBE and surface science problems. Both tapered capillaries and Kirkpatrick-Baez optics will be used for producing microbeams, and a large optical bench is planned for the main station to allow for easy accommodation of new optics developments. Design calculations and initial capillary tests indicate that flux densities exceeding 1011 photons/sec/mm2 should be achievable. All major components are under construction or in procurement, and initial testing is planned for late 1996. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Focusing and defocusing using mechanically corrected mirrors at the MX beamline at Alba

    A practical limitation of X-ray focusing mirrors is that, while providing nice gaussian photon distributions at the focal plane, they usually produce inhomogeneous beam profiles upon defocusing that are caused by the mirror polishing errors. This can become a limitation in order to match the beam size with the sample dimensions, as the sample is not uniformly illuminated. We outline a method to achieve well shaped unfocused beams that has been successfully proven at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the ALBA synchrotron. As received from the manufacturer, the mirrors had rms slope errors of 180 nrad rms (vertically focusing mirror, VFM) and 210 nrad rms (horizontally focusing mirror, HFM). Ray tracing simulations suggested that pronounced stripes arising from the surface waviness would appear upon defocusing. By using the elastic beam theory to model the deformations and calculating the necessary correcting forces exerted by a few mechanical actuators that were installed in the mirror mechanical holders, we were able to reduce the slope errors of the mirrors to 55 nrad rms (VFM) and 83 nrad rms (HFM). The corrected mirrors were installed at the beamline and they were tested with the X-ray beam from the undulator source.

  13. Modeling of X-ray beamlines and devices

    X-ray beamlines on synchrotron sources are similar in size and complexity to beamlines at state-of-the-art neutron sources. The design principles, tools, and optimization strategies for synchrotron beamlines are also similar to those of neutron beamlines. The authors describe existing design tools for modeling synchrotron radiation beamlines and describe how these tools have evolved over the last two decades. The development of increasingly powerful modeling tools has been driven by the escalating cost and sophistication of state-of-the-art beamlines and by a world-wide race to exploit advanced synchrotron radiation sources

  14. High-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS at Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T; U. Flechsig; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A; Q. Chen; J. Raabe; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; A. Piazzalunga; X Wang; Grioni, M.; Patthey, L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the concepts and technical realization of the high-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES). The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0-180 deg rotatable linear polarizations) but als...

  15. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T; U. Flechsig; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A; Q. Chen; J. Raabe; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; X Wang; Grioni, M.; A. Piazzalunga; Patthey, L.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also...

  16. National synchrotron light source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines: Third edition

    This report contains information on the following topics: A Word on the Writing of Beamline Descriptions; Beamline Equipment Utilization for General Users; the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Storage Ring and Beamlines; VUV Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; VUV Beamline Descriptions; X-Ray Storage Ring and Beamlines; X-Ray Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; and X-Ray Beamline Descriptions

  17. Design of an x-ray free electron laser undulator

    An undulator designed to be used for an x-ray free electron laser has to meet a set of stringent requirements. With no optical cavity, an x-ray FEL operates in the single pass Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mode; an electron macropulse is microbunched by an undulator and the radiation it creates. The microbunched pulse emits spontaneous radiation and coherent FEL radiation, whose power may reach saturation in a sufficiently long and perfect undulator. The pulse must have low emittance and high current, and its trajectory in the undulator must keep the radiation and the pulse together with a very high degree of overlap. We shall consider the case of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) FEL project at SLAC, which is intended to create 1.5 A x-rays using an electron beam with 15 GeV energy, 1.5π mm-mrad normalized emittance, 3400 A peak current, and 280 fsec FWHM bunch duration. We find that this 65 μm rms diameter beam must overlap its radiation with a walkoff of no more than 5 μm for efficient gain. This places severe limitations on the magnetic field errors and other mechanical tolerances. The following is a discussion of the undulator design, specifications, alignment, engineering, and beam position monitoring we plan to implement for the LCLS X-ray FEL

  18. Design of an x-ray free electron laser undulator

    An undulator designed to be used for an x-ray free electron laser has to meet a set of stringent requirements. With no optical cavity, an x-ray FeL operates in the single pass Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mode; an electron macropulse is microbunched by an undulator and the radiation it creates. The microbunched pulse emits spontaneous radiation and coherent FEL radiation, whose power may reach saturation in a sufficiently long and perfect undulator. The pulse must have low emittance and high current, and its trajectory in the undulator must keep the radiation and the pulse together with a very high degree of overlap. The authors shall consider the case of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) FEL project at SLAC, which is intended to create 1.5 angstrom x-rays using an electron beam with 15 GeV energy, 1.5π mm-mrad normalized emittance, 3,400 A peak current, and 280 fsec FWHM bunch duration. They find that this 65 microm rms diameter beam must overlap its radiation with a walkfoff of no more than 5 microm for efficient gain. This places severe limitations on the magnetic field errors and other mechanical tolerances. The following is a discussion of the undulator design, specifications, alignment, engineering, and beam position monitoring they plan to implement for the LCLS X-ray FEL

  19. PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN THE MICE BEAMLINE

    Coney, L; Karadzhov, Y

    2010-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being built at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) to test ionization cooling of a muon beam. Successful demonstration of cooling is a necessary step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beams in either a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. Production of particles in the MICE beamline begins with a titanium target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. The resulting pions are captured, momentum-selected, and fed into a 5T superconducting decay solenoid which contains the pions and their decay muons. Another dipole then selects the final particles for propagation through the rest of the MICE beamline. Within the last year, the MICE target has been redesigned, rebuilt, and has begun operating in ISIS. The decay solenoid has also become operational, dramatically increasing the number of particles in the MICE beamline. In parallel, particle identification detectors have also been installed and commissioned. In this paper, the commissioning of t...

  20. Phase error reduction in superconductive undulators using induction shimming

    As shown in a first proof of principle experiment, induction shimming can constitute a simple and efficient method of increasing the field quality of superconductive undulators. Although previous measurements on a single undulator half were successful in giving a qualitative understanding on hysteresis in the shim coils, it was found that the measurement setup needs improvement for meaningful calculations of the phase error reduction. Presented here are the first results on phase error reduction with induction shimming, using a measurement setup with improved accuracy. Theoretical results on the coupling between shim coils, important for the function of the shim system and for an extension to full length undulators, are also presented in this contribution.

  1. Photon energy tunability of the advanced photon source undulators

    At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or open-quote tunedclose quotes by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay-clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5-20 keV is discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and K-values are given for two typical classes of devices

  2. Electron spectra and coherence of radiation in undulators

    Bulyak, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Most bright sources of the radiation in hard x-ray and gamma--ray regions are undulator sources and Compton based ones. These sources are ultimate for production of polarized positrons necessary for future linear colliders ILC, CLIC. We developed a novel method for evaluating the energy spectrum of electrons emitting the undulator- and the inverse Compton radiation. The method based on Poisson weighted superposition of electron states is applicable for whole range of the emission intensity per electron pass through the driving force, from much less than unity emitted photons (Compton sources) to many photons emitted (undulators), and for any energy of the photons. The method allows for account contributions in the energy spread both from the Poisson statistics and diffusion due to recoils. The theoretical results were confirmed by simulations. The electron energy spectrum was used for evaluation of the on-axis density of photons and their coherency making use of the `carrier--envelope' presentation for the em...

  3. Superradiance in an undulator in dual resonance mode

    Bogdankevich, L. S.; Gelkhviidze, L. K.; Ivanov, V. S.; Krementsov, S. I.; Rayzer, M. D.; Rukhadze, A. A.; Fedotov, A. V.

    1986-01-01

    The emission of a relativistic electron beam in a linearly polarized undulator magnetic field is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The Terek-I high current accelerator was employed as the electron beam injector. A spatially periodic magnetic field was formed by a system of copper rings within the external pulse magnetic field. The resonance conditions for the longitudinal and transverse components of the magnetic field are investigated. Current transmission is found to be strongly dependent on the angle between the axis of the undulator and the axis of the solenoid. A system of equations is derived for the movement of a relativistic electron in the magnetic field of the undulator. The experimentally observed values of the resonant longitudinal magnetic field, the width of the resonant region, the transverse velocity of the electrons, and the radiation line width are explained analytically.

  4. Simulation of electron trajectory in bulk HTSC staggered array undulator

    To realize short-period high-magnetic-field undulator, we have proposed an undulator using bulk high temperature superconductor in a staggered array structure. To investigate the effect of the longitudinal solenoid field on the electron beam trajectory and find out the optimum value of the solenoid field, the magnetic field near the center of this undulator was modeled and the trajectory of the single electron was calculated. As a result, we found that the stronger solenoid field worked as a stronger convergence force. However, the optimum value was not able to be determined by the result of trajectory calculation because the stronger field changes the spectrum of the radiation from the beam. (author)

  5. Coherent harmonic production using a two-section undulator FEL

    Jaroszynski, D.A. [Commissariat a l`Energie, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We present measurements and a theoretical analysis of a new method of generating harmonic radiation in a free-electron laser oscillator with a two section undulator in a single optical cavity. To produce coherent harmonic radiation the undulator is arranged so that the downstream undulator section resonance frequency matches a harmonic of the upstream undulator. Both the fundamental and the harmonic optical fields evolve in the same optical cavity and are coupled out with different extraction fractions using a hole in one of the cavity mirrors. We present measurements that show that the optical power at the second and third harmonic can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude in this fundamental/harmonic configuration. We compare the production of harmonic radiation of a two sectioned fundamental/harmonic undulator with that produced from a FEL operating at its highest efficiency with a step-tapered undulator, where the bunching at the end of the first section is very large. We examine, the dependence of the harmonic power on the intracavity power by adjusting the optical cavity desynchronism, {delta}L. We also examine the evolution of the fundamental and harmonic powers as a function of cavity roundtrip number to evaluate the importance of the small signal gain at the harmonic. We compare our measurements with predictions of a multi-electron numerical model that follows the evolution of fundamental and harmonic power to saturation. This fundamental/harmonic mode, of operation of the FEL may have useful applications in the production of coherent X-ray and VUV radiation, a spectral range where high reflectivity optical cavity mirrors are difficult or impossible to manufacture.

  6. Computational Research on Modular Undulating Fin for Biorobotic Underwater Propulsor

    Yong-hua Zhang; Lai-bing Jia; Shi-wu Zhang; Jie Yang; K.H.Low

    2007-01-01

    Biomimetic design employs the principles of nature to solve engineering problems.Such designs which are hoped to be quick,efficient,robust,and versatile,have taken advantage of optimization via natural selection.In the present research.an environment-friendly propulsion system mimicking undulating fins of stingray was built.A non-conventional method was considered to model the flexibility of the fins of stingray.A two-degree-of-freedom mechanism comprised of several linkages was designed and constructed to mimic the actual flexible fin.The driving linkages were used to form a mechanical fin consisting of several fin segments,which are able to produce undulations,similar to those produced by the actual fins.Owing to the modularity of the design of the mechanical fin,various undulating patterns can be realized.Some qualitative observations,obtained by experiments,predicted that the thrusts produced by the mechanical fin are different among various undulating patterns.To fully understand this experimental phenomenon is very important for better performance and energy saving for our biorobotic underwater propulsion system.Here,four basic undulating patterns of the mechanical fin were performed using two-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics(CFD)method.An unstructured,grid-based,unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive re-meshing was used to compute the unsteady flow around the fin through twenty complete cycles.The pressure distribution on fin surface was computed and integrated to provide fin forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust.The pressure force and friction force were also computed throughout the swimming cycle.Finally,vortex contour maps of these four basic fin undulating patterns were displayed and compared.

  7. Commissioning of the Delta Polarizing Undulator at LCLS

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2015-09-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) generates linearly polarized, intense, high-brightness x-ray pulses from planar fixed-gap undulators. While the fixed-gap design supports a very successful and tightly controlled alignment concept, it provides only limited taper capability (up to 1% through canted pole and horizontal position adjustability) and lacks polarization control. The latter is of great importance for soft x-ray experiments. A new 3.2-m-long compact undulator (based on the Cornell University Delta design) has been developed and installed in place of the last LCLS undulator segment (U33) in October 2014. This undulator provides full control of the polarization degree and K value. Used on its own, it produces fully polarized radiation in the selected state (linear, circular or elliptical) but at low intensity. To increase the output power by orders of magnitude, the electron beam is micro-bunched by several (~10) of the upstream LCLS undulator segments operated in the linear FEL regime. As unavoidable by-product, this microbunching process produces moderate amounts of horizontally linear polarized radiation which mixes with the radiation produced by the Delta undulator. This unwanted radiation component has been greatly reduced by the reverse taper configuration, as suggested by E. Schneidmiller and M. Yurkov. Full elimination of the linear polarized component was achieved through spatial separation combined with transverse collimation. The paper describes these and other methods tested during commissioning. It also presents results of polarization measurements showing high degrees of circular polarization in the soft x-ray wavelength range (500 eV - 1500 eV).

  8. U10.0 Undulator conceptual design report

    The U10.0 Undulator described here is a 43 period, 10 cm period, 4.5 meter long insertion device. Designed for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This insertion device will provide high brightness, quasi-monochromatic radiation in the 5-950 eV energy range. This conceptual design report includes sections on: parameter development, spectral performance, and accelerator requirements, physics specifications and the detailed conceptual design of the magnetic structure, the support/drive systems, the insertion device control system, the vacuum system, and installation for the U10.0 Undulator

  9. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the non-linear development of alongshore undulations up to fully developed quasi-steady equilibrium. A numerical model which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines is applied, based on a spectral wave model, a depth...... integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model.First the length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a stability analysis. Next the further evolution from the linear to the fully non-linear regime is described. In...

  10. Research on the Undulator Used for PKU-FEL

    Lu, Huihua; Dai, Jianping; Li, Yanan; Shi, Caitu; Yang Yu Feng; Zhuang, Jiejia

    2004-01-01

    A 5m-long combined function undulator used for the Peking University Infrared SASE FEL facility (PKU-FEL) is currently under construction at IHEP, and a 10 period prototype has already been developed. This paper describes the design study of the undulator, which is a hybrid planar magnet structure with extra focusing. The results of magnetic measurements performed on the prototype are also reported and discussed, and it demonstrates that the proposed combined function magnet structure is very promising for the use in the SASE FEL at Peking University.

  11. Experimental Study For The Feasibility Of A Crystalline Undulator

    Bellucci, S; Biryukov, V M; Chesnokov, Yu A; Dabagov, S B; Giannini, G; Guidi, V; Ivanov, Y M; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Malagu, C; Martinelli, G; Petrunin, A A; Skorobogatov, V V; Stefancich, M; Vincenzi, D; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.

    2003-01-01

    We present an idea for creation of a crystalline undulator and report its first realization. One face of a silicon crystal was given periodic micro-scratches (trenches) by means of a diamond blade. The X-ray tests of the crystal deformation due to given periodic pattern of surface scratches have shown that a sinusoidal shape is observed on both the scratched surface and the opposite (unscratched) face of the crystal, that is, a periodic sinusoidal deformation goes through the bulk of the crystal. This opens up the possibility for experiments with high-energy particles channeled in crystalline undulator, a novel compact source of radiation.

  12. Coherent effects of a macro-bunch in an undulator

    Dohlus, M; Limberg, T

    2000-01-01

    The longitudinal radiative force of an electron bunch moving in an undulator has been investigated in [1] assuming an 1D density distribution. To obtain the contribution of pure curvature effects and to avoid singular fields, the 1D linear motion field was subtracted. To relate these results to the 3D case we present analytical and numerical field calculations using the field solver of TRAFIC4. The 1D and 3D cases have been calculated in the transient regime, the steady-state regime and the steady-state regime averaged over one undulator period for the 1 GeV parameter set of the TESLA FEL.

  13. BEST - beamline for education and scientific training - a new VUV beamline at BESSY II

    A high-resolution 5 m normal-incidence-monochromator beamline behind the dipole DIP 03-1B at BESSY II is described. It covers the energy range of 3-40 eV. The beamline is designed for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy utilizing a Scienta SES-2002 electron analyzer, which is permanently placed as an endstation at the beamline. A high precision manipulator on a closed-cycle He cryostat allows angle-resolved measurements over 2p steradian below 10 K. For BEST it is planned to introduce and qualify continuously students and young scientists into the fascinating possibilities of synchrotron radiation research. Optical design of the beamline and preliminary performance results are discussed

  14. Calculations of magnetic field errors caused by mechanical accuracy at infra-red undulator construction

    At the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) the electromagnetic undulator with maximal magnetic field 1.2 T and 40 cm period is under development. The computer models for the undulator magnet system were realized on the basis of POISSON and RADIA codes. The undulator magnetic field imperfections due to the design errors were simulated by the models

  15. Spontaneous radiation from relativistic electrons in a tapered Apple-II undulator

    This paper presents most properties of radiation from a tapered Apple-II undulator. The study demonstrates that tapering an Apple-II undulator can broaden the harmonic bandwidth and the performance of polarization is also excellent at the broadened energy range. So Apple-II undulator can be tapered to provide more convenience for energy scan experiment. (authors)

  16. Basic design of beamline and polarization control

    2006-01-01

    The basic concept of synchrotron radiation beamlines for vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray experiments has been introduced to beginning users and designers of beamlines. The beamline defined here is composed of a front end,pre-mirrors, and a monochromator with refocusing mirrors, which are connected by beam pipes, providing monochromatic light for the experiments. Firstly, time characteristics of the synchrotron radiation are briefly reviewed.Secondly, the basic technology is introduced as the fundamental knowledge required to both users and designers. The topics are photoabsorption by air and solids, front ends and beam pipes, mirrors, monochromators, and filters. Thirdly,the design consideration is described mainly for the designers. The topics are design principle, principle of ray tracing,optical machinery and control, and vacuum. Fourthly, polarization control is considered. The topics are polarizers,polarization diagnosis of beamline, and circularly-polarized light generation. Finally, a brief summary is given introducing some references for further knowledge of the users and the designers.

  17. Beamline for schools beam line training day

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their second day at CERN learning the basics of beam physics, and visiting their experimental setup at the T9 beam line in CERN's East Hall on the Meyrin site.

  18. EPICS and its role in data acquisition and beamline control

    Beamline-control and data-acquisition software based on EPICS (a tool kit for building distributed control systems) has been running on many Advanced Photon Source beamlines for several years. EPICS itself, the collaborative software-development effort surrounding it, and EPICS-based beamline software have been described previously in general terms. This talk will review and update that material, focusing on the role EPICS core software plays in beamline applications and on the effects of a few defining characteristics of EPICS on the beamline software we have developed with it

  19. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  20. Bionic asymmetry: from amiiform fish to undulating robotic fins

    HU TianJiang; SHEN LinCheng; LOW K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to bionic non-smooth which has been successfully applied in anti-resistance and anti-adhesion, bionic asymmetry is also an inherent property of biological systems and is worth exploring for con-ceivable pragmatic applications. Therefore, bionic asymmetry for undulations is of main interest in this paper. We initially investigate bionic asymmetry with a case study of the undulating robotic fin, RoboGnilos, which evolved from the long dorsal fin of Gymnarchus niloticus in the amiiforrn mode. Since the performance of the pre-existing undulating fins is hardly satisfactory, we obtain bionic in-spirations of undulatory asymmetry through observations and measurements on the specimen of G. niloticus, to improve upon the performance. Consequently, the newly acquired innovation for bionic asymmetry is incorporated into the previously derived kinematics model, and also applied to the ex-perimental prototype. Both computational and experimental results verify that bionic asymmetric un-dulation generates better propulsion performance (in terms of linear velocity and efficiency) than the traditional symmetric modes with the same undulatory parameters.

  1. Overview of undulators and wigglers for the NSLS

    This summary is designed to present to the NSLS user community the possible options for wigglers and undulators. The desire is to make it possible for every user to respond to the request by the NSLS for guidance in insertion device development so that it can best serve their scientific interests. There are many options, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, as well as certain restrictions imposed by the parameters of the NSLS storage rings. The NSLS is asking for input in two areas. First, we must decide on the instrumentation to be developed for the high field superconducting wiggler beam lines and for the hybrid permanent magnet wiggler lines. Secondly, the long-range plans for additional insertion devices are now under discussion. Choices must be made between the large number of different magnets which can be built. To facilitate user response, we provide a review of the properties of wigglers and undulators, introducing the basic concepts and defining the fundamental parameters. A detailed account of the brightness of the undulator source is presented and the insertion devices already under construction for the x-ray and VUV rings are discussed. We describe the suitability of certain proposed undulators for the generation of soft x-rays (5 to 50A), and harder x-rays

  2. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  3. Beam cooling by using laser-undulator beat wave

    Non-Hamiltonian manipulation of internal structure of phase space of charged particle beams can result in much faster cooling than the conventional stochastic cooling. The longitudinal emittance reduction is accomplished by the ponderomotive force of the beat between the undulator and the laser adjusted appropriate in its broadband spectrum through feedback at each turn. (author)

  4. Thermal undulations of quasi-spherical vesicles stabilized by gravity

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    2002-01-01

    The classical treatment of quasi-spherical vesicle undulations has, in the present work, been reviewed and extended to systems, which are affected by a gravitational field caused by a density difference across the membrane. The effects have been studied by the use of perturbation theory leading to...

  5. Effect of 'effective cooling' in the EH-UNDULATIVE systems

    The theory of the systems for forming of electron bunches with especially small energy spread (EH-coolers) is developed. Therein, real arrangement of the acted EH-undulative fields is taking into account in the considered theoretical model. It is shown that this could be important for accomplishing of quantitative analysis EH-coolers of the discussed type

  6. Measurement, sorting and tuning of LCLS undulator magnets

    Currently, a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) prototype undulator is under construction. The prototype is a 3.4-m-long hybrid-type undulator with fixed gap of 6 mm. The period length is 30 mm and the number of poles is 226. For this undulator, 450 NdFeB magnet blocks are used. This project does not have demanding requirements for multipole component errors, but the field strength at x=0 should be as precise as possible to provide proper particle steering and phase errors. The first set of magnetic blocks has been measured. The strength and direction of magnetization of the magnet blocks are measured using a Helmholtz coil system. In addition to this, Hall probe measurements are performed for magnet blocks while they are mounted in a specially designed cassette with vanadium-permendur poles. The magnet blocks will be sorted using these data to minimize errors. Computer simulations show that magnets may be sorted in decreasing strengths with little or no additional tuning of the undulators

  7. Indus-2 beamline personal safety interlocks system

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV, 300 mA synchrotron radiation source and is currently operating at 2 GeV and 100 mA in the round the clock shift. Two sources of ionizing radiation at Indus-2 can pose a hazard if not properly dealt with are, Bremsstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation. The former is mostly generated from collision of electrons with gas molecules and consists of very high energy radiation. A hutch is a structure that houses the beamline and other experimental equipment /apparatus, which is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where there is a potential for the synchrotron beam to generate high levels of ionizing radiation. Hutches are designed to reduce the direct and scattered beam dose rates to acceptably low levels outside. Personal Safety Interlock System (PSIS) is introduced to protect people from accidental exposure to high radiation when the beamlines are in use. PSIS ensures that (1) synchrotron radiation can be allowed to enter an experimental hutch only when no one is present in the hutch and all the doors of the hutch are properly closed; (2) in case of a person entering a hutch during operation, the radiation is stopped by closing the safety shutter and (3) when radiation level in the occupied area near the beamline exceeds the permissible level, it is brought down by closing the safety shutter. The PSIS system is linked with main front-end control system of each beamline. PSIS system consist of relay modules, timers, search and scram buttons, status display panels, door limit switches with latching mechanism and audio-visual alarms. This paper describes, in detail, the design and interlock scheme of a fail-safe and reliable Personal Safety Interlock System implemented at Indus-2 beamlines. (author)

  8. Justification for the development of a bending magnet beamline at sector 10 at the APS.

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2006-09-18

    undulator beamline with an experimental station for bulk XAFS applications and x-ray microbeam applications (XRF, XAFS, and XRD) and (2) a BM beamline with an experimental station for large-sample XAFS spectroscopy and XRF elemental mapping on submillimeter to centimeter length scales.

  9. Design of an X-ray FEL undulator

    An undulator designed to be used for an x-ray free electron laser has to meet a set of stringent requirements. With no optical cavity, an x-ray FEL operates in the single pass Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mode; an electron macropulse is microbunched by an undulator and the radiation it creates. The microbunched pulse emits spontaneous radiation and coherent FEL radiation, whose power may reach saturation in a sufficiently long and perfect undulator. The pulse must have low emittance and high current, and its trajectory in the undulator must keep the radiation and the pulse together with a very high degree of overlap. In this paper we use the case of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser to illustrate design concepts for long free electron laser undulators. The LCLS is intended to create 1.5 A x-rays using an electron beam with 15 GeV energy, 1.5π mm-mrad normalized emittance, 3400 A peak current, and 280 fsec FWHM bunch duration. According to our simulations, this 2σr=65 mm rms diameter beam must overlap its radiation with a walkoff of no more than 5 μm RMS per 11.7 meter field gain length for efficient gain. The energy spread of the beam is σE=0.0002 Ee. This places severe limitations on the magnetic field errors and on mechanical tolerances. In this paper we shall discuss how to meet these requirements

  10. Undulator physics and coherent harmonic generation at the MAX-lab electron storage ring

    This work presents the undulator and harmonic generation project at the electron storage ring MAX-lab at University of Lund. The theory of undulator radiation, laser coherent harmonic generation, optical klystron amplifiers and FELs is treated in one uniform way, with complete solutions of the necessary equations. The permanent magnet undulator is described in some detail, along with the installation of the undulator in the storage ring. Details regarding the emitted radiation, the electron beam path in the undulator and other results are analysed. Finally harmonic generation using a Nd:YAG laser and the creation of coherent photons at the third harmonic (355 nm) is described. (author)

  11. APPLE-II type quasi-periodic variably polarizing undulator at HiSOR

    A newly constructed quasi-periodic APPLE-II undulator was installed in the HiSOR ring at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University during the summer shutdown period in 2011. This 1.8 m-long undulator has a period length of 78 mm. In this article, the mechanism of magnetic field generation for various polarization modes of APPLE undulator, the principle of quasi-periodic undulator and the performance of HiSOR QP-APPLE-II undulator are described. (author)

  12. High resolution X-ray diffraction of muscle using undulator radiation from the Tristan main ring at KEK

    Results are reported of static and time-resolved X-ray diffraction studies on muscle fibers using a hard X-ray undulator installed in the Tristan main ring at KEK, as an innovative source of synchrotron radiation more intense and better collimated than that available with the Photon Factory bending-magnet beamline. The low divergence of the source made it possible to obtain high-quality diffraction patterns from static state of muscles, clearly resolving, with an angular resolution of ca. 700 nm, closely spaced diffraction peaks arising from the two symmetrical halves of the thick filaments centered on the M lines in a sarcomere. The detailed analysis of the meridional pattern lead to a more precise modeling of the complicated molecular packing of myosin molecules and C-proteins in the thick filaments. Time-resolved experiments using a focusing mirror aimed to prove crossbridge behaviors in muscle fibers by collecting X-ray diffraction data at a 185 μs time resolution. When sinusoidal length changes at 500 Hz with an amplitude of 0.3% of the muscle length were applied to a bundle of several single fibers during active contraction, the intensity of the 14.5 nm meridional reflection changed out of phase with the tension change during the oscillating length change, contrasting to the response in the rigor muscle. The high time-resolved experiments provided an important insight to the molecular mechanism of force generation in muscle. These studies yield a preview of the expected gains for muscle studies from the more widespread use of undulator radiation at third-generation synchrotron source. (author)

  13. Improvements of the undulator spectral performance by compensating the backing beam deflection

    Wang, C; Chang, L H; Chang, C H; Fan, T C; Bach, H; Blomqvist, I

    2002-01-01

    This study thoroughly examines how the backing beam deflection affects the undulator spectral performance. Reduction of the undulator spectral intensity owing to backing beam deflection is analytically evaluated based on plane-wave approximation. The results reveal that the amplitude and the slope of the backing beam deflection affect the undulator spectral performance. Provided is a novel figure-of-merit, rms of the regressed accumulated gap deviation, to determine the backing beam deflection budget. An example of a 3.9 m undulator supporting carriage mounted with 50-mm period length undulator magnet (U5) under a maximum magnetic loading of 5 metric tons at a minimum operating gap of 14 mm, is provided. Its mechanical features are first examined via 3D commercial finite element code ANSYS that concludes the backing beam deflection is influenced heavily by the rigidity of the undulator support frames. Examining the corresponding spectral performance shows that significantly diminishing the undulator spectral ...

