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Sample records for 19a streptococcus pneumoniae

  1. Effect of culture conditions on the structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19A(57) capsular polysaccharide.

    Lee, C.J.; Fraser, B A; Boykins, R A; Li, J P

    1987-01-01

    The structural modifications and immunochemical activities of several Streptococcus pneumoniae type 19A polysaccharide (PS) preparations have been studied by sugar compositional analysis and immunodiffusion. The 19A PS preparations Lab-A-1 and Lab-A-3 and one PS isolated from 19A strain OB contained fucose (Fuc) and galactose (Gal) in addition to rhamnose (Rha) and glucose (Glc). In contrast, 19A PSs Lab-A-2 and Lab-B contained only Rha and Glc. Despite their different sugar compositions, the...

  2. Genome-wide dissection of globally emergent multi-drug resistant serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Dylan R Pillai; Shahinas, Dea; Buzina, Alla; Pollock, Remy A; Lau, Rachel; Khairnar, Krishna; Wong, Andrew; Farrell, David J.; Green, Karen; McGeer, Allison; Low, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is well-documented but causal factors remain unclear. Canadian SPN isolates (1993-2008, n = 11,083) were serotyped and in vitro susceptibility tested. A subset of MDR 19A were multi-locus sequence typed (MLST) and representative isolates' whole genomes sequenced. Results MDR 19A increased in the post-PCV7 era while 19F, 6B, and 23F concurrently declined. MLST of MDR 19A (n = 97) revealed that sequen...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A, a Blood Clinical Isolate from Northeast Mexico

    Hinojosa-Robles, Rosa Maria; Barcenas-Walls, Jose Ramon; Vignau-Cantu, Armando; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a Streptococcus pneumoniae strain isolated in Monterrey, Mexico, MTY1662SN214, from a man with purpura fulminans. The strain belongs to the invasive and multidrug-resistant serogroup 19A, sequence type 320 (ST320). The draft genome sequence consists of 60 large contigs, a total of 2,069,474 bp, and has a G+C content of 39.7%. PMID:27034499

  4. Molecular epidemiology of serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in Beijing, 1997-2006

    XUE Lian; YAO Kai-hu; YU Sang-jie; LIU Zun-jie; QIAN Jing; SHEN Xu-zhuang; YANG Yong-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A, the molecular characteristics of this serotype are yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the homology of the serotype 19A in China.Methods Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were done to these forty-nine serotype 19A isolates to investigate the relationship between the strains prevalent in Beijing and other regions. Results From 1997 to 2006, the percentage of serotype 19A isolates increased. The susceptibility rate to penicillin and amoxicillin decreased and the resistance rate to cefuroxime increased. ST320 was the most prevalent ST, followed by ST3546. There were six new STs identified in our study. The serotype 19A strains were classified into six different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. ST320, which was associated with two different PFGE patterns (A and D), accounted for 32 isolates, and ST3546, which was associated with two PFGE patterns (B and E), accounted for eightConclusions From 2003 onwards, ST320 was the most common ST and the rate of resistance to cefuroxime increased significantly. Further long-term surveys of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A are required to monitor ST prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in this important human pathogen.

  5. Genome-wide dissection of globally emergent multi-drug resistant serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Wong Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN is well-documented but causal factors remain unclear. Canadian SPN isolates (1993-2008, n = 11,083 were serotyped and in vitro susceptibility tested. A subset of MDR 19A were multi-locus sequence typed (MLST and representative isolates' whole genomes sequenced. Results MDR 19A increased in the post-PCV7 era while 19F, 6B, and 23F concurrently declined. MLST of MDR 19A (n = 97 revealed that sequence type (ST 320 predominated. ST320 was unique amongst MDR 19A in that its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin were higher than for other ST present amongst post-PCV7 MDR 19A. DNA sequencing revealed that alleles at key drug resistance loci pbp2a, pbp2x, pbp2b, ermB, mefA/E, and tetM were conserved between pre-PCV7 ST 320 19F and post-PCV7 ST 320 19A most likely due to a capsule switch recombination event. A genome wide comparison of MDR 19A ST320 with MDR 19F ST320 identified 822 unique SNPs in 19A, 61 of which were present in antimicrobial resistance genes and 100 in virulence factors. Conclusions Our results suggest a complex genetic picture where high-level drug resistance, vaccine selection pressure, and SPN mutational events have created a "perfect storm" for the emergence of MDR 19A.

  6. Genome-wide dissection of globally emergent multi-drug resistant serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Wong Andrew; Khairnar Krishna; Lau Rachel; Pollock Remy A; Buzina Alla; Shahinas Dea; Pillai Dylan R; Farrell David J; Green Karen; McGeer Allison; Low Donald E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN) is well-documented but causal factors remain unclear. Canadian SPN isolates (1993-2008, n = 11,083) were serotyped and in vitro susceptibility tested. A subset of MDR 19A were multi-locus sequence typed (MLST) and representative isolates' whole genomes sequenced. Results MDR 19A increased in the post-PCV7 era while 19F, 6B, and 23F concurrently declined. MLST of MDR 19A (n = 97) revealed th...

  7. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Kaijalainen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, is an importanthuman pathogen that causes both serious invasive infections, suchas septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia, as well as mild upper respiratoryinfections. It also belongs to the normal nasopharyngeal microbialflora. The purpose of this study was to compare bacteriologicalphenotypic methods with genetechnological methods in the identificationof pneumococci, especially among suspect pneumococcal isolateslacking one or more typical ...

  8. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus bovi

  9. Cloning of Minor Autolysin of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Mahboobi, R. (MSc); Fallah Mehrabadi, J. (PhD); MR Pourmand; R Mashhadi; Haddadi, A. (MD

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Increased antibiotic resistant strains and inadequacy of current vaccines against pneumococcal infections necessitate the study of novel protein antigens. It seems that minor autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae may have antigenicity. Thus, we aimed at cloning its gene for the first time. Material and Methods: After DNA extraction of Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), Specific primers were designed for amplifying minor autolysin gene fragment, using PCR. The pur...

  10. Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development

    Allegrucci, Magee; Hu, F.Z.; Shen, K.; J. Hayes; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J Christopher; Sauer, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

  11. Emerging resistant serotypes of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Elshafie, Sittana; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J

    2016-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution, vaccine serotype coverage, and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae serotypes isolated from patients with invasive diseases, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-7). Methods A total of 134 isolates were collected from blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Hamad Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2009. Isolate serotyping was done using the Quellung reaction. The prevaccination period was considered before 2005. Results The most common serotypes for all age groups were 3 (12.70%), 14 (11.90%), 1 (11.90%), 19A (9.00%), 9V (5.20%), 23F (5.20%), and 19F (4.50%). Coverage rates for infant conjugated vaccine (PCV-10), and the 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-13) were 34.78%, 52.17%, and 78.26%, respectively. Coverage rates of these vaccines were 50%, 67.86%, and 75% for the 2–5 years age group; 27.12%, 40.68%, and 64.41% for the age group 6–64 years; and 25%, 33.33%, and 66.67% for the ≥65 years age group, respectively. The percentage of nonsusceptible isolates to penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin were 43.86%, 16.66%, and 22.81%, respectively. Thirty-seven isolates (32.46%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, 23F, 1, 9V, 12F, 4, 6B, 3, and 15A. Compared to previous results before the introduction of PCV-7, there was a significant reduction in penicillin-nonsusceptable S. pneumoniae from 66.67% to 43.86%, and a slight insignificant reduction in erythromycin nonsusceptible strains from 27.60% to 22.8%, while there was a significant increase in cefotaxime nonsusceptible strains from 3.55% to 16.66%. Conclusion Invasive pneumococcal strains and the emergence of MDR serotypes is a global burden that must be addressed through multiple strategies, including vaccination, antibiotic stewardship, and continuous surveillance. PMID:27418844

  12. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie;

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  13. Novel Type of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Multidrug-Resistant Acute Otitis Media in Children

    Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael E.; Casey, Janet R.; Zeng, Mingtao

    2009-01-01

    After our recent discovery of a Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A “superbug” (Legacy strain) that is resistant to all Food and Drug Administration–approved antimicrobial drugs for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, other S. pneumoniae isolates from children with AOM were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 40 isolates studied, 16 (40%) were serotype 19A, and 9 (23%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. Two others had unreported sequence types (STs) ...

  14. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells. PMID:27343190

  15. [Thousand faces of Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) infections].

    Szabó, Bálint Gergely; Lénárt, Katalin Szidónia; Kádár, Béla; Gombos, Andrea; Dezsényi, Balázs; Szanka, Judit; Bobek, Ilona; Prinz, Gyula

    2015-11-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are high worldwide and in Hungary among paediatric as well as adult populations. Pneumococci account for 35-40% of community acquired adult pneumonias requiring hospitalization, while 25-30% of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonias are accompanied by bacteraemia. 5-7% of all infections are fatal but this rate is exponentially higher in high risk patients and elderly people. Mortality could reach 20% among patients with severe invasive pneumococcal infections. Complications may develop despite administration of adequate antibiotics. The authors summarize the epidemiology of pneumococcal infections, pathogenesis of non-invasive and invasive disease and present basic clinical aspects through demonstration of four cases. Early risk stratification, sampling of hemocultures, administration of antibiotics and wider application of active immunization could reduce the mortality of invasive disease. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination is advisable for adults of ≥50 years and high risk patients of ≥18 years who are susceptible to pneumococcal disease. PMID:26498896

  16. Lack of SOS repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Wild-type strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were non-mutable by UV radiation and thymidine starvation. Moreover, UV-irradiated pneumococcal ω2 phages were not reactivated in an irradiated host. This suggests that, in pneumococcus, there is no efficient inducible repair process similar to the SOS repair described in detail for E. coli. We also report that mutations cannot be induced by a process thought to be linked to competence during transformation with isogenic wild-type DNA either on wild-type strains or in strains in which the hex function of excision and repair of mismatched bases is inactive. (orig.)

  17. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bárbara Padilla-Docal; Martha O' Farril-Sanchez; Isabel Lopez-Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephali...

  18. Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Gualdi Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

  19. Case Report of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Lei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is an extremely rare and life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection. We report a case of early necrotizing fasciitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a 26-year-old man who was immunocompromised with mixed connective tissue disease. The patient presented with acute, painful, erythematous, and edematous skin lesions of his right lower back, which rapidly progressed to the right knee. The patient underwent surgical exploration, and a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was confirmed by pathological evidence of necrosis of the fascia and neutrophil infiltration in tissue biopsies. Cultures of fascial tissue biopsies and blood samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing fasciitis resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosed at early phase; the patient recovered well without surgical debridement.

  20. Novel type of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing multidrug-resistant acute otitis media in children.

    Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R; Zeng, Mingtao

    2009-04-01

    After our recent discovery of a Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A "superbug" (Legacy strain) that is resistant to all Food and Drug Administration-approved antimicrobial drugs for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, other S. pneumoniae isolates from children with AOM were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 40 isolates studied, 16 (40%) were serotype 19A, and 9 (23%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. Two others had unreported sequence types (STs) that expressed the 19A capsule, and 8 (88%) of the 9 multidrug-resistant strains were serotype 19A, including the Legacy strain with the new ST-2722. In genetic relatedness, ST-2722 belonged to a cluster of reported strains of S. pneumoniae in which all strains had 6 of the same alleles as ST-156. The multidrug-resistant strains related to ST-156 expressed different capsular serotypes: 9V, 14, 11A, 15C, and 19F. PMID:19331730

  1. STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE KERATITIS FOLLOWING LASER IN SITU KERATOMILEUSIS

    2011-01-01

    A 22-year-old man underwent bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis and developed Streptococcus pneumoniae keratitis after surgery.This complication occurred one day after the procedure in both eyes.Topical and systemic antibiotics were promptly administered.Bacterial culture was performed following corneal flap lift and scraping of the lesions.Afterwards,the therapeutic regimen was readjusted according to the culture results.Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified from the culture.Three months after the sur...

  2. Inhibition of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by lysogeny.

    Moynet, D J; Tiraby, G J

    1980-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae R6X was lysogenized with bacteriophage 304 isolated after mitomycin induction of an ungrouped alpha-hemolytic streptococcus. Lysogenized pneumococci lost their capacity to undergo genetic transformation: transformability was restored after cells were spontaneously cured of their prophage. Both lysogens and nonlysogens produced activator substance (competence factor), and both bound deoxyribonucleic acid in a deoxyribonuclease-resistant form. However, nonlysogens retai...

  3. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives

    Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise;

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial...... killers worldwide. Population genetic analysis of 118 strains, supported by demonstration of a distinct cell wall carbohydrate structure and competence pheromone sequence signature, shows that S. pneumoniae is one of several hundred evolutionary lineages forming a cluster separate from Streptococcus...... oralis and Streptococcus infantis. The remaining lineages of this distinct cluster are commensals previously collectively referred to as Streptococcus mitis and each represent separate species by traditional taxonomic standard. Virulence genes including the operon for capsule polysaccharide synthesis and...

  4. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae: Emergence and Pathogenesis.

    Keller, Lance E; Robinson, D Ashley; McDaniel, Larry S

    2016-01-01

    While significant protection from pneumococcal disease has been achieved by the use of polysaccharide and polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, capsule-independent protection has been limited by serotype replacement along with disease caused by nonencapsulatedStreptococcus pneumoniae(NESp). NESp strains compose approximately 3% to 19% of asymptomatic carriage isolates and harbor multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Surface proteins unique to NESp enhance colonization and virulence despite the lack of a capsule even though the capsule has been thought to be required for pneumococcal pathogenesis. Genes for pneumococcal surface proteins replace the capsular polysaccharide (cps) locus in some NESp isolates, and these proteins aid in pneumococcal colonization and otitis media (OM). NESp strains have been isolated from patients with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal disease, but noninvasive diseases, specifically, conjunctivitis (85%) and OM (8%), are of higher prevalence. Conjunctival strains are commonly of the so-called classical NESp lineages defined by multilocus sequence types (STs) ST344 and ST448, while sporadic NESp lineages such as ST1106 are more commonly isolated from patients with other diseases. Interestingly, sporadic lineages have significantly higher rates of recombination than classical lineages. Higher rates of recombination can lead to increased acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, increasing the risk of disease and hindering treatment. NESp strains are a significant proportion of the pneumococcal population, can cause disease, and may be increasing in prevalence in the population due to effects on the pneumococcal niche caused by pneumococcal vaccines. Current vaccines are ineffective against NESp, and further research is necessary to develop vaccines effective against both encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci. PMID:27006456

  5. Treatment of experimental pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunocompetent rats.

    Gavaldà, J.; Capdevila, J A; Almirante, B; Otero, J.; Ruiz, I; Laguarda, M; Allende, H.; Crespo, E; Pigrau, C; Pahissa, A

    1997-01-01

    A model of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin was developed in immunocompetent Wistar rats and was used to evaluate the efficacies of different doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin. Adult Wistar rats were challenged by intratracheal inoculation with 3 x 10(9) CFU of one strain of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin (MICs of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) suspended in brain he...

  6. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Fluoroquinolones in Canada▿

    Patel, Samir N.; McGeer, Allison; Melano, Roberto; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Green, Karen; Dylan R Pillai; Low, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usa...

  7. Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 from equine species.

    Benson, C E; Sweeney, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 was isolated from seven tracheobronchial aspirates and one pleural tap of seven adult horses and one foal. There was no direct evidence in these horses that isolation of the pneumococcus was related to a specific disease syndrome. Presenting complaints included two horses with chronic cough, two horses with decreased exercise tolerance, one horse with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and three horses with pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy resolved the primary...

  8. New Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones in Deceased Wild Chimpanzees▿

    Chi, Fang; Leider, Michaela; Leendertz, Fabian; Bergmann, Carina; Boesch, Christophe; Schenk, Svenja; Pauli, Georg; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2007-01-01

    In wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, sudden deaths which were preceded by respiratory problems had been observed since 1999. Two new clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified in deceased apes on the basis of multilocus sequence typing analysis and ply, lytA, and pbp2x sequences. The findings suggest that virulent S. pneumoniae occurs in populations of wild chimpanzees with the potential to cause infections similar to those observed in humans.

  9. Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit

    2012-11-02

    Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

  10. Deletion of a Cation Transporter Promotes Lysis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Neef, Jolanda; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Kim, Kwang S.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Weiser, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen which causes respiratory and serious invasive diseases. Mg(2+) is essential for life, and its concentration varies throughout the human body. Magnesium uptake plays an important role in the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. To study the M

  11. A new tool for transcription regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Nováková, Linda; Přenosilová, Lenka; Sušická, Zuzana; Janeček, Jiří; Novotná, Jana; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    Washington : American Society for Microbiology, 2006, s. 72-73. ISBN 1-55581-400-X. [ASM Conferences Streptococcal Genetics. Saint Malo (FR), 18.06.2006-21.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptococcus pneumoniae * rnap Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los ni

  13. PCR detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in pneumonia patients

    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.

    2009-01-01

    PCR is a rapid, reproducible method for nucleic acid detection. However, this technology displays significant deficiencies when applied in clinical microbiology. This work’s aim was to improve current diagnostics and provide sensitive and quantitative real-time PCRs. Paper I describes the development of a sensitive and specific quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, based on the Spn9802 DNA fragment. Applied to nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 pneumonia pat...

  14. Increase in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in England, December 2010 to January 2011.

    Zakikhany, K; Degail, M A; Lamagni, T; Waight, P; Guy, R; Zhao, H; Efstratiou, A; Pebody, R; George, R; Ramsay, M

    2011-01-01

    Increases in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae above the seasonally expected levels are currently being seen in England. Preliminary analyses suggest that the high level of influenza activity seen this winter may be contributing to an increased risk of concurrent invasive bacterial and influenza infections in children and young adults. PMID:21315057

  15. Correlations between computed tomography findings and clinical manifestations of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia

    The aim of this study was to characterize the imaging features and compare computed tomography (CT) findings with clinical features of patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed 75 patients (44 men, 31 women; mean age 67 years) diagnosed with S. pneumoniae pneumonia who underwent chest CT scanning at our institution between January 2007 and August 2008. Diagnoses were based on detection of the S. pneumoniae antigen in urine. Chest CT scans revealed abnormalities in all patients. The predominant opacity patterns were an airspace pneumonia pattern (48%) and a bronchopneumonia pattern (48%), followed by an interstitial pneumonia pattern (4%). Consolidation was observed most frequently (84%) followed by ground glass opacity (82.7%), bronchial wall thickening (61.3%), and centrilobular nodules (49.3%). Airway dilatation (21.6%), pleural effusion (33.3%), lymphadenopathy (34.8%), and pulmonary emphysema (21.3%) were also observed. Pulmonary emphysema was significantly less frequent in patients with the bronchopneumonia pattern than in those without (p=0.007). The clinical features and CT findings did not differ significantly. CT image analysis showed that patients with S. pneumoniae pneumonia exhibited the bronchopneumonia and airspace pneumonia patterns with equal frequency. Bronchopneumonia pattern was less common in patients with preexisting emphysema. (author)

  16. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina;

    2004-01-01

    with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed......Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection...... between 1990 and 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for other markers of disease severity, we found that infection with serotype 3 was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of death of 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-5.27), whereas infection...

  17. Novel Clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in Malaysia

    Johanna M Jefferies; Mohd Yasim Mohd Yusof; Shamala Devi Sekaran; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre betw...

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease...

  19. Studies on emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Karlsson, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major contributors to mortality and morbidity around the world. It causes a wide variety of diseases ranging from uncomplicated respiratory infections to life-threatening invasive infections such as meningitis and septicemia. In recent years, the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy has been hampered by the increasing rates of resistant pneumococci. As antibiotic resistance increases, there is a growing need for interventions that minimi...

  20. Identification and characterization of novel virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Wartha, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increased antibiotic resistance and insufficient vaccination contribute to the re-emerging of this pathogen. Identifying novel virulence factors could lead to a better understanding of the pathology of pneumococcal disease and result in novel therapeutic approaches. We were able to show the presence of a surface-exposed pilus structure in pneumococci, made u...

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Yashuan eChao; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over 1 million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease i...

  2. Structure of a conjugative element in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Vijayakumar, M.N.; Priebe, S.D.; Guild, W.R.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have cloned and mapped a 69-kilobase (kb) region of the chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae DP1322, which carries the conjugative Omega(cat-tet) insertion from S. pneumoniae BM6001. This element proved to be 65.5 kb in size. Location of the junctions was facilitated by cloning a preferred target region from the wild-type strain Rx1 recipient genome. This target site was preferred by both the BM6001 element and the cat-erm-tet element from Streptococcus agalactiae B109. Within the BM6001 element cat and tet were separated by 30 kb, and cat was flanked by two copies of a sequence that was also present in the recipient strain Rx1 DNA. Another sequence at least 2.4 kb in size was found inside the BM6001 element and at two places in the Rx1 genome. Its role is unknown. The ends of the BM6001 element appear to be the same as those of the B109 element, both as seen after transfer to S. pneumoniae and as mapped by others in pDP5 after transposition in Streptococcus faecalis. No homology is seen between the ends of the BM6001 element and no evidence found suggesting that it ever circularizes.

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae arginine synthesis genes promote growth and virulence in pneumococcal meningitis

    J.R. Piet; M. Geldhoff; B.D.C. van Schaik; M.C. Brouwer; M. Valls Seron; M.E. Jakobs; K. Schipper; Y. Pannekoek; A.H. Zwinderman; T. van der Poll; A.H.C. van Kampen; F. Baas; A van der Ende; D. van de Beek

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Using a clinical phenotype based approach with bacterial whole-genome sequencing we identified pneumococcal arginine biosynthesis genes to be associated with outcome in patients with

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  5. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli

    Kay, Emily J.; Yates, Laura E.; Terra, Vanessa S.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology. PMID:27110302

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae caused different microbial structure and correlation network in lung microbiota.

    Wang, Heping; Dai, Wenkui; Qiu, Chuangzhao; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Wenjian; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhichuan; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Yuzheng; Yang, Zhenyu; Feng, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Han, Lijuan; Li, Yinhu; Zheng, Yuejie

    2016-06-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most serious diseases for children, with which lung microbiota are proved to be associated. We performed 16S rDNA analysis on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for 32 children with tracheomalacia (C group), pneumonia infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) (D1 group) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) (D2 group). Children with tracheomalacia held lower microbial diversity and accumulated Lactococcus (mean ± SD, 45.21%±5.07%, P value Mycoplasma (0.67%±1.25%, P value <0.01) respectively. Bacterial correlation in C group was mainly intermediated by Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. Whilst, D1 group harbored simplest microbial correlation in three groups, and D2 group held the most complicated network, involving enriched Staphylococcus (0.26%±0.71%), Massilia (0.81%±2.42%). This will be of significance for understanding pneumonia incidence and progression more comprehensively, and discerning between bacterial infection and carriage. PMID:27293852

  7. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    Shifeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines.