  14. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  15. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  16. The beamline SINBAD at DAΦNE

    SINBAD, the first beamline in Italy designed to work in the far- and mid-infrared region, is being installed on DAΦNE storage ring, the new Φ-factory at 'Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati'. DAΦNE, first injected in September 1997, will work at 0.51 GeV with a beam current in the range 2-5 A. The infrared synchrotron radiation extracted from a bending magnet is expected to be more brilliant than a black body at 2000 K up to three orders of magnitude in the wavelength range 10-1000μm. The optical layout of SINBAD, fully designed by ray tracing simulation, includes six mirror placed in a 18 m long beamline. The infrared radiation is first focused on a wedged diamond window and then re-focused on the entrance of a Michelson interferometer. Diffraction effects and mirror roughness, as well as optical aberrations, have been evaluated

  17. DESIRS : a state-of-the-art VUV beamline featuring high resolution and variable polarization for spectroscopy and dichroism at SOLEIL

    DESIRS is a new undulator-based VUV beamline at SOLEIL (France) optimized for the study of gas phase matter in the 5-40 eV range. It is equipped with two dedicated endstations: a VUV Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for ultra-high resolution absorption spectroscopy (resolving power up to 106) and an electron/ion imaging coincidence spectrometer. The photon source is a 10 m-long pure electromagnetic variable polarization undulator providing, at the sample location, fully calibrated quasi-perfect horizontal, vertical and circular polarizations. The optical design includes a beam waist allowing the implementation of a gas filter to suppress the undulator higher harmonics. The 6.65 m Eagle off-plane Normal Incidence Monochromator equipped with four gratings allows the tuning of the flux-to-resolution trade-off. Measured ultimate instrumental resolving powers are 124000 (174 μeV) around 21 eV and 250000 (54 μeV) around 13 eV, while the typical measured flux is in the 1010−1011 ph/sec range in a 1/50000 bandwidth and 1012-1013 ph/sec in a 1/1000 bandwidth.

  18. How good can our beamlines be?

    A repetitive measurement of the same diffraction image allows to judge the performance of a data collection facility. The accuracy of X-ray diffraction data depends on the properties of the crystalline sample and on the performance of the data-collection facility (synchrotron beamline elements, goniostat, detector etc.). However, it is difficult to evaluate the level of performance of the experimental setup from the quality of data sets collected in rotation mode, as various crystal properties such as mosaicity, non-uniformity and radiation damage affect the measured intensities. A multiple-image experiment, in which several analogous diffraction frames are recorded consecutively at the same crystal orientation, allows minimization of the influence of the sample properties. A series of 100 diffraction images of a thaumatin crystal were measured on the SBC beamline 19BM at the APS (Argonne National Laboratory). The obtained data were analyzed in the context of the performance of the data-collection facility. An objective way to estimate the uncertainties of individual reflections was achieved by analyzing the behavior of reflection intensities in the series of analogous diffraction images. The multiple-image experiment is found to be a simple and adequate method to decompose the random errors from the systematic errors in the data, which helps in judging the performance of a data-collection facility. In particular, displaying the intensity as a function of the frame number allows evaluation of the stability of the beam, the beamline elements and the detector with minimal influence of the crystal properties. Such an experiment permits evaluation of the highest possible data quality potentially achievable at the particular beamline

  19. Muon Colliders: the Ultimate Neutrino Beamlines

    It is shown that muon decays in straight sections of muon collider rings will naturally produce highly collimated neutrino beams that can be several orders of magnitude stronger than the beams at existing accelerators. We discuss possible experimental setups and give a very brief overview of the physics potential from such beamlines. Formulae are given for the neutrino event rates at both short and long baseline neutrino experiments in these beams

  20. A comparative study of the spectra recorded at RRCAT synchrotron BL-8 dispersive EXAFS beamline with other beamlines

    Abhijeet Gaur; B D Shrivastava; S N Jha; D Bhattacharyya; A Poswal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to make a comparative study of the EXAFS spectra recorded at the BL-8 dispersive EXAFS beamline at 2 GeV Indus-2 synchrotron source at RRCAT, Indore (India) with those recorded at other synchrotron EXAFS beamlines, viz., X-19A at NSLS, BNL (USA), EXAFS wiggler beamline 4-1 at the SSRL (USA) and beamline 11.1 at ELETTRA (Italy). For this purpose, EXAFS spectra at Cu K-edge in copper metal have been recorded at these four beamlines. Further, EXAFS spectra at Cu K-edge in a copper complex have also been recorded at BL-8 beamline and beamline 11.1 at ELETTRA (Italy). The obtained experimental () data have been background-subtracted and then normalized. The normalized data have been then converted to () data, which have been Fourier-transformed and then fitted with the theoretical model, thereby yielding different structural parameters. It has been shown that the results obtained from the EXAFS spectra recorded at the BL-8 beamline are comparable with those obtained from other synchrotron EXAFS beamlines and also with the crystallographic results reported by earlier workers. The reliability, usefulness and data quality of the BL-8 beamline have been discussed.

  1. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.1013 photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  2. Status of the development of superconducting undulators at ANKA

    In order to produce high-brilliance hard X-ray photon beams, permanent magnet short-period undulators are applied in many synchrotron facilities worldwide. Superconducting undulators (SCUs) have the potential to further increase the spectral range and brilliance. At the ANKA (ÅNgstrom source KArlsruhe) synchrotron radiation facility, we thus pursue an SCU-focused research and development program in a collaboration between the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Babcock Noell GmbH (BNG), the status of which is reported in this contribution. The effort to develop instruments and tools for quality assessment of the magnetic field of SCUs and to enhance the understanding of beam heat load mechanisms in a cold bore is also described.

  3. Rapid and sensitive XAFS using tunable X-ray undulator

    Novel experimental techniques for rapid and sensitive X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) using a tunable X-ray undulator are described. It is shown that a wide energy range (5-25 keV) can be covered by varying the deflection parameter K using the first and third order radiation. Optimizing the band width of undulator by controling the tapered magnet arrays, the rapid measurement of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in a fluorescence mode is feasible by quick scanning of either a double-crystal monochromator or a mask across the polychromatic beam in an energy-dispersive geometry. Feasibility for both cases is examined and arrangements of optical components are described. (author)

  4. The U5.0 Undulator for the ALS

    The U5.0 Undulator, an 89 period, 5 cm period length, 4.6 m long insertion device has been designed and is in fabrication. This undulator will be the first high brightness source, in the 50 to 1500 eV range, for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and is scheduled for completion in 1992. A modular hybrid configuration utilizing Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur is used that achieves 0.837 Tesla effective peak field. Correction of the vertical field integral is with permanent magnet rotors at the ends. Gap adjustment is with an arrangement of roller screws, chains drives, a gear reduction unit and a stepper motor driven by a closed loop control system. The vacuum chamber design is a two-piece, machined and welded 5083-H321 aluminum construction of 5.1 m length. Magnetic design, subsystem design and fabrication progress are presented. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Crystal Undulator As A Novel Compact Source Of Radiation

    Bellucci, S; Biryukov, V M; Britvich, G I; Chesnokov, Yu A; Giannini, G; Guidi, V; Ivanov, Y M; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Malagu, C; Martinelli, G; Petrunin, A A; Pikalov, V A; Skorobogatov, V V; Stefancich, M; Tombolini, F; Vincenzi, D; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.

    2004-01-01

    A crystalline undulator (CU) with periodically deformed crystallographic planes is capable of deflecting charged particles with the same strength as an equivalent magnetic field of 1000 T and could provide quite a short period L in the sub-millimeter range. We present an idea for creation of a CU and report its first realization. One face of a silicon crystal was given periodic micro-scratches (grooves), with a period of 1 mm, by means of a diamond blade. The X-ray tests of the crystal deformation have shown that a sinusoidal-like shape of crystalline planes goes through the bulk of the crystal. This opens up the possibility for experiments with high-energy particles channeled in CU, a novel compact source of radiation. The first experiment on photon emission in CU has been started at LNF with 800 MeV positrons aiming to produce 50 keV undulator photons.

  6. Subradiant spontaneous undulator emission through collective suppression of shot noise

    Ratner, D.; Hemsing, E.; Gover, A.; Marinelli, A.; Nause, A.

    2015-05-01

    The phenomenon of Dicke's subradiance, in which the collective properties of a system suppress radiation, has received broad interest in atomic physics. Recent theoretical papers in the field of relativistic electron beams have proposed schemes to achieve subradiance through suppression of shot noise current fluctuations. The resulting "quiet" beam generates less spontaneous radiation than emitted even by a shot noise beam when oscillating in an undulator. Quiet beams could have diverse accelerator applications, including lowering power requirements for seeded free-electron lasers and improving efficiency of hadron cooling. In this paper we present experimental observation of a strong reduction in undulator radiation, demonstrating the feasibility of noise suppression as a practical tool in accelerator physics.

  7. The U5.0 undulator for the ALS

    The U5.0 Undulator, an 89 period, 5 cm period length, 4.6 m long insertion device has been designed and is in fabrication. This undulator will be the first high brightness source, in the 50 to 1500 eV range, for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and is scheduled for completion in 1992. A modulator hybrid configuration utilizing Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and vanadium permendur is used that achieves 0.837 Tesla effective peak field. Correction of the vertical field integral is with permanent magnet rotors at the ends. Gap adjustment is with an arrangement of roller screws, chain drives, a gear reduction unit and a stepper motor driven by a closed loop control system. The vacuum chamber design is a two-piece, machined and welded 5083-H321 aluminum construction of 5.1 m length. Magnetic design, subsystem design and fabrication progress are presented

  8. Status of Indus-1 and Indus-2 beamlines

    Nandedkar, R V

    2003-01-01

    Indus-1 and Indus-2 are two synchrotron radiation sources that are planned in India. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for vacuum ultra-violet soft X-ray radiation. This source is operational. Two beamlines, viz. a soft X-ray/vacuum ultra-violet reflectometry beamline and an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy beamline are already operational. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and photophysics beamlines are going to be operational soon. The second Indian synchrotron source is the 2.5 GeV Indus-2 electron storage ring that is under construction and is expected to be ready for commissioning in the year 2003. Of the total 27 beamlines possible on this ring, about 10 beamlines are already planned and are in the design stage.

  9. Status of Indus-1 and Indus-2 beamlines

    Indus-1 and Indus-2 are two synchrotron radiation sources that are planned in India. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for vacuum ultra-violet soft X-ray radiation. This source is operational. Two beamlines, viz. a soft X-ray/vacuum ultra-violet reflectometry beamline and an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy beamline are already operational. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and photophysics beamlines are going to be operational soon. The second Indian synchrotron source is the 2.5 GeV Indus-2 electron storage ring that is under construction and is expected to be ready for commissioning in the year 2003. Of the total 27 beamlines possible on this ring, about 10 beamlines are already planned and are in the design stage

  10. Development and implementation of a nanotomography setup at the PETRA III beamline P05

    Ogurreck, Malte

    2014-12-11

    X-ray nanotomography is used to analyze materials on the sub-micrometer scale. Many soft biological materials, i.e. most organic tissues, can be imaged with soft X-rays. For materials with a higher electron density, such as bone or teeth, metals, and ceramics, X-ray energies of more than 10 keV need to be used. All these setups require X-ray optics for either direct imaging of the object in question or for preparing a magnified projection. The P05 Imaging Beamline for X-ray micro- and nanotomography is situated at the newly refurbished PETRA III 3{sup rd} generation storage ring at DESY. A dedicated experiment for X-ray nanotomography at higher energies was built in one of the two experimental hutches. An X-ray optics concept tailored for this experiment was specified and an accompanying mechanics concept was devised. Based on these concepts, the experiment was designed and installed. In addition to testing the nanotomography experimental components, the beamline front end was commissioned and the influence of these components on the nanotomography experiment was investigated. Higher harmonics from the undulator and monochromator as well as beam position drifts caused by mechanical drifting the monochromator were investigated to analyze their influence on the nanotomography. The X-ray optics were tested in detail and an operational setup was achieved for both the X-ray microscopy and the cone-beam setup. The achieved resolution of the hard X-ray microscope is better than 100 nm line and space. Nanotomographies were performed on a nanoporous gold sample and a photonic glass sample. Image correlation and correction allowed to perform a reconstruction of the photonic glass sample using a filtered backprojection algorithm. The packing fraction η of the photonic glass could be successfully extracted from the 3D-dataset.

  11. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline -- The SRl`95 Workshop 2 summary

    Kuzay, T.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Warwick, T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI`95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI`95 Workshop 2 was ``Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline``. The workshop was attended well with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry`s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffrationtechnik, Oxford Instruments, and Kohzu Seiko Ltd. on goniometers/diffractometers, advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons, respectively. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation (``BM contamination``) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Development and implementation of a nanotomography setup at the PETRA III beamline P05

    X-ray nanotomography is used to analyze materials on the sub-micrometer scale. Many soft biological materials, i.e. most organic tissues, can be imaged with soft X-rays. For materials with a higher electron density, such as bone or teeth, metals, and ceramics, X-ray energies of more than 10 keV need to be used. All these setups require X-ray optics for either direct imaging of the object in question or for preparing a magnified projection. The P05 Imaging Beamline for X-ray micro- and nanotomography is situated at the newly refurbished PETRA III 3rd generation storage ring at DESY. A dedicated experiment for X-ray nanotomography at higher energies was built in one of the two experimental hutches. An X-ray optics concept tailored for this experiment was specified and an accompanying mechanics concept was devised. Based on these concepts, the experiment was designed and installed. In addition to testing the nanotomography experimental components, the beamline front end was commissioned and the influence of these components on the nanotomography experiment was investigated. Higher harmonics from the undulator and monochromator as well as beam position drifts caused by mechanical drifting the monochromator were investigated to analyze their influence on the nanotomography. The X-ray optics were tested in detail and an operational setup was achieved for both the X-ray microscopy and the cone-beam setup. The achieved resolution of the hard X-ray microscope is better than 100 nm line and space. Nanotomographies were performed on a nanoporous gold sample and a photonic glass sample. Image correlation and correction allowed to perform a reconstruction of the photonic glass sample using a filtered backprojection algorithm. The packing fraction η of the photonic glass could be successfully extracted from the 3D-dataset.

  13. Design, construction, and characterization of an electromagnetic small period undulator

    In this work a new concept for the construction of small period electromagnetic insertion devices is presented. The construction of a pulsed undulator with 2 mm gap and 8 mm magnetic period is described, as well as its pulser. The magnetic measurement system is presented and the obtained data is compared with the calculated field. Finally, the possible application of this device for synchrotron radiation production in LINAC's and a future cw superconducting version for storage rings is discussed

  14. Image Charge Undulator: Theoretical Model and Technical Issues

    A new device, an image charge undulator, has been proposed recently [1] to utilize this mechanism for generating coherent hard radiation. We demonstrate physics principle of this device by a 2D model of a uniform sheet beam. The transverse image charge wakefields, synchrotron radiation FR-equency and coherent radiation gain length are presented. We discuss a proof-of-principle experiment that takes into consideration such technical issues as grating fabrication, flat beams and beam alignment

  15. Crossed undulator system for a variable polarization synchrotron radiation source

    A crossed undulator system can produce synchrotron radiation whose polarization is arbitrary and adjustable. The polarization can be linear and modulated between two mutually perpendicular directions, or it can be circular and can be modulated between right and left circular polarizations. The system works on low emittance electron storage rings and can cover a wide spectral range. Topics discussed include the basic principle of the system, the design equations and the limitations in performance

  16. Gap-tapered undulators for high-photon-energy synchrotron radiation production

    Narrow-gap, short-period undulators are of interest to maximize the achievable photon energy at lower-energy storage rings. An important consideration is matching the e-beam beta function in the straight section to the vertical aperture at the insertion device so as to maximize vertical acceptance, beam lifetime, and injection efficiency. Various approaches have been considered such as in-vacuum undulators, undulators with flexible vacuum chambers, and superconducting undulators. In each of these the undulator gap is constant along the undulator length, in which case the optimum beta function is equal to one-half the length. We discuss an alternate approach in which the undulator gap is tapered to follow the transverse profile of the e-beam envelope. This allows the use of a relatively long undulator within a low-beta straight section. The undulator gap is physically and magnetically matched to the e-beam envelope throughout the straight section. The undulator period is varied to maintain constant photon resonance while everywhere maximizing the magnetic field strength. This approach optimizes the high-photon-energy synchrotron radiation generation. The achievable synchrotron radiation spectral properties and tunability of such a device are examined

  17. Modulated electron bunch with amplitude front tilt in an undulator

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radiation behind the kick, because the deflection process involves the introduction of a tilt of the bunch profile. This tilt of the bunch profile leads to radiation pulse front tilt, which is equivalent to angular dispersion of the output radiation. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation XFEL codes for cross-checking their results.

  18. Modulated Electron Bunch with Amplitude Front Tilt in an Undulator

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radi...

  19. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    CHEN Xin; CAI Bingna; CHEN Hua; PAN Jianyu; CHEN Deke; SUN Huili

    2013-01-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats,aged Kunming mice,ultraviolet-exposed rats,and thermally injured rats was investigated.P.undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions,then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP.Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities ofglutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT),and by decreasing the level ofmalondialdehyde (MDA).This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis.The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia.Furthermore,treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network,increased superoxide dismutase (SOD)in the serum and significantly decreased MDA.Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP,while wound healing in skin was promoted.These results suggest that the LMWP from P.undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  20. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  1. Wave scattering by a permeable barrier over undulating bed topography

    Choudhary, A.; Martha, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    The scattering of surface water waves by bottom undulation in the presence of a permeable vertical barrier is investigated for its solution. A mixed boundary value problem (BVP) arises here in a natural way while examining this physical problem. Regular perturbation analysis is employed to determine the solution of the BVP. By utilizing this analysis the given BVP reduces to two different BVPs up to first order. The solution of the zeroth order BVP is obtained with the aid of eigenfunction expansion method in conjunction with least-squares approximation. The first order BVP is solved with the help of the Green's integral theorem and the physical quantities, namely the reflection and transmission coefficients, are obtained in the form of integrals which involve the bottom undulation and the solution of the zeroth order BVP. A particular form of the bottom undulation which closely resembles to some obstacles made by nature due to sedimentation and ripple growth of sand, is considered to evaluate these integrals. The variation of these coefficients is examined for different values of the porous effect parameter, barrier length, number of ripples and ripple amplitude.

  2. Computer control of the ISX-B neutral injection beamlines

    A system of controls for the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) neutral injection beamlines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The system uses standard CAMAC equipment interfaced to the actual beamline controls and driven by a PDP-11/34 mini-computer. It is designed to relieve the operator of most of the mundane tasks of beam injection and also to reduce the number of operators needed to monitor multiple beamlines

  3. Computational and experimental study on dynamic behavior of underwater robots propelled by bionic undulating fins

    2010-01-01

    Bionic undulating fins, inspired by undulations of the median and/or paired fin (MPF) fish, have a bright prospective for un-derwater missions with higher maneuverability, lower noisy, and higher efficiency. In the present study, a coupled computa-tional fluid dynamics (CFD) model was proposed and implemented to facilitate numerical simulations on hydrodynamic ef-fects of the bionic undulating robots. Hydrodynamic behaviors of underwater robots propelled by two bionic undulating fins were computationally and experimentally studied within the three typical desired movement patterns, i.e., marching, yawing and yawing-while-marching. Moreover, several specific phenomena in the bionic undulation mode were unveiled and dis-cussed by comparison between the CFD and experimental results under the same kinematics parameter sets. The contributed work on the dynamic behavior of the undulating robots is of importance for study on the propulsion mechanism and control algorithms.

  4. Numerical investigation of the radiation characteristics of a variable-period helical undulator

    A helical undulator with a variable-period capability has been developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to generate high power radiation in the terahertz range. A simulation code for the spontaneous emission from an electron beam inside an undulator has been developed to characterize the performance of the undulator. In the case of the KAERI undulator, there is a non-negligible high-order harmonics in the longitudinal field distribution compared with a bifilar one.The axial velocity modulation by the high-order harmonics in the field distribution has been found to lead to small deviation of the spectrum of spontaneous emission from the KAERI undulator with respect to the bifilars one. The gain functions obtained from the spontaneous emission spectra according to the Madey theory, show similar shapes for both undulators

  5. Outline of the ELI-Beamlines facility

    Rus, Bedřich; Batysta, František; Čáp, J.; Divoký, Martin; Fibrich, Martin; Griffiths, M.; Haley, R.; Havlíček, Tomáš; Hlavác, M.; Hřebíček, Jan; Homer, Pavel; Hříbek, Petr; Janďourek, Jakub; Juha, Libor; Korn, Georg; Korouš, Pavel; Košelja, M.; Kozlová, Michaela; Kramer, Daniel; Krůs, Miroslav; Lagron, J.C.; Limpouch, J.; MacFarlane, L.; Malý, Marek; Margarone, Daniele; Matlas, Petr; Mindl, Lukáš; Moravec, J.; Mocek, Tomáš; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Novák, Jakub; Olšovcová, Veronika; Palatka, M.; Perin, J.P.; Pešlo, M.; Polan, Jiří; Prokůpek, Jan; Řídký, Jan; Rohlena, Karel; Růžička, Vlastimil; Sawicka, Magdalena; Scholzová, Lenka; Snopek, D.; Strkula, Petr; Švéda, L.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2011 - (Hein, J.; Silva, L.; Korn, G.; Gizz, L.; Edwards, C.), 808010/1-808010/7. (Proceedings of the SPIE. 8080). ISBN 9780819486707. [Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Power Laser s; ELI: Ultrarelativistic Laser -Matter Interactions and Petawatt Photonics. Prague (CZ), 18.04.2011-20.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : applied research * laser s * particles * Physics * X-ray sources Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  6. Regional and Local Geoid Undulations for Computing Orthometric Heights from GPS Measurements Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal explains procedures of using regional and local geoid undulations to improve and convert the global positioning system (GPS) elevations (ellipsoidal...

  7. Improvements of the undulator spectral performance by compensating the backing beam deflection

    This study thoroughly examines how the backing beam deflection affects the undulator spectral performance. Reduction of the undulator spectral intensity owing to backing beam deflection is analytically evaluated based on plane-wave approximation. The results reveal that the amplitude and the slope of the backing beam deflection affect the undulator spectral performance. Provided is a novel figure-of-merit, rms of the regressed accumulated gap deviation, to determine the backing beam deflection budget. An example of a 3.9 m undulator supporting carriage mounted with 50-mm period length undulator magnet (U5) under a maximum magnetic loading of 5 metric tons at a minimum operating gap of 14 mm, is provided. Its mechanical features are first examined via 3D commercial finite element code ANSYS that concludes the backing beam deflection is influenced heavily by the rigidity of the undulator support frames. Examining the corresponding spectral performance shows that significantly diminishing the undulator spectral degradation by backing beam deflection is attainable by compensating the deflection at the undulator minimum operating gap properly. The numerical results agree well with those deduced from the measured magnetic field of the as-built undulator

  8. The Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF.

    Borsboom, M; Bras, W; Cerjak, I; Detollenaere, D; Glastra Van Loon, D; Goedtkindt, P; Konijnenburg, M; Lassing, P; Levine, Y K; Munneke, B; Oversluizen, M; Van Tol, R; Vlieg, E

    1998-05-01

    A brief description is given of the design principles and layout of the Dutch-Belgian beamline at the ESRF. This beamline optimizes the use of the available bending-magnet radiation fan by splitting the beam into two branches, each accommodating two experimental techniques. PMID:15263564

  9. First results on the reflectometry beamline on Indus-1

    We report here the first reflectometry beamline in soft x-ray and vacuum ultra violet regime on the Indian synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 along with some commissioning results on this beamline. This reflectometry beamline is installed on one of the bending magnets of Indus-1, and has been in operation since November 2000. This beamline is being used for the characterization of optical elements (mirrors, gratings, thin films, multilayers, detectors, absorption edge filters, etc.) in the soft x-ray/vacuum ultra violet regimes in the wavelength range 40-1000 A. Though it is designed primarily for precision reflectivity measurements on thin films and multilayer reflecting optics, the beamline is flexible to be used for a wide range of other experiments in this wavelength range. The beamline optics consists of a toroidal pre-mirror, a toroidal grating monochromator, a toroidal post-mirror for focusing the beam on the sample, and a high precision reflectometer. The beamline is capable of giving high flux at moderate energy resolution. The reflectometer has a capability of positioning the sample to within 10 microns and the angular position of the sample can be set within 0.01deg. Results presented here demonstrate the performance and capabilities of this beamline. (author)

  10. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of ∝17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in ∝70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of ∝10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  11. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-08-04

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of {proportional_to}17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in {proportional_to}70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of {proportional_to}10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  12. The U5.0 Undulator for the ALS

    the U5.0 Undulator, and 89 period, 5 cm period length, 4.6 m long insertion device has been designed, is being fabricated and is scheduled for completion in early 1992. This undulator will be the first high brightness source, in the 50 to 1500 eV range, for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A hybrid magnetic configuration using Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur poles has been selected to achieve the field quality needed to meet performance requirements. The magnetic structure is modular with each half consisting of 5 assembly sections, which provide the periodic structure, and end structures, for entrance and exit correction, mounted on a steel backing beam. Each assembly section consists of 35 half-period pole assemblies bolted to a mount. The required 0.837 Tesla effective peak field at a 1.4 cm gap has been verified with model measurements. Vertical field integral correction is accomplished with the end structures, each having an arrangement of permanent magnet rotors which will be adjusted to minimize electron beam missteering over the undulator operating field range. To reduce the effect of environmental fields, the steel backing beams are connected through parallel, low-reluctance, Ni-Fe hinges. The magnetic structure is connected through four roller-nuts to the drive system that provides gap adjustment with an arrangement of roller screws, chain drives, a gear reduction unit and a stepper motor driven by a closed loop control system. Magnetic structure and drive system support are from a 2.4 m high structure which includes a support base with four vertical supports. The vacuum chamber design is a two-piece machined and welded 5083-H321 aluminum construction of 5.1 m length. Pumping is with a combination of ion, TSP and NEG pumps. Magnetic design, subsystem design and fabrication progress are presented

  13. ANTARES, a scanning photoemission microscopy beamline at SOLEIL

    Avila, Jose; Lorcy, Stehane; Lagarde, Bruno; Giorgetta, Jean-Luc; Polack, François; Asensio, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    As one of the latest beamline built at the SOLEIL synchrotron source, ANTARES beamline offers a spectroscopic non-destructive nano-probe to study advanced materials. This innovative scanning photoemission microscopy combines linear and angle sweeps to perform precise electronic band structure determination by Nano Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (nanoARPES) and chemical imaging by core level detection. The beamline integrates effectively insertion devices and a high transmission beamline optics. This photon source has been combined with an advanced microscope, which has precise sample handling abilities. Moreover, it is fully compatible with a high resolution R4000 Scienta hemispherical analyzer and a set of Fresnel Zone Plates (FZP) able to focalize the beam spot up to a few tenths of nanometers, depending on the spatial resolution of the selected FZP. We present here the main conceptual design of the beamline and endstation, together with some of the firsts commissioning results.

  14. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    Kamps, T; Goldammer, K; Krämer, Dietrich; Kuske, P; Kuszynski, J; Lipka, D; Marhauser, F; Quast, T; Richter, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration between BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of an CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 pi mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies be...

  15. The imaging beamline at PETRA III

    Haibel, Astrid; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia; Dose, Thomas; Utcke, Sven; Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2007 the GKSS is responsible for construction and operation of the Imaging Beamline at the new synchrotron source PETRA III at DESY. Due to the high brillance (most brilliant X-ray source worldwide), the low emittance of 1nm rad (unrivaled for current storage rings at comparable high particle energies) and the high fraction of coherent photons also in the hard X-ray range an extremely intense and sharply focused X-ray light will be provided. This advantages of the beam fulfil excellently the qualifications for absorption, phase contrast or holo tomography, for nano tomography and for high speed or in situ tomography. The first user operation of the facility is planned in 2009. The Imaging Beamline will be structured into two experimental stations for micro and for nano tomography. The X-ray energy will be tunable between 5 and 50 keV. In the micro tomography hutch the investigation of samples of some millimeters diameter in (sub)-micrometer resolution is planned. Here, fields of application encompass questions from materials science (e.g. analysis of pores, cracks, precipitations, phase transitions) as well as problems in the area of biology or medicine (e.g. structures of bones, tissues, teeth, plants). The possibility to focus the X-ray beam into the nanometer range will be used for nano tomographic imaging. Therefore, a second hutch for two nano tomography setups is planned. For this setups spatial resolutions down below 100 nm are expected for micrometer sized samples.

  16. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    T. Kamps; V. Durr; K. Goldammer; D. Kramer; P. Kuske; J. Kuszynski; D. Lipka; F. Marhauser; T. Quast; D. Richter; U. Lehnert; P. Michel; J. Teichert; P. Evtushenko; I. Will

    2005-08-22

    A superconducting radio-frequency photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies between 5 ps and 50 ps, two schemes using electro-optical sampling and Cherenkov radiation are detailed. The beam energy and energy spread is measured with a 180-degree spectrometer.

  17. Wavelength dependent experiments at EMBL synchrotron beamlines

    Full text. The optimised anomalous X-ray diffraction experiments were proved to facilitate crystal structure determination and often provide data sufficient to solve the phase problem. Two new structures, of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase and deoxynucleotide kinase, have been recently solved in our group by the method of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS). The phasing power of the single heavy atom derivative was significantly enhanced by using the optimal wavelength close to the absorption edge. Experiments were performed at the EMBL beamlines X31 and BW7A at DESY in Hamburg. Even in the absence of an anomalous scattered the choice of the optimal wavelength for data collection is important to compromise between the flux of synchrotron radiation, diffraction ability of a protein crystal, and absorption effects. Experiments carried out at the wiggler beamline BW7A using a frozen crystal of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase have shown that the higher quality of data can be achieved using the wavelength of 1.5 A as compared to 1.0 A or 0.8 A provided the other conditions are similar. (author)

  18. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  19. Phase space distribution of brilliance of undulator sources

    As an optical source, an undulator can be described by its distribution of brilliance in phase space (angle and position in the transverse plane). This is a convolution of single-particle diffraction pattern and electron beam distribution. Approximate peak brilliance and phase space widths are given. By analogy between brilliance and Wigner function, the depth-of-field and diffraction widths are shown to be essentially the same thing. The peak brilliance is shown to have a broad maximum as a function of the beam β function (β ≅ L/2π) but is practically independent of β at short wavelengths

  20. Development of a Quasi-Periodic Undulator for the HLS

    Yang, Yufeng; Chen, Wan; Jia, Qika; Sun, Shuchen; Li, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    China's first quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) has been developed for the Hefei Light Source (HLS). It uses a magnetic configuration with varied thicknesses of NdFeB blocks, based on the QPU of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Depression of 3rd harmonic radiation is significantly improved over the ESRF QPU, as deduced from the measured magnetic fields. A method of configuring shims of different geometries and sizes, based on a symmetric principle to correct multi-pole field integrals, was demonstrated.

  1. The ACCM Beamlines For Bioscience Studies

    To meet the increasing demand of X-ray beamlines for bioscience research, we have designed two high-performance, side-branch, asymmetric-cut curved crystal monochromator (ACCM) beamlines to fully utilize the sideway output of the superconducting wiggler SW6 at NSRRC. Each of these two beamlines (BL13A and BL13C) collects 1 mrad of the radiation fan in the horizontal direction, one centered at 3 mrad and the other at 4 mrad away from the central line of the wiggler output. The newly designed ACCMs are capable of energy scanning from 12 keV to 14 keV and offer good performances in terms of flux, resolution and stability. The ACCMs are designed and built in-house, combining efficient cooling and bending mechanisms in a compact unit that allows precise adjustments on a goniometer assembly. The bender is specially designed with symmetrically driven piezo-actuators that minimize center displacement during bending. Both direct and indirect cooling methods were tested; the former using Ga/In directly under the beam footprint and the latter using both sides of the crystal clamping area for cooling. Performance of the beamlines employing both cooling methods has been measured. The indirect cooling method provides 4.9 x 1010 photons/sec through a pair of 100 μm slits (H x V) with energy resolution of 5.3 x 10-3 (ΔE/E) at 12.7 keV. Higher energy resolution in the 10-4 range can be achieved by adjusting the horizontal source fan or the crystal radius at the expense of flux. The direct cooling method provides 1.4 x 1010 photons/sec through a pair of 100 μm slits (H x V) with energy resolution of 1.2 x 10-3 (ΔE/E) at 12.7 keV. The FWHM of the focused beam profile in the indirect cooling mode is 800 x 109 μm (H x V), and 800 x 283 μm (H x V) in the direct cooling mode with some horizontal tail, the latter being larger due to influence of the Ga/In layer on the crystal shape. Cooling efficiency is excellent in the direct cooling mode, in which the performance stabilizes in a

  2. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies.

    Strocov, V N; Schmitt, T; Flechsig, U; Schmidt, T; Imhof, A; Chen, Q; Raabe, J; Betemps, R; Zimoch, D; Krempasky, J; Wang, X; Grioni, M; Piazzalunga, A; Patthey, L

    2010-09-01

    The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0-180 degrees rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well established scheme of plane-grating monochromator operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/DeltaE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed versus lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Owing to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, the beamline is capable of delivering high photon flux up to 1 x 10(13) photons s(-1) (0.01% BW)(-1) at 1 keV. Ellipsoidal refocusing optics used for the RIXS endstation demagnifies the vertical spot size down to 4 microm, which allows slitless operation and thus maximal transmission of the high-resolution RIXS spectrometer delivering E/DeltaE > 11000 at 1 keV photon energy. Apart from the beamline optics, an overview of the control system is given, the diagnostics and software tools are described, and strategies used for the optical alignment are discussed. An introduction to the concepts and instrumental realisation of the ARPES and RIXS endstations is given. PMID:20724785

  3. Undulating fins produce off-axis thrust and flow structures.

    Neveln, Izaak D; Bale, Rahul; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2014-01-15

    While wake structures of many forms of swimming and flying are well characterized, the wake generated by a freely swimming undulating fin has not yet been analyzed. These elongated fins allow fish to achieve enhanced agility exemplified by the forward, backward and vertical swimming capabilities of knifefish, and also have potential applications in the design of more maneuverable underwater vehicles. We present the flow structure of an undulating robotic fin model using particle image velocimetry to measure fluid velocity fields in the wake. We supplement the experimental robotic work with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics, simulating the hydrodynamics of both a virtual fish, whose fin kinematics and fin plus body morphology are measured from a freely swimming knifefish, and a virtual rendering of our robot. Our results indicate that a series of linked vortex tubes is shed off the long edge of the fin as the undulatory wave travels lengthwise along the fin. A jet at an oblique angle to the fin is associated with the successive vortex tubes, propelling the fish forward. The vortex structure bears similarity to the linked vortex ring structure trailing the oscillating caudal fin of a carangiform swimmer, though the vortex rings are distorted because of the undulatory kinematics of the elongated fin. PMID:24072799

  4. Fracture mechanics parameters for cracks on a slightly undulating interface

    Yang, Lin; Qu, Jianmin

    1993-11-01

    Typical bimaterial interfaces are nonplanar due to surface facets or roughness. Crack-tip stress fields of an interface crack must be influenced by nonplanarity of the interface. Consequently, interface toughness is affected. The crack-tip fields of a finite crack on an elastic/rigid interface with periodic undulation are studied. Particular emphasis is given to the fracture mechanics parameters, such as the stress intensity factors, crack-tip energy release rate, and crack-tip mode mixity. When the amplitude of interface undulation is very small relative to the crack length (which is the case for rough interfaces), asymptotic analysis is used to convert the nonplanarity effects into distributed dislocations located on the planar interface. Then, the resulting stress fields near the crack tip are obtained by using the Fourier integral transform method. It is found that the stress fields at the crack tip are strongly influenced by nonplanarity of the interface. Generally speaking, nonplanarity of the interface tends to shield the crack tip by reducing the crack-tip stress concentration.

  5. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from undulators and bending magnets

    We consider the maximum of the Wigner distribution (WD) of synchrotron radiation (SR) fields as a possible definition of SR source brightness. Such figure of merit was originally introduced in the SR community by Kim. The brightness defined in this way is always positive and, in the geometrical optics limit, can be interpreted as maximum density of photon flux in phase space. For undulator and bending magnet radiation from a single electron, the WD function can be explicitly calculated. In the case of an electron beam with a finite emittance the brightness is given by the maximum of the convolution of a single electron WD function and the probability distribution of the electrons in phase space. In the particular case when both electron beam size and electron beam divergence dominate over the diffraction size and the diffraction angle, one can use a geometrical optics approach. However, there are intermediate regimes when only the electron beam size or the electron beam divergence dominate. In this asymptotic cases the geometrical optics approach is still applicable, and the brightness definition used here yields back once more the maximum photon flux density in phase space. In these intermediate regimes we find a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and the approximation for undulator brightness currently used in literature. We extend the WD formalism to a satisfactory theory for the brightness of a bending magnet. We find that in the intermediate regimes the usually accepted approximation for bending magnet brightness turns out to be inconsistent even parametrically.

  6. Compact Undulator for the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source: Design and Beam Test Results

    We developed, built and beam tested a novel, compact, in-vacuum undulator magnet based on an adjustable phase (AP) scheme. The undulator is 1 m long with a 5mm gap. It has a pure permanent magnet structure with 24.4mm period and 1.1 Tesla maximum peak field. The device consists of two planar magnet arrays mounted on rails inside of a rectangular box-like frame with 156 mm × 146 mm dimensions. The undulator magnet is enclosed in a 273 mm (10.75) diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel with a driver mechanism placed outside. In May 2012 the CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) was installed in Cornell Electron Storage Ring and beam tested. During four weeks of dedicated run we evaluated undulator radiation properties as well as magnetic, mechanical and vacuum properties of the undulator magnet. We also studied the effect of the CCU on storage ring beam. The spectral characteristics and intensity of radiation were found to be in very good agreement with expected. The magnet demonstrated reproducibility of undulator parameter K at 1.4 × 10−4 level. It was also found that the undulator K. parameter change does not affect electron beam orbit and betatron tunes.

  7. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator - presentation slides

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    Direct emittance measurement based on vertical undulator is discussed. Emittance was evaluated from peak ratios, the smallest measured being =0.9 ±0.3 pm rad. The angular distribution of undulator radiation departs from Gaussian approximations, a fact of which diffraction-limited light sources should be aware.

  8. Imaging of an undulator source by phase circular Bragg-Fresnel lenses

    Hartman, Ya.; Tarazona, E; Elleaume, P.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.

    1994-01-01

    Focusing properties and heatload resistance of a Bragg-Fresnel lens placed in an undulator beam have been demonstrated. The electron beam at an undulator source has been imaged by two setups using Bragg-Fresnel lenses. The first setup is a two-lenses telescope and the second one consists of one circular BFL and an asymmetrically cut crystal.

  9. Imaging of an undulator source by phase circular Bragg-Fresnel lenses

    Focusing properties and heatload resistance of a Bragg-Fresnel lens placed in an undulator beam have been demonstrated. The electron beam at an undulator source has been imaged by two setups using Bragg-Fresnel lenses. The first setup is a two-lenses telescope and the second one consists of one circular BFL and an asymmetrically cut crystal. (orig.)

  10. Study on the Planar Undulator Scheme with Focusing Properties for PKU-FEL

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Senlin; Wang, Yugang; Zhao, Kui; Zhuang, Jiejia

    2004-01-01

    An IR range SASE FEL test facility will be built at Peking University. The project is designed to get the SASE FEL at 7 micron driven by a superconducting accelerator. A hybrid planar Nd-Fe-B undulator is employed and the optimization of the external focus system for the undulator is studied. In the PKU-FEL facility, the electron energy is about 30-40 MeV. The combined function undulator with FODO lattice imposes quite stringent tolerances on the strength of the quads. To solve this problem, the weak natural focusing of the undulator in the vertical plane together with horizontally focusing quads, is proposed to supply the focusing in the facility. The combined function undulator of FOFO lattice and FF lattice in the horizontal plane are studied. Compared with the FODO lattice, the FOFO and FF lattice make the saturation a bit longer and the requirements of the field accuracy for the focusing system are much reduced.

  11. Status of a cylindrical superconducting undulator for the laser wakefield accelerator in Jena

    Laser-Wakefield accelerators (LWFA) produce electron bunches with several 100 MeV energy within a few millimeters acceleration length, however, with a relatively large energy spread (a few percent). Undulators provide monochromatic radiation with high brilliance. The working principle of undulators requires a small energy spread of the electron beam in the order of 0.1 %. To produce monochromatic undulator radiation with LWF accelerated electrons, a novel iron-free cylindrical superconducting undulator (SCU) is under development at the KIT. This talk gives an overview about the design and the optimisation of the SCU tailored to the particular beam properties of the JETI-LWFA at the University of Jena. In addition a short model test and the construction status of the full scale undulator are shown.

  12. Design and fabrication of PPM and hybrid undulator for free electron laser applications

    Two undulators for free electron laser applications are under fabrication at Insertion Device Development and Measurement Laboratory, DAVV, Indore. The first one is of PPM type with twenty periods, 50 mm each period. The second one is a hybrid undulator with twenty five periods, 20 mm each period. NdFeB magnets of rectangular cross section 12.5 mm, 12.5 mm and 6.25 mm, 6.25 mm will be used for the undulators respectively. Each magnet length is of 50 mm. Each magnet is scanned by a laser micrometer to ensure gap uniformity along the length of the undulator. In this paper we describe the technical design details of both the undulators.

  13. Photon emission by ultra-relativistic positrons in crystalline undulators: the high-energy regime

    Krause, W; Solov'yov, A V; Greiner, W

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the undulator radiation emitted by high-energy positrons during planar channeling in periodically bent crystals. We demonstrate that the construction of the undulator for positrons with energies of 10 GeV and above is only possible if one takes into account the radiative energy losses. The frequency of the undulator radiation depends on the energy of the particle. Thus the decrease of the particle's energy during the passage of the crystal should result in the destruction of the undulator radiation regime. However, we demonstrate that it is possible to avoid the destructive influence of the radiative losses on the frequency of the undulator radiation by the appropriate variation of the shape of the crystal channels. We also discuss a method by which, to our mind, it would be possible to prepare the crystal with the desired properties of its channels.

  14. Status of a cylindrical superconducting undulator for the laser wakefield accelerator in Jena

    Afonso Rodriguez, Veronica; Bernhard, Axel; Grau, Andreas; Haerer, Bastian; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert; Weber, Marc; Widmann, Christina [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaluza, Malte; Nicolai, Maria; Rinck, Thorsten; Saevert, Alexander [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena (Germany); Jaeckel, Oliver; Reuter, Maria [Helmholtz Institute Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Laser-Wakefield accelerators (LWFA) produce electron bunches with several 100 MeV energy within a few millimeters acceleration length, however, with a relatively large energy spread (a few percent). Undulators provide monochromatic radiation with high brilliance. The working principle of undulators requires a small energy spread of the electron beam in the order of 0.1 %. To produce monochromatic undulator radiation with LWF accelerated electrons, a novel iron-free cylindrical superconducting undulator (SCU) is under development at the KIT. This talk gives an overview about the design and the optimisation of the SCU tailored to the particular beam properties of the JETI-LWFA at the University of Jena. In addition a short model test and the construction status of the full scale undulator are shown.

  15. Up-grading a 4.7-cm-period plane electromagnetic undulator

    Bogachenkov, V A; Papadichev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Electromagnetic undulators have a number of advantages over permanent-magnet undulators. They are less expensive to fabricate and their field is easily regulated by changing the current, without requiring a complex and expensive precision system for changing the undulator gap. Their main weaknesses are that they require a large power supply and that the field is limited due to yoke saturation mainly because of large axial stray fluxes, particularly in simple constructions. Modernization of a 4.7-cm-period, 20-period long plane electromagnetic undulator of simple design is described. Samarium-cobalt permanent magnets were used to increase the field and decrease power consumption. They were placed between adjacent rings (with opposite sign of field) and while increasing the working field they decreased saturation of the iron yokes. Small lateral displacements of permanent magnets were used to equalize field amplitudes in half periods of the undulator with 0.1% accuracy. Matched input and output to and from the ...

  16. High repetition rate laser beamline control system

    Mazanec, Tomáš

    Livermore: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , 2014 - (Marshall, C.; Fisher, J.; Schaa, V.), 1281-1284 ISBN 978-3-95450-139-7. [ICALEPCS2013: 14th International Conference on Accelerator &. San Francisco (US), 07.02.2013-11.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0091 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 1 LaserSys(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0091 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EPICS * LabView Real-Time Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/ICALEPCS2013/

  17. EPICS data archiver at SSRF beamlines

    The control system of SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) is based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). Operation data storage for synchrotron radiation facility is important for its status monitoring and analysis. At SSRF, operation data used to be index files recorded by traditional EPICS Channel Archiver. Nevertheless, index files are not suitable for long-term maintenance and difficult for data analysis. Now, RDB Channel Archiver and MySQL are used for SSRF beamline operation data archiving, so as to promote the data storage reliability and usability. By applying a new uploading mechanism to RDB Channel Archiver, its writing performance is improved. A web-based GUI (Graphics User Interface) is also developed to make it easier to access database. (authors)

  18. An elliptical wiggler beamline for the ALS

    A beamline for circularly polarized radiation produced by an elliptical wiggler has been designed at the ALS covering the broad energy range from 50 eV to 2000 eV. The rigorous theory of grating diffraction efficiency has been used to maximize transmitted flux. The nature of the elliptical wiggler insertion device creates a challenging optical problem due to the large source size in the vertical and horizontal directions. The requirement of high resolving power, combined with the broad tuning range and high heat loads complicate the design. These problems have been solved by using a variable included angle monochromator of the ''constant length'' type with high demagnification onto its entrance slit, and cooled optics

  19. An ultrahigh vacuum monochromator for photophysics beamline

    The photophysics beamline designed for carrying out photoabsorption and fluorescence studies using the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), INDUS-1, uses a 1 metre monochromator as premonochromator for monochromatising the continuum. An ultra high vacuum compatible monochromator in Seya-Namioka mount has been designed and fabricated indigenously. The monochromator was assembled and tested for its performance. Wavelength scanning mechanism was tested for its reproducibility and the monochromator was tested for its resolution using UV and VUV sources. An average spectral resolution of 2.5 A was achieved using a 1200 gr/mm grating. A wavelength repeatability of ± 1A was obtained. An ultra high vacuum of 2 X 10-8 mbar was also achieved in the monochromator. Details of fabrication, assembly and testing are presented in this report. (author)

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopy beamline on Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    Chaudhari, SM; Phase, DM; Wadikar, AD; Ramesh, GS; Hegde, MS; Dasannacharya, BA

    2002-01-01

    We describe here a photoelectron spectroscopy beamline installed on Indus-1 storage ring. Initially we give a brief description of optical and mechanical layout of beam-line. The beamline optics was designed to cover energy range from 10 eV to 200 eV and it consists of a pre-focusing mirror, a toroidal grating monochromator and a post-focusing mirror. We then discuss indigenously developed ultra high vacuum compatible work station to carry out angle integrated photoemission experiments. The b...

  1. Design of a sending magnet for the high energy beamline

    On the high energy beamline of the National Accelerator Centre the beam appeared to disregard the calculated path. To correct these deflections sending magnets will be used at various places on the beamline. Magnets for the external beamline were designed and a prototipe was build to establish if it is functioning according to the specifications. Information on the following aspects is provided: specifications for the magnets; the determination of magnetic stiffness of 220 MeV protons; physical measurement of the magnets; magnetic pole pieces; the magnetic-motoric force needed for the maximum flux density; coil resistance and dimensions; magnetic fields and the stability of the power plant

  2. Exploring the undulating plateau: the future of global oil supply.

    Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price

  3. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering on the ChemMatCARS Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source: A Study of Shear-Induced Crystallisation in Polypropylene

    Sutton, D.; Hanley, T.; Knott, R.; Cookson, D. (CRC); (ANSTO)

    2008-09-08

    The first ever time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data from the undulator 15-ID-D beamline (ChemMatCARS) are presented. A 1.3 {angstrom} (9.54 keV) X-ray beam was selected to study the structure development in a polypropylene sample during shear-induced crystallization. A Linkam CSS450 shear cell provided the temperature and shear control. The polypropylene was first melted and then quenched to the crystallization temperature, where a step shear was applied. The SAXS data were collected using a Bruker 6000 CCD detector, which provided images of excellent resolution. The SAXS images (with 180{sup o} rotational symmetry) indicated that the polypropylene crystallizes with a high degree of anisotropy, and the lamellae are oriented perpendicular to the flow direction.

  4. Commissioning of a microprobe-XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 synchrotron source

    Tiwari, M. K.; Gupta, P.; Sinha, A. K.; Garg, C. K.; Singh, A. K.; Kane, S. R.; Garg, S. R.; Lodha, G. S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2012-06-05

    We report commissioning of the microprobe-XRF beamline on Indus-2 synchrotron source. The beamline has been recently made operational and is now open for the user's experiments. The beamline comprises of Si(111) double crystal monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing optics. The beamline covers wide photon energy range of 4 - 20 keV using both collimated and micro-focused beam modes. The design details and the first commissioning results obtained using this beamline are presented.

  5. An overview of what is required and when for developing a beamline at the ALS

    This report discusses these topics: reviews required for developing a beamline at the ALS; work items and documentation required for the beamline design review; information to be communicated to the ALS staff before the beamline readiness review; work items and documentation required for the beamline readiness review; contacts for information, technical questions, and sources of additional information; and checklist of what is required and when for developing a beamline

  6. Transport from the Recycler Ring to the Antiproton Source Beamlines

    Xiao, M

    2013-01-01

    In the post-Nova era, the protons are directly transported from the Booster ring to the Recycler ring rather than the Main Injector. For Mu2e and g-2 project, the Debuncher ring will be modified into a Delivery ring to deliver the protons to both Mu2e and g-2 experiemnts. Therefore, It requires the transport of protons from the Recycler Ring to the Delivery ring. A new transfer line from the Recycler ring to the P1 beamline will be constructed to transport proton beam from the Recycler Ring to existing Antiproton Source beamlines. This new beamline provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. This paper presents the Conceptual Design of this new beamline.

  7. Moly99 Production Facility: Report on Beamline Components, Requirements, Costs

    Bishofberger, Kip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-23

    In FY14 we completed the design of the beam line for the linear accelerator production design concept. This design included a set of three bending magnets, quadrupole focusing magnets, and octopoles to flatten the beam on target. This design was generic and applicable to multiple different accelerators if necessary. In FY15 we built on that work to create specifications for the individual beam optic elements, including power supply requirements. This report captures the specification of beam line components with initial cost estimates for the NorthStar production facility.This report is organized as follows: The motivation of the beamline design is introduced briefly, along with renderings of the design. After that, a specific list is provided, which accounts for each beamline component, including part numbers and costs, to construct the beamline. After that, this report details the important sections of the beamline and individual components. A final summary and list of follow-on activities completes this report.

  8. Interfaces modify the undulation spectrum of bicontinuous microemulsions

    Holderer, O.; Lipfert, F.; Frielinghaus, H.; Ohl, M.; Richter, D.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the structure and dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS) and grazing incidence neutron spin echo (GINSES) spectroscopy, respectively. It has been found that a bicontinuous microemulsion develops a lamellar structure, and that the relaxation rate is faster for a membrane close to the interface compared to the bulk. A model developed by Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the near-surface lamellar ordered membranes. In this contribution we present how confinement of a flat interface influences the elastic properties of surfactant membranes and discuss the effect of locally introduced flat interfaces by clay platelets. This analysis sheds light onto the undulation mode spectrum of the surfactant membrane.

  9. Interfaces modify the undulation spectrum of bicontinuous microemulsions

    Holderer O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the structure and dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS and grazing incidence neutron spin echo (GINSES spectroscopy, respectively. It has been found that a bicontinuous microemulsion develops a lamellar structure, and that the relaxation rate is faster for a membrane close to the interface compared to the bulk. A model developed by Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the near-surface lamellar ordered membranes. In this contribution we present how confinement of a flat interface influences the elastic properties of surfactant membranes and discuss the effect of locally introduced flat interfaces by clay platelets. This analysis sheds light onto the undulation mode spectrum of the surfactant membrane.