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a Penicilina en Lima - Perú

    Juan Fukuda Sharizawa; Juan Echevarria Zarate; Fernando Llanos Zavalaga; Augusto Yi Chu; Sara Palomino; Eduardo Gotuzzo Herencia; Carlos Carrillo Parodi

    1996-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina (SPRP). Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, multicéntrico, entre Noviembre de 1993 y Noviembre de 1994. Cultivos de sangre, líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR), líquido pleural (LP), material de timpanocentesis y esputo fueron coleccionados de los laboratorios de microbiología de cuatro hospitales de Lima. Las pruebas de concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM), fueron realizados usando métodos de ...

  9. Purification and preliminary crystallization of alanine racemase from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Im Hookang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past fifteen years, antibiotic resistance in the Gram-positive opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly increased. Clinical isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia or otitis media often display resistance to two or more antibiotics. Given the need for new therapeutics, we intend to investigate enzymes of cell wall biosynthesis as novel drug targets. Alanine racemase, a ubiquitous enzyme among bacteria and absent in humans, provides the essential cell wall precursor, D-alanine, which forms part of the tetrapeptide crosslinking the peptidoglycan layer. Results The alanine racemases gene from S. pneumoniae (alrSP was amplified by PCR and cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The 367 amino acid, 39854 Da dimeric enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and preliminary crystals were obtained. Racemic activity was demonstrated through complementation of an alr auxotroph of E. coli growing on L-alanine. In an alanine racemases photometric assay, specific activities of 87.0 and 84.8 U mg-1 were determined for the conversion of D- to L-alanine and L- to D-alanine, respectively. Conclusion We have isolated and characterized the alanine racemase gene from the opportunistic human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The enzyme shows sufficient homology with other alanine racemases to allow its integration into our ongoing structure-based drug design project.

  10. Commensal Streptococci Serve as a Reservoir for β-Lactam Resistance Genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Jensen, Anders; Valdórsson, Oskar; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. The incidence of S. pneumoniae isolates that are not susceptible to penicillin has risen worldwide and may be above 20% in some countries. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in pneumococci is...

  11. Influence of the blood bacterial load on the meningeal inflammatory response in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    Østergaard, C; O´Reilly, T; Brandt, C;

    2006-01-01

    was induced by intracisternal injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU Streptococcus pneumoniae, type 3, and the 26 rabbits were either provided with approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU S. pneumoniae intravenously at 0 hour ("bacteraemic" rabbits, n = 9), immunized with paraformaldehyde-killed S. pneumoniae...

  12. Invasiveness of Serotypes and Clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children in Finland

    William P Hanage; Kaijalainen, Tarja H.; Ritva K Syrjänen; Auranen, Kari; Leinonen, Maija; Mäkelä, P. Helena; Brian G. Spratt

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) causes diseases from otitis media to life-threatening invasive infection. The species is extremely antigenically and clonally diverse. We wished to determine odds ratios (ORs) for serotypes and clones of S. pneumoniae that cause invasive disease in Finland. A total of 224 isolates of S. pneumoniae from cases of invasive disease in children

  13. Structure and Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Target from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Singh,V.; Shi, W.; Almo, S.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; Tyler, P.; Painter, G.; Lenz, D.; Mee, S.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic deadenylation of its substrates to form adenine and 5-methylthioribose or S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH). MTAN is not found in mammals but is involved in bacterial quorum sensing. MTAN gene disruption affects the growth and pathogenicity of bacteria, making it a target for antibiotic design. Kinetic isotope effects and computational studies have established a dissociative S{sub N}1 transition state for Escherichia coli MTAN, and transition state analogues resembling the transition state are powerful inhibitors of the enzyme [Singh, V., Lee, J. L., Nunez, S., Howell, P. L., and Schramm, V. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11647-11659]. The sequence of MTAN from S. pneumoniae is 40% identical to that of E. coli MTAN, but S. pneumoniae MTAN exhibits remarkably distinct kinetic and inhibitory properties. 5'-Methylthio-Immucillin-A (MT-ImmA) is a transition state analogue resembling an early S{sub N}1 transition state. It is a weak inhibitor of S. pneumoniae MTAN with a K{sub i} of 1.0 {mu}M. The X-ray structure of S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA indicates a dimer with the methylthio group in a flexible hydrophobic pocket. Replacing the methyl group with phenyl (PhT-ImmA), tolyl (p-TolT-ImmA), or ethyl (EtT-ImmA) groups increases the affinity to give K{sub i} values of 335, 60, and 40 nM, respectively. DADMe-Immucillins are geometric and electrostatic mimics of a fully dissociated transition state and bind more tightly than Immucillins. MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibits with a K{sub i} value of 24 nM, and replacing the 5'-methyl group with p-Cl-phenyl (p-Cl-PhT-DADMe-ImmA) gave a K{sub i}* value of 0.36 nM. The inhibitory potential of DADMe-Immucillins relative to the Immucillins supports a fully dissociated transition state structure for S. pneumoniae MTAN. Comparison of active site contacts in the X-ray crystal structures of E. coli and S. pneumoniae

  14. MULTILOCI SEQUESTERANT STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    A. V. Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comuunity-acquired pneumonias in aged patients is the significant epidemiology problem for the public health of almost all the countries. Even more important the problem of microbiological monitoring and epidemiology surveillance for the S. pneumoniae strains as one of the ubiquitous pathogens causing as the community-acquired pneumonias as well the other infections of respiratory tract, what defines their different epidemiological meaning.Multilocus sequence typing is the perspective method of molecular epidemiological surveillance allowing to define the epidemiologically dangerous clones of the ubiquitous microorganisms as Streptococcus pneumomiae. The aim of our research was to conduct the multilocus sequence typing of pneumococci strains isolated in patients with community acquired pneumonias, bronchitis in aged patients.Materials and methods. There were taken 14 strains of S. pneumoniae, isolated in patients with community-acquired pneumonias (seven of them were multiresistant, eight strains were isolated from patients with the chronical onstructive lung diseases and four strains from carriers. Multilocus sequence typing was conduected according to method to M.C. Enright and B.G. Spratt (1998.Results. The strains, isolated in all populations were the related isolates of the species S. pneumoniae, the most of them had the unique genotype defining the sequence type for every strain. There were 6 strains of Taiwan 19F-14 genotype from 14 strains isolated in aged patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Among strains isolated from carriers there were prevailing the strai of R6 genotype.Conclusion. Multilocus sequence typing allows to identify the new genotypes and to prognose the appearing of epidemiologically dangerous strains with new peculiarities.

  15. Polyamine transporter in Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for evading early innate immune responses in pneumococcal pneumonia.

    Rai, Aswathy N; Thornton, Justin A; Stokes, John; Sunesara, Imran; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults worldwide. Genomic plasticity, antibiotic resistance and extreme capsular antigenic variation complicates the design of effective therapeutic strategies. Polyamines are ubiquitous small cationic molecules necessary for full expression of pneumococcal virulence. Polyamine transport system is an attractive therapeutic target as it is highly conserved across pneumococcal serotypes. In this study, we compared an isogenic deletion strain of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 in polyamine transport operon (ΔpotABCD) with the wild type in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Our results show that the wild type persists in mouse lung 24 h post infection while the mutant strain is cleared by host defense mechanisms. We show that intact potABCD is required for survival in the host by providing resistance to neutrophil killing. Comparative proteomics analysis of murine lungs infected with wild type and ΔpotABCD pneumococci identified expression of proteins that could confer protection to wild type strain and help establish infection. We identified ERM complex, PGLYRP1, PTPRC/CD45 and POSTN as new players in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Additionally, we found that deficiency of polyamine transport leads to up regulation of the polyamine synthesis genes speE and cad in vitro. PMID:27247105

  16. Protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection after nasopharyngeal colonization requires both humoral and cellular immune responses

    Wilson, R; Cohen, J.M.; Jose, R J; Vogel, C; Baxendale, H.; Brown, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia and infective exacerbations of chronic lung disease, yet there are few data on how adaptive immunity can specifically prevent S. pneumoniae lung infection. We have used a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization by the serotype 19F S. pneumoniae strain EF3030 followed by lung infection to investigate whether colonization protects against subsequent lung infection and the mechanisms involved. EF3030 colonization induced systemic and lo...

  17. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius Kills Streptococcus pneumoniae Planktonic Cells and Pneumococcal Biofilms

    Sharmila J Talekar; Sopio Chochua; Katie Nelson; Klugman, Keith P.; Quave, Cassandra L; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribe...

  18. NASOPHARYNGEAL CARRIAGE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN HEALTHY CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS OLD IN CENTRAL LOMBOK REGENCY, INDONESIA.

    Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Prayitno, Ari; Khoeri, Miftahuddin Majid; Djelantik, I Gusti Gede; Dewi, Nurhandini Eka; Indriyani, Sang Ayu Kompiang; Muttaqin, Zainul; Mudaliana, Siti; Safari, Dodi

    2016-05-01

    Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae is mostly symptomless, but can progress to respiratory or even systemic disease. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children under five years of age in Central Lombok Regency, Indonesia. This cross sectional study was carried out in 2012 among 1,200 healthy children aged 2 to 60 months. A multiplex sequential PCR was employed to determine serotype of cultured S. pneumoniae and a disk diffusion method to assess susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. S. pneumoniae was cultured from 554 children and the most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B (22% of pneumococcal strains), 19F (11%), 23F (10%), 15B/C (8%), and 19A and 14 (4% each). The majority of strains were still susceptible to clindamycin (97%), erythromycin (87%), chloramphenicol (81%), and penicillin (72%), with only 41% and 38% susceptible to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. Continuous surveillance of S. pneumoniae carriage is important for future pneumococcal vaccination programs in Indonesia. PMID:27405132

  19. Novel clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Malaysia.

    Johanna M Jefferies

    Full Text Available Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST, and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST, (11 of which were not previously described were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy.

  20. Genotyping and serotyping of macrolide and multidrug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from carrier children

    S F Swedan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Streptococcus pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen commonly carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx of children, is associated with increasing rates of treatment failures due to a worldwide increase in drug resistance. We investigated the carriage of S. pneumoniae in children 5 years or younger, the identity of prevalent serotypes, the rates of resistance to macrolides and other antimicrobial agents and the genotypes responsible for macrolide resistance. Materials and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 157 children under 5 years for cultural isolation of S. pneumoniae. Antibiogram of isolates  was determined using the disk diffusion test, and the minimal inhibitory concentration to macrolides was determined using the E-test. Isolate serotypes and macrolide resistance genes, erm(B and mef(E, were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Results: S. pneumoniae was recovered from 33.8% of children; 41.9% among males and 21.9% among females (P = 0.009. The highest carriage rate occurred among age groups 7-12 months and 49-60 months. Most frequent serotypes were 19F, 6A/B, 11A, 19A, 14 and 15B/C.  Resistance to macrolides was 60.4%. Resistance to oxacillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin was present among 90.6%, 54.7% and 32.1% of isolates, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Isolates resistant to one or more macrolide drugs were more likely to be multidrug resistant. Resistance to clindamycin or oxacillin coexisted with macrolide resistance. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, erm(B, mef(E and erm(B and mef(E genes were present at rates of 43.8%, 37.5% and 6.3%, respectively. Erm(B and mef(E were associated with very high level and moderate-to-high level resistance to macrolides, respectively. Conclusion: A significant proportion of children harboured macrolide and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae.

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis: case series

    Objective: In the antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis is a rare entity. However, there are still reports of cases of the disease, which is associated with high mortality, and most such cases are attributed to delayed diagnosis. Approximately 40-50% of all cases of purulent pericarditis are caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae in particular. Methods: We report four cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, with different clinical features and levels of severity. Results: In three of the four cases, the main complication was cardiac tamponade. Microbiological screening (urinary antigen testing and pleural fluid culture) confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis. Conclusions: In cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, early diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid severe hemodynamic compromise. The complications of acute pericarditis appear early in the clinical course of the infection. The most serious complications are cardiac tamponade and its consequences. Antibiotic therapy combined with pericardiocentesis drastically reduces the mortality associated with purulent pericarditis. (author)

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis: case series

    Cilloniz, Catia; Torres, Antoni [Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica Agusti Pi i Sunyer, Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); Rangel, Ernesto [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic (Mexico); Barlascini, Cornelius [Servizio di Igiene e Sanita Pubblica, Ospedale Generale di Sestri Levante, Sestri Levante (Italy); Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Nicolini, Antonello, E-mail: antonellonicolini@gmail.com [Servizio di Pneumologia, Ospedale Generale di Sestri Levante, Sestri Levante (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Objective: In the antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis is a rare entity. However, there are still reports of cases of the disease, which is associated with high mortality, and most such cases are attributed to delayed diagnosis. Approximately 40-50% of all cases of purulent pericarditis are caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae in particular. Methods: We report four cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, with different clinical features and levels of severity. Results: In three of the four cases, the main complication was cardiac tamponade. Microbiological screening (urinary antigen testing and pleural fluid culture) confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis. Conclusions: In cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, early diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid severe hemodynamic compromise. The complications of acute pericarditis appear early in the clinical course of the infection. The most serious complications are cardiac tamponade and its consequences. Antibiotic therapy combined with pericardiocentesis drastically reduces the mortality associated with purulent pericarditis. (author)

  3. Conjugal mobilization of the mega element carrying mef(E) from Streptococcus salivarius to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Santagati, Maria; Lupo, Agnese; Scillato, Marina; Di Martino, Andrea; Stefani, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of an unusual strain of Streptococcus salivarius, 3C30, displaying both the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and the tetracycline resistance phenotypes. It harbours the mef(E), erm(B), and tet(M) genes carried by different genetic elements. The genetic element carrying mef(E), named mega, was investigated by long PCR and sequencing, while the presence of the Tn3872-like element, carrying tet(M) and erm(B), was demonstrated by sequencing of both the int-xis-Tn and the fragment between the two resistance genes. In strain 3C30 the mega element is 5388 bp in size and its nucleotide sequence is identical to that of the element described previously in S. salivarius, with the exception of a 912 bp deletion at the left end. The composite Tn3872-like element appeared to be nonconjugative while the mega element was transferred by conjugation to Streptococcus pneumoniae. It was, however, impossible to transfer it again from these transconjugants to other strains. In addition, only in the 3C30 strain did mega form circular structures, as identified by real-time PCR. In conclusion, we found a clinical strain of S. salivarius carrying both mega and Tn3872-like genetic elements. Mega is transferable by conjugation to S. pneumoniae but it is not transferable again from the transconjugants, suggesting a possible mobilization by recombinases of the coresident Tn3872-like transposon. PMID:19025575

  4. Characterization of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases in Chinese children

    MA Xiang; YAO Kai-hu; XIE Gui-lin; ZHENG YUE-jie; WANG Chuan-qing; SHANG Yun-xiao; WANG Hui-yun

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in Chinese children remain uncharacterized.This study aims to identify the resistance genes associated with erythromycin resistance and to determine the genetic relationships of IPD isolates in Chinese children.Methods A total of 171 S.pneumoniae strains were isolated from 11 medical centers in China from 2006 to 2008.All the isolates were characterized via serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility determination.The erythromycin-resistant isolates were further characterized via ermB and mefA gene detection,multi-locus sequence typing analysis,and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.Results A total of 164 (95.9%) isolates showed resistance to erythromycin,of which 162 strains with high high-level resistance (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml).A total of 104 (63.4%) isolates carry the ermB gene alone,whereas 59 (36.0%) harbor both ermB and mefA genes.Of the 59 strains,54 were of serotypes 19A and 19F and were identified as highly clonal and related to the Taiwan19F-14 clone.Conclusions The erythromycin resistance rate in IPD isolates is significantly high and is predominantly mediated by the ermB gene.Isolates that carry both ermB and mefA genes are predominantly of serotypes 19A and 19F.

  5. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing noninvasive diseases in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai

    Fen Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Streptococcus pneumoniae, which cause noninvasive pneumococcal diseases, severely impair children's health. This study analyzed serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae from January 2012 to December 2012 in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai.Methods:A total of 328 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by multiplex sequential PCR and/or capsule-quellung reaction. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for 11 antimi- crobial agents were determined by broth microdilution method.Results:Among 328 strains, 19F (36.3%, 19A (13.4%, 6A (11.9%, 23F (11.0%, 14 (5.8%, 6B (5.2%, and 15B/C (4.3% were the most common serotypes. The coverage rates of 7-, 10-, and 13-valent conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 58.2%, 58.2%, and 84.1%, respectively. Out of the isolates, 26 (7.9% strains were penicillin resistant. Most of the strains displayed high resistance rate to macrolides (98.5% to erythromycin, 97.9% to azithromycin, and 97.0% to clindamycin.Conclusions:The potential coverage of PCV13 is higher than PCV7 and PCV10 because of the emergence of 19A and there should be long-term and systematic surveillance for non-vaccine serotypes.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae from Palestinian nasopharyngeal carriers: serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance.

    Abedelmajeed Nasereddin

    Full Text Available Infections of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children can be prevented by vaccination; left untreated, they cause high morbidity and fatalities. This study aimed at determining the nasopharyngeal carrier rates, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in healthy Palestinian children under age two prior to the full introduction of the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7, which was originally introduced into Palestine in a pilot trial in September, 2010. In a cross sectional study, nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 397 healthy children from different Palestinian districts between the beginning of November 2012 to the end of January 2013. Samples were inoculated into blood agar and suspected colonies were examined by amplifying the pneumococcal-specific autolysin gene using a real-time PCR. Serotypes were identified by a PCR that incorporated different sets of specific primers. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured by disk diffusion and MIC methods. The resulting carrier rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 55.7% (221/397. The main serotypes were PCV7 serotypes 19F (12.2%, 23F (9.0%, 6B (8.6% and 14 (4% and PCV13 serotypes 6A (13.6% and 19A (4.1%. Notably, serotype 6A, not included in the pilot trial (PCV7 vaccine, was the most prevalent. Resistance to more than two drugs was observed for bacteria from 34.1% of the children (72/211 while 22.3% (47/211 carried bacteria were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. All the isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime and vancomycin. Any or all of these might impinge on the type and efficacy of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and antibiotics to be used for prevention and treatment of pneumococcal disease in the country.

  7. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    Ansorena Luis; Garrido Jose; Rodríguez-Lera María; Peralta Galo; Roiz María

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP) has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detec...

  8. AdcAII of Streptococcus pneumoniae Affects Pneumococcal Invasiveness.

    Lindsey R Brown

    Full Text Available Across bacterial species, metal binding proteins can serve functions in pathogenesis in addition to regulating metal homeostasis. We have compared and contrasted the activities of zinc (Zn2+-binding lipoproteins AdcA and AdcAII in the Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 background. Exposure to Zn2+-limiting conditions resulted in delayed growth in a strain lacking AdcAII (ΔAdcAII when compared to wild type bacteria or a mutant lacking AdcA (ΔAdcA. AdcAII failed to interact with the extracellular matrix protein laminin despite homology to laminin-binding proteins of related streptococci. Deletion of AdcA or AdcAII led to significantly increased invasion of A549 human lung epithelial cells and a trend toward increased invasion in vivo. Loss of AdcAII, but not AdcA, was shown to negatively impact early colonization of the nasopharynx. Our findings suggest that expression of AdcAII affects invasiveness of S. pneumoniae in response to available Zn2+ concentrations.

  9. Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing major pneumococcal infections

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available First in Russia prospective non-interventional hospital-based study on Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing meningitis and acute otitis media (AOM in children and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in children and adults, as well as serotype coverage by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV’s of different composition has been conducted. Serotypes 19F, 14 and serogroup 6 are the leading in meningitis; serotype coverage is 70,6% for PCV7, and 76,5% – for PCV10 and PCV13. Among S. pneumoniae serotypes causing AOM 19F, 3, 23F and serogroup 6 have been the most prevalent in Saint Petersburg. PCV7 and PCV10 provide equal serotypes coverage in AOM – 63,2% among children 0–2 years old, and 32,5% among children 5–17 years old. PCV13 covers up to 79% of serotypes in infants. In CAP PCV7 and PCV10 provide 57,1% serotype coverage in children and 56,1% – in adults. Serotype coverage in CAP for PCV13 has been 14,3% and 34,5% higher for children and adults, correspondingly. Obtained data supports PCV inclusion in children immunization program in Saint Petersburg, whereas PCV13 provides the broadest serotype coverage. In the course PCV’s implementation continued pneumococcal infection surveillance is advisable.

  10. Severe respiratory failure due to co-infection with human metapneumovirus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Masafumi Seki; Hisao Yoshida; Kazuyoshi Gotoh; Nobuyuki Hamada; Daisuke Motooka; Shota Nakamura; Norihisa Yamamoto; Shigeto Hamaguchi; Yukihiro Akeda; Hiroshi Watanabe; Tetsuya Iida; Kazunori Tomono

    2014-01-01

    A 64-year-old male patient was admitted with respiratory failure, although chest X-rays revealed only mild bronchiolitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae, which usually presents as massive lobular pneumonia, was isolated from sputum, however, pan-pathogen screening using a next-generation sequencer also detected human metapneumovirus genome fragments.

  11. Characterization and transfer studies of macrolide resistance genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae from Denmark

    Nielsen, Karen L; Hammerum, Anette M; Lambertsen, Lotte M; Lester, Camilla H; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny D; Stegger, Marc; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, erythromycin resistance has been increasing in frequency in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Denmark. In the present study, 49 non-related erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates from invasive sites and 20 isolates from non-invasive sites were collected; antimicrobial...

  12. R-roscovitine Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Lipoteichoic Acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Duitman, JanWillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H. P.; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, −2, −5 and −7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We ...

  13. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection causing hemolytic uremic syndrome in children: Two recent cases

    Vanderkooi, Otto G; Kellner, James D; Wade, Andrew W.; Jadavji, Tajdin; Midgley, Julian P; Louie, Thomas; Tyrrell, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an uncommon cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with a unique pathophysiology that differs from Shiga toxin-related HUS.METHODS: Case descriptions for each patient are provided. Each strain of S pneumoniae was subjected to a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, Shiga toxin assay and polymerase chain reaction to detect Shiga toxin genes. A review of the current literature was conducted.CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two patients with S pneumonia...

  14. Commensal Streptococci Serve as a Reservoir for β-Lactam Resistance Genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Jensen, Anders; Valdórsson, Oskar; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hollingshead, Susan; Kilian, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. The incidence of S. pneumoniae isolates that are not susceptible to penicillin has risen worldwide and may be above 20% in some countries. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in pneumococci is associated with significant sequence polymorphism in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Commensal streptococci, especially S. mitis and S. oralis, have been identified as putative donors of mutate...