  10. Undulator field correction by in-situ sorting

    A novel field-correction method for insertion devices called in-situ sorting has been developed. It is based on a rearrangement of magnet blocks with an analysis of the magnetic data measured for the total device after assembly instead of that for each magnet block before assembly. The field integral at each magnet pole obtained from the magnetic distribution determines how to exchange or flip magnet blocks to reduce both the phase error and multipole components of the field integral. The practical results of the in-situ sorting used for a field correction of an in-vacuum undulator are shown to reveal the validity of the in-situ sorting

  11. Crystalline undulator radiation and sub-harmonic bifurcation of system

    Luo Xiao-Hua; He Wei; Wu Mu-Ying; Shao Ming-Zhu; Luo Shi-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Looking for new light sources,especially short wavelength laser light sources has attracted widespread attention.This paper analytically describes the radiation of a crystalline undulator field by the sine-squared potential.In the classical mechanics and the dipole approximation,the motion equation of a particle is reduced to a generalized pendulum equation with a damping term and a forcing term.The bifurcation behavior of periodic orbits is analyzed by using the Melnikov method and the numerical method,and the stability of the system is discussed.The results show that,in principle,the stability of the system relates to its parameters,and only by adjusting these parameters appropriately can the occurrence of bifurcation be avoided or suppressed.

  12. Analysis of the 3D magnetic field and its errors for undulators with iron poles

    Ingold, G.; Bahrdt, J.; Gaupp, A. [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The attainable field strength and field quality, such as the optical phase error, the electron beam displacement within the undulator and higher order multipoles of the magnetic field, are discussed. These issues are critical to the design and construction of short period undulators for use in short wavelength FEL or for operation in third generation light sources. We discuss two approaches: (i) For superferric undulators the construction of a full length device would rely on the optimum sorting of precision machined undulator segments. Magnetic data on segments with 20 periods (period length 8.80mm) will be presented. (ii) For hybrid undulators the sorting has to be done on individual poles and magnets. For this approach typical error sources such as machining tolerances, magnetization errors of the permanent magnet material and assembly errors are modeled in 3D and compared to induced errors on an existing hybrid undulator segment. In case of undulators having a full length of hundred periods at least five times as many individual parts have to be characterized. This should be done automatically where both the mechanical and magnetic data before and after the assembly of the magnetic structure are recorded in one step. A CNC programmable measuring device suitable for this task will shortly be presented.

  13. A Coherent Compton Backscattering High Gain FEL using an X-Band Microwave Undulator

    Pellegrini, C; Travish, G

    2005-01-01

    We describe a proposed high-gain FEL using an X-band microwave undulator and operating at a wavelength of about 0.5 μm. The FEL electron beam energy is 65 MeV. The beam is produced by the NLCTA X-band linac at SLAC, using an S-band high-brightness photoinjector. The undulator consists of a circular waveguide with an rf wave counter-propagating with respect to the electron beam. The undulator is powered with two high-power X-band klystrons and a dual-moded pulse compressor recently developed at SLAC. This system is capable of delivering flat-top rf pulses of up to 400 ns and a few hundred megawatts. The equivalent undulator period is 1.4 cm, the radius of the circular pipe is 1 cm, and the undulator parameter is about 0.4 for a helical undulator configuration, obtained using two cross-polarized TE modes, or larger for a planar configuration, using one rf polarization. The undulator is about four meters long. The FEL will reach saturation within this distance when operated in a SASE mode. We describe t...

  14. Design parameters of the high gain harmonic generation experiment using Cornell undulator A at the ATF

    The authors present the design parameters of a high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) FEL experiment to be carried out at the accelerator test facility (ATF) at BNL, in collaboration with APS. This experiment is a proof-of-principle experiment for the DUV-FEL at BNL. In the HGHG experiment they plan to double the frequency of a CO2 seed laser by utilizing a 0.76 m long 9 period undulator (named the Mini Undulator), a 2 m long 60 period undulator (named the Cornell Undulator A), and a 0.3 m electromagnet chicane (the dispersive section). The first undulator will be used in conjunction with the CO2 seed laser to generate a ponderomotive force that will bunch the electron beam. The bunching will then be enhanced by the dispersion section. The second undulator, the Cornell Undulator A, tuned to the second harmonic of the seed laser will serve as the radiator. In the beginning of the radiator the bunched beam will produce coherent emission (characterized by a quadratic growth of the radiated power), then the radiation will be amplified exponentially. They plan to study the evolution of the various radiation growth mechanisms as well as the coherence of the doubled, exponentially amplified radiation

  15. Data Management System at the Photon Factory Macromolecular Crystallography Beamline

    Macromolecular crystallography is a very powerful tool to investigate three-dimensional structures of macromolecules at the atomic level, and is widely spread among structural biology researchers. Due to recent upgrades of the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Photon Factory, beamline throughput has improved, allowing more experiments to be conducted during a user's beam time. Although the number of beamlines has increased, so has the number of beam time applications. Consequently, both the experimental data from users' experiments and data derived from beamline operations have dramatically increased, causing difficulties in organizing these diverse and large amounts of data for the beamline operation staff and users. To overcome this problem, we have developed a data management system by introducing commercial middleware, which consists of a controller, database, and web servers. We have prepared several database projects using this system. Each project is dedicated to a certain aspect such as experimental results, beam time applications, beam time schedule, or beamline operation reports. Then we designed a scheme to link all the database projects.

  16. Discussions for the shielding materials of synchrotron radiation beamline hutches

    Many synchrotron radiation facilities are now under operation such as E.S.R.F., APS, and S.P.ring-8. New facilities with intermediated stored electron energy are also under construction and designing such as D.I.A.M.O.N.D., S.O.L.E.I.L., and S.S.R.F.. At these third generation synchrotron radiation facilities, the beamline shielding as well as the bulk shield is very important for designing radiation safety because of intense and high energy synchrotron radiation beam. Some reasons employ lead shield wall for the synchrotron radiation beamlines. One is narrow space for the construction of many beamlines at the experimental hall, and the other is the necessary of many movable mechanisms at the beamlines, for examples. Some cases are required to shield high energy neutrons due to stored electron beam loss and photoneutrons due to gas Bremsstrahlung. Ordinary concrete and heavy concrete are coming up to shield material of synchrotron radiation beamline hutches. However, few discussions have been performed so far for the shielding materials of the hutches. In this presentation, therefore, we will discuss the characteristics of the shielding conditions including build up effect for the beamline hutches by using the ordinary concrete, heavy concrete, and lead for shielding materials with 3 GeV and 8 GeV class synchrotron radiation source. (author)

  17. Performance of a hard x-ray undulator at CHESS (invited)

    A 3.3-cm period Nd-Fe-B hybrid undulator has been designed and successfully operated in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). This 2-m-long, 123-pole insertion device is a prototype of one of the undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source. In dedicated operation, the undulator produced the expected brightness at 5.437 GeV with the fundamental x-ray energy ranging from 4.3 to 7.9 keV corresponding to a change in gap from 1.5 to 2.8 cm

  18. Design and test of a trial undulator for a compact FEL THz radiation source

    The undulator is the key component in the THz radiation source based on FEL. We created a trial undulator in order to verify the feasibility of property requirements, and the accumulation of engineering experience. With the use of the finite element calculation software OPERA3D, we modify the structural parameters of the undulator gradually to meet the requirements of the peak, width of the good field and first integration. We also proved that the correction magnet could make the field meet the requirement of the second integration by calculation. After fabrication and acceptance, the electron trajectory is calculated based on the measured field. (authors)

  19. 6 cm period Apple-II type elliptically polarized undulator at PLS

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory is developing an Elliptically Polarized Undulator (EPU6) to utilize the polarized synchrotron radiation at Pohang Light Source (PLS). EPU6 is an Apple-II type elliptical undulator which changes the polarization of the field by translating the magnet arrays. EPU6 features period of 6 cm, minimum gap of 19 mm, 25 full field periods, maximum vertical flux density of 0.69 T, maximum horizontal flux density of 0.45 T, and 1575 mm total magnetic structure length. In this article, the design, fabrication, the measurement and correction efforts for PLS EPU6 undulator are described

  20. Calculation of undulator radiation from measured magnetic fields and comparison with measured spectra

    A new code was developed that calculates the spectrum, the state and the degree of polarization of the radiation emitted by any insertion device. It integrates along an arbitrary electron trajectory without any approximations. The trajectory can be derived either from a model undulator including random field errors or from a measured field distribution from a real undulator. The calculated one-electron pattern is convoluted with the electron beam emittance. Spectral calculations for the crossed field undulator U-2 at BESSY employing measured magnetic field data agree with absolute measurements of the spectra. (author) 18 refs.; 1 fig

  1. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline emdash The SRI close-quote 95 Workshop 2 Summary

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI close-quote 95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI close-quote 95 Workshop 2 was open-quote open-quote Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline.close-quote close-quote The workshop was well attended with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry close-quote s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffraktionstechnik GMBH on goniometers/diffractometers, Oxford Instruments on advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and Kohzu Seiki Co. Ltd. on the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation (open-quote open-quote BM contamination close-quote close-quote) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline-The SRI'95 Workshop 2 Summary (invited)

    Kuzay, T. M.; Warwick, T.

    1996-09-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI'95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI'95 Workshop 2 was ``Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline.'' The workshop was well attended with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry's perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffraktionstechnik GMBH on goniometers/diffractometers, Oxford Instruments on advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and Kohzu Seiki Co. Ltd. on the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation (``BM contamination'') and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop.

  3. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    Johnson, Michael C. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  4. SPP Beamline Design and Beam Dynamics

    Turemen, G; Yasatekin, B; Yildiz, V; Celik, M; Alacakir, A; Unel, G; Mete, O

    2014-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Quadrupole of SANAEM Project Prometheus will be a demonstration and educational machine which will accelerate protons from 20 keV to 1.5 MeV. The project is funded by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and it will be located at Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in Ankara. The SPP beamline consists of a multi-cusp H+ ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport line and a four-vane RFQ operating at 352.2 MHz. The design studies for the multi-cusp ion source (RF or DC) were performed with IBSimu and SIMION software packages. The source has already been produced and currently undergoes extensive testing. There is also a preliminary design for the solenoid based LEBT, POISSON and PATH were used in parallel for the preliminary design. Two solenoid magnets are produced following this design. The RFQ design was made using LIDOS.RFQ.Designer and it was crosschecked with a home-grown software package, DEMIRCI. The initial beam dynamics studies have been performed with both LIDOS and TOUTATIS. T...

  5. Status of the LBNE Neutrino Beamline

    Papadimitriou, Vaia; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector (60-120 GeV) hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account several factors including the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be {approx}700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. We discuss here the status of the conceptual design and the associated challenges.

  6. Performances and first experimental results of BACH, the beamline for dichroism and scattering experiments at ELETTRA

    BACH, the new soft x-ray beamline for polarization dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, has been commissioned, characterized and opened to external users. Based on two APPLE II undulators, it covers an energy range between 35 eV and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator works either in high resolution or high flux mode. Resolving powers of 16000 at 50 eV, 12000 at 90 eV, more than 12000 at 400 eV, 15000 at 534 eV and 6600 at 867 eV have been achieved with the three high resolution gratings. The resolving powers of the high flux grating, which covers the 290 - 1600 eV range, have been measured reaching 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV. The fluxes, in the high resolution mode, range between 4·1011 photons/s at 125 eV and 2·1010 photons/s at about 1100 eV. Using the high flux grating with the best resolution achievable 1.7·1011 photons/s impinge on the sample at 900 eV. Two branches are installed after the monochromator allowing the set-up of two different experimental stations. One of them, besides several facilities for surface preparation and analysis, hosts a compact inelastic soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) dedicated to x-ray emission experiments exploiting the small spot (10 μm in the vertical direction) on the sample. The other branch hosts a liquid helium cryostat equipped with a superconducting coil to perform absorption and transmission experiments with temperatures down to 2 K and magnetic field up to ±7 T

  7. High-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS at Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    Strocov, V N; Flechsig, U; Schmidt, T; Imhof, A; Chen, Q; Raabe, J; Betemps, R; Zimoch, D; Krempasky, J; Piazzalunga, A; Wang, X; Grioni, M; Patthey, L

    2009-01-01

    We describe the concepts and technical realization of the high-resolution soft-X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES). The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0-180 deg rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well-established scheme of plane grating monochromator (PGM) operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/dE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed vs lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Due to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, high photon flux is achieved up to 1.0e13 photons/s/0.01%BW at 1 keV. Ellipsoida...

  8. Development of a soft x-ray ptychography beamline at SSRL and its application in the study of energy storage materials

    Wise, Anna M.; Ohldag, Hendrik; Chueh, William; Turner, Joshua; Toney, Michael F.; Nelson Weker, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    Ptychography is an emerging high resolution coherent imaging technique which can improve the resolution of current scanning transmission X-ray microscopy systems by over ten-fold. Development of this capability is underway at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, to establish sub-5 nm resolution ptychographic imaging with spatially resolved near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. This is being achieved via an upgrade of the current soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope at beamline 13-1, involving the installation of an area detector and an interferometer system for high precision sample motor control. The undulator source on beamline 13-1 provides the spatially and temporally coherent X-ray beam required for ptychographic imaging in the energy range 500 - 1200 eV. This energy range allows access to the oxygen chemistry and the valence states of 3d transition metals found in energy storage materials, making soft x-ray ptychography a particularly powerful tool to study the chemical states and structure of battery materials at relevant length scales. The implementation of ptychographic imaging can therefore provide a wealth of additional information on battery operation and failure. Here we describe the development of this ptychography capability, along with its application to the study of energy storage materials.

  9. Undulator system for the VUV FEL at the TESLA test facility phase-2

    Pflüger, J.; Hahn, U.; Faatz, B.; Tischer, M.

    2003-07-01

    The Phase-1 of the VUV Free Electron Laser at the TESLA Test Facility finishes in fall 2002. Phase-2, an extension of Phase-1 towards shorter wavelengths is under construction and will be ready for operation in 2003. A radiation wavelength as low as 6 nm will be obtained by raising the electron energy to 1 GeV. There will be only minor changes to the undulator system. Compared to Phase-1, six instead of three undulator segments will be installed. The integrated focusing system will be replaced by an electromagnetic doublet structure. We report about the changes of the undulator, the undulator vacuum system, the separated quadrupoles including a stretched wire alignment systems and the modifications to the beam diagnostic system consisting of pick up monitors and wire scanners.

  10. Undulator system for the VUV FEL at the TESLA test facility phase-2

    The Phase-1 of the VUV Free Electron Laser at the TESLA Test Facility finishes in fall 2002. Phase-2, an extension of Phase-1 towards shorter wavelengths is under construction and will be ready for operation in 2003. A radiation wavelength as low as 6 nm will be obtained by raising the electron energy to 1 GeV. There will be only minor changes to the undulator system. Compared to Phase-1, six instead of three undulator segments will be installed. The integrated focusing system will be replaced by an electromagnetic doublet structure. We report about the changes of the undulator, the undulator vacuum system, the separated quadrupoles including a stretched wire alignment systems and the modifications to the beam diagnostic system consisting of pick up monitors and wire scanners

  11. Start-to-end global imaging as a sunward propagating, SAPS-associated giant undulation event

    Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Donovan, Eric F [U OF CALGARY; Foster, John C [MIT; Mann, Ian R [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Immel, Thomas J [UC/BERKELEY; Mende, Stephen B [UN/BERKELEY; Sigwarth, John B [NASA/GSFC

    2009-01-01

    We present high-time resolution global imaging of a sunward propagating giant undulation event from start to finish. The event occurred on November 24, 2001 during a very disturbed storm interval. The giant undulations began to develop at around 13UT and persisted for approximately 2 hours. The sunward propagation speed was on the order of 0.6 km/s (relative to SM coordinate system). The undulations had a wavelength of {approx} 750 km, amplitudes of {approx} 890 km and produced ULF pulsations on the ground with a period of {approx} 1108s. We show that the undulations were associated with SAPs flows that were caused by the proton plasma sheet penetrating substantially farther Earthward than the electron plasma sheet on the duskside. The observations appear to be consistent with the development of a shear flow and/or ballooning type of instability at the plasmapause driven by intense SAPS-associated shear flows.

  12. Empirical Optimization of Undulator Tapering at FLASH2 and Comparison with Numerical Simulations

    Mak, Alan; Faatz, Bart; Werin, Sverker

    2016-01-01

    In a free-electron laser equipped with variable-gap undulator modules, the technique of undulator tapering opens up the possibility to increase the radiation power beyond the initial saturation point, thus enhancing the efficiency of the laser. The effectiveness of the enhancement relies on the proper optimization of the taper profile. In this work, a multidimensional optimization approach is implemented empirically in the x-ray free-electron laser FLASH2. The empirical results are compared with numerical simulations.

  13. A review of undulated sediment features on Mediterranean prodeltas: distinguishing sediment transport structures from sediment deformation

    Urgeles, Roger; Cattaneo, Antonio; PUIG Pere; Liquete, Camino; Mol, Ben; Amblas, David; Sultan, Nabil; Trincardi, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Most Mediterranean prodeltas show undulated sediment features on the foresets of their Holocene wedges. These features have been described all along the Mediterranean for the last 30 years and interpreted as either soft sediment deformation and incipient landsliding, and more recently, as sediment transport structures. We perform a review and detailed analysis of these undulated sediment features using ultrahigh-resolution seismic and bathymetric data as well as geotechnical information and h...

  14. Brightness and coherence of radiation from undulators and high-gain free electron lasers

    The purpose of this paper is to review the radiation characteristics of undulators and high-gain free electron lasers (FELs). The topics covered are: a phase-space method in wave optics and synchrotron radiation, coherence from the phase-space point of view, discussions of undulator performances in next-generation synchrotron radiation facility and the characteristics of the high-gain FELs and their performances

  15. A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline is a precision platform for scanning probe and full-field microscopy with 3–30 keV X-rays. A combination of high-stability X-ray optics and precision motion sensing and control enables detailed studies of the internal features of samples with resolutions approaching 30 nm. The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline (or Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray microscopy facility incorporating diffraction, fluorescence and full-field imaging capabilities designed and operated by the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was constructed to probe the nanoscale structure of biological, environmental and material sciences samples. The beamline provides intense focused X-rays to the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (or Nanoprobe) which incorporates Fresnel zone plate optics and a precision laser sensing and control system. The beamline operates over X-ray energies from 3 to 30 keV, enabling studies of most elements in the periodic table, with a particular emphasis on imaging transition metals

  16. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  17. The SLS Beamlines Data Acquisition and Control System

    Krempasky, J; Vermeulen, D; Maden, D; Korhonen, T T; Portmann, W; Hunt, S; Abela, R; Muntwiler, M

    2001-01-01

    On December 15th the Swiss Light Source (SLS) produced a stored beam for the first time. This important milestone was achieved in a very tight time schedule. The fact that all major systems are controlled by Epics made this challenge feasible. In the first phase there are four beamlines: two for the surface science community, one for powder and surface diffraction and computed micro-tomography, and the last one for protein crystallography. All of them are equipped with insertion devices, which users want to treat as active sub-systems like a monochromator or experimental station. The beamline control systems are based on the same hardware and software technology as is the machine. This implies extensive use of Personal Computers running Linux RedHat 6.2 and VME systems (PowerPC). The advantage of this choice is a staightforward implementation of the insertion devices into the beamline and experiment framework. Although the experiment Application Program Interfaces differ from beamline to beamline, the standar...

  18. Positron separators in Superomega muon beamline at J-PARC

    Ikedo, Y., E-mail: ikedo@post.kek.jp [Institute of Materials and Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tokai Campus, 230-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Makimura, S.; Fujimori, H.; Koda, A.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kobayashi, Y. [Institute of Materials and Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tokai Campus, 230-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Adachi, T. [Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0501 (Japan); Pant, A.D. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Yamanashi University, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Nakamoto, T.; Sasaki, K.; Ohata, H.; Okada, R.; Yamamoto, A. [Cryogenics Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0501 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Three stage positron separators was installed onto the U-line in the MLF/J-PARC. • The separators can be applied 400 kV to the both electrodes. • The separators were tested and were confirmed to successfully eliminate the positrons from the beam. -- Abstract: A positron separator is one of the essential components of a muon beamline to eliminate contamination in the beam, mainly positrons that have the same momentum as muons and are transported together with the beam. In order to eliminate positrons efficiently, we selected a Wien filter type three-stage positron separator for the new muon beamline, called Superomega, that is under construction in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of the Japan Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The Superomega muon beamline is the second muon beamline at MLF/J-PARC, and started operation in October of 2012. Here, we report on the features and the test results of the positron separators installed in the Superomega muon beamline.

  19. Beam Diagnostics for Laser Undulator Based on Compton Backward Scattering

    Kuroda, R

    2005-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on Compton backward scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser (10ps FWHM) and about 5 MeV high quality electron beam (10ps FWHM) generated from rf gun system. The range of X-ray energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein's coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. To generate the soft X-ray pulse stably, the electron beam diagnostics have been developed such as the emittance measurement using double slit scan technique, the bunch length measurement using two frequency analysis technique. In this confere...

  20. Geometric Mechanics Reveals Optimal Complex Terrestrial Undulation Patterns

    Gong, Chaohui; Astley, Henry; Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; CMU Team; GT Team

    Geometric mechanics offers useful tools for intuitively analyzing biological and robotic locomotion. However, utility of these tools were previously restricted to systems that have only two internal degrees of freedom and in uniform media. We show kinematics of complex locomotors that make intermittent contacts with substrates can be approximated as a linear combination of two shape bases, and can be represented using two variables. Therefore, the tools of geometric mechanics can be used to analyze motions of locomotors with many degrees of freedom. To demonstrate the proposed technique, we present studies on two different types of snake gaits which utilize combinations of waves in the horizontal and vertical planes: sidewinding (in the sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes) and lateral undulation (in the desert specialist snake C. occipitalis). C. cerastes moves by generating posteriorly traveling body waves in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a relative phase offset equal to +/-π/2 while C. occipitalismaintains a π/2 offset of a frequency doubled vertical wave. Geometric analysis reveals these coordination patterns enable optimal movement in the two different styles of undulatory terrestrial locomotion. More broadly, these examples demonstrate the utility of geometric mechanics in analyzing realistic biological and robotic locomotion.

  1. Polarized high-brilliance and high-resolution soft x-ray source at ELETTRA: The performance of beamline BACH

    BACH, a soft x-ray beamline for polarization-dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, was recently completed and characterized. Its performance, in terms of energy resolution, flux and polarization, is presented. Based on two APPLE II undulators, BACH covers the energy range between 35 and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator is equipped with four gratings and allows one to work either in a high resolution or in a high flux mode. After the monochromator, the beamline is split into two branches with different refocusing properties. One is optimized to exploit the performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) available at the beamline. Resolving powers between 12000 at 90 eV photon energy and 6600 near 867 eV were achieved using the high-resolution gratings and the smallest available slit width (10 μm). For the high-brilliance grating, which works between 290 and 1600 eV, resolving powers between 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV were obtained. The flux in the experimental chamber, measured with the high-resolution gratings for linearly polarized light at the best achievable resolution, ranges between 4x1011 photons/s at 125 eV and 2x1010 photons/s between 900 and 1250 eV. In circularly polarized mode the flux is two times larger for energies up to 380 eV. A gain of nearly one order of magnitude is obtained for the high-brilliance grating, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Flux beyond 1.3x1011 photons/s was measured up to 1300 eV, and thus over nearly the complete energy range covered by this high-brilliance grating, with a maximum of 1.6x1011 photons/s between 800 and 1100 eV. First results from polarization measurements confirm a polarization above 99.7% for both linearly and circularly polarized modes at low energies. Circular dichroism experiments indicate a circular polarization beyond 90% at the Fe L2/L3 edge near 720 eV

  2. RISING beamline (BL28XU) for rechargeable battery analysis

    The BL28XU beamline, dedicated to rechargeable battery analysis, is described. The newly installed BL28XU beamline at SPring-8 is dedicated to in situ structural and electronic analysis of rechargeable batteries. It supports the time range (1 ms to 100 s) and spatial range (1 µm to 1 mm) needed for battery analysis. Electrochemical apparatus for battery charging and discharging are available in experimental hutches and in a preparation room. Battery analysis can be carried out efficiently and effectively using X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, the design and performance of the beamline are described, and preliminary results are presented

  3. Simulating the Beam-line at CERN's ISOLDE Experiment

    McGrath, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the optical matching along portions of the ISOLDE beam-line and automating this procedure will make it easier for scientists to determine what the strengths of the electrical elds of each beam-line element should be in order to reduce particle loss. Simulations are run using a program called MAD-X, however, certain issues were discovered that hindered an immediate success of the simulations. Specifically, the transfer matrices for electrostatic components like the switchyards, kickers, and electric quadrupoles were missing from the original coding. The primary aim of this project was to design these components using AutoCAD and then extract the transfer matrices using SIMION. Future work will then implement these transfer matrices into the MAD-X code to make the simulations of the beam-line more accurate.

  4. Upgrade of the Photon Beamline Control System on the SRS

    Martlew, B G; Cox, G; Heath, P W; Heron, M T; Oates, A; Rawlinson, W R; Sharp, C D

    2001-01-01

    The SRS is a 2GeV synchrotron light source with 14 beamlines serving approximately 34 experimental stations. Control of the major elements of the beamlines (vacuum pumps, gauges, valves and radiation stops) is the responsibility of the main SRS Control System. As part of the long-term upgrade plan for the SRS Control System a large programme of work has been undertaken to modernize beamline control. This work included: development of Linux based PC front end computers to interface to the existing CAMAC I/O system, replacement of the user interface by graphical synoptic diagrams running on Windows NT PCs, development of an ActiveX control for parameter display/control and a cache server to reduce loading on the rest of the control system. This paper describes the major components of the project; the techniques used to manage the new PCs and discusses some of the problems encountered during development.

  5. Electron dumps for ITER HNB and DNB beamlines

    The negative ion accelerators that produce the high-energy particle beams for the neutral injection systems for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) also produce unwanted particles such as electrons. These electrons are emitted in a wide angular spectrum that allows some of them to directly intercept sensitive beamline components such as the cryogenic pumps. As the electrons are also subject to backscattering, indirect interception always occurs. In this article the electron spectra produced by the Heating Neutral Beam (HNB) and Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) accelerators are calculated. It is shown that these are very different. It is proposed to install electron dumps in the beamlines to intercept electron power directed towards inconvenient places in the HNB and DNB beamlines.

  6. Distributed control of protein crystallography beamline 5.0 using CORBA

    The Protein Crystallography Beamline at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source is a facility that is being used to solve the structure of proteins. The software that is being used to control this beamline uses Java for user interface applications which communicate via CORBA with workstations that control the beamline hardware. We describe the software architecture for the beamline and our experiences after two years of operation

  7. Distributed control of protein crystallography beamline 5.0 using CORBA

    Timossi, Chris

    1999-01-01

    The Protein Crystallography Beamline at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source is a facility that is being used to solve the structure of proteins. The software that is being used to control this beamline uses Java for user interface applications which communicate via CORBA with workstations that control the beamline hardware. We describe the software architecture for the beamline and our experiences after two years of operation.

  8. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    Nishijima, K

    2002-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  9. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  10. Kinematic mounting systems for NSLS beamlines and experiments

    Methods for kinematically mounting equipment are well established, but applications at synchrotron radiation facilities are subject to constraints not always encountered in more traditional laboratory settings. Independent position adjustment of beamline components can have significant benefits in terms of minimizing time spent aligning, and maximizing time spent acquiring data. In this paper, we use examples taken from beamlines at the NSLS to demonstrate approaches for optimization of the reproducibility, stability, excursion, and set-up time for various situations. From our experience, we extract general principles which we hope will be useful for workers at other synchrotron radiation facilities. 7 refs., 4 figs

  11. A database based B/S design and implementation for beamline station control system

    It describes a database based B/S design and implementation for beamline station control system. The database is to establish a reasonable and effective data-sharing platform that storage the static properties of control device and the history of beamline running and also provide management and data retrieval platform of the beamline control system for engineers. (authors)

  12. Front end for high-repetition rate thin disk-pumped OPCPA beamline at ELI-beamlines

    Green, Jonathan T.; Novák, Jakub; Antipenkov, Roman; Batysta, František; Zervos, Charalampos; Naylon, Jack A.; Mazanec, TomáÅ.¡; Horáček, Martin; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2015-02-01

    The ELI-Beamlines facility, currently under construction in Prague, Czech Republic, will house multiple high power laser systems with varying pulse energies, pulse durations, and repetition rates. Here we present the status of a high repetition rate beamline currently under construction with target parameters of 20 fs pulse duration, 100 mJ pulse energy, and 1 kHz repetition rate. Specifically we present the Yb:YAG thin disk lasers which are intended to pump picosecond OPCPA, synchronization between pump and signal pulses in the OPCPA, and the first stages of OPCPA.

  13. Magnetic characterization of the undulator for infrared free-electron laser at RRCAT

    An infrared (IR) free electron laser (FEL) is currently under development at the RRCAT, Indore. One of the crucial components of an FEL is the undulator, which produces static, sinusoidal vertical magnetic field along the axis through which an electron beam is propagated to generate coherent radiation. A 2.5 m long, pure permanent magnet based undulator with a period of 50 mm has been recently procured and installed at its designated location inside the radiation shielded area built to house the IRFEL. For the successful operation of an FEL, the magnetic field profile of the undulator has to satisfy stringent criterion on parameters such as rms error in the peak field, optical phase error, trajectory errors etc. Detailed magnetic characterization of the undulator installed inside the shielded area has been performed using in-house developed measurement benches to measure the magnetic field profile as well as magnetic field integrals. This paper describes the details of magnetic characterization performed to ensure that all the required criteria on the field quality are satisfied by the undulator. (author)

  14. Spectral properties of segmented undulators for the 7-GeV advanced photon source

    The effect of nonzero particle beam emittance and magnetic field errors on the on-axis spectral brightness (BTo) of long undulators is discussed. It is shown that the quadratic dependence of BTo on the number of undulator periods, N, is reduced by emittance to N-x with 1 ≤x < 2. Further reductions in the intensity result from random magnetic field errors present in the undulator. An approximate model for the intensity of the central core of radiation of the principle harmonics is discussed and the results compared to those from Monte Carlo-type calculations where emittance is explicitly accounted for. An estimation of the effects of random field errors on the on-axis brightness in the presence of nonzero particle emittance is made. For the particular case of undulators proposed for the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source, the results indicate that 5-m-long devices segmented into two sections will provide the required spectral intensity of a single long undulator when both emittance and magnet errors are considered

  15. Optical design study of the PEARL beamline at SLS

    Oberta, Peter; Flechsig, U.; Muntwiler, M.; Quitmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 635, č. 1 (2011), s. 116-120. ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PGM * beamline design * photo-emision Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  16. Beamline standard component designs for the Advanced Photon Source

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has initiated a design standardization and modularization activity for the APS synchrotron radiation beamline components. These standard components are included in components library, sub-components library and experimental station library. This paper briefly describes these standard components using both technical specifications and side view drawings

  17. VESPERS: A Beamline for Combined XRF and XRD Measurements

    VESPERS (VEry Sensitive Elemental and Structural Probe Employing Radiation from a Synchrotron) is a bending magnet beamline that is just beginning construction at the Canadian Light Source. The beamline has several novel design elements that are intended to increase its operating flexibility and availability to users. First, there is a requirement to deliver a microscopic beam with a variable bandwidth, thus enabling the generation of Laue diffraction patterns and high yield X-ray fluorescence spectra from the same region preferably simultaneously. Thus, the bandpass of the VESPERS monochromator can be readily changed to focus radiation into the same 2-4 micron diameter area that is either polychromatic or having a bandwidth of 10%, 1.6% or 0.01%. This allows the user to change the diffraction pattern to suit the complexity of the crystal and the spectral signal to noise ratio to suit the detection sensitivity required. Second, the beamline is designed to have two branches capable of operating simultaneously and virtually independently using the same primary optics. These design features are accomplished using four separate beams originating at four pinholes at the entry to the Primary Optical Enclosure. The compound focus design uses spherical mirrors to focus both polychromatic and pre-monochromatic beams onto the intermediate slits. A pair of bendable K-B mirrors in the experimental hutch is used to demagnify the beam further down to micron size. The photon energy of this beamline is 6-30 keV

  18. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented

  19. Neutral beamline with improved ion-energy recovery

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1981-04-13

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  20. Description and calibration beamline SEM/Ion Chamber Current Digitizer

    This report discusses the following on beamline SEM/ion chamber current digitizers: Module description; testing and calibration; common setup procedures; summary of fault indications and associated causes; summary of input and output connections; SEM conversion constant table; ion chamber conversion constant table; hexadecimal to decimal conversion table; and schematic diagram

  1. Design of 3B3 beamline control system

    2006-01-01

    Both structure and design of the control system in BSRF-3B3 beamline, are discussed and the subsystems are described. The LabVIEW software has advantages on data collecting and real time inspecting. In the process of data collecting, some methods are taken to solve the problems that may be met.

  2. A modular optics design for the LBNE beamline

    Johnstone, John A.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Protons extracted from the Main Injector (MI) in the MI-60 straight section are transported 84 m through quadrupole Q106 in the NuMI stub, at which point two 6-3-120 vertical switching magnets, followed by three EPB vertical dipoles, steer the beam into the main body of the LBNE beamline. From Q106 in NuMI the LBNE beamline transports these protons 722.0 m to the LBNE target, located 41.77 m (137.0 ft) below the MI beamline center (BLC) elevation, on a trajectory aimed towards DUSEL. Bending is provided (predominantly) by 34 long (6 m) MI-style IDA/IDB and 8 short (4 m) IDC/IDD dipoles [through 48.36{sup o} horizontally and -5.844{sup o} (net) vertically]. Optical properties are defined by 49 quadrupoles (grouped functionally into 44 focusing centers) of the proven MI beamline-style 3Q60/3Q120 series. All focusing centers are equipped with redesigned MI-style IDS orbit correctors and dual-plane beam position monitors (BPM's). Ample space is available in each arc cell to accommodate ion pumps and diagnostic instrumentation. Parameters of the main magnets are listed in a table.

  3. Circular polarization opportunities at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    XFELs provide X-ray pulses with unprecedented peak brightness and ultrashort duration. They are usually driven by planar undulators, meaning that the output radiation is linearly polarized. For many experimental applications, however, polarization control is critical: besides the ability to produce linearly polarized radiation, one often needs the possibility of generating circularly polarized radiation with a high, stable degree of polarization. This may be achieved by using a first part of the XFEL undulator to produce bunching and then, by propagating the the bunched beam through an "afterburner" - a short undulator with tunable polarization, where only limited gain takes place. One of the issues that one needs to consider in this case is the separation of the circularly polarized radiation obtained in the radiator from the linearly polarized background produced in the first part of the FEL. In this article we review several methods to do so, including the inverse tapering technique. In particular, we use ...

  4. Design, construction and characterization of the compact ultrafast terahertz free-electron laser undulator

    B Biswas; V Kumar; S Chouksey; S Krishnagopal

    2008-12-01

    A compact ultrafast terahertz (CUTE) free-electron laser (FEL) is being developed at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore. The undulator required for the CUTE-FEL has recently been developed. We have designed, built and characterized a variable gap, 5 cm period, 2.5 m long pure permanent magnet undulator in two identical segments. The tolerable error in the magnetic field was 1% in rms, and we have measured it to be 0.7%. The obtained rms phase shake is around 2°. To ensure that the trajectories do not have an exit error in position or angle, corrector coils have been designed. Shimming coils have been applied for both the undulator segments to reduce the amplitude of the betatron oscillations in the vertical trajectory. Details of novel corrector coils and soft iron shims are given and their performance is discussed.

  5. Locomotion and Depth Control of Robotic Fish with Modular Undulating Fins

    Kin Huat Low

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental-friendly robotic system mimicking the undulating fins of a fish. To mimic the actual flexible fin of real fish, a fin-like mechanism with a series of connecting linkages is modeled and attached to the robotic fish, by virtue of a specially designed strip. Each link is able to turn and slide with respect to the adjacent link.These driving linkages are then used to form a mechanical fin consisting of several fin segments, which are able to produce undulations, similar to those produced by the actual fish fins. Owing to the modular and re-configurable design of the mechanical fin, we are able to construct biomimetic robotic fish with various swimming modes by fin undulations. Some qualitative and workspace observations by experiments of the robotic fish are shown and discussed.

  6. Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays

    A conceptual design for a soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) using a short-pulsed, high energy near infrared laser undulator and a low-emittance modest-energy (∼170 MeV) electron beam is described. This low-cost design uses the laser undulator beam in a nearly copropagating fashion with respect to the electron beam, instead of the traditional ‘head-on’ fashion. The nearly copropagating geometry reduces the Doppler shift of scattered radiation to yield soft, rather than hard x-rays. To increase the FEL gain a sheared laser pulse from a Ti : sapphire or other broadband laser is used to extend the otherwise short interaction time of the nearly copropagating laser undulator beam with a relativistic electron beam. (paper)

  7. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator

    Andriyash, I. A.; Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A.; Thaury, C.; Rax, J.-M.; Krushelnick, K.; Malka, V.

    2014-08-01

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas.

  8. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator.

    Andriyash, I A; Lehe, R; Lifschitz, A; Thaury, C; Rax, J-M; Krushelnick, K; Malka, V

    2014-01-01

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas. PMID:25145401

  9. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  10. High efficiency energy extraction from a relativistic electron beam in a strongly tapered undulator

    Sudar, Nicholas; Duris, Joe; Gadjev, Ivan; Polyaniy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Fedurin, Mikhail; Swinson, Christina; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Gover, Avi

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54 cm long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30$\\%$ of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  11. Observation of Electron Clouds in the ANKA Undulator by Means of the Microwave Transmission Method

    Sonnad, K G; Casalbuoni, S; Huttel, E; Mashkina, E M; Saez de Jauregui, D; Smale, N J; Caspers, Friedhelm; Muller, A S; Sonnad, K G; Weigel, R

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting undulator is installed in the ANKA electron storage ring. Electron clouds could potentially contribute to the heat load of this device. A microwave transmission type electron cloud diagnostic has been installed for the undulator section of the ANKA machine. We present the system layout with particular emphasis on the electron machine aspects. Hardware transfer function results and e-cloud data for different machine settings are discussed. Special care has been taken for front end filter design both on the microwave injection and pick-up side.

  12. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.

  13. An ultrashort pulse ultra-violet radiation undulator source driven by a laser plasma wakefield accelerator

    Anania, M.P.; Brunetti, E; Wiggins, S M; Grant, D W; Welsh, G. H.; Issac, R.C.; Cipiccia, S.; Shanks, R. P.; Manahan, G. G.; Aniculaesei, C.; van der Geer, S. B.; De Loos, M.J.; Poole, M.W.; Shepherd, B. J. A.; Clarke, J A

    2014-01-01

    Narrow band undulator radiation tuneable over the wavelength range of 150–260 nm has been produced by short electron bunches from a 2 mm long laser plasma wakefield accelerator based on a 20 TW femtosecond laser system. The number of photons measured is up to 9 × 106 per shot for a 100 period undulator, with a mean peak brilliance of 1 × 1018 photons/s/mrad2/mm2/0.1% bandwidth. Simulations estimate that the driving electron bunch r.m.s. duration is as short as 3 fs when the electron beam has ...

  14. Operation of a small-gap undulator on the NSLS X-ray Ring

    Stefan, P.M.; Krinsky, S.; Rakowsky, G.; Solomon, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors report results of an on-going experiment being carried out in the X13 straight section of the NSLS X-ray Ring which explores the limits of the operation of small-gap undulators. In particular, they discuss the operation of a 16 mm period small-gap undulator. At an electron beam current of 300 mA the variable gap vacuum chamber has been closed to an inner aperture of 3.8 mm with no effect on the electron beam lifetime. Measurements of the output radiation spectrum at a magnet gap of 7.5 mm are described.

  15. Comparison of different undulator schemes with superimposed alternating gradients for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Pflueger, J.; Nikitina, Y.M. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility an undulator with a total length of 30 m is needed. In this study three different approaches to realize an undulator with a sinusoidal plus a superimposed quadrupolar field were studied with the 3D code MAFIA.

  16. Sea-floor undulations formation by turbidity flow in the Adra prodeltaic system, western Mediterranean Basin: comparison between numerical simulation and real data

    Fernández-Salas, Luis Miguel; Barcenas, Patricia; Macias, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulation of turbidity currents are used to study the formation of the seafloor undulations in the Adra prodeltaic system, western Mediterranean basin. A series of elongated and subparallel bathymetric undulations are distinguished in the foreset-bottomsets domain of the Holocene pro-deltaic wedge associated with the Adra river. In this study, multibeam data and surficial sediment samples have been used in comparison with numerical simulation to propose an evolutionary model of the seafloor undulations. Numerical model suggests that the depositional basin slope gradient is one of the factors more influent in the seafloor undulations formation. The simulations allowed to observe as seafloor undulations are approximately in phase with the undulations of the turbidity layer. Therefore, undulations are associated with Froude-supercritical flow. The upslope and downslope undulations boundaries are limited by a hydraulic jump where the flow makes a conversion from supercriticial flow (Fr>1) to subcritical flow (Frproject TESELA (P11-RNM7069)

  17. Radiation emission at channeling of electrons in a strained layer Si1-xGex undulator crystal

    Backe, H.; Krambrich, D.; Lauth, W.; Andersen, Kristoffer; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev

    2013-01-01

    Experiments have been performed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI to explore the radiation emission spectra from a crystalline undulator at electron beam energies of 270 and 855 MeV. The epitaxially grown graded composition strained layer Si1-xGex undulator had 4-period with a period length View the Ma...... emission from finite single arc elements, taking into account also coherence effects, suggest that evidence for a weak undulator effect has been observed for the first time for electrons.......Experiments have been performed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI to explore the radiation emission spectra from a crystalline undulator at electron beam energies of 270 and 855 MeV. The epitaxially grown graded composition strained layer Si1-xGex undulator had 4-period with a period length View the Math...

  18. Spatial variability of prodeltaic undulations on the Guadalfeo River prodelta: support to the genetic interpretation as hyperpycnal flow deposits

    Lobo, F. J.; Goff, J. A.; Mendes, I.; Bárcenas, P.; Fernández-Salas, L. M.; Martín-Rosales, W.; Macías, J.; Díaz del Río, V.

    2015-12-01

    Two fields of prodeltaic undulations located off the Guadalfeo River were studied by integrating surficial (multibeam bathymetry, backscatter, sediment samples) and sub-surface (seismic profiles, sediment cores) data. Our main motivation was to analyze the along- and across-shelf variability of the seafloor undulations, in order to obtain useful insights into genetic mechanisms. A geostatistical analysis was performed, based on the determination of characteristic parameters and derived relationships. The undulations occur over a concave-upward surface which shows a seaward-decreasing slope. Most of the undulations are symmetrical to asymmetrically-oriented toward the coast. Two main fields are correlated with the present and previous river mouths. The western field, associated with the modern river mouth, is highly symmetrical, with the higher undulations in an axial position and diminishing the width/height relationship both laterally and downslope. In contrast, the eastern field, associated with an historic river mouth, shows lower-amplitude undulations, the width/height changes are less pronounced, and the undulations are more elongated. The two undulation fields exhibit subseafloor reflections that are subparallel to the seafloor, with peaks that migrate upslope upward in the stratigraphic column and which appear to correlate with coarse-grained layers. We support the contention that prodeltaic undulations off the Guadalfeo River should be regarded as sediment waves. Assuming a sediment-wave process, a strong normal-to-contour sediment flows with a riverine origin (e.g., hyperpycnal flows) may have been active during undulation generation. Both morphometric parameters of the river basin and estimations of sediment concentration during exceptional flood events are in agreement with an episodic activity of high freshwater discharges. Most of the geomorphic parameters and stratigraphic observations indicate a change of sediment supply conditions related to the

  19. Design of Neutral Beam-Line of EAST

    胡纯栋; 盛鹏; 许永建; 梁立振; 谢远来; 韦江龙; 谢亚红; 李军; 刘智民; 刘胜; 蒋才超

    2011-01-01

    Neutral beam injector for EAST is designed to deliver deuterium beams with a power of 2 MW to 4 MW at an energy of 50 keV to 80 keV into the plasma with a beam dimension of 12 cm× 48 cm. Considering the beam generation and transmission, a columniform beam-line of Ф 250 cm × 400 cm is designed with a neutralizer, ion dump, calorimeter, bending magnet and cryopanels. The arrangement of the internal elements for the beam-line is reported. A rectangular sleeve coupled to the ion source is employed as the neutralizer. At the downstream of the neutralizer, a dipole magnet separates the residual ions from the beam passage with a reflection radius of 42 cm for the full energy particles. The calorimeter and the ion dump serve as high heat flux components, which will work as thermal inertia targets in the first phase of operation.

  20. Simulations of proton beam characteristics for ELIMED Beamline

    Psikal, Jan; Limpouch, Jiri; Klimo, Ondrej; Vyskocil, Jiri; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg

    2016-03-01

    ELIMED Beamline should demonstrate the capability of laser-based particle accelerators for medical applications, mainly for proton radiotherapy of tumours which requires a sufficient number of accelerated protons with energy about 60 MeV at least. In this contribution, we study the acceleration of protons by laser pulse with parameters accessible for ELIMED Beamline (intensity ∼ 1022 W/cm2, pulse length ∼ 30 fs). In our two-dimensional particle-incell simulations, we observed higher energies of protons for linear than for circular polarization. Oblique incidence of the laser pulse on target does not seem to be favourable for proton acceleration at such high intensities as the accelerated protons are deflected from target normal axis and their energy and numbers are slightly decreased. The expected numbers of accelerated protons in the energy interval 60 MeV ± 5% are calculated between 109 and 1010 per laser shot with estimated proton beam divergence about 20° (FWHM).

  1. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    Tremsin, A S; Tittelmeier, K; Schillinger, B; Schulz, M; Lerche, M; Feller, W B

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and...

  2. Magnetic shielding tests for MFTF-B neutral beamlines

    A test program to determine the effectiveness of various magnetic shielding designs for MFTF-B beamlines was established at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The proposed one-tenth-scale shielding-design models were tested in a uniform field produced by a Helmholtz coil pair. A similar technique was used for the MFTF source-injector assemblies, and the model test results were confirmed during the Technology Demonstration in 1982. The results of these tests on shielding designs for MFTF-B had an impact on the beamline design for MFTF-B. The iron-core magnet and finger assembly originally proposed were replaced by a simple, air-core, race-track-coil, bending magnet. Only the source injector needs to be magnetically shielded from the fields of approximately 400 gauss

  3. Design and performance of the ALS diagnostic beamline

    The design and operation of an imaging beamline at the Advanced Light Source used for providing diagnostic information on the electron beam for the accelerator and experimental groups is described. This system is based on a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror pair and utilizes a carbon filter to give a bandpass in the soft x-ray region. The focused x-rays are viewed on a single-crystal scintillator through an optical microscope and the image recorded on a CCD camera. This system, together with other instruments to evaluate beam size, stability, and other time-dependent information, is described, data are presented, and the operation of the overall beamline is evaluated. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Elliptical multipole wiggler beamlines at the advanced photon source

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team has built three independent beamlines, which simultaneously utilize the X-ray radiation from an elliptical multipole wiggler, located at Sector 11 of the Advanced Photon Source. This insertion device produces circularly polarized X-rays on-axis and linearly polarized X-rays above and below the ring plane. The lower linearly polarized radiation is used in the monochromatic 11ID-D station for scattering and spectroscopy experiments in the 5-40 keV range. The on-axis circularly polarized photons are used for magnetic Compton scattering experiments in the 11ID-B station. The upper linearly polarized radiation is utilized by the high-energy diffraction station, 11ID-C. We report here on the beamline optics and experimental station equipment

  5. Perspectives of imaging of single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL. Pt. 1. X-ray source, beamline optics and instrument simulations

    The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules (SPB) instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator, and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. This wide operation range is a cause for challenges to the focusing optics. In particular, a long propagation distance of about 900 m between X-ray source and sample leads to a large lateral photon beam size at the optics. The beam divergence is the most important parameter for the optical system, and is largest for the lowest photon energies and for the shortest pulse duration (corresponding to the lowest charge). Due to the large divergence of nominal X-ray pulses with duration shorter than 10 fs, one suffers diffraction from mirror aperture, leading to a 100-fold decrease in fluence at photon energies around 4 keV, which are ideal for imaging of single biomolecules. The nominal SASE1 output power is about 50 GW. This is very far from the level required for single biomolecule imaging, even assuming perfect beamline and focusing efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the parameters of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator offer an opportunity to optimize the SPB beamline for single biomolecule imaging with minimal additional costs and time. Start to end simulations from the electron injector at the beginning of the accelerator complex up to the generation of diffraction data indicate that one can achieve diffraction without diffraction with about 0.5 photons per Shannon pixel at near-atomic resolution with 1013 photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 100 nm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 1023ph/cm2. This result is exemplified using the RNA Pol II molecule as a case study.

  6. The 7T-MPW-EDDI beamline at BESSY II

    Klaus, Manuela; Garcia-Moreno, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The materials science beamline EDDI is operated in the Energy Dispersive DIffraction mode and provides hard synchrotron X-rays in an energy range between about 8 … 150 keV for a multitude of experiments reaching from the in-situ study of thin film deposition over the investigation of liquid phase processes to the analysis of the residual stress distribution in complex components and technical parts. For high temperature experiments or measurements under external mechanical load various device...

  7. Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility photocathode gun and transport beamline

    We present an analysis of the electron beam emitted from a laser driven photocathode injector (Gun, operating at 2856 MHZ), through a Transport beamline, to the LINAC entrance for the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The beam parameters including beam energy, and emittance are calculated. Some of our results, are tabulated and the phase plots of the beam parameters, from Cathode, through the Transport line elements, to the LINAC entrance, are shown

  8. Resonant scattering and diffraction beamline P09 at PETRA III

    Strempfer, J.; Francoual, S.; Reuther, D.; Shukla, D. K.; Skaugen, A.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Kracht, T.; Franz, H.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant scattering and diffraction beamline P09 at PETRA III is designed for X-ray experiments requiring small beams, energy tunability, variable polarization and high photon flux. It is highly flexible in terms of beam size and offers full higher harmonic suppression. A state of the art double phase retarder setup provides variable linear or circular polarization. A high precision Psi-diffractometer and a heavy load diffractometer in horizontal Psi-geometry allow the accommodation of a ...

  9. Measurement of intensity distribution of CSR in LEBRA PXR beamline

    Last year, the intensity of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) in LEBRA PXR beamline was measured. As a result, it turned out that the intensity of CSR was stronger than anticipation. It is suggested that Coherent Edge Radiation (CER) is mixed with CSR. Then, in order to confirm whether CER is contained, the intensity distribution of CSR was measured. The result of the experiment is reported in this paper. (author)

  10. Beamlines for thin and thick resist X-ray lithography

    An X-ray lithography beamline is being built for Louisiana State University (LSU), Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) that uses two plane mirrors at 26 mrad to establish a simple exposure station. An optional asperic mirror substituted for the first mirror can increase the throughput manifold. The second mirror is used for scanning and for horizontal beam propagation. We have investigated the optimum coatings for X-ray lithography with respect to radiation dose delivered to the silicon wafer. Wafer irradiation can be minimized by using titanium as the reflecting surface on one of the surfaces. Wafer doses are reduced by a factor of 2 compared to two gold reflecting surfaces. There is some decrease in overall beamline throughput with a titanium reflector, but given the high flux of the LSU ring, system performance is not degraded. We have also designed a beamline for use for thick (50 μm or grater) resists that uses a single iridium-coated aspheric focusing mirror at 10 mrad incidence angle. This system would be suitable for micromachining where the sample is translated past the beam. The theoretical throughput in 75% at 2 A and when operated with the LSU synchrotron at 1.4 GeV and 200 mA, will expose a 2 in. x 2 in. field of view of 100 μm thick PMMA to > 4 kJ/cm3 in 100 s. The X-rays are at near normal incidence over the entire field. This beamline is also suitable for operation on a superconducting wiggler insertion device (orig.)

  11. Successful test of SPS-to-LHC beamline

    2004-01-01

    On 23 October there was great excitement in the Prevessin control room when, on the first attempt, a beam passed over 2.5 km down the new SPS-to-LHC transfer line, TI8, to within a few metres of the LHC tunnel. Above: members of the AB, AT and TS departments involved in the beamline and its test, celebrate their success with the Director General, Robert Aymar, and the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans.

  12. Successful test of SPS-to-LHC beamline

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    On 23 October there was great excitement in the Prevessin control room when, on the first attempt, a beam passed over 2.5 km down the new SPS-to-LHC transfer line, TI8, to within a few metres of the LHC tunnel. Members of the AB, AT and TS departments involved in the beamline and its test, celebrate their success with the Director General, Robert Aymar, and the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans.

  13. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    Tremsin, A. S.; Dangendorf, V.; Tittelmeier, K.; Schillinger, B.; Schulz, M.; Lerche, M.; Feller, W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and integrated over multiple cycles. A fast MCP/Timepix neutron counting detector was used to image the water distribution within a model steam engine operating at 10 Hz frequency. Within neutron radiography for the future applications. The neutron spectrum of the ANTARES beamline as well as transmission spectra of a Fe sample were also measured with the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique in combination with a high resolution beam chopper. The energy resolution of our setup was found to be ~ 0.8% at 5 meV and ~ 1.7% at 25 meV. The background level (most likely gammas and epithermal/fast neutrons) of the ANTARES beamline was also measured in our experiments and found to be on the scale of 3% when no filters are installed in the beam. Online supplementary data available from stacks.iop.org/jinst/10/P07008/mmedia. The videos are given as supplementary material linked to the main article.

  14. RF undulator for compact X-ray SASE source of variable wavelength

    A room-temperature RF undulator, fed by Ka-band radiation and intended to produce ∼1 nm wavelength radiation using moderate energy electrons, is considered. The necessary electron bunches with energy 0.2-1 GeV could be produced by petawatt laser pulses injected into plasma bubbles.