  15. Influenza Virus Infection Decreases Tracheal Mucociliary Velocity and Clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Pittet, Lynnelle A.; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Harmsen, Allen G.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza virus infections increase susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, such as pneumococcal pneumonia, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Influenza-induced tissue damage is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by increasing adherence to the respiratory epithelium. Using a mouse model of influenza infection followed by S. pneumoniae infection, we found that an influenza infection does not increase the number of pneumococci in...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain A026, a Clinical Multidrug-Resistant Isolate Carrying Tn2010

    Sui, Zhihai; Zhou, Wenqing; Yao, Kaihu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Gang; Yang, Yonghong; Feng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a primary cause of bacterial infection in humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. pneumoniae strain A026, which is a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from cerebrospinal fluid.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Yashuan eChao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over 1 million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo.In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of

  18. Amoxicillin Is Effective against Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in a Mouse Pneumonia Model Simulating Human Pharmacokinetics▿

    Abgueguen, Pierre; Azoulay-Dupuis, Esther; Noel, Violaine; Moine, Pierre; Rieux, Veronique; Fantin, Bruno; Bedos, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    High-dose oral amoxicillin (3 g/day) is the recommended empirical outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in many European guidelines. To investigate the clinical efficacy of this treatment in CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with MICs of amoxicillin ≥2 μg/ml, we used a lethal bacteremic pneumonia model in leukopenic female Swiss mice with induced renal failure to replicate amoxicillin kinetics in humans given 1 g/8 h orally. Amoxicillin (15 mg/kg of body weig...

  19. The Use of Microarray Technology for the Analysis of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Timothy J. Mitchell

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen associated with pneumonia, septicaemia, meningitis and otitis media. It is estimated to result in over 3 million child deaths worldwide every year and an even greater number of deaths among the elderly. Prior to the complete sequencing of the genomes of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 (serotype 4 and S. pneumoniae R6 (serotype 2, we designed a custom miniarray consisting of 497 pneumococcal genes. The overall objectives of our microarray investigations were, first, to assess the genetic diversity between different S. pneumoniae serotypes, clinical isolates and also different Streptococcus species; second, we aimed to use microarray technology to examine the mechanisms by which environmental factors influence pneumococcal gene expression, and ultimately to further the understanding of how these changes in gene expression are achieved and how they may alter the virulence of the organism.

  20. Translation quality control is maintained by the penicillin resistance factor MurM in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA-ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall...... combination of both branched and linear muropeptides, deletion of MurM results in a reversion to penicillin sensitivity in strains that were previously resistant. However, since MurM is not required for cell viability, the reason for its functional conservation across all strains of S. pneumoniae has remained...

  1. Enhanced detection and serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Jong Gyun Ahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Methods for quick and reliable detection of &lt;I&gt;Streptococcus pneumoniae&lt;/I&gt; are needed for the diagnosis of pneumococcal disease and vaccine studies. This study aimed to show that sequential multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR is more efficient than conventional culture in achieving &lt;I&gt;S. pneumoniae -positive&lt;/i&gt; results. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Nasopharyngeal (NP secretions were obtained from 842 pediatric patients admitted with lower respiratory infections at Severance Children’s Hospital in Korea between March 2009 and June 2010. For identification and serotype determination of pneumococci from the NP secretions, the secretions were evaluated via multiplex PCR technique with 35 serotype-specific primers arranged in 8 multiplex PCR sets and conventional bacteriological culture technique. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Among the results for 793 samples that underwent both bacterial culture and PCR analysis for pneumococcal detection, 153 (19.3% results obtained by PCR and 81 (10.2% results obtained by conventional culture technique were positive for S. pneumoniae. The predominant serotypes observed, in order of decreasing frequency, were 19A (23%, 6A/B (16%, 19F (11%, 15B/C (5%, 15A (5%, and 11A (4%; further, 26% of the isolates were non-typeable. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; As opposed to conventional bacteriological tests, PCR analysis can accurately and rapidly identify pneumococcal serotypes.

  2. Lung abscess due to Streptococcus pneumoniae simulating pulmonary tuberculosis: presentation of two cases

    Alessandro Perazzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, anaerobes were the most common cause of community-acquired lung abscess; Streptococcus species were the second most common cause. In recent years, this has changed. Klebsiella pneumoniae is now most common cause of community- acquired lung abscess, although Streptococcus species remain pathogen of major importance. We present two cases of pulmonary cavitation due to Streptococcus pneumoniae which resembled pulmonary tuberculosis with regards to their history and radiological findings. These are examples of a common diagnosis presenting in an uncommon way. Our cases had some peculiarities: they had a clinical picture strongly suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer rather than necrotizing infectious pneumonia in patients with no comorbidities or underlying diseases (including oral or dental pathologies. Radiological findings did not help the clinicians: pulmonary tuberculosis was the first diagnostic hypothesis in both cases. An underlying lung cancer was excluded in the first case only after invasive pulmonary procedures.

  3. Serotype Distribution, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Children in Shanghai, China.

    Fen Pan

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogenic cause of pediatric infections. This study investigated the serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of pneumococci before the introduction of conjugate vaccines in Shanghai, China.A total of 284 clinical pneumococcal isolates (270, 5, 4,3, and 2 of which were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and ear secretions, respectively from children less than 14 years of age who had not been vaccinated with a conjugate vaccine, were collected between January and December in 2013. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex polymerase chain reaction or quellung reactions and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution method. The molecular epidemiology of S.pneumoniae was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among the 284 pneumococcal isolates, 19F (33.5%, 19A (14.1%, 23F (12.0%, and 6A (8.8% were the most common serotypes and the coverage rates of the 7-, 10-, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 58.6%, 59.4% and 85.1%, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed that the prevalence rates of S.pneumoniae resistance to penicillin were 11.3% (32/284. Approximately 88.0% (250/284 of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. MLST analysis revealed a high level of diversity, with 65 sequence types (STs among 267 isolates. Specifically, the four predominant STs were ST271 (24.3%, 65/267, ST320 (11.2%, 30/267, ST81 (9.7%, 26/267, and ST3173 (5.2%, 14/267, which were mainly associated with serotypes 19F, 19A, 23F, and 6A, respectively.The prevalent serotypes among clinical isolates from children were 19F, 19A, 23F, and 6A and these isolates showed high resistance rates to β-lactams and macrolides. The Taiwan19F-14 clone played a predominant role in the dissemination of pneumococcal isolates in Shanghai, China. Therefore, continued and

  4. Effect of Xylitol on Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Presence of Fructose and Sorbitol

    Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Sammalkivi, Laura; Ikäheimo, Irma; Koskela, Markku; Uhari, Matti

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol is effective in preventing acute otitis media by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To clarify this inhibition we used fructose, which is known to block similar growth inhibition observed in Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of sorbitol in inhibiting the growth of pneumococci, as sorbitol is widely used for indications similar to those for which xylitol is used. The addition of 5% xylitol to the growth medium resulted in marked growth inhibit...

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in Alberta pre- and postintroduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    Jennie Johnstone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, microbiology and outcomes of patients of all ages with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis between 2000 and 2004; two years pre- and postintroduction of an S pneumoniae 7-valent conjugate vaccine program in Alberta in children younger than two years of age. The high mortality rate associated with S pneumoniae meningitis, despite appropriate therapy, suggests that prevention of S pneumoniae meningitis is critical. Despite implementation of a PCV-7 program in Alberta, rates of S pneumoniae meningitis in children younger than two years of age is still high. Thus, continued research into safe and efficacious vaccines covering a broader range of S pneumoniae serotypes is necessary.

  6. Reconstruction of a genome-scale metabolic network for Streptococcus pneumoniae R6

    J.P. Saraiva; Pinto, Francisco; Rocha, I

    2013-01-01

    The gram-positive, lancet-shaped bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae thrives in almost any environment. Under certain conditions this pathogen can cause several infections such as meningitis, otitis media, endocarditis or pneumonia. Genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMs) are commonly used to study phenotype-genotype relationships using biochemical, physiological and genomic information. These relationships might shed some light on identification of targets for metabolic engineering or, in t...

  7. Ethanol Impairs Mucosal Immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection by Disrupting Interleukin 17 Gene Expression

    Trevejo-Nunez, Giraldina; Chen, Kong; Dufour, Jason P.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Horne, William T.; Nelson, Steve; Kolls, Jay K.

    2015-01-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication suppresses the host immune responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae. As interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a critical cytokine in host defense against extracellular pathogens, including S. pneumoniae, we hypothesized that ethanol impairs mucosal immunity against this pathogen by disrupting IL-17 production or IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) signaling. A chronic ethanol feeding model in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques and acute ethanol intoxication in a...

  8. Comparative study of five different DNA fingerprint techniques for molecular typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains.

    Hermans, P W; Sluijter, M.; Hoogenboezem, T.; Heersma, H.; van Belkum, A; de Groot, R.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of five DNA fingerprint methods for epidemiological typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We investigated the usefulness of (i) ribotyping, (ii) BOX fingerprinting with the BOX repetitive sequence of S. pneumoniae as a DNA probe, (iii) PCR fingerprinting with a primer homologous to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence, (iv) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments, and (v) restriction fragm...

  9. Comparative study of five different DNA fingerprint techniques for molecular typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains

    Hermans, Peter; Sluijter, Marcel; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Heersma, H.; van Belkum, Alex; de Groot, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of five DNA fingerprint methods for epidemiological typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We investigated the usefulness of (i) ribotyping, (ii) BOX fingerprinting with the BOX repetitive sequence of S. pneumoniae as a DNA probe, (iii) PCR fingerprinting with a primer homologous to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence, (iv) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments, and (v) restr...

  10. Human Monocytes Promote Th1 and Th17 Responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Olliver, Marie; Hiew, Jeffni; Mellroth, Peter; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Bergman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis in children. Human immunity to pneumococcal infections has been assumed to depend on anticapsular antibodies. However, recent findings from murine models suggest that alternative mechanisms, dependent on T helper cells, are also involved. Although the immunological events in which T helper cells contribute to acquired immunity have been studied in mice, little is known about how these responses are gene...

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Poland: Identification of Emerging Clones

    Overweg, Karin; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Sluijter, Marcel; De Groot, Ronald; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    1999-01-01

    Penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates has rapidly emerged in Poland during the last decade and has reached prevalence levels of up to 14.4% in 1997. In order to investigate the nature of this increase, a molecular epidemiological analysis of non-penicillin-susceptible multidrug-resistant pneumococci isolated in 1995 and 1996 was conducted. Thirty-seven patients who suffered mainly from upper respiratory tract infections and pneumococcal pneumonia were enrolled in this ...

  12. Immunization with Polyamine Transport Protein PotD Protects Mice against Systemic Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Shah, P.; Swiatlo, E.

    2006-01-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains genes for a putative polyamine ABC transporter which are organized in an operon and designated potABCD. Polyamine transport protein D (PotD) is an extracellular protein which binds polyamines and possibly other structurally related molecules. PotD has been shown to contribute to virulence in both a murine sepsis model and a pneumonia model with capsular type 3 pneumococci. The protective efficacy of recombinant PotD was evaluated by active ...

  13. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Poland: identification of emerging clones

    Overweg, Karin; Hermans, Peter; Trzcinski, K.; Sluijter, Marcel; Hryniewicz, W.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPenicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates has rapidly emerged in Poland during the last decade and has reached prevalence levels of up to 14.4% in 1997. In order to investigate the nature of this increase, a molecular epidemiological analysis of non-penicillin-susceptible multidrug-resistant pneumococci isolated in 1995 and 1996 was conducted. Thirty-seven patients who suffered mainly from upper respiratory tract infections and pneumococcal pneumonia were enrol...

  14. Exposure of Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen in Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection is Dependent on Pneumococcal Neuraminidase A**

    Coats, Mamie T.; Murphy, Trudy; James C Paton; Gray, Barry; Briles, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome is recognized in a small portion of otherwise healthy children who have or have recently had Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, including severe pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia. As in other types of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), pneumococcal HUS is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, usually with extensive kidney damage. Although not demonstrated in vivo, the pathogenesis of pneumococcal HUS has been attri...

  15. Radiolabeling of gemifloxacin with technetium-99m and biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae infected rats

    In the current investigation complexation of the gemifloxacin (GIN) with technetium-99 m (99mTc) and its biological evaluation in artificially Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) infected rats was assessed as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. Radiochemically the 99mTc-GIN complex was further analyzed in terms of stability in saline, in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C, in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae (living and heat killed) infected rats. The complex was found 97.25 ± 0.25% radiochemically stable in saline at 30 min after reconstitution. The stability of the 99mTc-GIN complex was decreased to 90.50 ± 0.20% within 240 min after reconstitution. In serum the 99mTc-GIN complex showed stable profile with the appearance of 18.85% free tracer within 16 h of incubation. The 99mTc-GIN complex showed saturated in vitro binding with S. pneumoniae after different intervals. Almost five fold uptake was observed in living S. pneumoniae infected muscle of the rats as compared to the inflamed and normal muscle. No significant difference in the uptake of heat killed S. pneumoniae infected, inflamed and normal muscles of the rats. The high RCP yield in saline, in vitro permanence in serum, in vitro binding with living S. pneumoniae and biodistribution in artificially S. pneumoniae infected rats we recommend the 99mTc-GIN as potential S. pneumoniae infection radiotracer. (author)

  16. Drug-resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates among Spanish middle aged and older adults with community-acquired pneumonia

    Raga-Luria Xavier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Updated data on drug-resistance from different populations may be important to recognize changes in disease patterns. This study assessed current levels of penicilin resistance among Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in Spanish middle age and older adults. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested for 104 consecutive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients 50 years or older with radiographically confirmed pneumonia in the region of Tarragona (Spain between 2002 and 2007. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration of tested antimicrobials (penicillin, erythromycin, cefotaxime and levofloxacin strains were classified as susceptible or resistant. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for early cases (2002–2004 and contemporary cases (2005–2007. Results Twenty-seven (25.9% were penicillin-resistant strains (19 strains with intermediate resistance and 8 strains with high resistance. Penicillin-resistance was higher in 2002–2004 than in 2005–2007 (39.5% vs 18.2%, p = 0.017. Of 27 penicillin-resistant strains, 10 (37% were resistant to erythromycin, 8 (29.6% to cefotaxime, 2 (7.4% to levofloxacin, and 4 (14.8% were identified as multidrug resistant. Case-fatality rate was higher among those patients who had an infection caused by any penicillin susceptible strain (16.9% than in those with infections due to penicillin-resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high, but such resistance does not result in increased mortality in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

  17. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Deformylase Inhibitors Is Due to Mutations in defB

    Margolis, Peter; Hackbarth, Corinne; Lopez, Sara; Maniar, Mita; Wang, Wen; Yuan, Zhengyu; White, Richard; Trias, Joaquim

    2001-01-01

    Resistance to peptide deformylase inhibitors in Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus is due to inactivation of transformylase activity. Knockout experiments in Streptococcus pneumoniae R6x indicate that the transformylase (fmt) and deformylase (defB) genes are essential and that a def paralog (defA) is not. Actinonin-resistant mutants of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 harbor mutations in defB but not in fmt. Reintroduction of the mutated defB gene into wild-type S. pneumoniae R6x recreates the...

  18. Accuracy of using the lytA gene to distinguish Streptococcus pneumoniae from related species

    Greve, Thomas; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2012-01-01

    The need for a microbial identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae independent of culture methods has resulted in the introduction of other laboratory principles. The verification of a proper and exclusive gene for the detection of the pneumococcus by the nucleic acid-based tests (NAT) is however...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Streptococcus pneumoniae Avery Strain A66

    Hahn, Christoph; Harrison, Ewan M.; Parkhill, Julian; Holmes, Mark A.; Paterson, Gavin K.

    2015-01-01

    We have used HiSeq 2000 technology to generate a draft genome sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain A66. This is a common study strain used in investigations of pneumococcal bacterium-host interactions and was used in the seminal genetic studies of Avery et al.

  20. Pyruvate Oxidase Influences the Sugar Utilization Pattern and Capsule Production in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Carvalho, Sandra M.; Farshchi Andisi, Vahid; Gradstedt, Henrik; Neef, Jolanda; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Neves, Ana R.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidat

  1. CodY of Streptococcus pneumoniae : Link between nutritional gene regulation and colonization

    Hendriksen, Wouter T.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Estevao, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; de Jong, Anne; de Groot, Ronald; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a nutritional regulator mainly involved in amino acid metabolism. It has been extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. We investigated the role of CodY in gene regulation and virulence of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a codY mutant and ex

  2. Carbonic Anhydrase Is Essential for Streptococcus pneumoniae Growth in Environmental Ambient Air

    Burghout, Peter; Cron, Lorelei E.; Gradstedt, Henrik; Quintero, Beatriz; Simonetti, Elles; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2010-01-01

    The respiratory tract pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae needs to adapt to the different levels of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) it encounters during transmission, colonization, and infection. Since CO(2) is important for various cellular processes, factors that allow optimal CO(2) sequestering are likely t

  3. To have neighbour's fare : extending the molecular toolbox for Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Kloosterman, TG; Bijlsma, J.J.E.; Kok, J; Kuipers, OP

    2006-01-01

    In past years, several useful genetic tools have been developed to study the molecular biology of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In order to extend the existing spectrum of tools, advantage was taken of the toolbox originally developed for the closely related bacterium Lactococcus lactis, which was adapt

  4. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, Ram;

    2000-01-01

    effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg...

  5. Accuracy of Phenotypic Methods for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Included in Surveillance Programs▿

    Richter, Sandra S.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Riahi, Fathollah; Beekmann, Susan E.; Doern, Gary V.

    2008-01-01

    Similarities between Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci may result in misidentification of these organisms. In surveillance programs which assess antimicrobial resistance rates among respiratory tract pathogens, such identification errors could lead to overestimates of pneumococcal resistance rates. DNA probe analysis (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA), the bile solubility test, optochin susceptibility, colony morphology, and the capsular swelling reaction with Omni serum (State...

  6. Agar diffusion tests with cefuroxime disks for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Dias Cícero A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of agar diffusion tests using disks of cefuroxime (30µg for predicting ceftriaxone susceptibility in 33 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied. All 7 resistant isolates to ceftriaxone (MIC ³1.0 µg/ml exhibited zones of inhibition <28mm. The procedure can be easily adapted to clinical laboratories.

  7. Pulsatile Delivery of Clarithromycin Alone or in Combination with Amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Leuthner, Kimberly D.; Cheung, Chrissy M.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pulsatile dosing of clarithromycin and amoxicillin alone or combined against Streptococcus pneumoniae with various susceptibilities. When combined, pulsatile amoxicillin with clarithromycin was superior to either 8- or 12-h dosing against the intermediate strain and was identical for the susceptible strain. Pulse dosing of antimicrobials warrants further investigation.

  8. Selection of Streptococcus pneumoniae Mutants Having Reduced Susceptibility to Moxifloxacin and Levofloxacin

    Li, Xinying; Zhao, Xilin; Drlica, Karl

    2002-01-01

    With Streptococcus pneumoniae, moxifloxacin was 4- and 10-fold more effective than levofloxacin at restricting selection of resistant mutants and at killing resistant mutants, respectively. The selection frequency for first-step topoisomerase mutants was 1,000 times lower for moxifloxacin than for levofloxacin; this difference was lost when second-step mutants were selected.

  9. Bartholinitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae : Case report and review of literature

    Parvathi S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Bartholin′s gland abscesses have been thought to be caused by colonizing micro-organisms of the perineal region. We encountered an interesting case of acute Bartholins abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a primigravida. The abscess was incised and drained. The patient was treated with Cefuroxime. This case is presented for its rarity.

  10. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from healthy Ghanaian preschool children

    Dayie, Nicholas Tete Kwaku Dzifa; Arhin, Reuben E.; Newman, Mercy J.;

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the cause of high mortality among children worldwide. Antimicrobial treatment and vaccination are used to control pneumococcal infections. In Ghana, data on antimicrobial resistance and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant pneumococcal clones are scarce; hence, the ai...

  11. Structure and molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide 10F by carbohydrate engineering in Streptococcus oralis.

    Yang, Jinghua; Shelat, Nirav Y; Bush, C Allen; Cisar, John O

    2010-07-30

    Although closely related at the molecular level, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of serotype 10F Streptococcus pneumoniae and coaggregation receptor polysaccharide (RPS) of Streptococcus oralis C104 have distinct ecological roles. CPS prevents phagocytosis of pathogenic S. pneumoniae, whereas RPS of commensal S. oralis functions as a receptor for lectin-like adhesins on other members of the dental plaque biofilm community. Results from high resolution NMR identified the recognition region of S. oralis RPS (i.e. Galfbeta1-6GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha) in the hexasaccharide repeat of S. pneumoniae CPS10F. The failure of this polysaccharide to support fimbriae-mediated adhesion of Actinomyces naeslundii was explained by the position of Galf, which occurred as a branch in CPS10F rather than within the linear polysaccharide chain, as in RPS. Carbohydrate engineering of S. oralis RPS with wzy from S. pneumoniae attributed formation of the Galf branch in CPS10F to the linkage of adjacent repeating units through sub terminal GalNAc in Galfbeta1-6GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha rather than through terminal Galf, as in RPS. A gene (wcrD) from serotype 10A S. pneumoniae was then used to engineer a linear surface polysaccharide in S. oralis that was identical to RPS except for the presence of a beta1-3 linkage between Galf and GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha. This polysaccharide also failed to support adhesion of A. naeslundii, thereby establishing the essential role of beta1-6-linked Galf in recognition of adjacent GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha in wild-type RPS. These findings, which illustrate a molecular approach for relating bacterial polysaccharide structure to function, provide insight into the possible evolution of S. oralis RPS from S. pneumoniae CPS. PMID:20507989

  12. Antimicrobial resistance and serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from pediatric patients in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil Resistência antimicrobiana e sorotipagem de Streptococcus pneumoniae isolado de pacientes pediátricos em Belo Horizonte, MG

    Ana Paula Gomes de Oliveira Magalhães

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive strains were isolated from a pediatric population in Belo Horizonte from June, 1999 to May, 2001. Penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance rates for the isolates were 41.9, 58.1, 25.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Intermediate penicillin resistant (MICs between 0.1 and 1.0 µg/ml and resistant (MICs > 2.0 µg/ml isolates occured at rates of 38.7 and 3.2%, respectively. Resistance to erythromycin, ofloxacin, rifampin or vancomicyn was not detected. Ten S. pneumoniae serotypes (14, 5, 10 A, 6B, 15B, 18C, 6 A, 18 A, 19 A and 19 F were identified. Serotype 14 (12 out of 31 was predominant among the isolates. Penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was more common in 14 and 6B serotypes.Trinta e três linhagens invasivas do S. pneumoniae foram isoladas a partir de pacientes pediátricos em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, de junho de 1999 a maio de 2001. As taxas de resistência à penicilina, ao trimetoprim-sultametoxazol, tetraciclina e cloranfenicol foram respectivamente, 41, 9; 58,1 e 3,2%. A resistência intermediária à penicilina (MICs entre 0,1 e 1,0 µg/ml e resistência total (MICs>2.0 µg/ml ocorreram, respectivamente, nas porcentagens de 38,7 e 3,2%. Não foi detectada resistência à eritromicina, ofloxacin, rifampina e vancomicina. Foram identificados 9 sorotipos do S. pneumoniae (14, 5, 10 , 6B, 15B, 18C, 6 A, 18 19 A e 19F entre os isolados. O sorotipo 14 (12 de 31 foi predominate entre os isolados. A resistência à penicilina e ao trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol estava sempre associada aos sorotipos 14 e 6B.