  15. Longitudinal impedance and wake from XFEL undulators. Impact on current-enhanced SASE schemes

    In this article we derive longitudinal impedance and wake function for an undulator setup with arbitrary undulator parameter, taking into account a finite transverse size of the electron bunch. Earlier studies considered a line density-distribution of electrons instead. We focus our attention on the long-wavelength asymptote (compared with resonance wavelength), at large distance of the electron bunch from the undulator entrance compared to the overtaking length, and for large vacuumchamber size compared to the typical transverse size of the field. These restrictions define a parameter region of interest for practical applications. We calculate a closed expression for impedance and wake function that may be evaluated numerically in the most general case. Such expression allows us to derive an analytical solution for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of current-enhanced SASE schemes (ESASE) recently proposed for LCLS, that fall well-within our approximations. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that impedance-induced energy spread is sufficient to seriously degrade the FEL performance. Our conclusion is in contrast with results in literature, where wake calculations for the LCLS case are given in free-space, as if the presence of the undulator were negligible. (orig.)

  16. Final construction of the C.R.E.O.L. 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator

    Tesch, P.; Gallagher, J.; Elias, L. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The construction of an 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator for the C.R.E.O.L. high power far-infared free electron laser has just been completed. This FEL is expected to come on-line in the fall of 1995 and produce close to a kilowatt of continuous power at wavelengths of 225 - 800 microns. The undulator has extremely precise mechanical tolerances and high field uniformity allowing for high electron beam recovery rates. Almost complete beam recovery is required for DC operation at high currents. A novel method for measuring the magnetic properties of individual magnets and sorting the magnets to reduce magnetic field errors will be reported. The peak field and phase errors of the undulator without the pole pieces are reduced through a magnet ordering procedure. These errors are further reduced by inserting and tuning adjustable pole pieces. The reduction of field errors through these two techniques will be presented. An analysis of the final undulator errors and the results of measurements of the mechanical tolerances will be presented.

  17. Beam heat load measurements in the cold bore superconductive undulator in ANKA

    Casalbuoni, S; Hagelstein, M; Zimmermann, F; Rossmanith, Robert; Kostka, Barbara; Mashkina, Elena; Steffens, Erhard; Bernhard, Axel; Wollmann, Daniel; Baumbach, Tilo

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the beam-induced heat load in the ANKA cold-bore superconductive undulator are summarized. The strength of the two dominating effects, resistive wall heating and heating by electron bombardment, depends on the beam parameters and the gap width.

  18. Coherent undulator radiation of electron beam, microbunched for the FEL power outcoupling

    Kulipanov, G.N.; Sokolov, A.S.; Vinokurov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The spectral intensity of the coherent undulator radiation of electron beam, preliminarily microbunched by the FEL oscillator for the FEL power outcoupling, is approximately calculated by simple analytic considerations, taking into account the transverse emittances and the energy spread of the microbunched electron beams.

  19. Modeling the formation of undulations of the coastline: the role of tides

    van der Vegt, M.; Schuttelaars, H.; de Swart, H.E.

    2007-01-01

    An idealized model is developed and analyzed to investigate the relevance of tidal motion for the emergence of undulations of a sandy coastline. The model describes feedbacks between tidal and steady flow on the inner shelf, sand transport in the nearshore zone and an irregular coastline. It is demo

  20. Longitudinal impedance and wake from XFEL undulators. Impact on current-enhanced SASE schemes

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-06-15

    In this article we derive longitudinal impedance and wake function for an undulator setup with arbitrary undulator parameter, taking into account a finite transverse size of the electron bunch. Earlier studies considered a line density-distribution of electrons instead. We focus our attention on the long-wavelength asymptote (compared with resonance wavelength), at large distance of the electron bunch from the undulator entrance compared to the overtaking length, and for large vacuumchamber size compared to the typical transverse size of the field. These restrictions define a parameter region of interest for practical applications. We calculate a closed expression for impedance and wake function that may be evaluated numerically in the most general case. Such expression allows us to derive an analytical solution for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of current-enhanced SASE schemes (ESASE) recently proposed for LCLS, that fall well-within our approximations. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that impedance-induced energy spread is sufficient to seriously degrade the FEL performance. Our conclusion is in contrast with results in literature, where wake calculations for the LCLS case are given in free-space, as if the presence of the undulator were negligible. (orig.)

  1. Storage ring free electron laser. Operation with two undulators having opposite circular polarizations

    In Storage Ring Free Electron Lasers two undulators, having opposite helical polarizations and arranged as an Optical-Klystron, may be exploited to obtain linearly polarized radiation, without additional problems associated with mirror degradation, due to the higher on axis harmonic emission. In this paper it was explored the dynamical behavior of this device and discuss possible configurations allowing such as possibility

  2. Field fine tuning by pole height adjustment for the undulator of the TTF-FEL

    The field of the undulator for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility has to meet very tough tolerances in order to guarantee a close overlap between the electron beam and the laser field. Consequently the undulator was designed to have height-adjustable poles in order to allow for fine tuning of the vertical undulator field in such a way that the trajectory is straightened. The signature of local pole height and gap changes on the field distribution was investigated. It was seen that changes are not restricted to the pole itself. Its effect can be seen up to the next eight neighboring poles. In this contribution we describe an algorithm in detail, which allows the prediction of required pole height changes in order to correct for field errors. As input data field errors deduced from precise magnetic field measurements are used together with the signatures of pole movements. A band diagonal system of linear equations has to be solved to obtain the pole height corrections. For demonstration of the method the field of the 0.9 m long prototype structure was optimized to have a straight trajectory. Since only a sparse band diagonal system of equations has to be solved, the method has the potential to be used in very long undulators having 600 -1000 poles

  3. Beamlines on Indus-1 and Indus-2: present status

    Indus-1 (450 MeV) is an efficient synchrotron radiation (SR) source in the soft X-ray/vacuum ultra violet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For Indus-1 the higher order energy contamination in soft X-ray region, heat load and radiation safety problems are also significantly low. At present five beamlines are operational. This SR source is a national science facility being used by various research group across the country. Strong efforts are underway to increase the user base of Indus-1. The talk presents some of the recent studies carried out using Indus-1. Indus-2 (2.5 GeV) synchrotron source is one of the most important accelerator based science facilities being setup in India. A few beamlines have been commissioned and are being used by researchers from different institutes. This talk gives present status of the various beamlines and experimental stations on Indus-2. It is envisaged that the atomic and molecular science community can actively participate in planning experiments on Indus-1 and Indus-2 and setup experimental stations on Indus-2. (author)

  4. SIBYLS - a SAXS and protein crystallography beamline at the ALS

    The new Structurally Integrated BiologY for Life Sciences (SIBYLS) beamline at the Advanced Light Source will be dedicated to Macromolecular Crystallography (PX) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). SAXS will provide structural information of macromolecules in solutions and will complement high resolution PX studies on the same systems but in a crystalline state. The x-ray source is one of the 5 Tesla superbend dipoles recently installed at the ALS that allows for a hard x-ray program to be developed on the relatively low energy Advanced Light Source (ALS) ring (1.9 GeV). The beamline is equipped with fast interchangeable monochromator elements, consisting of either a pair of single Si(111) crystals for crystallography, or a pair of multilayers for the SAXS mode data collection (E/ΔE ∼ 1/110). Flux rates with Si(111) crystals for PX are measured as 2 x 1011 hv/sec/400 mA through a 100 (micro)m pinhole at 12.4 KeV. For SAXS the flux is up to 3 x 1013 photons/sec at 10 KeV with all apertures open when using the multilayer monochromator elements. The performance characteristics of this unique beamline will be described

  5. ADLIB---A simple database framework for beamline codes

    There are many well developed codes available for beamline design and analysis. A significant fraction of each of these codes is devoted to processing its own unique input language for describing the problem. None of these large, complex, and powerful codes does everything. Adding a new bit of specialized physics can be a difficult task whose successful completion makes the code even larger and more complex. This paper describes an attempt to move in the opposite direction, toward a family of small, simple, single purpose physics and utility modules, linked by an open, portable, public domain database framework. These small specialized physics codes begin with the beamline parameters already loaded in the database, and accessible via the handful of subroutines that constitute ADLIB. Such codes are easier to write, and inherently organized in a manner suitable for incorporation in model based control system algorithms. Examples include programs for analyzing beamline misalignment sensitivities, for simulating and fitting beam steering data, and for translating among MARYLIE, TRANSPORT, and TRACE3D formats

  6. ADLIB: A simple database framework for beamline codes

    There are many well developed codes available for beamline design and analysis. A significant fraction of each of these codes is devoted to processing its own unique input language for describing the problem. None of these large, complex, and powerful codes does everything. Adding a new bit of specialized physics can be a difficult task whose successful completion makes the code even larger and more complex. This paper describes an attempt to move in the opposite direction, toward a family of small, simple, single purpose physics and utility modules, linked by an open, portable, public domain database framework. These small specialized physics codes begin with the beamline parameters already loaded in the database, and accessible via the handful of subroutines that constitute ADLIB. Such codes are easier to write, and inherently organized in a manner suitable for incorporation in model based control system algorithms. Examples include programs for analyzing beamline misalignment sensitivities, for simulating and fitting beam steering data, and for translating among MARYLIE, TRANSPORT, and TRACE3D formats

  7. A robotic device with a passive undulating ribbon fin: kinematics and propulsive performance

    Liu, Hanlin; Curet, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Many aquatic animals swim with high maneuverability using undulating ribbon fins. In this type of swimming, the organism propels by sending one or multiple traveling waves along an elongated fin. In previous work, robotic models with fully actuated fins where the parameters of the traveling waves are fully prescribed have been used to study the propulsive performance and fluid dynamics of this type of propulsion. However, less work has been done in ribbon fins with passively undulating waves. In this work, we use a robotic device to study the kinematics and propulsive performance of a passively undulating ribbon fin. The physical model is composed of fifteen rays interconnected with a membrane. Only two rays are actuated while the other rays are free to rotate through a common axis. The robotic fin was tested in a flume at different flow conditions. In a series of experiments we measured fin kinematics, propulsive forces and power consumption. As the leading two rays are actuated, a traveling wave with decaying amplitude passes through the passive rays. As the frequency of the actuated rays increases, the enclosed area of the undulating wave and the traveling wave frequency increase while the wavelength decreases. Our data also show that the propulsive force generated by the fin scaled with the enclosed area and the square of the relative velocity between incoming flow and traveling wave. These results suggest that both natural swimmers and underwater vehicles using ribbon-fin-based propulsion can potentially take advantage of passive undulating waves. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1420774

  8. Tuning and characterization of the {open_quotes}Teufel{close_quotes}-undulator

    Verschuur, J.W.J.; Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Three important criteria are used to tune the undulator are: reduce longitudinal phase errors, have approximately equal two plane focusing and have a good overlap between the electron beam and the optical beam. Although these criteria are the main design goals it is hard to meet them directly from the assembling. Small errors inevitably appear during the assembly, even when care is taken to keep the tolerances as tight as possible. The magnetic field was constantly monitored during construction using the pulsed wire method. However some kind of tuning mechanism is always needed to improve the performance of the undulator. The undulator we designed and build is of the Hybrid type, i.e. permanent magnets and high permeable poles. The well known method of using small permanent magnets to correct the field errors is nearly impossible due to the presence of iron poles. Hence, as a logical step, we decided to try to correct the various errors with shims in the form of small iron plates. The shims were put on the pole face at the edge of the poles. Different configurations were used to correct the different kind of errors. In the presentation an overview of the various shim configurations will be discussed. Steering errors are quite easy to correct, since only dipole fields are involved. We did put quite some effort in correcting the quadrupole errors. Gradients dBy/dx and dBx/dy were easy to correct with two shims on one side. The other gradients, on the other hand needed extensive shimming to be corrected. The error correction is limited by the presence of sextupole errors. We even found by experience that sextupole errors increased with the number of shims used. The ratio of the focusing strength of the undulator is measured to be 3/2, being slightly stronger in the direction of the wiggle motion. Longitudinal phase errors are introduced by amplitude and wavelength deviations in the undulator.

  9. Tailoring the amplification of attosecond pulse through detuned X-ray FEL undulator.

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Dong Eon

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that the amplification of attosecond pulse in X-ray free electron laser (FEL) undulator can be tailored. The characteristic of the amplification of an isolated attosecond pulse in the FEL undulator is investigated. An isolated 180 attoseconds full width half maximum (FWHM) pulse at 1.25 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 1% is injected into an undulator. The simulation results show that for a direct seeding of 3MW, the seed is amplified to the peak power of 106 GW (40 μJ, an output pulse-width of 383 attoseconds) in the presence of a detuning at FEL resonance condition in 100-m long undulator. We note that the introduction of detuning leads to the better performance compared to the case without detuning: shorter by 15.5% in a pulse-width and higher by 76.6% in an output power. Tapering yields a higher power (116% increases in the output power compared to the case without detuning) but a longer pulse (15.4% longer in the pulse-width). It was observed that ± Δλ(r)/8 (Δλ(r)/λ(r) ~1%) is the maximum degree of detuning, beyond which the amplification becomes poor: lower in the output power and longer in the pulse duration. The minimum power for a seed pulse needs to be higher than 1 MW for the successful amplification of an attosecond pulse at 1.25 nm. Also, the electron beam energy-spread must be less than 0.1% for a suitable propagation of attosecond pulse along the FEL undulator under this study. PMID:25836141

  10. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    Debus, Alexander

    2012-09-06

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  11. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  12. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: spectromicroscopy and fast timing

    Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    1999-01-01

    Two recently commissioned infrared beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides three primary advantages: increased brightness, very fast light pulses, and enhanced far-IRflux. The considerable brightness advantage manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated FTIR spectromicroscopy beamline, where a diffraction-l...

  13. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron source

    K K Pandey; H K Poswal; A K Mishra; Abhilash Dwivedi; R Vasanthi; Nandini Garg; Surinder M Sharma

    2013-04-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline has been designed, developed and commissioned at BL-11 bending magnet port of the Indian synchrotron source, Indus-2. The performance of this beamline has been benchmarked by measuring diffraction patterns from various elemental metals and standard inorganic powdered samples. A few recent high-pressure investigations are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the beamline.

  14. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user's risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly

  15. The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline at FERMI: optical layout and first commissioning

    Svetina, Cristian [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Graduate School of Nanotechnology, University of Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Grazioli, Cesare, E-mail: cesare.grazioli@elettra.eu [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM TASC, Area Science Park Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Fava, Claudio [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2015-04-21

    A description of the LDM beamline of FERMI is given, with a detailed description of the photon transport. The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline has been built as part of the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) facility to serve the atomic, molecular and cluster physics community. After the commissioning phase, it received the first external users at the end of 2012. The design and characterization of the LDM photon transport system is described, detailing the optical components of the beamline.

  16. The beamlines of ELETTRA and their application to structural biology.

    Zanini, F; Lausi, A; Savoia, A

    1999-01-01

    Protein crystallographers are nowadays regular users of synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities for several applications. The goal of majority of users is simply to extract more accurate, higher resolution data from existing crystals; they use monochromatic radiation and the rotation method, in order to get a complete survey of the reciprocal space in a short time. In fact the brilliance of SR is essential, due to the weak scattering power of the samples, and because of their sensibility to radiation damage. Over the last few years, however, a general increase of interest for measurements at multiple wavelengths, which exploit the anomalous dispersion for the phase problem (multiwavelength anomalous diffraction--MAD), has generated the need of intense tuneable sources. For these applications, the emphasis is on accurate measurements of the small differences between the intensities of Bragg reflections at various energies across the absorption edge of an element present in the sample. The macromolecular diffraction beamline at ELETTRA, which is now running routinely since spring 1995, has been designed to provide a high flux--highly collimated tuneable X-rays source in the spectral range between 4 and 25 keV. The radiation source is the 57-pole wiggler, which delivers a very intense radiation up to 25 keV, and is shared and used simultaneously with the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beamline. The front-end filter system has a cut-off energy at about 4 keV. The beamline optics consists of a pseudo-channel-cut double-crystal monochromator followed by a double focusing toroidal mirror. The tunability and the stability of the monochromator allows the user to perform MAD experiments, and for this purpose, a fluorescence probe for the exact calibration of the absorption edge is available on-line. The experimental station is based on an imaging plate area detector from MarResearch, with a sensible area of 345 mm in diameter. A cooled N2-stream is available to cool the

  17. Remote control of turn-by-turn photon beam profile monitor at the SPring-8 diagnostics beamline II

    The turn-by-turn beam profile monitor (TTPM) using undulator radiation is installed in the diagnostic beamline II (BL05SS) of the SPring-8 storage ring to observe stored beam oscillation, instabilities of a high current single bunch and so on. The TTPM system employs a high-speed CCD camera (ProEM 512BK by Princeton Instruments) with a special function to record turn-by-turn images both of horizontal and vertical spatial profiles in a single picture by vertically shifting electric charge stored in the CCD elements in microseconds. The CCD camera can be controlled by using WinSpec32 software (Prinston Instruments) running on a local Windows PC at BL05SS via a gigabit Ethernet interface. We have built a TTPM remote control system to realize continuous and automatic observation of stored beam stability during the user time operation at the SPring-8 central control room. The TTPM remote control system consists of the following three parts; control software of WinSpec32 by through COM (Component Object Model) on the local Windows PC, remote application software on Linux operator consoles and communication software using ZeroMQ between the WinSpec32 control software and the remote application software. As the remote application software, two kinds of GUIs are prepared. One is for the measurement of the stored beam oscillation at the top-up injection, and the other is for the instability observation of a high current single bunch. These GUIs provide functions of display of the captured image, fitting calculation of the image, display the result and record it into the DB and so on. The remote control system has been utilized for the stability observation by operators in the central control room since December 2012 and worked well. (author)

  18. Design of the Taiwan contract bending-magnet beamline at SPring-8

    The BL12B2 beamline at SPring-8 is a Taiwan contract bending magnet beamline designed for multiple applications. This beamline is able to provide different operational modes of white beam and monochromatic photons of energies from 5 to 70 keV. The end stations under construction include a micro-beam station, a MAD protein crystallography station, a high-resolution X-ray scattering/diffraction station, and an EXAFS station. This beamline has been installed and will be ready for user operation in the spring of 2001

  19. HERMES: a soft X-ray beamline dedicated to X-ray microscopy.

    Belkhou, Rachid; Stanescu, Stefan; Swaraj, Sufal; Besson, Adrien; Ledoux, Milena; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Dalle, Didier

    2015-07-01

    The HERMES beamline (High Efficiency and Resolution beamline dedicated to X-ray Microscopy and Electron Spectroscopy), built at Synchrotron SOLEIL (Saint-Auban, France), is dedicated to soft X-ray microscopy. The beamline combines two complementary microscopy methods: XPEEM (X-ray Photo Emitted Electron Microscopy) and STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) with an aim to reach spatial resolution below 20 nm and to fully exploit the local spectroscopic capabilities of the two microscopes. The availability of the two methods within the same beamline enables the users to select the appropriate approach to study their specific case in terms of sample environment, spectroscopy methods, probing depth etc. In this paper a general description of the beamline and its design are presented. The performance and specifications of the beamline will be reviewed in detail. Moreover, the article is aiming to demonstrate how the beamline performances have been specifically optimized to fulfill the specific requirements of a soft X-ray microscopy beamline in terms of flux, resolution, beam size etc. Special attention has been dedicated to overcome some limiting and hindering problems that are usually encountered on soft X-ray beamlines such as carbon contamination, thermal stability and spectral purity. PMID:26134801

  20. 10 years of protein crystallography at AR-NW12A beamline

    The exponential growth of protein crystallography can be observed in the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. Nowadays, the screening of a profusion of sample crystals for more and more projects is being implemented by taking advantage of fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments. The insertion device AR-NW12A beamline is one of the five macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Photon Factory (PF). Currently the oldest MX beamline operational at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), the end-station was launched in 2001 as part of an upgrade of the PF Advanced Ring. Since its commissioning, AR-NW12A has been operating as a high-throughput beamline, slowly evolving to a multipurpose end-station for MX experiments. The development of the beamline took place about a decade ago, in parallel with a drastic development of protein crystallography and more general synchrotron technology. To keep the beamline up-to-date and competitive with other MX stations in Japan and worldwide, new features have been constantly added, with the goal of user friendliness of the various beamline optics and other instruments. Here we describe the evolution of AR-NW12A for its tenth anniversary. We also discuss the plans for upgrades for AR-NW12A, the future objectives in terms of the beamline developments, and especially the strong desire to open the beamline to a larger user community.

  1. Argonne National Laboratory X6B beamline at NSLS: A versatile facility

    With high-intensity, high-energy resolution, energy tunability, and flexibility of operation, the Argonne National Laboratory X6B beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has become a versatile facility for a variety of x-ray diffraction, scattering, and spectroscopy experiments. The beamline can be operated in either focused or unfocused beam mode, depending on the requirement of specific experiments. We describe the x-ray optics and beamline performance, and present selected experimental results to demonstrate the main features of the X6B beamline

  2. MX1: a bending-magnet crystallography beamline serving both chemical and macromolecular crystallography communities at the Australian Synchrotron

    The macromolecular crystallography beamline MX1 at the Australian Synchrotron is described. MX1 is a bending-magnet crystallography beamline at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. The beamline delivers hard X-rays in the energy range from 8 to 18 keV to a focal spot at the sample position of 120 µm FWHM. The beamline endstation and ancillary equipment facilitate local and remote access for both chemical and biological macromolecular crystallography. Here, the design of the beamline and endstation are discussed. The beamline has enjoyed a full user program for the last seven years and scientific highlights from the user program are also presented

  3. ELIMED, MEDical and multidisciplinary applications at ELI-Beamlines

    Schillaci, F.; Anzalone, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Carpinelli, M.; Cuttone, G.; Cutroneo, M.; De Martinis, C.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Maggiore, M.; Manti, L.; Margarone, D.; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F. M.; Petrovic, I.; Pisciotta, P.; Renis, M.; Ristic-Fira, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Schettino, G.; Scuderi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Tramontana, A.; Tudisco, S.

    2014-04-01

    ELI-Beamlines is one of the pillars of the pan-European project ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure). It will be an ultra high-intensity, high repetition-rate, femtosecond laser facility whose main goal is generation and applications of high-brightness X-ray sources and accelerated charged particles in different fields. Particular care will be devoted to the potential applicability of laser-driven ion beams for medical treatments of tumors. Indeed, such kind of beams show very interesting peculiarities and, moreover, laser-driven based accelerators can really represent a competitive alternative to conventional machines since they are expected to be more compact in size and less expensive. The ELIMED project was launched thanks to a collaboration established between FZU-ASCR (ELI-Beamlines) and INFN-LNS researchers. Several European institutes have already shown a great interest in the project aiming to explore the possibility to use laser-driven ion (mostly proton) beams for several applications with a particular regard for medical ones. To reach the project goal several tasks need to be fulfilled, starting from the optimization of laser-target interaction to dosimetric studies at the irradiation point at the end of a proper designed transport beam-line. Researchers from LNS have already developed and successfully tested a high-dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, which is the first prototype of a more performing device to be used within the ELIMED project. Also a Magnetic Selection System able to produce a small pencil beam out of a wide energy distribution of ions produced in laser-target interaction has been realized and some preliminary work for its testing and characterization is in progress. In this contribution the status of the project will be reported together with a short description of the of the features of device recently developed.

  4. The BALDER Beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory

    Klementiev, K.; Norén, K.; Carlson, S.; Sigfridsson Clauss, K. G. V.; Persson, I.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) includes well-established methods to study the local structure around the absorbing element - extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and the effective oxidation number or to quantitatively determine the speciation of an element in a complex matrix - X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The increased brilliance and intensities available at the new generation of synchrotron light sources makes it possible to study, in-situ and in-operando, much more dilute systems with relevance for natural systems, as well as the micro-scale variability and dynamics of chemical reactions on the millisecond time-scale. The design of the BALDER beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory 3 GeV ring has focused on a high flux of photons in a wide energy range, 2.4-40 keV, where the K-edge is covered for the elements S to La, and the L 3-edge for all elements heavier than Sb. The overall design of the beamline will allow large flexibility in energy range, beam size and data collection time. The other focus of the beamline design is the possibility to perform multi-technique analyses on samples. Development of sample environment requires focus on implementation of auxiliary methods in such a way that techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and/or mass spectrometry can be performed simultaneously as the XAS study. It will be a flexible system where different instruments can be plugged in and out depending on the needs for the particular investigation. Many research areas will benefit from the properties of the wiggler based light source and the capabilities to perform in-situ and in-operando measurements, for example environmental and geochemical sciences, nuclear chemistry, catalysis, materials sciences, and cultural heritage.

  5. A Novel Diagnostics of Ultrashort Electron Bunches Based on Detection of Coherent Radiation from Bunched Electron Beam in an Undulator

    Saldin, Evgeny L; Yurkov, Mikhail V

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new method for measurements of the longitudinal profile of 100 femtosecond electron bunches for X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The method is based on detection of coherent undulator radiation produced by modulated electron beam. Seed optical quantum laser is used to produce exact optical replica of ultrashort electron bunches. The replica is generated in apparatus which consists of an input undulator (energy modulator), and output undulator (radiator) separated by a dispersion section. The radiation in the output undulator is excited by the electron bunch modulated at the optical wavelength and rapidly reaches a hundred-MW-level power. We then use the now-standard method of ultrashort laser pulse-shape measurement, a tandem combination of autocorrelator and spectrum (FROG -- frequency resolved optical gating) providing real-time single-shot measurements of the electron bunch structure. The big advantage of proposed technique is that it can be used to determine the slice energy spread and emi...

  6. Ice Velocity Mapping of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica by Matching Surface Undulations Measured by Icesat Laser Altimetry

    Lee, Choon-Ki; Han, Shin-Chan; Yu, Jaehyung; Scambos, Ted A.; Seo, Ki-Weon

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method for estimating the surface horizontal velocity on ice shelves using laser altimetrydata from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat; 20032009). The method matches undulations measured at crossover points between successive campaigns.

  7. High Resolution Spectroscopy on an X-ray Absorption Beamline

    Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Proux, Olivier; Nassif, Vivian; Palancher, Hervé; Lahera, Eric; Da Silva, Cécile; Braillard, Aurélien; Testemale, Denis; Diot, Marie-Ange; Alliot, Isabelle; Delnet, William; Manceau, A.; Gélébart, Frédéric; Morand, Marc; Dermigny, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A bent crystal spectrometer based on the Rowland circle geometry has been tested on the BM30b/FAME beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The energy resolution of the spectrometer (1.3eV at the Cu K1 energy, i.e. 8047.78eV) allows to perform different kinds of measurements, including X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering and X-ray Raman Scattering experiments. The simplicity of the experimental device makes it easily implemented on a cl...

  8. ELIMED, MEDical and multidisciplinary applications at ELI-Beamlines

    Schillaci, Francesco; Anzalone, A.; Cirrone, Giuseppe A.P.; Carpinelli, M.; Cuttone, G.; Cutroneo, M.; De Martinis, c.; Giove, d.; Korn, Georg; Maggiore, Mario; Manti, L.; Margarone, Daniele; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F.M.; Petrovic, I.; Pisciotta, P.; Renis, M.; Ristic-Fira, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F.P.; Schettino, G.; Scuderi, Valentina; Torrisi, L.; Tramontana, A.; Tudisco, S.

    Vol. 508. Bristol: IOP Publishing, 2014, "012010-1"-"012010-7". ISSN 1742-6588. [Plasma Physics by Laser and Applications 2013 Conference (PPLA2013). Lecce (IT), 02.10.2013-04.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser ion accelerators * Thomson spectrometer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  9. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and integrated over multiple cycles. A fast MCP/Timepix neutron counting detector was used to image the water distribution within a model steam engine operating at 10 Hz frequency. Within <10 minutes integration the amount of water was measured as a function of cycle time with a sub-mm spatial resolution, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of time-resolved neutron radiography for the future applications. The neutron spectrum of the ANTARES beamline as well as transmission spectra of a Fe sample were also measured with the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique in combination with a high resolution beam chopper. The energy resolution of our setup was found to be ∼ 0.8% at 5 meV and ∼ 1.7% at 25 meV. The background level (most likely gammas and epithermal/fast neutrons) of the ANTARES beamline was also measured in our experiments and found to be on the scale of 3% when no filters are installed in the beam. Online supplementary data available from stacks

  10. Beam dynamics studies during commissioning of two undulators in Indus-2

    Indus-2, a synchrotron light source facility at RRCAT, Indore is in continuous operation at 2.5 GeV, generating the synchrotron radiation from its bending magnets. For enhancing the intensity of synchrotron radiation, two planar undulators have been installed and successfully commissioned with the Indus-2 electron beam. Various beam dynamical challenges such as beam accumulation, beam energy ramping and storage at 2.5 GeV have been addressed to ensure the smooth commissioning of these devices. Moreover, due to interaction of the stored beam with magnetic field of undulators, various parameters of the electron beam get changed. In this paper, the beam dynamics studies to ensure the smooth commissioning of these devices and its measured effect on beam parameters have been presented. (author)

  11. A hybrid type undulator for far-infrared FELs at FELI

    Zako, A.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two FEL facilities of the FELI are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m. A 3.2-m hybrid type undulator ({lambda}{sub u}=80mm, N=40) has been designed for far-infrared FELs and will be installed in December. It can cover the wavelength of 20-60 {mu}m by changing K-value from 1 to 2.7 for a 28.0-MeV electron beam. It is composed of ferrite magnetic poles and Sm-Co permanent magnets. Commonly wound coils induce alternating magnetic field in ferrite poles. Combination of the induced field and the permanent magnet field can controls the magnetic field between the undulator gap.

  12. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in undulators

    Vinit Kumar; Ganeshwar Mishra

    2010-05-01

    Pulsed wire technique is a fast and accurate method for the measurement of first and second field integrals of undulators used in free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of this technique by finding out the analytic solution of the differential equation for the forced vibration of the wire taking dispersion due to stiffness into account. Method of images is used to extend these solutions to include reflections at the ends. For long undulators, the effect of dispersion of the acoustic wave in the wire could be significant and our analysis provides a method for the evaluation of the magnetic field profile even in such cases taking the effect due to dispersion into account in an exact way.

  13. Tapering studies for Terawatt level X-ray FELs with a superconducting undulator

    Emma, Claudio; Emma, Paul; Huang, Zhirong; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We study the tapering optimization scheme for a short period, less than two cm, superconducting undulator, and show that it can generate 4 keV X-ray pulses with peak power in excess of 1 terawatt, using LCLS electron beam parameters. We study the e?ect of undulator module length relative to the FEL gain length for continous and step-wise taper pro?les. For the optimal section length of 1.5m we study the evolution of the FEL process for two di?erent superconducting technologies NbTi and Nb3Sn. We discuss the major factors limiting the maximum output power, particle detrapping around the saturation location and time dependent detrapping due to generation and ampli?cation of sideband modes.

  14. Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.

    Dooling, J.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2010-11-01

    The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MARS is used to model the generation of gas bremsstrahlung (GB) radiation from 7-GeV electrons which scatter from residual gas atoms in undulator straight sections within the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Additionally, MARS is employed to model the interactions of the GB radiation with components along the x-ray beamlines and then determine the expected radiation dose-rates that result. In this manner, MARS can be used to assess the adequacy of existing shielding or the specifications for new shielding when required. The GB radiation generated in the 'thin-target' of an ID straight section will consist only of photons in a 1/E-distribution up to the full energy of the stored electron beam. Using this analytical model, the predicted GB power for a typical APS 15.38-m insertion device (ID) straight section is 4.59 x 10{sup -7} W/nTorr/mA, assuming a background gas composed of air (Z{sub eff} = 7.31) at room temperature (293K). The total GB power provides a useful benchmark for comparisons between analytical and numerical approaches. We find good agreement between MARS and analytical estimates for total GB power. The extended straight section 'target' creates a radial profile of GB, which is highly peaked centered on the electron beam. The GB distribution reflects the size of the electron beam that creates the radiation. Optimizing the performance of MARS in terms of CPU time per incident trajectory requires the use of a relatively short, high-density gas target (air); in this report, the target density is {rho}L = 2.89 x 10{sup -2} g/cm{sup 2} over a length of 24 cm. MARS results are compared with the contact dose levels reported in TB-20, which used EGS4 for radiation transport simulations. Maximum dose-rates in 1 cc of tissue phantom form the initial basis for comparison. MARS and EGS4 results are approximately the same for maximum 1-cc dose-rates and attenuation in the photon

  15. Impact of undulator wake-fields and tapering on the European X-ray FEL performance

    In this paper we estimate the induced wakefields in an elliptical pipe geometry taking into account main geometrical variations of the chamber. To study the expected performance in the presence of the calculated wakefields we are doing start-to-end simulations with the codes ASTRA, CSRtrack and Genesis. In order to compensate the impact of wake fields on the FEL performance, an adiabatic change of undulator parameters is applied. (orig.)

  16. A Study on Inviscid Flow with a Free Surface over an Undulating Bottom

    Srikumar Panda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem involving inviscid flow with a free surface over an undulating bottom is studied within the framework of linear theory. Applying perturbation analysis in conjunction with the Fourier transform technique, the boundary value problem arising from the flow problem is solved analytically. Behaviour of both interface and free-surface profiles, which are unknown at the outset, are analyzed. It is found that each profile (interface and free-surface) possesses a ...

  17. On simulating lipid bilayers with an applied surface tension: periodic boundary conditions and undulations.

    Feller, S E; Pastor, R W

    1996-01-01

    As sketched in Fig. 1, a current molecular dynamics computer simulation of a lipid bilayer fails to capture significant features of the macroscopic system, including long wavelength undulations. Such fluctuations are intrinsically connected to the value of the macroscopic (or thermodynamic) surface tension (cf. Eqs. 1 and 9; for a related treatment, see Brochard et al., 1975, 1976). Consequently, the surface tension that might be evaluated in an MD simulation should not be expected to equal t...

  18. Undulative induction electron accelerator for the waste and natural water purification systems

    Kulish, Victor V; Gubanov, I V

    2001-01-01

    The project analysis of Undulative Induction Accelerator (EH - accelerator) for the waste and natural water purification systems is accomplished. It is shown that the use of the four-channel design of induction block and the standard set of auxiliary equipment (developed earlier for the Linear Induction Accelerators - LINACs) allow to construct commercially promising purification systems. A quality analysis of the accelerator is done and the optimal parameters are chosen taking into account the specific sphere of its usage.

  19. Spectral character of optimized undulator insertion devices for the synchrotron x-ray source at Argonne

    Two general types of undulator x-ray sources are planned for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to be built at Argonne. One is to provide first harmonic radiation tunable over the interval of 7 to 14 keV during the initial phase of operation of the storage ring. This tunability range will increase for the same device to approximately 4.7 to 14 keV during the mature phase of operation. The larger tunability interval corresponds to a smaller vertical stay free clearance expected for the final operating conditions of the ring. This allows for a smaller undulator magnetic gap and hence lower energy first harmonic radiation. By using the higher harmonics of this device, considerable intensity will be available at 20 keV and above. A second device with a smaller period is planned for those cases where the intensity of the third harmonic radiation from the above device is not sufficient. In this case, the undulator will provide 20 keV radiation in the first harmonic. The magnetic design of both devices will be a hybrid type which uses the Nd-Fe-B alloy as the permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur as the pole-tip. As part of the optimization scheme, the magnetic field calculations have been carried out using a version of the two dimensional field code PANDIRA. In this approximation, the width of the undulator is assumed to be infinite. Three dimensional effects associated to finite pole widths have been estimated using experimental results of single pole measurements for a 7 cm period device. In addition, numerical calculations of the spectral characteristics have been done using the magnetic design parameters and taking into account the emittance expected for the APS. On-axis brilliance results as well as expected spectral power densities have been determined

  20. A rapidly-modulated variable-polarization crossed-undulator source

    Within the areas of chemistry, life sciences, materials science, and physics, there is a growing interest in experiments which require an intense source of variably-polarized photons and which can be modulated between variable polarization states at frequencies up to 10 Hz. This interest is also being anticipated by 3rd generation sources which will become operational in the next few years. Therefore, a collaboration of scientists at ANL, LBL, and SRC is designing such a source at the Aladdin storage ring, SRC. The source consists of two orthogonal undulators, separated longitudinally by a modulator which varies the path length of the electrons passing through, and hence, effectively the phasing of the radiation from each of the two undulators. Varying the longitudinal spacing of the undulators permits any base polarization state, linear, elliptical, or circular. Further, the modulator can rapidly vary the phasing between undulators by up to 90 degree, permitting variations between circular polarization of opposite handedness, or orthogonal linear states. The source will provide radiation tunable over the range from 8-40 eV. Besides the source, an initial-phase beam line is planned. This beam line includes diagnostics which can be used to characterize and control the polarization state of the radiation. This facility would be immediately useful to research teams at SRC. Furthermore, it would provide valuable experience for the implementation of such devices at 3rd generation sources such as ALS and APS. This paper presents design work to date on this entire project. Topics covered will be; the rationale for the configuration; parameter selection based on the requirements of both the users and stable operation on the Aladdin storage ring; and, the requirements and conceptual design for a most critical component - the magnetic modulator

  1. Effects of Elliptically Polarizing Undulator on Beam Dynamics in PLS-II

    Shin, S; Huang, J-Y

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear effects caused by the intrinsic field transverse roll-off in an Elliptically Polarizing Undulator with 72-mm period and maximum peak field of 0.72 T (EPU72) on the dynamics aperture of the Pohang Light Source II (PLS-II) were investigated. A kick map and Frequency map analysis both demonstrated that EPU72 will not reduce the lifetime or cause injection problems in PLS-II.

  2. Undulative induction electron accelerator for the waste and natural water purification systems

    The project analysis of Undulative Induction Accelerator (EH - accelerator) for the waste and natural water purification systems is accomplished. It is shown that the use of the four-channel design of induction block and the standard set of auxiliary equipment (developed earlier for the Linear Induction Accelerators - LINACs) allow to construct commercially promising purification systems. A quality analysis of the accelerator is done and the optimal parameters are chosen taking into account the specific sphere of its usage

  3. Effects of undulators on the ALS: The early work on the LBL [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    In this paper we describe the early work carried out at LBL on the consequences of installing insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) on the beam dynamics of the ALS. This included analytical and tracking studies, and led to an insight to the reasons behind the predicted reduction in dynamic aperture. For completeness, a description of the unperturbed storage ring characteristics are also given. 3 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Magnetic field measurements of the harmonic generation FEL superconducting undulator at BNL-NSLS

    A three stage superconducting undulator (modulator, dispersive section, and radiator) is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Sections of the radiator, consisting of 25cm long steel yokes, each with 18mm period, 0.54 Tesla field, and 8.6mm gap are under test. The magnetic measurements and operational characteristics of the magnet are discussed. Measurement results and analysis are presented, with emphasis on the integrated field quality. The magnet winding and the effects of the various trims are discussed

  5. Chamber Surface Roughness and Electron Cloud for the Advanced Photon Source Superconducting Undulator

    Boon, Laura; Harkay, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The electron cloud is a possible heat source in the superconducting undulator (SCU) designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 7-GeV electron synchrotron radiation source at Argonne National Laboratory. In electron cloud generation extensive research has been done, and is continuing, to understand the secondary electron component. However, little work has been done to understand the parameters of photoemission in the accelerator environment. To better understand the primary electron gen...

  6. Image tuning techniques for enhancing the performance of pure permanent magnet undulators with small gap/period ratios

    Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The on-axis field of a small-gap undulator constricted out of pure permanent magnet (PM) blocks arranged in an alternating-dipole (i.e., 2 dipoles/period) array can be substantially varied by positioning monolithic permeable plates above and below the undulator jaws. This simple technique, which can be used to control the 1st harmonic energy in conventional synchrotron radiation (SR) or Free Electron Laser (FEL) applications requiring sub-octave tuning, can also be shown to suppress magnetic inhomogeneities that can contribute to the undulator`s on-axis field errors. If a standard 4 block/period Halbach undulator, composed of PM blocks with square cross sections, is rearranged into an alternating-dipole array with the same period, the peak field that can be generated with superimposed image plates can substantially exceed that of the pure-PM Halbach array. This design technique, which can be viewed as intermediate between the {open_quotes}pure-PM{close_quotes} and standard {open_quotes}hybrid/PM{close_quotes} configurations, provides a potentially cost-effective method of enhancing the performance of small-gap, pure-PM insertion devices. In this paper we report on the analysis and recent characterization of pure-PM undulator structures with superimposed image plates, and discuss possible applications to FEL research.

  7. Proposed Laser-driven, Dielectric Microstructure Few-cm Long Undulator for Attosecond Coherent X-rays

    Plettner, T; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U., Ginzton Lab.

    2011-09-16

    This article presents the concept of an all-dielectric laser-driven undulator for the generation of coherent X-rays. The proposed laser-driven undulator is expected to produce internal deflection forces equivalent to a several-Tesla magnetic field acting on a speed-of-light particle. The key idea for this laser-driven undulator is its ability to provide phase synchronicity between the deflection force and the electron beam for a distance that is much greater than the laser wavelength. The potential advantage of this undulator is illustrated with a possible design example that assumes a small laser accelerator which delivers a 2 GeV, 1 pC, 1 kHz electron bunch train to a 10 cm long, 1/2 mm period laser-driven undulator. Such an undulator could produce coherent X-ray pulses with {approx}10{sup 9} photons of 64 keV energy. The numerical modeling for the expected X-ray pulse shape was performed with GENESIS, which predicts X-ray pulse durations in the few-attosecond range. Possible applications for nonlinear electromagnetic effects from these X-ray pulses are briefly discussed.

  8. Beamlines on Indus-1 and Indus-2 for X-ray Multilayer Optics and Micro Fabrication Research

    A soft X-ray/extreme ultra violet (EUV) reflectometry beamline is operational at Indus-1 synchrotron source. The beamline is used for the characterization of multilayer optics for EUV lithography. A soft/deep X-ray lithography beamline is being set up on Indus-2, for undertaking research activities on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) and sub micron X-ray lithography structures. Present status of these beamlines is presented

  9. Development of thin hall probes for field measurement of SACLA in-vacuum undulators

    In SACLA, the minimum gap of the undulator is planned to be narrowed from 3.5 mm to 2.5 mm in order to upgrade the laser performance. It is expected that the laser pulse energy is enhanced and the wavelength tunability is expanded without changing the electron beam energy. In order to close the gap less than 2.5 mm in the near future for further upgrade, it is required to miniaturize the hall probe. For this reason, a one-dimensional thin hall probe with the thickness of 0.5 mm was developed. Using this probe, the magnetic field of the in-vacuum undulator for SACLA was measured at the gap below 4.0 mm. The standard deviation of the phase error estimated with the measured field distribution at the gap of 4.0 mm was found to be 5.4 degrees which is close to 5.7 degrees estimated with the standard hall probe currently used for the undulator field measurement at SPring-8. Although this result shows that the developed hall probe reproduces the measurement with the existing probe, we have found that the reproducibility was not perfect at the gap of 3.5 mm. The reason for this discrepancy may possibly be attributable to that the hall-voltage offset was not adequately compensated. (author)

  10. Performance of an undulator for visible and UV FELs at FELI

    Miyauchi, Y.; Zako, A.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two infrared free electron lasers (FELs) of the FELI project are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20{mu}m. A 2.68-m undulator has been constructed for visible and UV FELs covering the wavelength of 1-0.2{mu}m for 100-165 MeV electron beams. It generates alternating, horizontal magnetic field, and wiggles electron beam on a vertical plane. The undulator length and period are 2.68m and 40mm, respectively. The gap of undulator magnets can be changed remotely by using servomotors with an accuracy of 1 {mu}m from the control room. The maximum K-value and related magnetic field strength are 1.9 and 0.5T, respectively, when its gap is set to the minimum value of 16mm. In order to minimize magnetic field reduction due to radiation damage, Sm-Co permanent magnet was adopted. Its structure and the results of magnetic field measurement will be reported.

  11. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  12. The construction of a 9-pole prototype for SRRC U-10 undulator

    A 9-pole undulator prototype with a magnetic period length of 10 cm was designed and constructed to examine the mechanical and magnetic field performance. The hybrid permanent magnet structure was optimized by using 2D PANDIRA and 3D TOSCA magnetostatic codes. A half period magnet model was also fabricated to verify the magnetic field strength on-axis and the transverse field roll-off within 0.1% in the good field region of ±10 mm at a minimum gap of 22 mm. The end pole configurations, as equipped with either two tunable permanent magnetic rotators or steering coil correctors were designed for minimizing the deviation of the magnetic field strength integrals. The magnet structures were mounted on a 2 meter long C-frame support structure in which the gap could be moved in parallel and phase motion. The field characteristics and measurement results between the adjustable gap undulator (AGU) and the hybrid adjustable phase undulator (APU) were also presented

  13. Undulator superradiance effect and its applicability for the generation of multimegawatt terahertz pulses

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Golovanov, A. A.; Zotova, I. V.; Malkin, A. M.; Tarakanov, V. P.

    2014-10-01

    The generation of multimegawatt terahertz pulses based on the superradiance of picosecond electron bunches moving in a periodic magnetic (undulator) field is shown to be possible. The theoretical study of superradiance processes is based both on the method of an averaged ponderomotive force and on direct numerical PIC (particle in cell) simulations. The analysis is performed in the K' reference frame comoving with the electrons followed by the recalculation of radiation characteristics to the laboratory frame using the Lorentz transformations. Within the framework of the averaged approach, the electron bunch is represented as an ensemble of macroelectrons interacting between themselves through the radiation fields and Coulomb forces. The superradiance effect includes particle bunching followed by coherent emission of a single intense pulse from the entire volume of an electron bunch whose length exceeds considerably the wavelength. PIC simulations of this process based on the KARAT code have been performed for a more detailed analysis including the transverse inhomogeneity of the undulator field, the relativistic pattern of electron motion in this field, etc. A considerable simplification of the calculation procedure when passing to the comoving reference frame due to the commensurability of all spatial scales, including the radiation wavelength, the bunch length, and the length of the train of the pump wave into which the undulator field is transformed, is shown to be possible.

  14. An elliptically-polarizing undulator with phase adjustable energy and polarization

    The authors present a planar helical undulator designed to produce elliptically polarized light. Helical magnetic fields may be produced by a variety of undulators with four parallel cassettes of magnets. In their design, all cassettes are mounted in two planes on slides so that they may be moved parallel to the electron beam. This allows the undulator to produce x-rays of left- or right-handed elliptical or circular polarization as well as horizontal or vertical linear polarization. In model calculations, they have found that by sliding the top pair of rows with respect to the bottom pair, or the left pair with respect to the right pair, they retain the polarization setting but change the magnetic field strength, and hence the x-ray energy. This allows them to select both energy and polarization by independent phase adjustments alone, without changing the gap between the rows. Such a design may be simpler to construct than an adjustable gap machine. The authors present calculations that model its operation and its effects on an electron beam

  15. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    Balal, N.; Magory, E. [Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Bandurkin, I. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Bratman, V. L. [Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel); Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Savilov, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  16. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum

  17. Design of a transmission grating hard X-ray spectrometer for laser-driven undulator sources

    Werle, Christian; Maier, Andreas; Zeitler, Benno; Delbos, Niels; Gruener, Florian [University of Hamburg - CFEL, Hamburg (Germany); Kajumba, Nathaniel [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    State-of-the-art laser-driven undulator sources are already becoming very versatile and powerful light sources, especially due to their wavelength tunability and ultra-short pulses. However, being still in development, they suffer from instabilities, which can make the spectral characterization of their radiation rather challenging, especially in the few-nm range. The hard X-ray transmission grating spectrometer, presented in this talk, was specifically optimized to tackle these difficulties. Its simple base design and its fully motorized optical components grant a high degree of flexibility during operation, fitting nicely to the nature of this radiation source. During calibration the device has been proven to measure wavelengths from 18 nm to 5 nm, but was in general also designed to address the sub-nm range. Following these test runs, the spectrometer was installed during a undulator campaign and was successfully used to measure laser-driven undulator radiation from 100 eV up to 300 eV, being the highest energy photons ever demonstrated with such a source.

  18. Computational Study on a Squid-Like Underwater Robot with Two Undulating Side Fins

    Md. Mahbubar Rahman; Yasuyuki Toda; Hiroshi Miki

    2011-01-01

    The undulating fin propulsion system is an instance of the bio-inspired propulsion systems. In the current study, the swimming motion of a squid-like robot with two undulating side fins, mimicking those of a Stingray or a Cuttlefish, was investigated through flow computation around the body. We used the finite analytic method for space discretization and Euler implicit scheme for time discretization along with the PISO algorithm for velocity pressure coupling. A body-fitted moving grid was generated using the Poisson equation at each time step. Based on the computed results, we discussed the features of the flow field and hydrodynamic forces acting on the body and fin. A simple relationship among the fin's principal dimensions was established. Numerical computation was done for various aspect ratios, fin angles and frequencies in order to validate the proposed relationship among principal dimensions. Subsequently, the relationship was examined base on the distribution of pressure difference between upper and lower surfaces and the distribution of the thrust force. In efficiency calculations, the undulating fins showed promising results. Finally, for the fin, the open characteristics from computed data showed satisfactory conformity with the experimental results.

  19. Scheme for Generation highly monochromatic X-Rays from a baseline XFEL undulator

    One goal of XFEL facilities is the production of narrow bandwidth X-ray radiation. The self-seeding scheme was proposed to obtain a bandwidth narrower than that achievable with conventional X-ray SASE FELs. A self-seeded FEL is composed of two undulators separated by a monochromator and an electron beam bypass that must compensate for the path delay of X-rays in the monochromator. This leads to a long bypass, with a length in the order of 40-60 m, which requires modifications of the baseline undulator configuration. As an attempt to get around this obstacle, together with a study of the self-seeding scheme for the European XFEL, here we propose a novel technique based on a pulse doubler concept. Using a crystal monochromator installed within a short magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator, it is possible to decrease the bandwidth of the radiation well beyond the XFEL design down to 10-5. The magnetic chicane can be installed without any perturbation of the XFEL focusing structure, and does not interfere with the baseline mode of operation. We present a feasibility study and we make exemplifications with the parameters of the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  20. Scheme for generation of highly monochromatic X-rays from a baseline XFEL undulator

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    One goal of XFEL facilities is the production of narrow bandwidth X-ray radiation. The self-seeding scheme was proposed to obtain a bandwidth narrower than that achievable with conventional X-ray SASE FELs. A self-seeded FEL is composed of two undulators separated by a monochromator and an electron beam bypass that must compensate for the path delay of X-rays in the monochromator. This leads to a long bypass, with a length in the order of 40-60 m, which requires modifications of the baseline undulator configuration. As an attempt to get around this obstacle, together with a study of the self-seeding scheme for the European XFEL, here we propose a novel technique based on a pulse doubler concept. Using a crystal monochromator installed within a short magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator, it is possible to decrease the bandwidth of the radiation well beyond the XFEL design down to 10^(-5). The magnetic chicane can be installed without any perturbation of the XFEL focusing structure, and does not interfere...

  1. A Helical Undulator Wave-guide Inverse Free-Electron Laser

    With recent success in high gradient, high-energy gain IFEL experiments at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory, future experiments are now being contemplated. The Neptune IFEL was designed to use a tightly focused, highly diffracting, near-TW peak power 10 micron laser. This choice of laser focusing, driven by power-handling limitations of the optics near the interaction region, led to design and use of a very complex undulator, and to sensitivity to both laser misalignment and focusing errors. As these effects limited the performance of the IFEL experiment, a next generation experiment at Neptune has been studied which avoids the use of a highly diffractive laser beam through use of a waveguide. We discuss here the choice of low-loss waveguide, guided mode characteristics and likely power limitations. We also examine a preferred undulator design, which is chosen to be helical in order to maximize the acceleration achieved for a given power. With the limitations of these laser and undulator choices in mind, we show the expected performance of the IFEL using 1D simulations. Three-dimensional effects are examined, in the context of use of a solenoid for focusing and acceleration enhancement

  2. Performance of beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS: Flux and resolution measurements

    Uehara, Y. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Fischer, G.; Kring, J.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range. This beamline is the first monochromatic hard x-ray beamline in the ALS, and designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, and preservation of the high brightness from the ALS. It consists of a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator and two toroidal mirrors which are positioned before and after the monochromator. The construction of the beamline was completed in December of 1995, with imperfect mirrors. In this report, the authors describe the experimental results of absolute flux measurements and x-ray absorption measurements of gases and solid samples using the present set of mirrors.

  3. Microfocusing at the PG1 beamline at FLASH

    Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Gerasimova, Natalia; Goderich, Rene; Mey, Tobias; Reininger, Ruben; Rübhausen, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Weigelt, Holger; Brenner, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) refocusing mirror system installed at the PG1 branch of the plane-grating monochromator beamline at the soft X-ray/XUV free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is designed to provide tight aberration-free focusing down to 4 µm x 6 µm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on the sample. Such a focal spot size is mandatory to achieve ultimate resolution and to guarantee best performance of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) off-axis parabolic double-monochromator Raman spectrometer permanently installed at the PG1 beamline as an experimental end-station. The vertical beam size on the sample of the Raman spectrometer, which operates without entrance slit, defines and limits the energy resolution of the instrument which has an unprecedented design value of 2 meV for photon energies below 70 eV and about 15 meV for higher energies up to 200 eV. In order to reach the designed focal spot size of 4 µm FWHM (vertically) and to hold the highest spectrometer resolution, special fully motorized in-vacuum manipulators for the KB mirror holders have been developed and the optics have been aligned employing wavefront-sensing techniques as well as ablative imprints analysis. Aberrations like astigmatism were minimized. In this article the design and layout of the KB mirror manipulators, the alignment procedure as well as microfocus optimization results are presented.

  4. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  5. CERN announces the fourth annual Beamline for Schools competition

    BL4S team

    2016-01-01

    CERN is pleased to announce the fourth annual Beamline for Schools (BL4S) competition. Once again, in 2017, a fully equipped beamline will be made available at CERN for students. As in previous years, two teams will be invited to the Laboratory to execute the experiments they proposed in their applications. The 2017 competition is being made possible thanks to support from the Alcoa Foundation for the second consecutive year.   The competition is open to teams of high-school students aged 16 or older who, if they win, are invited (with two supervisors) to CERN to carry out their experiment. Teams must have at least five students but there is no upper limit to a team’s size (although just nine students per winning team will be invited to CERN). Teams may be composed of pupils from a single school, or from a number of schools working together. As science-loving mega-celebrity Will.I.Am told us: “If you’re interested in science, technology, engineering or ...