  13. EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System; data from the Netherlands .Incidence and resistance rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

    Goettsch WG; de Neeling AJ; CIE; LIO

    2001-01-01

    Gevoeligheid voor antimicrobiele middelen in Streptococcus pneumoniae en Staphylococcus aureus werd bepaald in 1999 in Nederland binnen het raamwerk van het European antomicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). Het EARSS project had in Nederland een dekkingsgraad van 40% van de Nederlandse

  14. Th1-directing adjuvants increase the immunogenicity of oligosaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines related to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3

    Lefeber, DJ; Benaissa-Trouw, B; Vliegenthart, JFG; Kamerling, JP; Jansen, WTM; Kraaijeveld, K; Snippe, H

    2003-01-01

    Oligosaccharide (OS)-protein conjugates are promising candidate vaccines against encapsulated bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although the effects of several variables such as OS chain length and protein carrier have been studied, littl

  15. Evaluation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in bile samples: A case series review.

    Itoh, Naoya; Kawamura, Ichiro; Tsukahara, Mika; Mori, Keita; Kurai, Hanako

    2016-06-01

    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans, pneumococcal cholangitis is rare because of the rapid autolysis of S. pneumoniae. The aim of this case series was to review patients with bile cultures positive for S. pneumoniae. This study was a single center retrospective case series review of patients with S. pneumoniae in their bile at a tertiary-care cancer center between September 2002 and August 2015. Subjects consisted of all patients in whom S. pneumoniae was isolated in their bile during the study period. Bile specimens for culture were obtained from biliary drainage procedures such as endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. There were 20 patients with bile cultures positive for S. pneumoniae during the study period. All patients presented with extrahepatic obstructive jaundice due to hepatopancreatobiliary tumors. Nineteen of 20 patients underwent the placement of plastic intrabiliary tubes. The mean time between the first-time drainage and the positive culture was 26 days (range 0-313 days). Although 12 of 20 patients met our definition of cholangitis, 5 were clinically treated with antibiotics based on a physician's assessment of whether there was a true infection. The present study is the largest case series of patients with S. pneumoniae in their bile. Based on our findings, the isolation of S. pneumoniae from bile may be attributed to the placement of biliary drainage devices. PMID:27025902

  16. SURFACE PROTEINS AND PNEUMOLYSIN OF ENCAPSULATED AND NONENCAPSULATED STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE MEDIATE VIRULENCE IN A CHINCHILLA MODEL OF OTITIS MEDIA

    Keller, Lance E.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Haley ePipkins; McDaniel, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surf...

  17. Pelvic inflammatory disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a usual pathogen at an unusual place.

    Lemoyne, S; Van Leemput, J; Smet, D; Desmedt, E; Devos, H; Van Schaeren, J; Jeurissen, A

    2008-01-01

    We report three cases of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in previously healthy young women. S. pneumoniae frequently causes bacteremia, meningitis and respiratory infections, but it very rarely infects the genital tract. All our patients presented with an acute onset of severe abdominal pain and had an intrauterine device (IUD) present. No abnormal sexual behavior was noticed. Although the relation between PID due to S. pneumoniae and the use of an IUD has been a topic for discussions, culture of IUD in all our patients and blood culture in 2 of 3 of our patients revealed S. pneumoniae. All patients recovered well with intravenous antibiotic treatment and removal of the IUD. PMID:19170357

  18. Search for coherent gene modules that predict streptococcus pneumoniae strain invasiveness

    Catarino, Rui Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Bioquímica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 O Streptococcus pneumoniae, também chamado pneumococcus, é uma bactéria grampositiva do subgrupo alfa-hemolítico do género Streptococcus. É um colonizador frequente do trato respiratório superior humano e embora possa ser encontrado em qualquer pessoa, tem maior prevalência em crianças e idosos. A colonização decorre tipicamente sem causar sintomas, mas pode por vezes culminar na in...

  19. Immune Responses to Specific Antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the Respiratory Tract

    Samukawa, Takao; Yamanaka, Noboru; Hollingshead, Susan; Klingman, Karin; Faden, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are two common respiratory pathogens, colonizing as many as 54 and 72% of children, respectively, by 1 year of age. The immune responses to surface protein A of S. pneumoniae (PspA) and the high-molecular-weight outer membrane protein of M. catarrhalis (UspA) in the sera of various age groups in the general population and in the nasopharynges of 30 children monitored from birth through 1 year of age were evaluated. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was ...

  20. Laboratory survey of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in New York City, 1993-1995.

    Heffernan, R.; Henning, K; Labowitz, A.; Hjelte, A.; Layton, M.

    1998-01-01

    Wide geographic variation in the prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae demonstrates the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance locally. This survey of hospital microbiology laboratories in New York City found that penicillin resistance (MIC > or = 2.0 micrograms/ml) increased from 1.5% of S. pneumoniae isolates in 1993 to 6.3% in 1995 and that in 1995, one-third of isolates nonsusceptible to penicillin (MIC > or = 0.1 microgram/ml) were also nonsusceptible to an exten...

  1. Prevalência de sorotipos e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas do Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Mantese Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de sorotipos e a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtidas em espécimes clínicos de pacientes com doença invasiva, bem como suas implicações na formulação de vacinas pneumocócicas. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia a partir de amostras clínicas de pacientes com doença invasiva foram identificadas e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a março de 2003, foram isoladas 148 cepas invasivas de pneumococo, sendo 84 (56,7% provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade variou de um dia a 88,83 anos, com média de 21,33+25,82 anos e mediana de 4,42 anos. Os diagnósticos clínicos mais comuns foram pneumonia (91 casos; 61,4%, meningite (32 casos; 21,6% e bacteremia sem foco evidente (15 casos; 10,1%. As principais fontes de recuperação foram sangue (76 amostras; 51,3%, líquido pleural (39; 26,3% e liquor (30; 20,2%. No total, foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos entre 143 amostras testadas, sendo os mais comuns os seguintes: 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B e 18C. Dentre 30 (20,2% cepas oxacilina-resistentes, 23 (15,5% confirmaram a resistência à penicilina (12,8% com nível intermediário e 2,7%, com nível pleno, que esteve restrita aos sorotipos 14, 23F, 19A e 6B, predominando em indivíduos com até dois anos de idade (p = 0,0008. Foi detectada susceptibilidade diminuída ao cotrimoxazol (63,4%, à eritromicina (8,3%, à clindamicina (8,7% e à ofloxacina (0,8%. A resistência à cefotaxima foi detectada em três das 30 cepas testadas (2% das 148, todas elas com resistência confirmada à penicilina. Não foi observada resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência

  2. Disease Isolates of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Non-Typeable S. pneumoniae Presumptively Identified as Atypical S. pneumoniae in Spain

    Dora Rolo; Simões, Alexandra S.; Arnau Domenech; Asunción Fenoll; Josefina Liñares; Hermínia de Lencastre; Carmen Ardanuy; Raquel Sá-Leão

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to obtain insights on the nature of a collection of isolates presumptively identified as atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections in Spain. One-hundred and thirty-two isolates were characterized by: optochin susceptibility in ambient and CO(2)-enriched atmosphere; bile solubility; PCR-based assays targeting pneumococcal genes lytA, ply, pspA, cpsA, Spn9802, aliB-like ORF2, and a specific 16S rRNA region; multilocus sequence analysis; and a...

  3. Characterization of a mutation in the parE gene that confers fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Perichon, B; Tankovic, J; Courvalin, P

    1997-01-01

    We report a mutation in the parE genes of two in vitro mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. Sequential acquisition of mutations in parE and gyrA leads to higher levels of resistance. This confirms that topoisomerase IV is the primary target of fluoroquinolones in S. pneumoniae.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Endothelial Host Cells via Multiple Pathways and Is Killed in a Lysosome Dependent Manner

    Gradstedt, Henrik; Iovino, Federico; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causative agents of pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis and other morbidities. In spite of its heavy disease burden, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms involved in the switch of life style, from commensal colonizer of the nasopharynx to invasive

  5. The pavA gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a fibronectin-binding protein that is essential for virulence

    Holmes, AR; McNab, R; Millsap, KW; Rohde, M; Hammerschmidt, S; Mawdsley, JL; Jenkinson, HF

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx in up to 40% of healthy subjects, and is a leading cause of middle ear infections (otitis media), meningitis and pneumonia. Pneumococci adhere to glycosidic receptors on epithelial cells and to immobilized fibronectin, but the bacterial adhesins med

  6. Rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood cultures.

    Knight, R G; Shlaes, D M

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous application of the lysostaphin sensitivity test for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the deoxycholate test for the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae was evaluated for reliability in rapid identification (1 h) of these organisms from blood cultures by using BACTEC 6B and 7C bottles. The procedure was applied to 127 cultures, 74 lysostaphin tests and 53 deoxycholate tests. Lysostaphin-tested organisms included 23 S. aureus, 40 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 1 Liste...

  7. Pronounced Metabolic Changes in Adaptation to Biofilm Growth by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Allan , RN; Skipp, Paul; Jefferies, J.M.C.; Clarke, S. C.; Faust, SN; Hall-Stoodley, L.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for a significant global burden of morbidity and mortality and biofilm development is increasingly recognised as important for colonization and infection. Analysis of protein expression patterns during biofilm development may therefore provide valuable insights to the understanding of pneumococcal persistence strategies and to improve vaccines. iTRAQ (isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification), a high-throughput gel-free proteomic approach whi...

  8. The Protective Function of Human C-reactive Protein in Mouse Models of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Agrawal, Alok; Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Singh, Sanjay K.; Ferguson, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Human C-reactive protein (CRP), injected intravenously into mice or produced inside mice by a human transgene, protects mice from death following administration of lethal numbers of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The protective effect of CRP is due to reduction in the concentration of bacteria in the blood. The exact mechanism of CRP-dependent killing of pneumococci and the partners of CRP in this process are yet to be defined. The current efforts to determine the mechanism of action of CRP in mic...

  9. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant or -Susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae from Hong Kong

    Morrissey, Ian; Farrell, David J.; Bakker, Sarah; Buckridge, Sylvie; Felmingham, David

    2003-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from Hong Kong as part of Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin 1999/2000 was found to be due to the spread of the Spain23F-1 clone (mainly a Spain23F-1-14 variant). All the isolates were multidrug resistant but were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and telithromycin. The Spain23F-1 clone also occurred among antimicrobial-susceptible isolates, which suggests th...

  10. Capsular-type prediction by phylogenetic tree of glycosyltransferase gene polymorphism in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Tomita, Yuka

    2011-01-01

    Yuka Tomita1,2, Akira Okamoto2, Keiko Yamada2, Testuya Yagi3, Yoshinori Hasegawa4, Michio Ohta21Department of Infectious Disease, Nagoya University Hospital, 2Department of Bacteriology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Center of National University Hospital for Infection Control, Nagoya University Hospital, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, JapanAbstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause severe infections among childr...

  11. Mutational Analysis of the Streptococcus pneumoniae Bimodular Class A Penicillin-Binding Proteins

    Paik, Johanna; Kern, Iza; Lurz, Rudi; Hakenbeck, Regine

    1999-01-01

    One group of penicillin target enzymes, the class A high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), are bimodular enzymes. In addition to a central penicillin-binding–transpeptidase domain, they contain an N-terminal putative glycosyltransferase domain. Mutations in the genes for each of the three Streptococcus pneumoniae class A PBPs, PBP1a, PBP1b, and PBP2a, were isolated by insertion duplication mutagenesis within the glycosyltransferase domain, documentin...

  12. Clustering of serotypes in a longitudinal study of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in three day care centres

    Tanskanen Antti; Syrjänen Ritva; Hoti Fabian; Leino Tuija; Auranen Kari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) causes a wide range of clinical manifestations that together constitute a major burden of disease worldwide. The main route of pneumococcal transmission is through asymptomatic colonisation of the nasopharynx. Studies of transmission are currently of general interest because of the impact of the new conjugate-polysaccharide vaccines on nasopharyngeal colonisation (carriage). Here we report the first longitudinal study of pneumococcal...

  13. Comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission in Portuguese and Finnish day-care centres

    Pessoa, Delphine; Hoti, Fabian; Syrjänen, Ritva; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Kaijalainen, Tarja; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Auranen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Background Day-care centre (DCC) attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in the population. The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage is highest in DCC attendees but varies across countries and is found to be consistently lower in Finland than in Portugal. We compared key parameters underlying pneumococcal transmission in DCCs to understand which of these contributed to the observed differences in carriage prevalence. Methods Longi...

  14. Genetische Determinanten für die Resistenz von Streptococcus pneumoniae gegen das neue Antibiotikum Vancoresmycin

    Petra, Becker

    2008-01-01

    Bei dem in dieser Arbeit untersuchten Antibiotikum Vancoresmycin handelt es sich um ein neuartiges Tetramsäurederivat, das aus der Fermentationsbrühe des Aktinomyceten Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina gewonnen wurde. Da der Wirkungsmechanismus und mögliche Resistenzmechanismen unbekannt sind, soll diese Arbeit zu deren Aufklärung beitragen. Dazu wurden verschiedene Determinanten für die Resistenz gegen Vancoresmycin in Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 analysiert. Zuerst wurden acht vancoresmycinresist...

  15. Consumption Patterns and In Vitro Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Fluoroquinolones▿

    Simoens, Steven; Verhaegen, Jan; van Bleyenbergh, Pascal; Peetermans, Willy E; Decramer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes patterns of consumption of fluoroquinolones and documents the in vitro resistances of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates to fluoroquinolones in the ambulatory care setting in Belgium over time. The volume of fluoroquinolone consumption has fallen consistently since 2003. Fluoroquinolones were used primarily for their registered indications (i.e., urinary tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections). The MIC distributions of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin in S. ...

  16. Oscillations in continuous culture populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae: population dynamics and the evolution of clonal suicide

    2008-01-01

    Agents that kill or induce suicide in the organisms that produce them or other individuals of the same genotype are intriguing puzzles for ecologists and evolutionary biologists. When those organisms are pathogenic bacteria, these suicidal toxins have the added appeal as candidates for the development of narrow spectrum antibiotics to kill the pathogens that produce them. We show that when clinical as well as laboratory strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are maintained in continuous culture ...

  17. Variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility to human antimicrobial peptides may mediate intraspecific competition

    Habets, Michelle G. J. L.; Rozen, Daniel E; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative pathogen inhabiting the nasopharynx of humans where it is exposed to a range of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of the innate immune response. It is possible therefore that the susceptibility of strains to AMPs plays a role in determining their ability to colonize, and furthermore, that AMPs could mediate competitive interactions between co-colonizing genotypes. However, little is known about patterns of natural variation in AMP susceptibility of S. pne...

  18. New Alkaloid Antibiotics That Target the DNA Topoisomerase I of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Garcia, M. T.; Blazquez, M. A.; Ferrandiz, M. J.; Sanz, M. J.; Silva-Martin, N.; Hermoso, J. A.; De La Campa, A G

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae has two type II DNA-topoisomerases (DNA-gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV) and a single type I enzyme (DNA-topoisomerase I, TopA), as demonstrated here. Although fluoroquinolones target type II enzymes, antibiotics efficiently targeting TopA have not yet been reported. Eighteen alkaloids (seven aporphine and 11 phenanthrenes) were semisynthesized from boldine and used to test inhibition both of TopA activity and of cell growth. Two phenanthrenes (seconeolitsine and N-me...

  19. Activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae of amoxicillin and cefotaxime at physiological concentrations: in vitro pharmacodynamic simulation.

    Balcabao, I P; Aguilar, L.; Martín, M; García, Y.; Dal-Ré, R; Prieto, J.

    1996-01-01

    An in vitro model simulating amoxicillin and cefotaxime concentrations in human serum (after standard doses) was used to explore the activities of these drugs over time against penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. An initial inoculum reduction percentage of > or = 90% was obtained with amoxicillin and maintained for 2 to 8 h, regardless of the strain tested. In contrast, experiments showed that cefotaxime had significantly (P < 0.001) less capabili...

  20. Within-Host Selection Is Limited by an Effective Population of Streptococcus pneumoniae during Nasopharyngeal Colonization

    Li, Yuan; Thompson, Claudette M; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Lipsitch, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a significant pathogen that frequently colonizes the human nasopharynx. Environmental factors, including antimicrobial use and host immunity, exert selection on members of the nasopharyngeal population, and the dynamics of selection are influenced by the effective population size of the selected population, about which little is known. We measured here the variance effective population size (N(e)) of pneumococcus in a mouse colonization model by moni...

  1. Comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission in Portuguese and Finnish day-care centres

    Pessoa, Delphine; Hoti, Fabian; Syrjänen, Ritva; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Kaijalainen, Tarja; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Auranen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Day-care centre (DCC) attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in the population. The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage is highest in DCC attendees but varies across countries and is found to be consistently lower in Finland than in Portugal. We compared key parameters underlying pneumococcal transmission in DCCs to understand which of these contributed to the observed differences in carriage prevalence. PneumoCarr Consortium...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of an Atypical Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from a Respiratory Infection

    Choi, Sang Chul; Parker, Jayme; Richards, Vincent P; Ross, Katherine; Jilly, Bernard; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing was used to investigate an unknown clinical respiratory infection. This new strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae, ASVL_JC_0001, was isolated from a clinical specimen from a patient with bronchitis and pulmonary inflammation. The draft genome sequence, obtained with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing system, consists of 83 large contigs, a total of 2,092,532 bp long, and has a GC content of 40.3%.

  3. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    Ansorena Luis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detected between January 1995 and December 2004 using the BacT/Alert automated blood culture system in a teaching community hospital was analyzed. When multiple cultures were positive only the shortest TTP was selected for the analysis. Results in the study period 105 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia were detected. Median TTP was 14.1 hours (range 1.2 h to 127 h. Immunosuppressed patients (n = 5, patients with confusion (n = 19, severe sepsis or shock at the time of blood culture extraction (n = 12, those with a diagnosis of meningitis (n = 7 and those admitted to the ICU (n = 14 had lower TTP. Patients with TTP in the first quartile were more frequently hospitalized, admitted to the ICU, had meningitis, a non-pneumonic origin of the bacteremia, and a higher number of positive blood cultures than patients with TTP in the fourth quartile. None of the patients with TTP in the 90th decile had any of these factors associated with shorter TTP, and eight out of ten patients with TTP in the 10th decile had at least one of these factors. The number of positive blood cultures had an inverse correlation with TTP, suggesting a relationship of TTP with bacterial blood concentration. Conclusion Our data support the relationship of TTP with several clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, and its potential usefulness as a surrogate marker of outcome.

  4. Proteomic Study of Peptide Deformylase Inhibition in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

    Wang, Wen; White, Richard; Yuan, Zhengyu

    2006-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is an essential enzyme in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It hydrolyzes formylated N-terminal peptides to generate free N-terminal peptides during the process of protein maturation. Inhibition of this enzyme results in cessation of bacterial growth. We have examined the effect of a potent PDF inhibitor, LBM-415 (also known as VIC-104959), on the proteomes of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Both ...

  5. Identification of Pneumococcal Surface Protein A as a Lactoferrin-Binding Protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Hammerschmidt, Sven; Bethe, Gesina; H. Remane, Petra; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    1999-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-sequestering glycoprotein, predominates in mucosal secretions, where the level of free extracellular iron (10−18 M) is not sufficient for bacterial growth. This represents a mechanism of resistance to bacterial infections by prevention of colonization of the host by pathogens. In this study we were able to show that Streptococcus pneumoniae specifically recognizes and binds the iron carrier protein human Lf (hLf). Pretreatment of pneumococci with proteases reduced hL...

  6. The Capsule Sensitizes Streptococcus pneumoniae to α-Defensins Human Neutrophil Proteins 1 to 3▿

    Beiter, Katharina; Wartha, Florian; Hurwitz, Robert; Normark, Staffan; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its polysaccharide capsule causes resistance to phagocytosis and interferes with the innate immune system's ability to clear infections at an early stage. Nevertheless, we found that encapsulated pneumococci are sensitive to killing by a human neutrophil granule extract. We fractionated the extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified α-defensins by mass spectrometry as the proteins responsible...

  7. Nasopharyngeal carriage of community-acquired, antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Zambian paediatric population.

    Woolfson, A; Huebner, R.; Wasas, A; Chola, S.; Godfrey-Faussett, P.; Klugman, K.

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is an international health problem. Apart from South Africa few data on pneumococcal resistance are available for sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the nasopharyngeal carriage and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci isolated from 260 Zambian children aged < 6 years. Pneumococci were isolated from 71.9% of the children; the odds of carrying organisms were twice as high among children < 2 years of age compared w...

  8. Regulation of Naturally Acquired Mucosal Immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae in Healthy Malawian Adults and Children

    Sarah J Glennie; Banda, Dominic; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Nkhata, Rose; Neil A Williams; Heyderman, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is most common in young children. In adults, disease rates decline following intermittent colonization and the acquisition of naturally acquired immunity. We characterized mucosal and systemic pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in African children and adults who contend with intense rates of colonization, up to 100% and 60% respectively. We find most Malawian children have high pneumococcal-specific T-cell respons...

  9. C3b/iC3b deposition on Streptococcus pneumoniae is not affected by HIV infection

    Catherine Hyams; Jerry C H Tam; Brown, Jeremy S.; Gordon, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infection in both HIV positive patients and those with complement deficiencies. We hypothesised that HIV positive individuals might exhibit reduced opsonisation of pneumococcus with complement due to reduced levels of S. pneumoniae specific IgG. We discovered no difference in C3 deposition on S. pneumoniae between HIV positive or negative individuals, and furthermore C3 deposition remained unchanged as HIV progressed towards AIDS. We found no corr...

  10. Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells in vitro by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Wong, SS; Quan Toh, Z; Dunne, EM; Mulholland, EK; Tang, ML; Robins-Browne, RM; Licciardi, PV; Satzke, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for pneumococcal infections such as pneumonia and otitis media. Probiotic bacteria can influence disease outcomes through various mechanisms, including inhibition of pathogen colonization. Here, we examine the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on S. pneumoniae colonization of human epithelial cells using an in vitro model. We investigated the effects of LGG administered b...