  6. Development of vacuum windows for J-PARC hadron beamline

    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is now under construction in Tokai-mura by the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). J-PARC 50 GeV-PS (Proton Synchrotron) aims of provide more than 100 times higher beam power than that of KEK 12 GeV-PS. An experimental hall for nuclear and particle physics (Hadron-hall) is designed to handle intense slow-extraction proton beam and provide kaons, pions, and other secondary particles for multi-purpose physics use. In the Hadron (HD) beamline, there are three types of vacuum window. One is used for separation of vacuum between 50 GeV-PS and HD beamline. Other are needed for disconnecting vacuum at the T1 target chamber and the Beam dump, respectively, which are operated in atmospheric pressure. These windows have to be made of radiation-resistant materials because of directly exposing to intense beam. In addition, although diameters of windows are rather big, these have to be as thin as possible to reduce beam loss and radiation shields. In order to meet these requirements together with realistic mechanical structure, we have made detail calculations of thermal and mechanical stress from energy deposition and differential pressure, and obtained realistic configurations for each window. (author)

  7. Capabilities of the Extreme Conditions Beamline at PETRA III, DESY

    Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Konôpková, Zuzana; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Rothkirch, Andre; Wittich, Eugen; Delitz, Jan-Torben; Ehnes, Anita

    2013-06-01

    At the end of 2010 the Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB) at PETRA III received first beam and entered the commissioning phase. Since 2012 we are offering beamtime to general users to conduct a variety of different experiments such as powder and single diffraction in the laser/resistive heated and cryogenically cooled Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). Particularly attractive has been our ability to conducted diffraction experiments at high energies of 60 and 77 keV for pair distribution function (PDF) studies as well as possibility to preform time resolved powder diffraction experiments at 26 and 43 keV with a maximum time resolution of 15 Hz. Within we present some of the current capabilities of the beamline as well as future plans to promote single crystal diffraction at high pressures and temperatures using both monochromatic and pink beam. Finally, we emphasis the present and future time resolved capabilities to conduct powder and single crystal diffraction experiments under dynamic compression and heating conditions in the DAC. Part of this project was funded by the ``Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung'' under contracts 05KS7RF1 and 05K10RFA ``Verbundprojekt: Messeinrichtungen fuer die Material- und Strukturforschung an PETRA III, 2: Laserheizung for ``ECB''.

  8. The MCX project: a Powder Diffraction beamline at ELETTRA

    In order to meet the diffuse need of non-single crystal diffraction experiments using SR, a new bending magnet beamline for Material Characterization by X-rays - MCX - is going to be implemented at ELETTRA, the Italian national Synchrotron Radiation facility in Trieste. The beamline has been designed to work in the range 3-12 keV, exploiting the high brilliance of ELETTRA bending magnets in this spectral region. Photon flux values of interest for specific experiments will be also available in the ranges 2.3-3 keV and 12-23 keV. The main target of the new station is research and development in the area of physics, chemistry and engineering of materials surfaces, thin films and coating technology. The intrinsic flexibility of the proposed geometry makes MCX an ideal tool for diffraction measurements from polycrystalline materials in general (thin films, powder and bulk materials). In addition to the scientific heritage, a valuable activity will be the support to technology and industrial production, for specific tasks of non-destructive control as well as for the development of new products. (authors)

  9. A tunable focusing beamline for desktop x-ray microtomography

    Gurker, N.; Nell, R.; Seiler, G.; Wallner, J.

    1999-07-01

    In this article a desktop x-ray microtomography (μXCT) instrument is presented, which utilizes conventional diffraction tubes and tunable focusing optics. The beamline is based on an elastically bent cylindrical multilayer mirror, given by a coated and rhombic shaped Si wafer, which is placed on bearings with two of its tips and is actuated by a single transverse center force to a desired curvature and herewith focal length. This optical element is used in a grazing incidence reflection geometry, demagnifying the tube focal spot into an image line with width (w) and position following from a classical imaging equation (magnification ratio M). While the tube and the image ("focal") position are kept fixed, the curvature and axial position of the mirror are adaptively controlled for different M values and Bragg angles θ¯ (i.e., pass-energies Ē), which results in a one-dimensional zoom-optical system. The specimen is placed in the high-depth focal region of the condensed beam for the CT-scanning procedure with the slice orientation given by the focusing direction. Minor modifications of the fundamental rhombic mirror shape also enable the establishment of imaging geometries with elliptical and parabolic cylindrical-type optical figures. Multilayer reflection inherently results in a small bandpass of photon energies (ΔE/Ē). Pass-energy Ē is preferably tuned to characteristic lines of the tubes in use (Cr, Cu, Mo target) with the option of also using the white x-ray spectrum. Numerical values of beamline specifications are characterized by: 0.1⩽M⩽1.0, 10⩽w⩽100 μm, 0.5⩽θ¯⩽2°, 5⩽Ē⩽30 keV, ΔE/Ē≲0.1. Photon intensity along the focal line is given by 106tube, mirror reflectivity and M setting. The fundamental principles, the experimental setup and major components of the beamline are described and the theoretical and experimental performance in terms of photon flux, pass-energy bandwidth and beam geometry are evaluated. Examples of

  10. The ELIMED transport and dosimetry beamline for laser-driven ion beams

    Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; De Luca, G.; Gallo, G.; Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. Fanola; Korn, G.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Marchese, V.; Marchetto, F.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Pulvirenti, S.; Rizzo, D.; Sacchi, R.; Salamone, S.; Sedita, M.; Vignati, A.

    2016-09-01

    A growing interest of the scientific community towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams has led to the development of several projects aiming to demonstrate the possible use of these beams for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, laser-accelerated particles differ from the conventional beams typically used for multiscipilinary and medical applications, due to the wide energy spread, the angular divergence and the extremely intense pulses. The peculiarities of optically accelerated beams led to develop new strategies and advanced techniques for transport, diagnostics and dosimetry of the accelerated particles. In this framework, the realization of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline, developed by INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy) and that will be installed in 2017 as a part of the ELIMAIA beamline at the ELI-Beamlines (Extreme Light Infrastructure Beamlines) facility in Prague, has the aim to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary applications. In this contribution, an overview of the beamline along with a detailed description of the main transport elements as well as the detectors composing the final section of the beamline will be presented.

  11. The performance of photoemission beamline 6.1

    The performance of beamline 6.1 has been characterised over several commissioning periods and the results are presented here. The monochromator covers the energy range 20 - 280 eV with an energy resolution of 0.1% of the photon energy. It has been established that a 1200 l/mm blazed grating yields higher flux with lower second order content than a 1200 l/mm lamellar grating. Three electrostatic electron energy analysers are available for use; the fixed MCD HA100 with a resolution of 1.5% of the pass energy; the fixed CMA with a resolution of 2% of the pass energy; and the HA50 on a two axis goniometer with a resolution of 1% of the pass energy. Details are also given of improvements made to the monochromator. (author)

  12. Precision mirror mounting system for UHV compatible synchrotron radiation beamlines

    A ultra high vacuum compatible system for precision adjustment of the orientation and location of a mirror with respect to incident synchrotron radiation beam has been designed. This will be used for the upcoming photoelectron spectroscopy beamline to be installed on Indus-1. Our ray tracing calculations indicate that positioning of mirror with respect to synchrotron radiation beam direction and other beam line optical components is very critical for good resolution and photon flux. This requires the mirror to have various motions with a precision control over these motions of the order of millidegree for angular and five micron for linear motions. Based on these calculations, design of mirror mount system having various kinematic motions in ultra high vacuum has been worked out and incorporated in the mechanical design of the system. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs

  13. Optimized baffle and aperture placement in neutral beamlines

    Stone, R.; Duffy, T.; Vetrovec, J.

    1983-11-01

    Most neutral beamlines contain an iron-core ion-bending magnet that requires shielding between the end of the neutralizer and this magnet. This shielding allows the gas pressure to drop prior to the beam entering the magnet and therefore reduces beam losses in this drift region. The beam losses are reduced even further by eliminating the iron-core magnet and the magnetic shielding altogether. The required bending field is supplied by current coils without the iron poles. In addition, placement of the baffles and apertures affects the cold gas entering the plasma region and the losses in the neutral beam due to re-ionization. The placement of the baffles which, determine the amount of pumping in each chamber, and the apertures, which determine the beam loss were varied. A baffler/aperture configuration is for either minimum cold gas into the plasma region or minimum beam losses, but not both.

  14. ELI-Beamlines laser systems: status and design options

    Rus, Bedřich; Bakule, Pavel; Kramer, Daniel; Korn, Georg; Green, Jonathan T.; Novák, Jakub; Fibrich, Martin; Batysta, František; Thoma, Jiří; Naylon, Jack A.; Mazanec, Tomáš; Vítek, M.; Barros, R.; Koutris, E.; Hřebíček, Jan; Polan, Jiří; Baše, Radek; Homer, Pavel; Košelja, M.; Havlíček, Tomáš; Honsa, Aleš; Novák, Miroslav; Zervos, Charalampos; Korouš, Pavel; Laub, Martin; Houžvička, J.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2013 - (Hein, J.; Korn, G.; Silva, L.). (Proceedings of SPIE. 8780). ISBN 978-0-8194-9582-2. ISSN 0277-786X. [High-Power, High-Energy, and High-Intensity Laser Technology; and Research Using Extreme Light - Entering New Frontiers with Petawatt-Class Laser s. Praha (CZ), 15.04.2013-17.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser s * physics * plasma * ultrafast phenomena * X-ray sources * electrons Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  15. The initial scientific program at the NSLS infrared beamline

    Unique extraction optics (90 x 90 mrads) at the NSLS U4IR line offer high brightness beams at up to mm wavelengths with a ∼1ns pulse structure. Radiation from this port has now been carefully characterized and agrees well with calculations, making it 100--1000 times brighter than conventional sources in the middle and far infrared regions. Using rapid scan Michelson interferometers with liquid He cooled bolometer detectors we have been able for the first time to measure molecule substrate vibrations in surface science. We have also made the first measurements of the transmission of a film of the high Tc material YBaCuO in the BCS gap region. These initial experiments have demonstrated the advantages of the superior signal to noise available from this infrared beamline. 19 refs., 6 figs

  16. New features at the LURE-D22 SAXS beamline

    The D22 beamline of the DCI storage ring at LURE is dedicated to the study of structural properties in the field of material science by way of the small-angle X ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The D2 bending magnet of the DCI ring offers a stable source of limited brilliance but long decay time (200 hours) so that the beam can be used up to 110 hours after an injection of the positrons in the ring. Two different settings respectively dedicated to metallurgy and soft matter share the beam time. The latter which is considered here mainly deals with ill condensed matter: non ideal solutions of amphiphiles or polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, gels, xerogels, aerogels. (author)

  17. Microfocusing at the PG1 beamline at FLASH.

    Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Gerasimova, Natalia; Goderich, Rene; Mey, Tobias; Reininger, Ruben; Rübhausen, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Weigelt, Holger; Brenner, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) refocusing mirror system installed at the PG1 branch of the plane-grating monochromator beamline at the soft X-ray/XUV free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is designed to provide tight aberration-free focusing down to 4 µm × 6 µm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on the sample. Such a focal spot size is mandatory to achieve ultimate resolution and to guarantee best performance of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) off-axis parabolic double-monochromator Raman spectrometer permanently installed at the PG1 beamline as an experimental end-station. The vertical beam size on the sample of the Raman spectrometer, which operates without entrance slit, defines and limits the energy resolution of the instrument which has an unprecedented design value of 2 meV for photon energies below 70 eV and about 15 meV for higher energies up to 200 eV. In order to reach the designed focal spot size of 4 µm FWHM (vertically) and to hold the highest spectrometer resolution, special fully motorized in-vacuum manipulators for the KB mirror holders have been developed and the optics have been aligned employing wavefront-sensing techniques as well as ablative imprints analysis. Aberrations like astigmatism were minimized. In this article the design and layout of the KB mirror manipulators, the alignment procedure as well as microfocus optimization results are presented. PMID:26698054

  18. First results from the high-brightness x-ray spectroscopy beamline at ALS

    Perera, R.C.C.; Ng, W.; Jones, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goal of high brightness at the sample for use in the X-ray Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (XAMS) science, surface and interface science, biology and x-ray optical development programs at ALS. X-ray absorption and time of flight photo emission measurements in 2 - 5 keV photon energy in argon along with the flux, resolution, spot size and stability of the beamline will be discussed. Prospects for future XAMS measurements will also be presented.

  19. Conceptual Design of the Small Angle Scattering Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron

    Kirby, N.; Boldeman, J. W.; Gentle, I.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    A high performance small angle and wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) beamline is one of the initial suite of beamlines to be built at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. This beamline will be ready for use in 2008, for structural analysis across a wide range of research applications over length scales of ˜ 1 to greater than 5000 Å. The instrument is intended for advanced analysis capabilities only possible using synchrotron radiation, such as time, space and energy resolved analysis, and for weak scattering systems. Photon energies will be readily variable between 5.2 and 20 keV.

  20. Conceptual Design of the Small Angle Scattering Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron

    A high performance small angle and wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) beamline is one of the initial suite of beamlines to be built at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. This beamline will be ready for use in 2008, for structural analysis across a wide range of research applications over length scales of ∼ 1 to greater than 5000 Aa. The instrument is intended for advanced analysis capabilities only possible using synchrotron radiation, such as time, space and energy resolved analysis, and for weak scattering systems. Photon energies will be readily variable between 5.2 and 20 keV

  1. Progress of projection computed tomography by upgrading of the beamline 37XU of SPring-8

    Beamline 37XU at SPring-8 has been upgraded for nano-focusing applications. The length of the beamline has been extended to 80 m. By utilizing this length, the beamline has advantages for experiments such as X-ray focusing, X-ray microscopic imaging and X-ray computed tomography. Projection computed tomography measurements were carried out at experimental hutch 3 located 80 m from the light source. CT images of a microcapsule have been successfully obtained with a wide X-ray energy range

  2. Progress of projection computed tomography by upgrading of the beamline 37XU of SPring-8

    Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Uesugi, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Beamline 37XU at SPring-8 has been upgraded for nano-focusing applications. The length of the beamline has been extended to 80 m. By utilizing this length, the beamline has advantages for experiments such as X-ray focusing, X-ray microscopic imaging and X-ray computed tomography. Projection computed tomography measurements were carried out at experimental hutch 3 located 80 m from the light source. CT images of a microcapsule have been successfully obtained with a wide X-ray energy range.

  3. High-Flux Beamline for Ultraviolet and Vacuum-Ultraviolet Circular Dichroism at NSRL

    This paper describes the commissioning and characterization of an NSRL bending magnet beamline constructed for the measurement of vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism on biological and other materials. The beamline provides high fluxes of ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet radiation, which is converted into plane polarized light using a polarizer and subsequently converted into circularly polarized light using a photoelastic modulator with a switching frequency of 50 kHz. The beamline has the best wavelength resolution of 0.3 nm and stray light levels better than 0.03%. Example spectra of (1s)-(+)-10-camphorsulphonic acid (CSA) and myoglobin are given

  4. XAFS at the new materials science beamline 10 at the DELTA storage ring

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Wagner, R.; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    The layout and the characteristics of the hard X-ray beamline BL 10 at the superconducting asymmetric wiggler at the 1.5 GeV Dortmund Electron Accelerator DELTA are described. Equipped with a stable and robust Si(111) channel-cut monochromator, this beamline is suited for XAFS studies in the spectral range from about 4 keV to ca. 16 keV photon energy. We will illustrate the performance of the beamline, and present EXAFS data obtained from several reference compounds. XANES data measured for dilute sample systems as well as surface sensitive grazing incidence EXAFS obtained from thin film samples will also be discussed.

  5. Imaging in real and reciprocal space at the Diamond beamline I13

    Rau, C., E-mail: Christoph.rau@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Materials Grosvenor St., Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Northwestern University School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 (United States); Wagner, U. H.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Bodey, A.; Parson, A.; García-Fernández, M.; Pešić, Z. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); De Fanis, A. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); European XFEL GmbH, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The Diamond Imaging and Coherence beamline I13 consists of two independent branchlines for imaging in real and reciprocal space. Different microscopies are available providing a range of spatial resolution from 5µm to potentially 5nm. The beamline operates in the energy range of 6-35keV covering different scientific areas such as biomedicine, materials science and geophysics. Several original devices have been developed at the beamline, such as the EXCALIBUR photon counting detector and the combined robot arms for coherent X-ray diffraction.

  6. Progress of projection computed tomography by upgrading of the beamline 37XU of SPring-8

    Terada, Yasuko, E-mail: yterada@spring8.or.jp; Suzuki, Yoshio; Uesugi, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Beamline 37XU at SPring-8 has been upgraded for nano-focusing applications. The length of the beamline has been extended to 80 m. By utilizing this length, the beamline has advantages for experiments such as X-ray focusing, X-ray microscopic imaging and X-ray computed tomography. Projection computed tomography measurements were carried out at experimental hutch 3 located 80 m from the light source. CT images of a microcapsule have been successfully obtained with a wide X-ray energy range.

  7. Imaging in real and reciprocal space at the Diamond beamline I13

    The Diamond Imaging and Coherence beamline I13 consists of two independent branchlines for imaging in real and reciprocal space. Different microscopies are available providing a range of spatial resolution from 5µm to potentially 5nm. The beamline operates in the energy range of 6-35keV covering different scientific areas such as biomedicine, materials science and geophysics. Several original devices have been developed at the beamline, such as the EXCALIBUR photon counting detector and the combined robot arms for coherent X-ray diffraction

  8. An experimental study of the beam-steering effect on the FEL gain at LEUTL's segmented undulators

    The electron trajectories at the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL), a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) facility at Argonne, were routinely corrected during the user run in order to deliver maximum radiation power to the user. Even though we knew from experience that SASE gain at the segmented undulators was dependent on the trajectory, the quantitative understanding of steering effects associated with the specific trajectory was lacking. Recently Tanaka et al. (1) proposed an analytical model for the single-kick error (SKE) effect. Since the LEUTL has eight segmented undulators, we performed the first measurement of SKE on the FEL gain. In the experiments we varied the corrector strength up to the critical angle, and the gain over the undulator was measured for each corrector setting. The results were compared with the analytical model and GENESIS simulations. We also measured the e-beam positions and SASE intensities over the undulators. The experimental data were analyzed and their results were reproduced by GENESIS simulation. The simulation condition, including the measured not-so-ideal trajectory, was used to predict performance enhancements that could be achieved by upgrading ebeam current, e-beam emittance, or trajectory control.

  9. Recent Major Improvements to the ALS Sector 5 Macromolecular Crystallography Beamlines

    Although the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was initially conceived primarily as a low energy (1.9GeV) 3rd generation source of VUV and soft x-ray radiation it was realized very early in the development of the facility that a multipole wiggler source coupled with high quality, (brightness preserving), optics would result in a beamline whose performance across the optimal energy range (5-15keV) for macromolecular crystallography (MX) would be comparable to, or even exceed, that of many existing crystallography beamlines at higher energy facilities. Hence, starting in 1996, a suite of three beamlines, branching off a single wiggler source, was constructed, which together formed the ALS Macromolecular Crystallography Facility. From the outset this facility was designed to cater equally to the needs of both academic and industrial users with a heavy emphasis placed on the development and introduction of high throughput crystallographic tools, techniques, and facilities--such as large area CCD detectors, robotic sample handling and automounting facilities, a service crystallography program, and a tightly integrated, centralized, and highly automated beamline control environment for users. This facility was immediately successful, with the primary Multiwavelength Anomalous Diffraction beamline (5.0.2) in particular rapidly becoming one of the foremost crystallographic facilities in the US--responsible for structures such as the 70S ribosome. This success in-turn triggered enormous growth of the ALS macromolecular crystallography community and spurred the development of five additional ALS MX beamlines all utilizing the newly developed superconducting bending magnets ('superbends') as sources. However in the years since the original Sector 5.0 beamlines were built the performance demands of macromolecular crystallography users have become ever more exacting; with growing emphasis placed on studying larger complexes, more difficult structures, weakly diffracting or smaller

  10. The U5.0 Undulator for the Advanced Light Source

    The U5.0 Undulator, an 89 period, 5 cm period length, 4.6 m long insertion device has been designed, is being fabricated, and is scheduled for completion in early 1992. This undulator will be the first high brightness source, in the 50 to 1,500 eV range, for the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A hybrid magnetic configuration using Nd--Fe--B permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur poles has been selected to achieve the field quality needed to meet performance requirements. The magnetic structure is modular with each half consisting of five assembly sections, which provide the periodic structure, and end structures, for entrance and exit correction, mounted on a steel backing beam. Each assembly section consists of 35 half-period pole assemblies bolted to a mount. The required 0.837 T effective peak field at a 1.4 cm gap has been verified with model measurements. Vertical field integral correction is accomplished with the end structures, each having an arrangement of permanent magnet rotors which will be adjusted to minimize electron beam missteering over the undulator operating field range. To reduce the effect of environmental fields, the steel backing beams are connected through parallel, low-reluctance, Ni--Fe hinges. The magnetic structure is connected through four rollernuts to the drive system that provides gap adjustment with an arrangement of roller screws, chain drives, a gear reduction unit, and a stepper motor driven by a closed loop control system. Magnetic structure and drive system support are from a 2.4 m high structure which includes a support base with four vertical supports. The vacuum chamber design is a two-piece machined and welded 5083-H321 aluminum construction of 5.1 m length. Pumping is with a combination of ion, titanium sublimation pump and nonevaporable getter pumps. Magnetic design, subsystem design, and fabrication progress are presented

  11. Simulation and measurement of the electrostatic beam kicker in the low-energy undulator test line

    An electrostatic kicker has been constructed for use in the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The function of the kicker is to limit the amount of beam current to be accelerated by the APS linac. Two electrodes within the kicker create an electric field that adjusts the trajectory of the beam. This paper will explore the static fields that are set up between the offset electrode plates and determine the reaction of the beam to this field. The kicker was numerically simulated using the electromagnetic solver package MAFIA [1

  12. Emittance measurements of CESR using the emitted radiation from a short-period undulator

    The horizontal and vertical emittance of the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was measured using the radiation emitted from a short-period (3.3 cm) 123-pole undulator. Average horizontal and vertical emittances measured by this technique were 80 nm-rad and 1.75 nm-rad, respectively. These compare favorably with the results from a charge-coupled device (CCD) system routinely used at CESR and with the calculated values of 65 nm-rad and ∼1 nm-rad for the horizontal and vertical emittances respectively

  13. Controlling the morphology of carbon nanotube arrays: from spinnable forests to undulating foams

    Zhang, Yingying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zou, Guifu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hawley, Marilyn E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheehan, Chris J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhu, Yuntain [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen K [NCSU; Htoon, Han [NCSU

    2009-01-01

    By controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions, we demonstrate that the degree of spinnability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is closely related to the morphology of CNT arrays. Shortest catalyst pretreatment time led to CNT arrays with the best spinnability, while prolonged pretreatment resulted in coarsening of catalyst particles and non-spinnable CNTs. We further demonstrate the growth of undulating CNT arrays with uniform and tunable waviness by controlling the coalescence of catalyst particles. The CNT arrays can be tuned from well-aligned, spinnable forests to uniformly wavy, foam-like films by controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions.

  14. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...... it actually function? Did the wave form have the claimed acoustical avantages or could the ceiling as well have been horisontal. Comprehensive acoustical investigations have been carried out including acoustical measurements in a 1:20 scale model and calculations in a 3D computer model of the lecture...

  15. Magnetic field measurements of a superconducting undulator for a Harmonic Generation FEL experiment at the NSLS

    Solomon, L.; Ingold, G.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Krinsky, S.; Yu, L.H.; Sampson, W.; Robins, K.

    1993-07-01

    An 18mm period, 0.54 Tesla, 8mm gap superconducting undulator with both horizontal and vertical focusing has been built and tested. This magnet, which is fabricated in 25 cm length sections, is being tested for use in the radiator section (total magnet length of 1.5 m) of the Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser experiment at the National Synchrotron Light Source - Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab., in collaboration with Grumman Corp. The measurement system is outlined, sources and estimates of errors are described, and some magnetic field data are presented and discussed.

  16. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 2: Varying wave climate and comparison with observations

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    waves with a directional spreading. In this paper, these findings are extended to firstly include the effect of a varying wave climate on the shoreline morphology and secondly, to tune the model to two naturally occurring shorelines. It is found that the effect of a variable wave climate is to slow down...... the development of the morphology and in some cases to inhibit the formation of shore-parallel spits at the crest of the undulations. On one of the natural shorelines, the west coast of Namibia, the shore is exposed to very obliquely waves from one main direction. Here, the shoreline model is able to...

  17. Development of an electromagnetic phase shifter using a pair of cut-core coils for a cross undulator

    This paper describes the development of a phase shifter that can be used in cross undulators for fast polarization switching. The phase shifter is composed of a pair of cut-core coils and a thin-walled stainless steel duct. Evaluation of the magnetic fields of the phase shifter indicates that the switching frequency of this simple and low-cost device can exceed 30 Hz. - Highlights: • We have developed a simple phase shifter that can be used in a cross undulator for fast polarization switching. • The phase shifter is low-cost and it uses a pair of cut-core coil. • The polarization switching of the undulator light can exceed 30 Hz. • The phase shifter has the potential to make shot-by-shot polarization control for X-ray free electron laser

  18. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source is based, in large part, on the size of the user community and the diversity of the scientific and technical disciplines represented by these users. As evidence of this success, the VUV Ring has just celebrated its 10th anniversary and the X-ray Ring will do the same in 1995. In order to enhance this success, the NSLS User's Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beamlines - Fifth Edition, is being published. This Manual presents to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture, capabilities and research programs of the various VUV and X-ray beamlines. Also detailed is the research and computer equipment a General User can expect to find and use at each beamline when working at the NSLS. The Manual is updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes on these beamlines

  20. High-throughput toroidal grating beamline for photoelectron spectroscopy at CAMD

    A 5 meter toroidal grating (5m-TGM) beamline has been commissioned to deliver 28 mrad of bending magnet radiation to an ultrahigh vacuum endstation chamber to facilitate angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The 5m-TGM beamline is equipped with Au-coated gratings with 300, 600 and 1200 lines/mm providing monochromatized synchrotron radiation in the energy ranges 25-70 eV, 50-120 eV and 100-240 eV, respectively. The beamline delivers excellent flux (∼1014-1017 photons/sec/100 mA) and a combined energy resolution of 189 meV for the beamline (at 1.0 mm slit opening) and HA-50 hemispherical analyzer was obtained at the Fermi level of polycrystalline gold crystal. Our preliminary photoelectron spectroscopy results of phenol adsorption on TiO2 (110) surface reveals the metal ion (Ti) oxidation.