  11. Morphine Disrupts Interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17-Mediated Pulmonary Mucosal Host Defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection▿

    Ma, Jing; Wang, Jinghua; Wan, Jing; Charboneau, Richard; Chang, Yaping; Barke, Roderick A.; Roy, Sabita

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that causes serious respiratory disease and meningitis in the immunocompromised drug abuse population. However, the precise mechanisms by which drug abuse compromises the host immune defense to pulmonary S. pneumoniae infection is not fully understood. Using a well-established murine model of opiate abuse and S. pneumoniae lung infection, we explored the influence of morphine treatment on the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17 axis and related innate immunity....

  12. Validation of an Immunodiagnostic Assay for Detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype-Specific Polysaccharides in Human Urine

    Pride, Michael W.; Huijts, Susanne M.; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with s...

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae as an agent of nosocomial infection: treatment in the era of penicillin-resistant strains

    F. Paradisi; Corti, G.; R. Cinelli

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well-known agent of community-acquired infections such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. However, the role of S.pneumoniae as a cause of nosocomial infections of respiratory tract, bloodstream, and central nervous system is more and more recognised, primarily in high-risk patients with depression of their immune function. Therapy of pneumococcal infections is made diff...

  14. Molecular Characterization of Equine Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Natural Disruption of Genes Encoding the Virulence Factors Pneumolysin and Autolysin

    Whatmore, Adrian M.; King, Samantha J.; Doherty, Neil C.; Sturgeon, Daniel; Chanter, Neil; Dowson, Christopher G.

    1999-01-01

    Although often considered a strict human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported to infect and cause pneumonia in horses, although the pathology appears restricted compared to that of human infections. Here we report on the molecular characterization of a group of S. pneumoniae isolates obtained from horses in England and Ireland. Despite being obtained from geographically distinct locations, the isolates were found to represent a tight clonal group, virtually identical to each o...

  15. Macrolide resistance determinants among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from carriers in Central Greece

    Grivea Ioanna N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to characterize the temporal trends in nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant pneumococci during a period with increased heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 coverage in Central Greece. Methods Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were recovered from 2649 nasopharyngeal samples obtained from day-care center attendees in Central Greece during 2005–2009. A phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the isolates was performed, including the identification of macrolide resistance genes mef(A, subclasses mef(A and mef(E, as well as erm(B. Results Of the 1105 typeable S. pneumoniae isolates, 265 (24% were macrolide-resistant; 22% in 2005, 33.3% in 2006, 23.7% in 2007, and 20.5% in 2009 (P=0.398. Among these macrolide-resistant pneumococci, 28.5% possessed erm(B, 24.3% erm(B+mef(E, 41.8% mef(E, and 5.3% mef(A. A mef gene as the sole resistance determinant was carried by 31% of macrolide-resistant isolates belonging to PCV7 serotypes and 75.8% of the non-PCV7 serotypes. Across the 4 annual surveillances, pneumococci carrying mef(A gradually disappeared, whereas serotype 19F isolates carrying both erm(B and mef(E persisted without significant yearly fluctuations. Among isolates belonging to non-PCV7 serotypes, macrolide-resistance was observed in those of serotypes 6A, 19A, 10A, 15A, 15B/C, 35F, 35A, and 24F. In 2009, ie 5 years after the introduction of PCV7 in our country, 59% of macrolide-resistant pneumococci belonged to non-PCV7 serotypes. Conclusions Across the study period, the annual frequency of macrolide-resistant isolates did not change significantly, but in 2009 a marked shift to non-PCV7 serotypes occurred. Overall, more than half of the macrolide-resistant isolates possessed erm(B either alone or in combination with mef(E. erm(B dominated among isolates belonging to PCV7 serotypes, but not among those of non-PCV7 serotypes.

  16. A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin

    Eduardo Walker Zettler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes

  17. PREVALENCE OF DRUG-RESISTANT STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN ABAKALIKI

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu Romanus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of illness such as pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and otitis media in children and the elderly. The emergence of drug-resistant strains threatens to complicate the management of these diseases. We conducted a hospital-based surveillance for drug-resistant Strep. Pneumoniae in outpatients with pneumococcal infection in Abakaliki Ebonyi State Nigeria. Between 2003-2005 from January through December, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH Abakaliki to assess the prevalence of drug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sputum samples of patients with pneumococcal infections attending the outpatient clinics. A total of 305 sputum samples of patients with clinically diagnosed pneumonia were collected and inoculated on 5% sheep-blood agar, incubated at 35°C for 24 h in 5-10% CO2. Colonies were Gram-stained; alpha-hemolysis colonies were tested with a 6mm optochin disk followed by bile solubility test. Susceptibility testing panels of the following antibiotics: penicillin, ciprofloxacin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, septrin, erythromycin, gentamycin, clarithromycin, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were tested against isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae using disc diffusion method. Of the 305 sputum samples collected 30 (9.8% of S. pneumoniae was isolated from patients within the age range of 20-40 years, 140 (45.9% from patients within 41-60, 135(44.2% from patients within 60 years and above. Susceptibility studies showed that the highest resistance was 182 (59.6%, for penicillin followed by septrin 156 (51.2%, erythromycin 120(39.3%, clavulanic/amoxicillin 118(38.7% cefotaxime 114(37.4% clarithromycin 100(32.7%, ciprofloxacin 94(30.8%, gentamycin 75(24.6%, cefuroxime 70(22.9% and ceftriaxone 69(22.6%. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae resistance was relatively high and we suggest that proper antibiotics use should be adopted to avert

  18. A type IV pilus mediates DNA binding during natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    Full Text Available Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a transformation pilus at the surface of competent Streptococcus pneumoniae cells. This Type IV-like pilus, which is primarily composed of the ComGC pilin, is required for transformation. We provide evidence that it directly binds DNA and propose that the transformation pilus is the primary DNA receptor on the bacterial cell during transformation in S. pneumoniae. Being a central component of the transformation apparatus, the transformation pilus enables S. pneumoniae, a major Gram-positive human pathogen, to acquire resistance to antibiotics and to escape vaccines through the binding and incorporation of new genetic material.

  19. A Case of Necrotizing Fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 5 in Saskatchewan

    Meenakshi Dawar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare and grave condition, and only a few cases have been reported. Suggested risk factors include minor trauma, systemic lupus erythematosus, immunosuppression secondary to medication, use of intramuscular anti-inflammatories and alcoholism. A fatal case of pneumococcal necrotizing fasciitis that occurred in a 51-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse and oral anti-inflammatory use is presented. Her condition was caused by a multi-etiology outbreak of community-acquired pneumonia, from which S pneumoniae serotype 5 was also isolated. The case description outlines the subtle presentation and rapid clinical progression of this condition. Because serotype 5 antigen is included in the polysaccharide 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine, the present case highlights the importance of pneumococcal immunization programs in Canada.

  20. Spontaneous meningitis due to Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius: cross-reaction in an assay with a rapid diagnostic kit that detected Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens.

    Shirokawa, Taijiro; Nakajima, Jun; Hirose, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Nagaoka, Shoko; Suzuki, Masatsune

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius occasionally causes meningitis associated with iatrogenic or traumatic events. We herein describe a case of meningitis caused by this organism in a patient without any apparent risk factors. In an assay of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid, cross-reaction occurred with Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen-coated latex particles in the Pastorex Meningitis Kit. In the in vitro assays, three of the five clinically isolated S. salivarius strains showed cross-reactions with the kit, indicating that these strains expressed pneumococcal antigen-like antigens. This case shows that meningitis caused by S. salivarius can occur spontaneously and it may sometimes be misdiagnosed as S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:24492701

  1. Reporting emerging resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae from India

    Chawla Kiran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are reports of emergence of resistant strains of S. pneumoniae showing resistance to penicillin from all over the world, and now, resistance to multiple drugs (multidrug-resistant strains has been added to it. However, scanty reports are available so far from India, depicting such resistance. Aims: The aim of the present study is to look for the prevalence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci and also the multidrug-resistant strains among S. pneumoniae, isolated from respiratory specimens, in the coastal part of South India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2008, in our tertiary care center. Fifty pathogenic clinical isolates were collected from patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections. Materials and Methods: Penicillin resistance was screened by 1 µg oxacillin disk on Muller-Hinton blood agar followed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC detection by the agar dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic susceptibility for other antibiotics was carried out by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method followed by an E-test with HiComb test strips from Hi-media. Results: Out of 50 isolates, 4% (95% Confidence Interval - 1.4, 9.4 showed total resistance to penicillin, whereas, 10% (95% CI; 1.6, 18.3 showed intermediate resistance. These penicillin-resistant pneumococci (4% were also found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR strains. Maximum resistance was observed for cotrimoxazole and tetracycline (24% each with 95% CI; 12.2, 35.8 followed by erythromycin and ciprofloxacin (14% each with 95%CI; 4.4, 23.6. Conclusions : Increasing emergence of the resistant strains of S. pneumoniae in the community set up requires continuous monitoring and a restricted use of antibiotics to keep a check on its resistance pattern, for an effective treatment plan.

  2. Multiplex PCR to determine Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing otitis media in the Republic of Ireland with further characterisation of antimicrobial susceptibilities and genotypes.

    Vickers, I

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the serotypes, genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing otitis media (OM) in children in Dublin, Ireland. S. pneumoniae isolates (n = 28) from spontaneously discharging OM were studied. Serotyping was performed using a previously undescribed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) scheme in combination with serological methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. Fourteen different S. pneumoniae serotypes were identified. The five most common serotypes were 3, 19F, 19A, 14 and 6A, which accounted for 68% of all infections. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) provided potential coverages of 43%, 46% and 86%, respectively. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin was evident for 25% of isolates and was associated with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F and 9V. A total of 21 different sequence types (STs) were identified. Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones or their variants represented 54% (15\\/28) of all isolates. Continued monitoring and characterisation of S. pneumoniae causing OM in Ireland is warranted in order to guide future vaccine and treatment policies.

  3. Genome-wide identification of genes essential for the survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae in human saliva.

    Lilly M Verhagen

    Full Text Available Since Streptococcus pneumoniae transmits through droplet spread, this respiratory tract pathogen may be able to survive in saliva. Here, we show that saliva supports survival of clinically relevant S. pneumoniae strains for more than 24 h in a capsule-independent manner. Moreover, saliva induced growth of S. pneumoniae in growth-permissive conditions, suggesting that S. pneumoniae is well adapted for uptake of nutrients from this bodily fluid. By using Tn-seq, a method for genome-wide negative selection screening, we identified 147 genes potentially required for growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva, among which genes predicted to be involved in cell envelope biosynthesis, cell transport, amino acid metabolism, and stress response predominated. The Tn-seq findings were validated by testing a panel of directed gene deletion mutants for their ability to survive in saliva under two testing conditions: at room temperature without CO2, representing transmission, and at 37 °C with CO2, representing in-host carriage. These validation experiments confirmed that the plsX gene and the amiACDEF and aroDEBC operons, involved in respectively fatty acid metabolism, oligopeptide transport, and biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids play an important role in the growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva at 37 °C. In conclusion, this study shows that S. pneumoniae is well-adapted for growth and survival in human saliva and provides a genome-wide list of genes potentially involved in adaptation. This notion supports earlier evidence that S. pneumoniae can use human saliva as a vector for transmission.

  4. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to streptococcus pneumoniae--case report.

    Litarski, Andrzej; Janczak, Dariusz; Cianciara, Jan; Merenda, Marcin

    2011-05-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is caused by infection of ascitic fluid without any apparent intraabdominal source of infection. The disease most commonly occurs in patients with cirrhosis and 70% of cases of infections are caused by pathogenes from gastrointestinal tract. The article presents the case of 38-year-old patient with spontaneous peritonitis who was treated surgically. The primary nature of the disease was confirmed by laparotomy and bacteriological examination results (Streptoccocus pneumonia) of ascitic fluid. After 54 days of hospitalisation and undergoing re-laparotomy, he was discharged in good condition. PMID:22166482

  5. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Causing Invasive and Noninvasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Korea from 2008 to 2014

    Bae, Il Kwon; Park, Dongchul; Kim, Na Young; Song, Sae Am; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen with high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of common serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae in Korea. Methods. A total of 378 pneumococcal isolates were collected from 2008 through 2014. We analyzed the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility for both invasive and noninvasive isolates. Results. Over the 7 years, 3 (13.5%), 35 (10.8%), 19A (9.0%), 19F (6.6%), 6A (6.1%), and 34 (5.6%) were common serotypes/serogroups. The vaccine coverage rates of PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and PPSV23 were 21.4%, 23.3%, 51.9%, and 62.4% in all periods. The proportions of serotypes 19A and 19F decreased and nonvaccine serotypes increased between 2008 and 2010 and 2011 and 2014. Of 378 S. pneumoniae isolates, 131 (34.7%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and serotypes 19A and 19F were predominant. The resistance rate to levofloxacin was significantly increased (7.2%). Conclusion. We found changes of pneumococcal serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility during the 7 years after introduction of the first pneumococcal vaccine. It is important to continuously monitor pneumococcal serotypes and their susceptibilities. PMID:27314035

  6. Silica desiccant packets for storage and transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other clinically relevant species.

    Casey L Pell

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates are often transported between laboratories for research and diagnostic purposes. Silica desiccant packets (SDPs, which are inexpensive and do not require freezing, were evaluated for storage and recovery of bacterial isolates. Conditions such as inoculum size, swab type and temperature of storage were investigated using ten Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. The optimized protocol was then tested using 49 additional S. pneumoniae isolates representing 40 serogroups. Overall, S. pneumoniae growth was considered satisfactory (>100 colony forming units for 98/109 (89.9% and 20/20 (100% swabs after 14 days at room temperature or 28 days at 4° C, respectively. Storage in SDPs did not impact on the ability of S. pneumoniae isolates to be subsequently serotyped. When the survival of nine other clinically relevant bacterial species was tested, seven were viable after 28 days at room temperature, the exceptions being Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae. SDPs are suitable for transport and short-term storage of bacterial species including S. pneumoniae.

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Erdem I

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ilknur Erdem,1 Senay Elbasan Omar,1 Ridvan Kara Ali,1 Hayati Gunes,2 Aynur Eren Topkaya2 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey Objective: Infections are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE but are rare initial presentation of the disease. Therefore, in this study, we describe a case of Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis in a young woman with previously undiagnosed SLE. Case report: A 23-year-old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic complaining of high fever (40°C, chills, fatigue, generalized myalgia, and cough with brown sputum for 5 days. Blood cultures grew gram-positive coccus defined as S. pneumoniae using standard procedures. Antinuclear antibody was positive at a titer of 1/1,000, and anti-double-stranded DNA was positive at 984 IU/mL. She was diagnosed with SLE. Her respiratory symptoms and pleural effusion were considered to be due to pulmonary manifestation of SLE. Conclusion: The underlying immunosuppression caused by SLE could have predisposed the patient to invasive pneumococcal disease. It may also occur as a primary presenting feature, although a rare condition. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, sepsis, systemic lupus erythematosus

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae induces pyroptosis through the regulation of autophagy in murine microglia.

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Paton, James C; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2015-12-29

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and causes invasive pneumococcal diseases including pneumococcal meningitis. Pyroptosis is caspase-1-dependent inflammatory cell death and is known to be induced by various microbial infections. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that regulate pyroptosis induced by S. pneumoniae in microglia. Our results revealed that S. pneumoniae induced pyroptosis through caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production. We also found that the activation of caspase-1 and the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18 in the S. pneumoniae-triggered pyroptotic cell death process were mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, pneumococcal infection increased the expression of autophagy-related genes and induced autophagosome formation. We also showed that the inhibition of autophagy promoted pneumococcus-induced pyroptosis. Furthermore, ROS was generated by pneumococcal infection and inhibited caspase-1 activation within 4 h of infection. However, in the late phase of infection, IL-1β secretion and caspase-1-dependent cell death were induced by ROS. These results suggest that autophagy induction transiently delay pyroptosis induced by S. pneumoniae in microglia. Our study also revealed that the activation of caspase-1 and the production of IL-1β were induced by pneumolysin and that pneumolysin triggered pyroptosis in microglial cells. Similar to the in vitro results, S. pneumoniae induced caspase-1 activation and caspase-1-dependent cytokine maturation in the mouse meningitis model. Thus, the present data demonstrate that S. pneumoniae induces pyroptosis in murine microglia and that NLRP3 inflammasome is critical for caspase-1 activation during the process. Furthermore, the induction of autophagy could transiently protect microglia from pyroptosis. PMID:26683708

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    Hathaway, Lucy J; Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G; Täuber, Martin G; Leib, Stephen L

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniaebacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  10. Novel molecular method for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae applicable to clinical microbiology and 16S rRNA sequence-based microbiome studies

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered spe...... occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved....

  11. Antithrombin inhibits bronchoalveolar activation of coagulation and limits lung injury during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia in rats

    Choi, Goda; Hofstra, Jorrit-Jan H; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Rijneveld, Anita W; Bresser, Paul; van der Zee, Jaring S; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom; Levi, Marcel; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Alveolar fibrin deposition is a hallmark of pneumonia. It has been proposed that natural inhibitors of coagulation, including activated protein C, antithrombin, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, exert lung-protective effects via anticoagulant and possibly anti-inflammatory pathways. We

  12. Activities of Cethromycin and Telithromycin against Recent North American Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Jorgensen, James H.; Crawford, Sharon A.; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro activities of two investigational ketolides, cethromycin (formerly ABT-773) and telithromycin, were determined for a selected group of 312 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from a national surveillance program. The MIC of cethromycin at which 50% of the isolates were inhibited was 0.008 μg/ml, and the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited was 0.06 μg/ml; the corresponding values for telithromycin were ≤0.015 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. For six quinupristin-dalfopristi...

  13. In Vivo Activities of Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Application to Breakpoint Determinations

    Andes, D.; Craig, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo activities of amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 17 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with penicillin MICs of 0.12–8.0 mg/liter were assessed in a cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenic murine thigh infection model. Renal impairment was produced by administration of uranyl nitrate to prolong the amoxicillin half-life in the mice from 21 to 65 min, simulating human pharmacokinetics. Two hours after thigh infection with 105 to 106 CFU, groups of mice were treated with 7...

  14. Artritis séptica por streptococcus pneumoniae: reporte de un caso

    Novoa, C.; López, R.E.; Gómez Balboa, P.; Blas Dobón, J.A.; Bonet, B.; Rodrigo Pérez, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    La artritis neumocócica es infrecuente en adultos, predomina en pacientes pediátricos. La neumonía y la bacteriemia son las manifestaciones más frecuentes, la afectación articular según series recientes tiene una prevalencia menor al 1% en sujetos menores de 50 años. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 60 años con LES (Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico) la cual presentó monoartritis séptica de rodilla derecha causada por Streptococcus pneumoniae

  15. Macrolide resistance determinants in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Turkey.

    Gulay, Zeynep; Ozbek, Ozgen Alpay; Bicmen, Meral; Gur, Deniz

    2008-11-01

    To determine the major molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Turkey, we examined a total of 151 isolates collected from different regions of Turkey. Overall, 40 (26.4%) isolates were resistant to erythromycin. The most common mechanism (38/40) was target site modification due to erm (B) genes. Only two isolates harbored the mef (A)/(E) efflux gene. A clonal spread of resistant strains could not be demonstrated by BOX-polymerase chain reaction. The results from this study have shown that the erm (B) gene is predominant in Turkish S. pneumoniae isolates, as in isolates from the rest of the world, and a clonal dissemination is not responsible for this resistance profile. PMID:19050364

  16. Resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos en 103 aislamientos clínicos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001 Resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials in 103 clinical isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001

    J.J. García-Irure

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos. Conocer en nuestro hospital la sensibilidad a penicilina de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como analizar la asociación de resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos y la actividad de cefotaxima y cefepima en cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a penicilina. Métodos. Se determinó la sensibilidad de 103 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, procedentes de muestras clínicas durante los años 2000-2001, a penicilina, eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxima, cefepima y levofloxacino. Resultados. El 68% de los aislamientos fueron sensibles a penicilina, mientras que un 32% de las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae aisladas fueron resistentes a penicilina, presentando el 7,7% resistencia de alto grado a la misma. La resistencia a eritromicina, cloramfenicol, tetraciclina, cotrimoxazol y levofloxacino fue del 38,8; 9,7; 20,4; 25,2 y 2,9% respectivamente, incrementándose a valores del 66,6; 30,3; 48,5; 72,7 y 9,1% en las 33 cepas con resistencia a penicilina. La resistencia a cefotaxima y cefepima fue del 9,7 y 10,6% respectivamente. Conclusiones. Un alto porcentaje de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae presentaron algún grado de resistencia a penicilina, pero con cifras menores que las presentadas en otros estudios de ámbito nacional. Asimismo, se demostró que la resistencia a penicilina se asociaba significativamente (p Background. To determine in our hospital the sensitivity of isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin, as well as to analyse the association of resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials and the activity of cefotaxime and cefepime in pencillin resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods. The sensitivity was determined on 103 isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae, from clinical samples from the years 2000-2001, to penicillin, eritromycine, cloramfenicol, tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, cefotaxime, cefepime and levofloxacine

  17. Nasopharyngeal carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ugandan children with sickle cell disease

    Kateete David P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a determinant for invasive pneumococcal disease, which often complicates homozygous sickle cell disease. Here, we determined the nasopharyngeal carriage rate of S. pneumoniae in Ugandan children with homozygous sickle cell disease, who attended the outpatient Sickle Cell Clinic at Mulago National Referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Results S. pneumoniae occurred in 27 of the 81 children with homozygous sickle cell disease (giving a carriage rate of 33%, 27/81. Twenty three children were previously hospitalized of whom S. pneumoniae occurred in only two (9%, 2/23, while among the 58 who were not previously hospitalized it occurred in 25 (43%, 25/58, χ2 = 8.8, p = 0.003, meaning there is an association between high carriage rate and no hospitalization. Two children previously immunized with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine did not carry the organism. Prior antimicrobial usage was reported in 53 children (65%, 53/81. There was high resistance of pneumococci to penicillin (100%, 27/27 and trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole (97%, 26/27, but low resistance to other antimicrobials. Of the 70 children without sickle cell disease, S. pneumoniae occurred in 38 (54%, 38/70 of whom 43 were males and 27 females (53% males, 23/43, and 56% females, 15/27. Conclusion Nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in Ugandan children with homozygous sickle cell disease is high. While nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae is a determinant for invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumococcal bacteremia is reportedly low in Ugandan children with sickle cell disease. Studies on the contribution of high carriage rates to invasive pneumococcal disease in these children will be helpful. This is the first report on pneumococcal carriage rate in Ugandan children with sickle cell disease.

  18. Spatial exploration of Streptococcus pneumoniae clonal clustering in São Paulo, Brazil

    Amilton Mouro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the spatial distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its clonal patterns collected between 2002 and 2006 in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: As part of an observational study in São Paulo city, Brazil, S. pneumoniae isolates routinely cultured from blood, respiratory specimens, or cerebrospinal and other profound fluids were selected. Additionally, only isolates with either penicillin (PEN intermediate (I or resistant (R status on routine antibiogram were included, in order to obtain a higher probability of clonal isolates. A single I/R S. pneumoniae isolate per patient was included and submitted to genotypic determination by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined for the isolates by Etest® to PEN and other antimicrobials. Each isolate was geocoded in a digital map. The Kernel function and ratio methods between total isolates vs. clones were used in order to explore possible cluster formations. RESULTS: Seventy-eight (78 S. pneumoniae community isolates from two major outpatient centers in São Paulo, Brazil, were selected from the databank according to their penicillin susceptibility profile, i.e. R or I to penicillin assessed by oxacillin disc diffusion. Of these, 69 were submitted to PFGE, 65 to MIC determination, and 48 to spatial analytical procedures. Preliminary spatial analysis method showed two possible cluster formation located in southwest and southeast regions of the city. CONCLUSION: Further analyses are required for precisely determining the existence of S. pneumoniae clusters and their related risk factors. Apparently there is a specific transmission pattern of S. pneumoniae clones within certain regions and populations. GIS and spatial methods can be applied to better understand epidemiological patterns and to identify target areas for public health interventions.

  19. Effects of recombinant IL-17F intranasal inoculation against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a murine model.

    Chen, Ling; Guo, Sheng; Wu, Liangxia; Hao, Chunli; Xu, Wanting; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is an important member of IL-17 cytokine family, which plays important roles in host defense against microbial infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen associated with several invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases, and mucosal immune response plays crucial roles in defenses against pneumococcal infection. Thus, intranasal inoculation may be an alternative approach against pneumococci. In this study, BALB/c mice were intranasally inoculated with recombinant IL-17F (rIL-17F) prior to S. pneumoniae (American Type Culture Collection 6303, serotype 3) infection. As compared with the control group, numbers of total leukocyte, neutrophil, and macrophage in lungs were significantly increased in mice inoculated with rIL-17F. The levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-2β, and interferon γ were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and culture supernatant of splenocytes from mice inoculated with rIL-17F. rIL-17F inoculation also significantly elevated β-defensin-2 expression in lung tissues. Furthermore, compared with S. pneumoniae infection group, rIL-17F inoculation prior to infection significantly reduced S. pneumoniae colonization in lungs. These findings demonstrated that rIL-17F intranasal inoculation strengthened host defense against pneumococci, which may be developed to prevent pneumococcal infection. PMID:25196250

  20. Gestational Hypothyroidism Improves the Ability of the Female Offspring to Clear Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection and to Recover From Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Nieto, Pamela A; Peñaloza, Hernán F; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Castellanos, Raquel M; Opazo, Maria Cecilia; Venegas, Luis; Padilla, Oslando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for proper fetal development. A deficit of these hormones during gestation has enduring consequences in the central nervous system of the offspring, including detrimental learning and impaired memory. Few studies have shown that thyroid hormone deficiency has a transient effect in the number of T and B cells in the offspring gestated under hypothyroidism; however, there are no studies showing whether maternal hypothyroidism during gestation impacts the response of the offspring to infections. In this study, we have evaluated whether adult mice gestated in hypothyroid mothers have an altered response to pneumococcal pneumonia. We observed that female mice gestated in hypothyroidism have increased survival rate and less bacterial dissemination to blood and brain after an intranasal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Further, these mice had higher amounts of inflammatory cells in the lungs and reduced production of cytokines characteristic of sepsis in spleen, blood, and brain at 48 hours after infection. Interestingly, mice gestated in hypothyroid mothers had basally increased vascular permeability in the lungs. These observations suggest that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune response and the physiology of lungs in the offspring, increasing the resistance to respiratory bacterial infections. PMID:27035652

  1. Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on Dried Blood Spots from Febrile Nigerian Children Compared to Culture

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Schleiss, Mark R.; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Onuchukwu, Chuma; Umoru, Dominic; Obaro, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nigeria has one of the highest burdens of pneumococcal disease in the world, but accurate surveillance is lacking. Molecular detection of infectious pathogens in dried blood spots (DBS) is an ideal method for surveillance of infections in resource-limited settings because of its low cost, minimal blood volumes involved, and ease of storage at ambient temperature. Our study aim was to evaluate a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) assay on DBS from febrile Nigerian children on Whatman 903 and FTA filter papers, compared to the gold standard of culture. Methods Between September 2011 to May 2015, blood was collected from children 5 years of age or under who presented to six hospital study sites throughout northern and central Nigeria with febrile illness, and inoculated into blood culture bottles or spotted onto Whatman 903 or FTA filter paper. Culture and rt-PCR were performed on all samples. Results A total of 537 DBS specimens from 535 children were included in the study, of which 15 were culture-positive for S. pneumoniae. The rt-PCR assay detected S. pneumoniae in 12 DBS specimens (2.2%). One positive rt-PCR result was identified in a culture-negative specimen from a high-risk subject, and two positive rt-PCR results were negative on repeat testing. Six culture-confirmed cases of S. pneumoniae bacteremia were missed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivities of Whatman 903 and FTA DBS for detection of S. pneumoniae were 57.1% (95% CI 18.4–90.1%) and 62.5% (95% CI 24.5–91.5%), respectively. Nonspecific amplification was noted in an additional 22 DBS (4.1%). Among these, six were positive for a non-S. pneumoniae pathogen on culture. Conclusions Rt-PCR was able to detect S. pneumoniae from clinical DBS specimens, including from a culture-negative specimen. Our findings show promise of this approach as a surveillance diagnostic, but also raise important cautionary questions. Several DBS specimens were detected as

  2. Human C-Reactive Protein Protects Mice from Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection without Binding to Pneumococcal C-Polysaccharide1

    Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Singh, Sanjay K.; Ferguson, Donald A.; Agrawal, Alok

    2007-01-01

    Human C-reactive protein (CRP) protects mice from lethality after infection with virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. For CRP-mediated protection, the complement system is required; however, the role of complement activation by CRP in the protection is not defined. Based on the in vitro properties of CRP, it has been assumed that protection of mice begins with the binding of CRP to pneumococcal C-polysaccharide on S. pneumoniae and subsequent activation of the mouse complement system. In...

  3. Mechanisms of dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of Toll-like receptor signaling induced by Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Mogensen, Trine; Berg, Randi S; Paludan, Søren R;

    2008-01-01

    significantly reduces mortality and morbidity from bacterial meningitis. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone upon the inflammatory responses evoked by Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, two of the major causes of bacterial meningitis. The...... and S. pneumoniae, which may contribute to our understanding of the clinical effect and the importance of timing with respect to corticosteroid treatment during bacterial meningitis. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan...

  4. Inhibition activity of wild berry juice fractions against Streptococcus pneumoniae binding to human bronchial cells

    Huttunen, Sanna; Toivanen, Marko; Arkko, Satu; Ruponen, Marika; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial adhesion to the cell surface is a crucial step before infection can take place. Inhibition of bacterial binding offers a novel preventive approach against infections. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) juice has been found to have anti-adhesive activity against different bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen and the most common cause for pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. In this study the inhibitory activity of cranberry (Vacciniu...

  5. Importance of Bacterial Replication and Alveolar Macrophage-Independent Clearance Mechanisms during Early Lung Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Camberlein, Emilie; Cohen, Jonathan M.; José, Ricardo; Hyams, Catherine J.; Callard, Robin; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Edwards, Lindsey A.; Marshall, Helina; van Rooijen, Nico; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Brown, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of alveolar macrophages for host immunity during early Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection is well established, the contribution and relative importance of other innate immunity mechanisms and of bacterial factors are less clear. We have used a murine model of S. pneumoniae early lung infection with wild-type, unencapsulated, and para-amino benzoic acid auxotroph mutant TIGR4 strains to assess the effects of inoculum size, bacterial replication, capsule, and alveol...

  6. Surface Proteins and Pneumolysin of Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Mediate Virulence in a Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media

    Keller, Lance E.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Pipkins, Haley; McDaniel, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp) make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surface protein...

  7. Serological and molecular capsular typing, antibiotic susceptibility and multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from invasive and non-invasive infections

    ZHANG Yi-jie; CHEN Yu-shen; WANG Zhan-wei; LI Yu-qian; WANG Da-xuan; SHANG Ying; FU Rong-rong

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pneumoniae) is a major causative agent of severe infections,including sepsis,pneumonia,meningitis,and otitis media,and has become a major public health concern.We report the pneumococcal serotype and sequence type (ST) distribution,and antimicrobial resistance of 39 S.pneumoniae strains from seven hospitals in China.Methods Blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sputum isolates from patients were analyzed to determine S.pneumoniae serotypes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Neufeld Quellung reaction,the multilocus sequence types (MLST) by PCR and sequencing,and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents by the VITEK Gram Positive Susceptibility Card.Results A total of 39 isolates were collected including 21 blood/CSF and 18 sputum isolates.Conventional serotyping by the Quellung reaction required 749 reactions.In contrast,PCR based typing needed only 106 PCR reactions.The most frequent serotypes from the blood/CSF isolates were 14 (38.1%),19A (14.3%),23F (9.5%),and 18C (9.5%).In the sputum isolates the most frequent serotypes were 19F (33.3%),23F (16.7%),19A (11.1%),and 3 (11.1%).The incidence of penicillin resistance in the blood/CSF and sputum isolates was 66.7% and 55.6%,respectively.Statistical analysis showed that patients ≤5 years old had a higher resistance to penicillin when they compared with the patients ≥65 years old (P=0.011).Serotypes 14,19A and 19F were significantly associated with penicillin resistance (P <0.001).ST320,ST271,and ST876 isolates showed high resistant rates to several antibiotics including penicillin (P=0.006).All of the isolates of serotype 19A were resistant to both penicillin and erythromycin,and they were all multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates.Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of multiplexPCR are good,and this method represents a substantial savings of time and money,and can be widely used in the laboratory and clinical practice.Data from this research

  8. Feasibility and Safety of Local Treatment with Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in a Rat Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Florry E van den Boogaard

    Full Text Available Pulmonary coagulopathy is intrinsic to pulmonary injury including pneumonia. Anticoagulant strategies could benefit patients with pneumonia, but systemic administration of anticoagulant agents may lead to suboptimal local levels and may cause systemic hemorrhage. We hypothesized nebulization to provide a safer and more effective route for local administration of anticoagulants. Therefore, we aimed to examine feasibility and safety of nebulization of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI in a well-established rat model of Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Thirty minutes before and every 6 hours after intratracheal instillation of S. pneumonia causing pneumonia, rats were subjected to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo, and sacrificed after 42 hours. Pneumonia was associated with local as well as systemic activation of coagulation. Nebulization of rh-TFPI resulted in high levels of rh-TFPI in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was accompanied by an attenuation of pulmonary coagulation. Systemic rh-TFPI levels remained undetectable, and systemic TFPI activity and systemic coagulation were not affected. Histopathology revealed no bleeding in the lungs. We conclude that nebulization of rh-TFPI seems feasible and safe; local anticoagulant treatment with rh-TFPI attenuates pulmonary coagulation, while not affecting systemic coagulation in a rat model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  9. Urine Streptococcus Pneumoniae Antigen in the Diagnosis of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Pneumonia Children the Significance%尿肺炎链球菌抗原在诊断儿童肺炎链球菌肺炎中的意义

    夏振雄; 杨冰; 黄靖雯

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨尿肺炎链球菌抗原用于诊断儿童肺炎链球菌感染的临床意义。方法:收集2010年9月-2011年12月笔者所在医院住院部0~3岁呼吸道感染的患儿病例,对每位患儿同时采集尿标本和痰标本,用胶体金法测定尿肺炎链球菌抗原,对痰标本进行分离培养与鉴定,并根据结果分析。结果:尿肺炎链球菌抗原和痰培养检测差别无显著性(P>0.05)。痰培养阳性组和阴性组的尿抗原阳性率差异有显著性(P0.05).Sputum positive group and negative group of urinary antigen positive rate(P<0.01).With sputum culture for pure culture as a diagnostic streptococcus pneumoniae infection standard,colloidal gold method measuring the sensitivity of the antigen was 86.00%,specific degree was 84.96%and the accuracy was 85.25%.Conclusion:Colloidal gold method and sputum culture in the diagnosis of streptococcus pneumoniae infection may have the same effect, colloidal gold method for clinical diagnosis of streptococcus pneumoniae infection children have the certain reference significance.

  10. Moxifloxacin and Azithromycin but not Amoxicillin Protect Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells against Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro when Administered up to 6 Hours after Challenge

    Ulrich, Martina; Albers, Cordula; Möller, Jan-Georg; Dalhoff, Axel; Korfmann, Gisela; Künkele, Frank; Döring, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    We determined the protective effect of moxifloxacin, azithromycin, and amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection of respiratory cells. Moxifloxacin and azithromycin effectively killed intracellular S. pneumoniae strains and protected respiratory epithelial cells significantly even when given 6 h after S. pneumoniae challenge. Amoxicillin was less effective.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of DnaJ from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DnaJ from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpDnaJ) is involved in the infectious disease process and is being developed as a potential vaccine to prevent bacterial infection. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpDnaJ are reported. DnaJ, cooperating with DnaK and GrpE, promotes the folding of unfolded hydrophobic polypeptides, dissociates protein complexes and translocates protein across membranes. Additionally, DnaJ from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpDnaJ) is involved in the infectious disease process and is being developed as a potential vaccine to prevent bacterial infection. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SpDnaJ are reported. The crystals belong to space groups I222 or I212121 and the diffraction resolution is 3.0 Å with unit-cell parameters a = 47.68, b = 104.45, c = 234.57 Å. The crystal most likely contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a VM value of 3.24 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 62.1%

  12. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    Sharmila J Talekar

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms.

  13. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    Talekar, Sharmila J; Chochua, Sopio; Nelson, Katie; Klugman, Keith P; Quave, Cassandra L; Vidal, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:24823499

  14. SMC is recruited to oriC by ParB and promotes chromosome segregation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Minnen, Anita; Attaiech, Laetitia; Thon, Maria; Gruber, Stephan; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2011-01-01

    Segregation of replicated chromosomes is an essential process in all organisms. How bacteria, such as the oval-shaped human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, efficiently segregate their chromosomes is poorly understood. Here we show that the pneumococcal homologue of the DNA-binding protein ParB re

  15. Structural organization of the Streptococcus pneumoniae chromosome and relatedness of penicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains in type 9V

    Gasc, AM; Giammarinaro, P; Bao, TH; Geslin, P; VanderGiezen, M; Sicard, M

    1997-01-01

    Fragmentation of Streptococcus pneumoniae genomic DNA with low-frequency-cleavage restriction endonucleases and separation of the fragments by field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) provides a DNA-fingerprint of a strain. This method enables us to construct a physical and genetic map of the R6 l

  16. Eukaryotic-type protein kinase StkP; a novel player in regulation of natural competence development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Přenosilová, Lenka; Nováková, Linda; Branny, Pavel

    Washington : American Society for Microbiology, 2006, s. 73-73. ISBN 1-55581-400-X. [ASM Conferences Streptococcal Genetics. Saint Malo (FR), 18.06.2006-21.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : stkp * Streptococcus pneumoniae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Emergence in France of Multiple Clones of Clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with High-Level Resistance to Amoxicillin

    Doit, Catherine; Loukil, Chawki; Fitoussi, Frederic; Geslin, Pierre; Bingen, Edouard

    1999-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of French isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae highly resistant to amoxicillin (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml, equal to or exceeding those of penicillin) was investigated by molecular fingerprinting. The results suggest that high-level resistance to amoxicillin has emerged within preexisting penicillin-resistant clones.

  18. Genetic Relationship between Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Nasopharyngeal and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Two Infants with Pneumococcal Meningitis

    de Andrade, Ana Lucia Sampaio Sgambatti; Pimenta, Fabiana Cristina; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C.; Laval, Cristina Aparecida; Guerra, Maria Luiza; de Andrade, João Guimarães; Di Fabio, Jose Luis

    2003-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from carriage and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concurrently recovered from the same individual has not yet been reported. By using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we demonstrated the genetic linkage among strains from CSF and nasopharynges of two children with pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:12904432

  19. Penicillin resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ghanaian children less than six years of age

    Dayie, Nicholas T. K. D.; Arhin, Reuben E.; Newman, Mercy J.;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution, and penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children 2 mu g/ml and were classified as fully penicillin resistant with 45% of the isolates having intermediate res...

  20. LocZ is a new cell division protein involved in proper septum placement in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Holečková, Nela; Doubravová, Linda; Massidda, Orietta; Molle, Virginie; Buriánková, Karolína; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-13. ISSN 2150-7511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/1568; GA ČR GAP302/12/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell division * septum placement * Streptococcus pneumoniae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.786, year: 2014

  1. Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Asymptomatic Carriage in a Pre-vaccination Period, in Algeria

    Ziane, Hanifa; Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; Moura, Inês B.; Bektache, Soumia; Tazir, Mohamed; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, few data is available concerning the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and respective antibiotic resistance for the current pre-vaccination period, which is a public health concern. We identified the most frequent Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup/types implicated in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; n = 80) and carriage (n = 138) in Algerian children younger than 5 years old. Serogroup/types of 78 IPD isolates were identified by capsular typing using a sequential multiplex PCR. Overall, serotypes 14, 19F, 6B, 23F, 18C, 1, 5, 7F, 19A, and 3 (55% of PCV7 serotypes, 71.3% of PCV10, and 90% of PCV13) were identified. Additionally, 7.5% of the non-vaccine serotypes 6C, 9N/L, 20, 24F, 35B, and 35F, were observed. In the case of S. pneumoniae asymptomatic children carriers, the most common serogroup/types were 6B, 14, 19F, 23F, 4, 9V/A, 1, 19A, 6A, and 3 (42.7% of PCV7 serotypes, 44.2% of PCV10, and 58% of PCV13). For 6.1% of the cases co-colonization was detected. Serotypes 14, 1, 5, and 19A were more implicated in IPD (p vaccine serotypes, the rates of penicillin non-susceptible isolates were higher in no meningitis cases (80%) than in meningitis (66.7%), with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, and 23F presenting the highest MIC levels (>2μg/ml). Resistance to cefotaxime was higher in isolates from meningitis (40.5%); however, resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (>40%) was more pronounced in no-meningeal forms. Overall, our results showed that PCV13 conjugate vaccine would cover up to 90% of the circulating isolates associated with IPD in Algeria, highlighting the importance of monitoring the frequency of S. pneumoniae serogroups/types during pre- and post-vaccination periods. PMID:27379023

  2. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  3. Dominance of multidrug resistant CC271 clones in macrolide-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae in Arizona

    Bowers Jolene R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of resistance to macrolide antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae are rising around the world due to the spread of mobile genetic elements harboring mef(E and erm(B genes and post-vaccine clonal expansion of strains that carry them. Results Characterization of 592 clinical isolates collected in Arizona over a 10 year period shows 23.6% are macrolide resistant. The largest portion of the macrolide-resistant population, 52%, is dual mef(E/erm(B-positive. All dual-positive isolates are multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of Taiwan19F-14, mostly multilocus sequence type 320, carrying the recently described transposon Tn2010. The remainder of the macrolide resistant S. pneumoniae collection includes 31% mef(E-positive, and 9% erm(B-positive strains. Conclusions The dual-positive, multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae clones have likely expanded by switching to non-vaccine serotypes after the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine release, and their success limits therapy options. This upsurge could have a considerable clinical impact in Arizona.

  4. Characterization of Spbhp-37, a Hemoglobin-Binding Protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Romero-Espejel, María E.; Rodríguez, Mario A.; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Ríos-Castro, Emmanuel; Olivares-Trejo, José de Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive microorganism that is the cause of bacterial pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis media. This human pathogen also can cause invasive diseases such as meningitis, bacteremia and septicemia. Hemoglobin (Hb) and haem can support the growth and viability of S. pneumoniae as sole iron sources. Unfortunately, the acquisition mechanism of Hb and haem in this bacterium has been poorly studied. Previously we identified two proteins of 37 and 22 kDa as putative Hb- and haem-binding proteins (Spbhp-37 and Spbhp-22, respectively). The sequence of Spbhp-37 protein was database annotated as lipoprotein without any function or localization. Here it was immunolocalized in the surface cell by transmission electron microscopy using specific antibodies produced against the recombinant protein. The expression of Spbhp-37 was increased when bacteria were grown in media culture supplied with Hb. In addition, the affinity of Sphbp-37 for Hb was determined. Thus, in this work we are presenting new findings that attempt to explain the mechanism involved in iron acquisition of this pathogen. In the future these results could help to develop new therapy targets in order to avoid the secondary effects caused by the traditional therapies. PMID:27200302

  5. Pyruvate oxidase influences the sugar utilization pattern and capsule production in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Sandra M Carvalho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate oxidase is a key function in the metabolism and lifestyle of many lactic acid bacteria and its activity depends on the presence of environmental oxygen. In Streptococcus pneumoniae the protein has been suggested to play a major role in metabolism and has been implicated in virulence, oxidative stress survival and death in stationary phase. Under semi-aerobic conditions, transcriptomic and metabolite profiling analysis of a spxB mutant grown on glucose showed minor changes compared to the wild type, apart from the significant induction of two operons involved in carbohydrate uptake and processing. This induction leads to a change in the sugar utilization capabilities of the bacterium, as indicated by the analysis of the growth profiles of the D39 parent and spxB mutant on alternative carbohydrates. Metabolic analysis and growth experiments showed that inactivation of SpxB has no effect on the glucose fermentation pattern, except under aerobic conditions. More importantly, we show that mutation of spxB results in the production of increased amounts of capsule, the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae. Part of this increase can be attributed to induction of capsule operon (cps transcription. Therefore, we propose that S. pneumoniae utilizes pyruvate oxidase as an indirect sensor of the oxygenation of the environment, resulting in the adaption of its nutritional capability and the amount of capsule to survive in the host.

  6. Crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria highlights the importance of identifying potential drug targets. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is a valid but as yet unexploited antimicrobial target that functions in the biosynthesis of (S)-lysine. In this study, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from S. pneumoniae are described. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the (S)-lysine biosynthesis pathway of bacteria and plants. Here, the cloning of the DHDPS gene from a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae (OXC141 strain) and the strategy used to express, purify and crystallize the recombinant enzyme are described. Diffracting crystals were grown in high-molecular-weight PEG precipitants using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal, from which data were collected, diffracted to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Initially, the crystals were thought to belong to space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.5, b = 105.5, c = 62.4 Å. However, the R factors remained high following initial processing of the data. It was subsequently shown that the data set was twinned and it was thus reprocessed in space group P2, resulting in a significant reduction in the R factors. Determination of the structure will provide insight into the design of novel antimicrobial agents targeting this important enzyme from S. pneumoniae

  7. MicroRNAs Constitute a Negative Feedback Loop in Streptococcus pneumoniae-Induced Macrophage Activation.

    Griss, Kathrin; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Sittka-Stark, Alexandra; Seidel, Kerstin; Stielow, Christina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Eberhardt, Martin; Wilhelm, Jochen; Vera, Julio; Schmeck, Bernd

    2016-07-15

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes high mortality as a major pneumonia-inducing pathogen. In pneumonia, control of innate immunity is necessary to prevent organ damage. We assessed the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as regulators in pneumococcal infection of human macrophages. Exposure of primary blood-derived human macrophages with pneumococci resulted in transcriptional changes in several gene clusters and a significant deregulation of 10 microRNAs. Computational network analysis retrieved miRNA-146a as one putatively important regulator of pneumococci-induced host cell activation. Its induction depended on bacterial structural integrity and was completely inhibited by blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) or depleting its mediator MyD88. Furthermore, induction of miRNA-146a release did not require the autocrine feedback of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α released from infected macrophages, and it repressed the TLR-2 downstream mediators IRAK-1 and TRAF-6, as well as the inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase 2 and interleukin 1β. In summary, pneumococci recognition induces a negative feedback loop, preventing excessive inflammation via miR-146a and potentially other miRNAs. PMID:26984146

  8. Dried Saliva Spots: A Robust Method for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage by PCR

    Cassandra L. Krone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the highly polymicrobial oral cavity virtually impossible. Here, we tested the feasibility of using dried saliva spots (DSS for studies on pneumococcal carriage. Saliva samples from children and pneumococcus-spiked saliva samples from healthy adults were applied to paper, dried, and stored, with and without desiccant, at temperatures ranging from −20 to 37 °C for up to 35 days. DNA extracted from DSS was tested with quantitative-PCR (qPCR specifically for S. pneumoniae. When processed immediately after drying, the quantity of pneumococcal DNA detected in spiked DSS from adults matched the levels in freshly spiked raw saliva. Furthermore, pneumococcal DNA was stable in DSS stored with desiccant for up to one month over a broad range of temperatures. There were no differences in the results when spiking saliva with varied pneumococcal strains. The collection of saliva can be a particularly useful in surveillance studies conducted in remote settings, as it does not require trained personnel, and DSS are resilient to various transportation conditions.

  9. Disease isolates of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and non-typeable S. pneumoniae presumptively identified as atypical S. pneumoniae in Spain.

    Dora Rolo

    Full Text Available We aimed to obtain insights on the nature of a collection of isolates presumptively identified as atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from invasive and non-invasive infections in Spain. One-hundred and thirty-two isolates were characterized by: optochin susceptibility in ambient and CO(2-enriched atmosphere; bile solubility; PCR-based assays targeting pneumococcal genes lytA, ply, pspA, cpsA, Spn9802, aliB-like ORF2, and a specific 16S rRNA region; multilocus sequence analysis; and antimicrobial susceptibility. By multilocus sequence analysis, 61 isolates were S. pseudopneumoniae, 34 were pneumococci, 13 were S. mitis, and 24 remained unclassified as non-pneumococci. Among S. pseudopneumoniae isolates, 51 (83.6% were collected from respiratory tract samples; eight isolates were obtained from sterile sources. High frequency of non-susceptibility to penicillin (60.7% and erythromycin (42.6% was found. Only 50.8% of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates displayed the typical optochin phenotype originally described for this species. None harbored the cpsA gene or the pneumococcal typical lytA restriction fragment length polymorphism. The Spn9802 and the specific 16S rRNA regions were detected among the majority of the S. pseudopneumoniae isolates (n = 59 and n = 49, respectively. The ply and pspA genes were rarely found. A high genetic diversity was found and 59 profiles were identified. Among the S. pneumoniae, 23 were capsulated and 11 were non-typeable. Three non-typeable isolates, associated to international non-capsulated lineages, were recovered from invasive disease sources. In conclusion, half of the atypical pneumococcal clinical isolates were, in fact, S. pseudopneumoniae and one-fourth were other streptococci. We identified S. pseudopneumoniae and non-typeable pneumococci as cause of disease in Spain including invasive disease.

  10. [Detection and Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carried in Healthy Adults with a Modified PCR Method].

    Ishihara, Yuka; Okamoto, Akira; Ohta, Michio

    2015-05-01

    Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonized in the pharynx of healthy carriers currently relies on conventional culture methods of direct plating with pharyngeal swab specimens. The accurate measurement of the carriage of pneumococci, however, has not been necessarily achieved with these methods due to low density colonization and contamination of numerous oral streptococci that express α-hemolysis. A PCR-based detection method of pneumococci-specific for lytA as well as PCR serotyping of S. pneumoniae was recently developed and their effectiveness was confirmed. We modified the reaction conditions of these methods to improve the detection rate and applied them to the measurement of S. pneumoniae carried in healthy adults. Pharyngeal swab specimens obtained from 110 healthy volunteers over 40 and living in Nagoya were enriched for 5 hours with broth medium supplemented with rabbit serum and the template DNA for PCR was extracted from the mixed enriched culture. Of 110 specimens 36 (32.7%) were lytA-positive, the rate of which was much higher than the results of previous culture-based studies. The DNA template preparations were then used for PCR-based serotyping with primers specific for each of the types included in pneumococcal 23 valent vaccine (PPV23). We found that 28 out of 36 lytA-positive carriers were identified as being positive for the serotypes belonging to PPV23, although serotypes 6A and 6B were indistinguishable with the PCR method. The most frequent serotype was serotype 14, and serotypes 4, 18C, and 6A/B were also frequently identified. Five lytA-positive carriers were previously vaccinated with PPV23, and among them, 4 were positive for serotypes contained in PPV23. We recommend PCR-based identification and serotyping of S. pneumoniae in broth enrichment culture of pharyngeal swab specimens as a reliable method for the surveillance of healthy carriers with low density colonization. PMID:26552129

  11. The Oral Commensal Streptococcus mitis Shows a Mixed Memory Th Cell Signature That Is Similar to and Cross-Reactive with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    2014-01-01

    Background Carriage of and infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is known to predominantly induce T helper 17 (Th17) responses in humans, but the types of Th cells showing reactivity towards commensal streptococci with low pathogenic potential, such as the oral commensals S. mitis and S. salivarius, remain uncharacterized. Methods Memory CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subsets were isolated from healthy human blood donors according to differential expression of chemokine receptors, expanded in v...

  12. Complete genome sequence of a serotype 11A, ST62 Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive isolate

    Superti Fabiana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen representing a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sequenced the genome of a serotype 11A, ST62 S. pneumoniae invasive isolate (AP200, that was erythromycin-resistant due to the presence of the erm(TR determinant, and carried out analysis of the genome organization and comparison with other pneumococcal genomes. Results The genome sequence of S. pneumoniae AP200 is 2,130,580 base pair in length. The genome carries 2216 coding sequences (CDS, 56 tRNA, and 12 rRNA genes. Of the CDSs, 72.9% have a predicted biological known function. AP200 contains the pilus islet 2 and, although its phenotype corresponds to serotype 11A, it contains an 11D capsular locus. Chromosomal rearrangements resulting from a large inversion across the replication axis, and horizontal gene transfer events were observed. The chromosomal inversion is likely implicated in the rebalance of the chromosomal architecture affected by the insertions of two large exogenous elements, the erm(TR-carrying Tn1806 and a functional prophage designated ϕSpn_200. Tn1806 is 52,457 bp in size and comprises 49 ORFs. Comparative analysis of Tn1806 revealed the presence of a similar genetic element or part of it in related species such as Streptococcus pyogenes and also in the anaerobic species Finegoldia magna, Anaerococcus prevotii and Clostridium difficile. The genome of ϕSpn_200 is 35,989 bp in size and is organized in 47 ORFs grouped into five functional modules. Prophages similar to ϕSpn_200 were found in pneumococci and in other streptococcal species, showing a high degree of exchange of functional modules. ϕSpn_200 viral particles have morphologic characteristics typical of the Siphoviridae family and are capable of infecting a pneumococcal recipient strain. Conclusions The sequence of S. pneumoniae AP200 chromosome revealed a dynamic genome, characterized by chromosomal rearrangements and

  13. Differential activation of inflammatory pathways in A549 type II pneumocytes by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with different adherence properties

    Horvat Rebecca T

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria to lung cells is a first step in the progression from asymptomatic carriage to pneumonia. Adherence abilities vary widely among S. pneumoniae patient isolates. In this study, the binding properties of S. pneumoniae isolates and the effects of binding on activation of the Nuclear Factor-Kappa-B (NFκB pathway and cytokine secretion by type II pneumocytes were measured. Methods Mechanisms of high- and low-binding S. pneumoniae adherence to A549 cells were investigated by blocking putative receptors on bacteria and host cells with antibody and by eluting choline-binding proteins off of bacterial surfaces. NFκB activation was measured by western blot and immunocytochemistry and cytokine secretion was detected by a protein array. Results This study shows that S. pneumoniae isolates from pneumonia patients (n = 298 can vary by as much as 1000-fold in their ability to bind to human lung epithelial cells. This difference resulted in differential activation of the NFκB pathway. High-, but not low-binding S. pneumoniae used Choline-binding protein A (CbpA to bind to complement component C3 on epithelial cell surfaces. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 was the only cytokine secreted by cells treated with either low- or high-binding S. pneumoniae. Conclusion These results indicate that S. pneumoniae clinical isolates are not homogeneous in their interaction with host epithelial cells. The differential activation of host cells by high- and low-binding S. pneumoniae strains could have implications for the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia and for vaccine development.

  14. Time and dose-dependent risk of pneumococcal pneumonia following influenza: a model for within-host interaction between influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Shrestha, Sourya; Foxman, Betsy; Dawid, Suzanne; Aiello, Allison E.; Davis, Brian M.; Berus, Joshua; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-01-01

    A significant fraction of seasonal and in particular pandemic influenza deaths are attributed to secondary bacterial infections. In animal models, influenza virus predisposes hosts to severe infection with both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Despite its importance, the mechanistic nature of the interaction between influenza and pneumococci, its dependence on the timing and sequence of infections as well as the clinical and epidemiological consequences remain unclear. We e...

  15. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, R B;

    2000-01-01

    effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg....../L. In vitro time-kill curves were generated with clinically relevant concentrations of penicillin (10 mg/L) and erythromycin (1 mg/L), either individually or in combination. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin was observed for the four isolates. In vivo interaction was investigated in the...... mouse peritonitis model. After intraperitoneal inoculation, penicillin and erythromycin were given either individually or in combination. For two of the four isolates, mortality was significantly higher in the groups treated with the combination of penicillin and erythromycin than in the groups treated...

  16. Regulation of naturally acquired mucosal immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy Malawian adults and children.

    Sarah J Glennie

    Full Text Available Worldwide, invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is most common in young children. In adults, disease rates decline following intermittent colonization and the acquisition of naturally acquired immunity. We characterized mucosal and systemic pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in African children and adults who contend with intense rates of colonization, up to 100% and 60% respectively. We find most Malawian children have high pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in tonsil tissue and peripheral blood. In addition, frequent commensalism generates CD25(hi (Tregs which modulate mucosal pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in some children and ≥50% of adults. We propose that immune regulation may prolong pneumococcal colonization and predispose vulnerable individuals to disease.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae over 6 years at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Belay Anagaw; Chandrashekhar Unakal; Mucheye Gezachew; Fantahun Biadgelgene; Berhanu Anagaw; Tariku Geleshe; Birke Taddese; Birhanu Getie; Mengistu Endris; Andargachew Mulu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the magnitude and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from various clinical specimens. Methods:A record based on retrospective study was conducted at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2007 to January 2012. All patients who visited Gondar University Hospital and provided clinical specimens (body fluids, discharge, swab and blood) for routine bacteriological culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were taken for analysis. Clinical specimens were processed for bacterial culture according to the standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for isolated organisms was done using agar disk diffusion method. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version 16 package. Results: One hundred and fifty three Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated from patients who visited Gondar University Teaching Hospital bacteriology laboratory for culture. Majority of the pneumococcal isolates were from inpatients [111(72.5%)], and 74(48.4%) were from body fluids. Out of the total isolates, 93(61%) were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic used for susceptibility testing. Forty eight (43.2%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (resistant to two or more drugs). The resistance rate noted for both ciprofloxacin 17(11.1%) and ceftriaxone 15(9.8%) were alarming. Conclusions: High proportions of the isolates tend to be increasingly resistant to the commonly prescribed drugs. The recommended drug of choice like ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were found to be less susceptible in the study area. Based on the findings, we therefore recommend that antimicrobial agents should be inspected for acceptable activity before they are prescribed and administered empirically. Further study with a better design and survey of antimicrobial susceptibility at large scale shoule be performed to draw advanced information.

  18. Children from 0 to 4 Years Old Carrying Streptococcus Pneumoniae. A Community Study

    Olga Olivia Tejeda Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el Streptococcus pneumoniae es la primera causa de neumonías comunitarias; a la infección la precede la colonización de la nasofaringe, de ahí la importancia de determinar el estado de portador y los patrones de susceptibilidad y resistencia. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del estado de portador de Streptococcus pneumoniae entre una población infantil menor de cuatro años. Métodos: estudio de corte transversal que incluyó 179 niños, de áreas urbanas y rurales del municipio San Antonio de los Baños, provincia Artemisa. Se estratificó el municipio por el número de nacidos en cada año, se determinó el por ciento que representaban en la muestra, asignando un número de niños a cada grupo, proporcional al tamaño del grupo poblacional estratificado. Los niños se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria en los consultorios. Se tomaron muestras de exudados nasales y faríngeos. La identificación de las cepas se realizó por las características morfológicas y culturales, prueba de la opto quina y solubilidad en bilis; la confirmación del cultivo por aglutinación al látex. Se determinó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana por el método de Kirby-Bauer. Resultados: el 20, 6 % era portador nasal y el 33, 6 % en la faringe, estos últimos mayormente en el área urbana. No hubo diferencias por sexo; el 60 % de las cepas mostraron susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina, 52 % de resistencia al trimetropin- sulfametoxasol y un 25 % a la eritromicina. El total de los aislamientos fue susceptible a ofloxacina, cefotaxima, azitromicina y vancomicina. Conclusiones: el estado de portador fue alto.

  19. The Small Molecule DAM Inhibitor, Pyrimidinedione, Disrupts Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Growth In Vitro.

    Mukesh Kumar Yadav

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae persist in the human nasopharynx within organized biofilms. However, expansion to other tissues may cause severe infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Bacteria within biofilms possess increased tolerance to antibiotics and are able to resist host defense systems. Bacteria within biofilms exhibit different physiology, metabolism, and gene expression profiles than planktonic cells. These differences underscore the need to identify alternative therapeutic targets and novel antimicrobial compounds that are effective against pneumococcal biofilms. In bacteria, DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam alters pathogenic gene expression and catalyzes the methylation of adenine in the DNA duplex and of macromolecules during the activated methyl cycle (AMC. In pneumococci, AMC is involved in the biosynthesis of quorum sensing molecules that regulate competence and biofilm formation. In this study, we examine the effect of a small molecule Dam inhibitor, pyrimidinedione, on Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and evaluate the changes in global gene expression within biofilms via microarray analysis. The effects of pyrimidinedione on in vitro biofilms were studied using a static microtiter plate assay, and the architecture of the biofilms was viewed using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of pyrimidinedione was tested on a human middle ear epithelium cell line by CCK-8. In situ oligonucleotide microarray was used to compare the global gene expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 within biofilms grown in the presence and absence of pyrimidinedione. Real-time RT-PCR was used to study gene expression. Pyrimidinedione inhibits pneumococcal biofilm growth in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, but it does not inhibit planktonic cell growth. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the absence of organized biofilms, where cell

  20. A single amino acid substitution in the MurF UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide synthetase renders Streptococcus pneumoniae dependent on CO2 and temperature

    Burghout, Peter; Quintero, Beatriz; Bos, Linda; Beilharz, Katrin; Veening, Jan-Willem; de Jonge, Marien I.; van der Linden, Mark; van der Ende, Arie; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory tract pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae encounters different levels of environmental CO2 during transmission, host colonization and disease. About 8% of all pneumococcal isolates are capnophiles that require CO2-enriched growth conditions. The underlying molecular mechanism for caphn

  1. Interleukin-10 plays a key role in the modulation of neutrophils recruitment and lung inflammation during infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Peñaloza, Hernán F; Nieto, Pamela A; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Torres, Javiera; Parga, María J; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major aetiological agent of pneumonia worldwide, as well as otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and sepsis. Recent reports have suggested that inflammation of lungs due to S. pneumoniae infection promotes bacterial dissemination and severe disease. However, the contribution of anti-inflammatory molecules to the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae remains unknown. To elucidate whether the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is beneficial or detrimental for the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, we performed S. pneumoniae infections in mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10(-/-) mice). The IL-10(-/-) mice showed increased mortality, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an exacerbated recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs after S. pneumoniae infection. However, IL-10(-/-) mice showed significantly lower bacterial loads in lungs, spleen, brain and blood, when compared with mice that produced this cytokine. Our results support the notion that production of IL-10 during S. pneumoniae infection modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs. This feature of IL-10 is important to avoid excessive inflammation of tissues and to improve host survival, even though bacterial dissemination is less efficient in the absence of this cytokine. PMID:26032199

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in children: vaccine implications%儿童肺炎链球菌感染与疫苗

    陆敏

    2010-01-01

    肺炎链球菌是儿童呼吸道感染中最常见的病原之一,也是导致儿童重症肺炎、肺炎并发症和死亡的主要致病菌.近年来,由于世界各地肺炎链球菌对抗生素的耐药不断增加和广泛传播,造成疾病的负担日益增加,也使临床诊治面临严峻挑战.疫苗的出现和推广在肺炎链球菌病的防治方面有着光明的前景.%Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of respiratory tract infections in children, and also the major pathogen leading to severe pneumonia, complications and even death. In recent years, antimicrobial resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae is growing and widespread, resulting in the increasing burden of disease,and also bring serious challenges to clinical diagnosis and treatment. The emergence and dissemination of vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in disease prevention and control has a bright future.

  3. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012

    N. Ramdani-Bouguessa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36% were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence: 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria.

  4. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012.

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, N; Ziane, H; Bekhoucha, S; Guechi, Z; Azzam, A; Touati, D; Naim, M; Azrou, S; Hamidi, M; Mertani, A; Laraba, A; Annane, T; Kermani, S; Tazir, M

    2015-07-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36%) were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence): 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. PMID:26106481

  5. M-ficolin binds selectively to the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 19B and 19C and of a S. mitis strain

    Kjær, Troels Rønn; Hansen, Annette G; Sørensen, Uffe B S; Holm, Anne Trommelholt; Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    infections. We investigated the binding selectivity by examining the binding of M-ficolin to a panel of more than 100 different streptococcal strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis) each expressing distinct polysaccharide structures. M-ficolin binding was observed for three strains only......-ficolin ligand.In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate specific binding of M-ficolin to some capsular polysaccharides of the opportunistic pathogen S. pneumoniae and of the commensal bacterium S. mitis....

  6. Adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for growth through its catalytic activity

    Trung Thanh Thach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus infection causes more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Pneumococcal growth is a prerequisite for its virulence and requires an appropriate supply of cellular energy. Adenylate kinases constitute a major family of enzymes that regulate cellular ATP levels. Some bacterial adenylate kinases (AdKs are known to be critical for growth, but the physiological effects of AdKs in pneumococci have been poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, by crystallographic and functional studies, we report that the catalytic activity of adenylate kinase from S. pneumoniae (SpAdK serotype 2 D39 is essential for growth. We determined the crystal structure of SpAdK in two conformations: ligand-free open form and closed in complex with a two-substrate mimic inhibitor adenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A. Crystallographic analysis of SpAdK reveals Arg-89 as a key active site residue. We generated a conditional expression mutant of pneumococcus in which the expression of the adk gene is tightly regulated by fucose. The expression level of adk correlates with growth rate. Expression of the wild-type adk gene in fucose-inducible strains rescued a growth defect, but expression of the Arg-89 mutation did not. SpAdK increased total cellular ATP levels. Furthermore, lack of functional SpAdK caused a growth defect in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SpAdK is essential for pneumococcal growth in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Preparation of inocula for experimental infection of blood with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Vivas-Alegre, Santiago; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Experimental infections of either cells or animals require the preparation of good quality inocula. Unfortunately, the important pulmonary pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fastidious microorganism that suffers an autolysis process when cultured in vitro. Supplementation of Todd–Hewitt broth with a biological buffer (20 mM Tris–HCl, pH = 7.8) promotes a six hours delay in the beginning of the autolysis process. Additional improvements include washing bacteria before freezing, avoiding manipulations after thawing, and the use of glycerol (70% of the frozen bacteria was viable after 28 weeks at −80 °C, and aliquots were highly homogeneous. We have tested their utility in a whole blood infection model and have found that human plasma exhibits a higher microbicidal activity than whole blood, a result that we have not found previously reported. Additionally, we have also observed significant variations in the antimicrobial activity against different strains, which might be related to their virulence.•Media culture buffering extends S. pneumoniae viability for 6 h.•Washing before freezing of single use aliquots minimizes manipulation after thawing.•Experimental infection with the frozen inocula has shown that plasma has higher bactericidal activity than blood. PMID:26844211

  8. Transcriptional profiling of UlaR-regulated genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Sulman Shafeeq

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional regulator UlaR belongs to the family of PRD-containing transcriptional regulators, which are mostly involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. The role of the transcriptional regulator UlaR in Streptococcus pneumoniae has recently been described [1]. Here, we report detailed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of UlaR-regulated genes in S. pneumoniae D39 and its ∆ulaR derivative, either in the presence of 10 mM ascorbic acid in M17 medium using microarray analysis. 10 mM concentration of ascorbic acid was supplemented to the M17 medium because our lacZ-fusion studies indicated that UlaR acts as a transcriptional activator of its targets in the presence of ascorbic acid and the expression of the ula operon was maximal at a 10 mM ascorbic acid concentration [1]. All transcriptional profiling data of UlaR-regulated genes was deposited to Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE61649.

  9. Prophage spontaneous activation promotes DNA release enhancing biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Margarida Carrolo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus is able to form biofilms in vivo and previous studies propose that pneumococcal biofilms play a relevant role both in colonization and infection. Additionally, pneumococci recovered from human infections are characterized by a high prevalence of lysogenic bacteriophages (phages residing quiescently in their host chromosome. We investigated a possible link between lysogeny and biofilm formation. Considering that extracellular DNA (eDNA is a key factor in the biofilm matrix, we reasoned that prophage spontaneous activation with the consequent bacterial host lysis could provide a source of eDNA, enhancing pneumococcal biofilm development. Monitoring biofilm growth of lysogenic and non-lysogenic pneumococcal strains indicated that phage-infected bacteria are more proficient at forming biofilms, that is their biofilms are characterized by a higher biomass and cell viability. The presence of phage particles throughout the lysogenic strains biofilm development implicated prophage spontaneous induction in this effect. Analysis of lysogens deficient for phage lysin and the bacterial major autolysin revealed that the absence of either lytic activity impaired biofilm development and the addition of DNA restored the ability of mutant strains to form robust biofilms. These findings establish that limited phage-mediated host lysis of a fraction of the bacterial population, due to spontaneous phage induction, constitutes an important source of eDNA for the S. pneumoniae biofilm matrix and that this localized release of eDNA favors biofilm formation by the remaining bacterial population.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Synthetic Peptides Derived from Indolicidin and Ranalexin against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Hassan Mahmood Jindal

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in order to defeat multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, thirteen antimicrobial peptides were designed based on two natural peptides indolicidin and ranalexin. Our results revealed that four hybrid peptides RN7-IN10, RN7-IN9, RN7-IN8, and RN7-IN6 possess potent antibacterial activity against 30 pneumococcal clinical isolates (MIC 7.81-15.62µg/ml. These four hybrid peptides also showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity (7.81µg/ml against S. aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, and E. coli. Furthermore, the time killing assay results showed that the hybrid peptides were able to eliminate S. pneumoniae within less than one hour which is faster than the standard drugs erythromycin and ceftriaxone. The cytotoxic effects of peptides were tested against human erythrocytes, WRL-68 normal liver cell line, and NL-20 normal lung cell line. The results revealed that none of the thirteen peptides have cytotoxic or hemolytic effects at their MIC values. The in silico molecular docking study was carried out to investigate the binding properties of peptides with three pneumococcal virulent targets by Autodock Vina. RN7IN6 showed a strong affinity to target proteins; autolysin, pneumolysin, and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA based on rigid docking studies. Our results suggest that the hybrid peptides could be suitable candidates for antibacterial drug development.

  11. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Paterson, Neil G., E-mail: neison@chem.gla.ac.uk; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Timothy J. [Division of Infection and Immunity (IBLS), Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Isaacs, Neil W. [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V{sub M} = 2.77 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å.

  12. High-Level Genetic Diversity among Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Turkey.

    Guldemir, Dilek; Acar, Sumeyra; Otgun, Selin Nar; Unaldi, Ozlem; Gozalan, Aysegul; Ertek, Mustafa; Durmaz, Riza

    2016-05-20

    This study obtained information on the serotypes and molecular typing characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains causing invasive diseases in Turkey. Sixty-eight S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive pneumococcal diseases were collected from different regions of Turkey from 2009 to 2011. The isolates were characterized by performing multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and capsular serotyping, and 25 different serotypes were identified. Serotypes 19F, 23F, 1, 14, and 7F were common and accounted for 52.9% of all the serotypes. In addition, 54 different PFGE profiles (pulsotypes) were observed. Twenty-three of the 68 (33.8%) isolates were clustered into 9 pulsotypes. MLST analysis yielded 36 sequence types, of which 12 (33.3%) were novel. A comparison of results with the global pneumococcal MLST database by performing eBURST analysis showed that our strains belonged to 20 different clonal complexes and 5 singletons. In addition, we identified 4 new alleles: 2 gdh, 1 xpt, and 1 ddl. Thus, the results of this study highlighted a high level of diversity among pneumococcal isolates. In addition, the study identified a case of possible capsular switching. PMID:26255730

  13. Discovery of prenylated flavonoids with dual activity against influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Grienke, Ulrike; Richter, Martina; Walther, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Anja; Kirchmair, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim; Nietzsche, Sandor; Schmidtke, Michaela; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) is the primary target for influenza therapeutics. Severe complications are often related to secondary pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci), which also express NAs. Recently, a NA-mediated lethal synergism between influenza A viruses and pneumococci was described. Therefore, dual inhibitors of both viral and bacterial NAs are expected to be advantageous for the treatment of influenza. We investigated the traditional Chinese herbal drug sāng bái pí (mulberry root bark) as source for anti-infectives. Two prenylated flavonoid derivatives, sanggenon G (4) and sanggenol A (5) inhibited influenza A viral and pneumococcal NAs and, in contrast to the approved NA inhibitor oseltamivir, also planktonic growth and biofilm formation of pneumococci. Evaluation of 27 congeners of 5 revealed a correlation between the degree of prenylation and bioactivity. Abyssinone-V 4′-methyl ether (27) inhibited pneumococcal NA with IC50 = 2.18 μM, pneumococcal growth with MIC = 5.63 μM, and biofilm formation with MBIC = 4.21 μM, without harming lung epithelial cells. Compounds 5 and 27 also disrupt the synergism between influenza A virus and pneumococcal NA in vitro, hence functioning as dual-acting anti-infectives. The results warrant further studies on whether the observed disruption of this synergism is transferable to in vivo systems. PMID:27257160

  14. Cirrhosis-induced defects in innate pulmonary defenses against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Vander Top Elizabeth A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of mortality from pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is increased in patients with cirrhosis. However, the specific pneumococcal virulence factors and host immune defects responsible for this finding have not been clearly established. This study used a cirrhotic rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia to identify defect(s in innate pulmonary defenses in the cirrhotic host and to determine the impact of the pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin on these defenses in the setting of severe cirrhosis. Results No cirrhosis-associated defects in mucociliary clearance of pneumococci were found in these studies, but early intrapulmonary killing of the organisms before the arrival of neutrophils was significantly impaired. This defect was exacerbated by pneumolysin production in cirrhotic but not in control rats. Neutrophil-mediated killing of a particularly virulent type 3 pneumococcal strain also was significantly diminished within the lungs of cirrhotic rats with ascites. Levels of lysozyme and complement component C3 were both significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cirrhotic rats. Finally, complement deposition was reduced on the surface of pneumococci recovered from the lungs of cirrhotic rats in comparison to organisms recovered from the lungs of control animals. Conclusion Increased mortality from pneumococcal pneumonia in this cirrhotic host is related to defects in both early pre-neutrophil- and later neutrophil-mediated pulmonary killing of the organisms. The fact that pneumolysin production impaired pre-neutrophil-mediated pneumococcal killing in cirrhotic but not control rats suggests that pneumolysin may be particularly detrimental to this defense mechanism in the severely cirrhotic host. The decrease in neutrophil-mediated killing of pneumococci within the lungs of the cirrhotic host is related to insufficient deposition of host proteins such as complement C3 on their surfaces. Pneumolysin

  15. Exposure to welding fumes and lower airway infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Suri, Reetika; Periselneris, Jimstan; Lanone, Sophie; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Melton, Geoffrey; Palmer, Keith T.; Andujar, Pascal; Antonini, James M.; Cohignac, Vanessa; Erdely, Aaron; Jose, Ricardo J.; Mudway, Ian; Brown, Jeremy; Grigg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Welders are at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. The mechanism for this association is not known. The capacity of pneumococci to adhere to and infect lower airway cells is mediated by host-expressed platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR). Objective We sought to assess the effect of mild steel welding fumes (MS-WF) on PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion and infection to human airway cells in vitro and on pneumococcal airway infection in a mouse model. Methods The oxidative potential of MS-WF was assessed by their capacity to reduce antioxidants in vitro. Pneumococcal adhesion and infection of A549, BEAS-2B, and primary human bronchial airway cells were assessed by means of quantitative bacterial culture and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU). After intranasal instillation of MS-WF, mice were infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung CFU values were determined. PAFR protein levels were assessed by using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, and PAFR mRNA expression was assessed by using quantitative PCR. PAFR was blocked by CV-3988, and oxidative stress was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine. Results: MS-WF exhibited high oxidative potential. In A549 and BEAS-2B cells MS-WF increased pneumococcal adhesion and infection and PAFR protein expression. Both CV-3988 and N-acetylcysteine reduced MS-WF–stimulated pneumococcal adhesion and infection of airway cells. MS-WF increased mouse lung PAFR mRNA expression and increased BALF and lung pneumococcal CFU values. In MS-WF–exposed mice CV-3988 reduced BALF CFU values. Conclusions Hypersusceptibility of welders to pneumococcal pneumonia is in part mediated by the capacity of welding fumes to increase PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion and infection of lower airway cells. PMID:26277596

  16. A new variant of the capsule 3 cluster occurs in Streptococcus pneumoniae from deceased wild chimpanzees.

    Dalia Denapaite

    Full Text Available The presence of new Streptococcus pneumoniae clones in dead wild chimpanzees from the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, with previous respiratory problems has been demonstrated recently by DNA sequence analysis from samples obtained from the deceased apes. In order to broadenour understanding on the relatedness of these pneumococcal clones to those from humans, the gene locus responsible for biosynthesis of the capsule polysaccharide (CPS has now been characterized. DNA sequence analysis of PCR fragments identified a cluster named cps3(Taï containing the four genes typical for serotype 3 CPS, but lacking a 5'-region of ≥2 kb which is degenerated in other cps3 loci and not required for type 3 biosynthesis. CPS3 is composed of a simple disaccharide repeat unit comprising glucose and glucuronic acid (GlcUA. The two genes ugd responsible for GlcUA synthesis and wchE encoding the type 3 synthase are essential for CPS3 biosynthesis, whereas both, galU and the 3'-truncated gene pgm are not required due to the presence of homologues elsewhere in the genome. The DNA sequence of cps3(Taï diverged considerably from those of other cps3 loci. Also, the gene pgm(Taï represents a full length version with a nonsense mutation at codon 179. The two genes ugd(Taï and wchE(Taï including the promoter region were transformed into a nonencapsulated laboratory strain S. pneumoniae R6. Transformants which expressed type 3 capsule polysaccharide were readily obtained, documenting that the gene products are functional. In summary, the data indicate that cps3(Taï evolved independent from other cps3 loci, suggesting the presence of specialized serotype 3 S. pneumoniae clones endemic to the Taï National Park area.

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to macrolide in Casablanca, Morocco.

    Diawara, Idrissa; Zerouali, Khalid; Katfy, Khalid; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Belabbes, Houria; Timinouni, Mohammed; Elmdaghri, Naima

    2016-06-01

    In Morocco, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) was introduced in the national immunization program (NIP) in October 2010 and replaced by the PCV-10 in July 2012. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (ERSP) and to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these isolates in Casablanca, Morocco from January 2007 to December 2014. Isolates were obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of Ibn Rochd University Hospital Centre of Casablanca. Serogrouping was done using Pneumotest Kit and serotyping by the Quellung capsular swelling. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disk diffusion and Etest methods. A total of 655S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 2007 to 2014 from pediatric and adult patients. Fifty-five percent of these isolates were from invasive pneumococcal diseases. Of the 655 isolates, 92 (14%) were ERSP. Globally, the proportion of ERSP from 2007 to 2010 (before vaccination) and from 2011 to 2014 (after vaccination) were 11.6% and 17.2% (p=0.04), respectively. Of the 92 ERSP, 89%, 4% and 7% displayed constitutive MLSB (resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B), inducible MLSB, and M phenotype (resistance to macrolide only), respectively. ERSP genotypic analysis showed that 90.2% carried the ermB gene, 6.5% the mefE gene, and 3.3% both the genes (ermB+mefE). The most prevalent ERSP serotypes were 6B, 19F and 23F before vaccination and 19F, 6B, 6A and 23F after vaccination. Erythromycin resistance among S. pneumoniae is relatively high in Casablanca. The contribution of PCVs to the reduction in antibiotic use is encouraging but this should be accompanied by a rational use of antibiotic. PMID:26961592

  18. A new variant of the capsule 3 cluster occurs in Streptococcus pneumoniae from deceased wild chimpanzees.

    Denapaite, Dalia; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2011-01-01

    The presence of new Streptococcus pneumoniae clones in dead wild chimpanzees from the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, with previous respiratory problems has been demonstrated recently by DNA sequence analysis from samples obtained from the deceased apes. In order to broadenour understanding on the relatedness of these pneumococcal clones to those from humans, the gene locus responsible for biosynthesis of the capsule polysaccharide (CPS) has now been characterized. DNA sequence analysis of PCR fragments identified a cluster named cps3(Taï) containing the four genes typical for serotype 3 CPS, but lacking a 5'-region of ≥2 kb which is degenerated in other cps3 loci and not required for type 3 biosynthesis. CPS3 is composed of a simple disaccharide repeat unit comprising glucose and glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The two genes ugd responsible for GlcUA synthesis and wchE encoding the type 3 synthase are essential for CPS3 biosynthesis, whereas both, galU and the 3'-truncated gene pgm are not required due to the presence of homologues elsewhere in the genome. The DNA sequence of cps3(Taï) diverged considerably from those of other cps3 loci. Also, the gene pgm(Taï) represents a full length version with a nonsense mutation at codon 179. The two genes ugd(Taï) and wchE(Taï) including the promoter region were transformed into a nonencapsulated laboratory strain S. pneumoniae R6. Transformants which expressed type 3 capsule polysaccharide were readily obtained, documenting that the gene products are functional. In summary, the data indicate that cps3(Taï) evolved independent from other cps3 loci, suggesting the presence of specialized serotype 3 S. pneumoniae clones endemic to the Taï National Park area. PMID:21969869

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae Enhances Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo.

    D Tien Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causative agents of respiratory tract infections. Both pathogens are associated with seasonal disease outbreaks in the pediatric population, and can often be detected simultaneously in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis or pneumonia. It has been described that respiratory virus infections may predispose for bacterial superinfections, resulting in severe disease. However, studies on the influence of bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract on the pathogenesis of subsequent respiratory virus infections are scarce. Here, we have investigated whether pneumococcal colonization enhances subsequent HRSV infection. We used a newly generated recombinant subgroup B HRSV strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein and pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy children in disease-relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems. Three pneumococcal strains specifically enhanced in vitro HRSV infection of primary well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface, whereas two other strains did not. Since previous studies reported that bacterial neuraminidase enhanced HRSV infection in vitro, we measured pneumococcal neuraminidase activity in these cultures but found no correlation with the observed infection enhancement in our model. Subsequently, a selection of pneumococcal strains was used to induce nasal colonization of cotton rats, the best available small animal model for HRSV. Intranasal HRSV infection three days later resulted in strain-specific enhancement of HRSV replication in vivo. One S. pneumoniae strain enhanced HRSV both in vitro and in vivo, and was also associated with enhanced syncytium formation in vivo. However, neither pneumococci nor HRSV were found to spread from the upper to the lower respiratory tract, and neither pathogen was transmitted to naive cage mates by direct contact. These

  20. Extracellular Adenosine Protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection by Regulating Pulmonary Neutrophil Recruitment.

    Bou Ghanem, Elsa N; Clark, Stacie; Roggensack, Sara E; McIver, Sally R; Alcaide, Pilar; Haydon, Philip G; Leong, John M

    2015-08-01

    An important determinant of disease following Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) lung infection is pulmonary inflammation mediated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We found that upon intratracheal challenge of mice, recruitment of PMNs into the lungs within the first 3 hours coincided with decreased pulmonary pneumococci, whereas large numbers of pulmonary PMNs beyond 12 hours correlated with a greater bacterial burden. Indeed, mice that survived infection largely resolved inflammation by 72 hours, and PMN depletion at peak infiltration, i.e. 18 hours post-infection, lowered bacterial numbers and enhanced survival. We investigated host signaling pathways that influence both pneumococcus clearance and pulmonary inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition and/or genetic ablation of enzymes that generate extracellular adenosine (EAD) (e.g. the ectoenzyme CD73) or degrade EAD (e.g. adenosine deaminase) revealed that EAD dramatically increases murine resistance to S. pneumoniae lung infection. Moreover, adenosine diminished PMN movement across endothelial monolayers in vitro, and although inhibition or deficiency of CD73 had no discernible impact on PMN recruitment within the first 6 hours after intratracheal inoculation of mice, these measures enhanced PMN numbers in the pulmonary interstitium after 18 hours of infection, culminating in dramatically elevated numbers of pulmonary PMNs at three days post-infection. When assessed at this time point, CD73-/- mice displayed increased levels of cellular factors that promote leukocyte migration, such as CXCL2 chemokine in the murine lung, as well as CXCR2 and β-2 integrin on the surface of pulmonary PMNs. The enhanced pneumococcal susceptibility of CD73-/- mice was significantly reversed by PMN depletion following infection, suggesting that EAD-mediated resistance is largely mediated by its effects on PMNs. Finally, CD73-inhibition diminished the ability of PMNs to kill pneumococci in vitro, suggesting that EAD alters

  1. Contribución al estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la resistencia a ciprofloxacina en "Streptococcus pneumoniae"

    Martínez Garriga, Blanca

    2005-01-01

    TESIS DOCTORAL"Streptococcus pneumoniae", también llamado neumococo, es una bacteria Gram positiva caracterizada por la severidad de las infecciones que produce en la especie humana, siendo responsable de una elevada morbilidad y letalidad, especialmente en niños y ancianos, colectivos particularmente sensibles a sus consecuencias. La emergencia de cepas de S. pneumoniae resistentes a antibióticos como la penicilina y otros beta-lactámicos, comúnmente utilizados en el tratamiento de las infec...

  2. Surveillance of bacterial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae%肺炎链球菌的耐药性监测

    张泓

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increased significantly, understanding the characteristic of resistant strains and applying surveillance for them are helpful to guide clinical therapy and control the prevalence of resistant strains. This review describes Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance, resistance mechanism and their clinical surveillance.%肺炎链球菌耐药率不断上升,监测其耐药性并掌握耐药特征,有助于指导临床合理选药及控制肺炎链球菌耐药株流行.本文综述肺炎链球菌的耐药现状、相关机制及监测方法.

  3. Toll-Like Receptor Signalling Is Not Involved in Platelet Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro or In Vivo

    Schaap, Marianne C. L.; Hou, Baidong; van der Poll, Tom; Nieuwland, Rienk; van ‘t Veer, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae strains vary considerably in their ability to cause invasive disease in humans, which is at least in part determined by the capsular serotype. Platelets have been implicated as sentinel cells in the circulation for host defence. One of their utensils for this function is the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We here aimed to investigate platelet response to S. pneumoniae and a role for TLRs herein. Platelets were stimulated using four serotypes of S. pneumonia including an unencapsulated mutant strain. In vitro aggregation and flow cytometry assays were performed using blood of healthy volunteers, or blood of TLR knock out and WT mice. For in vivo pneumonia experiments, platelet specific Myd88 knockout (Plt-Myd88-/-) mice were used. We found that platelet aggregation was induced by unencapsulated S. pneumoniae only. Whole blood incubation with all S. pneumoniae serotypes tested resulted in platelet degranulation and platelet-leukocyte complex formation. Platelet activation was TLR independent, as responses were not inhibited by TLR blocking antibodies, not induced by TLR agonists and were equally induced in wild-type and Tlr2-/-, Tlr4-/-, Tlr2/4-/-, Tlr9-/- and Myd88-/- blood. Plt-Myd88-/- and control mice displayed no differences in bacterial clearance or immune response to pneumonia by unencapsulated S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae activates platelets through a TLR-independent mechanism that is impeded by the bacterial capsule. Additionally, platelet MyD88-dependent TLR signalling is not involved in host defence to unencapsulated S. pneumoniae in vivo. PMID:27253707

  4. Telithromycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is conferred by a deletion in the leader sequence of erm(B) that increases rRNA methylation

    Wolter, Nicole; Smith, Anthony M; Farrell, David J; Northwood, John Blackman; Douthwaite, Stephen; Klugman, Keith P

    2008-01-01

    A telithromycin-resistant clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain P1501016) has been found to contain a version of erm(B) that is altered by a 136-bp deletion in the leader sequence. By allele replacement mutagenesis, a second strain of S. pneumoniae (PC13) with a wild-type erm(B) gene...

  5. EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE-EXPOSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON SURVIVAL OF MICE INFECTED WITH 'STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Female CD-1 mice were injected with an LD50 dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae and then exposed to 2.45 GHz (CW) microwave radiation at an incident power density of 10 mW/cm2 (SAR approximately equals 6.8 W/kg), 4 h/d for 5 d at ambient temperatures of 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 37 an...

  6. In Vitro Activities of Telithromycin, Linezolid, and Quinupristin-Dalfopristin against Streptococcus pneumoniae with Macrolide Resistance Due to Ribosomal Mutations

    Farrell, David J.; Morrissey, Ian; Bakker, Sarah; Buckridge, Sylvie; Felmingham, David

    2004-01-01

    To date, 86 of 7,746 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from 1999 to 2002 PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin) surveillance studies were negative for methylase and efflux mechanisms. Mutations in 23S rRNA or the genes encoding riboprotein L4 or L22 were found in 77 of 86 isolates. Six isolates were resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin and two were resistant to linezolid, while telithromycin demonstrated good act...

  7. Development of Doxycycline MIC and Disk Diffusion Interpretive Breakpoints and Revision of Tetracycline Breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Dallas, Steven D.; McGee, Lesley; Limbago, Brandi; Patel, Jean B; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Fulcher, Letitia C.; Lonsway, David R.; Jorgensen, James H.

    2013-01-01

    A study was performed to derive susceptibility testing interpretive breakpoints for doxycycline with Streptococcus pneumoniae and to reassess breakpoints for tetracycline using the requirements defined in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document M23-A3. Tetracycline and doxycycline MICs and disk diffusion zone sizes were determined on 189 isolates selected from the 2009-2010 CDC Active Bacterial Core surveillance strain collection according to the testing methods described ...

  8. TRAIL+ monocytes and monocyte-related cells cause lung damage and thereby increase susceptibility to influenza–Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection

    Ellis, Gregory T; Davidson, Sophia; Crotta, Stefania; Branzk, Nora; Papayannopoulos, Venizelos; Wack, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is a major cause of influenza-associated mortality; however, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis or protection remain unclear. Using a clinically relevant mouse model, we identify immune-mediated damage early during coinfection as a new mechanism causing susceptibility. Coinfected CCR2−/− mice lacking monocytes and monocyte-derived cells control bacterial invasion better, show reduced epithelial damage and are overall more resistant than wild-type contr...

  9. Dimerization of Streptococcus pneumoniae eukaryotic-type serine/threonine protein kinase is a prerequisite of its catalytic activity

    Pallová, Petra; Přenosilová, Lenka; Nováková, Linda; Branny, Pavel

    Saint Malo : Verlag, 2006, s. 74-74. [ASM Conferences Streptococcal Genetics. Saint Malo (FR), 18.06.2006-21.06.2006] Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 188/2004/B-BIO/PrF to LS; GA UK(CZ) 153/2006/B-BIO/PrF to PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptococcus pneumoniae * protein kinase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Children Attending Day-Care Centers in Norway▿

    Vestrheim, Didrik F.; Høiby, E. Arne; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Dominique A. Caugant

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was performed among 573 children attending 29 day-care centers (DCCs) in Norway prior to the start of mass vaccination with the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). A sensitive sampling method was employed, including transport in an enrichment broth and serotyping of pneumococci directly from the broth, in addition to traditional single-colony isolation from blood agar plates. The prevalence of...