WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1998-2000 shadoz southern

  1. Highlights From the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Satellite Validation Project

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Fortuin, P.

    2001-05-01

    There are three years of data (more than 1000 individual ozone profiles) available from a network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project. Since late 1999, a tropical station in the northern hemisphere (Paramaribo, Surinam; 6N, 55W) joined SHADOZ, providing coordinated weekly ozone and radiosonde data from the surface to around 7 hPa for satellite validation, process studies, and model evaluation. Profiles are also collected at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The archive, station characteristics and photos are available at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles in 1998-2000 display highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are lower than independent measurements from a ground-based network and from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite (version 7 data).

  2. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  3. Trend Analysis of Tropical Ozone From the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Data

    Morioka, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Shiotani, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Linear trends of ozone for 1998-2007 are estimated for the troposphere through the lower stratosphere at ten tropical ozonesonde stations participating in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project. Most stations cover the period from early 1998 to the end of 2006, but some stations have a shorter or longer record. Soundings are made once to four times per month, varying for station and year, but cover basically all seasons. The total sounding number ranges from 102 for Malindi to 429 for Ascension Island. Trends are calculated for vertically averaged values in each 1-km bin from 0-1 km to 30-31 km, and expressed as percent per year. Statistical test is also made. Around the tropopause, between 15 and 20 km, negative trends are seen for most stations. At San Cristobal (in the eastern Pacific) at 16-17 km, the trend is -4.3 ± 3.0 percent per year, and at Watukosek (in Indonesia) at 17-18 km, it is -4.8 ± 3.9 percent per year, both statistically significant. However, at Ascension (in the Atlantic) and at Natal (in South America), the tropopause trend is near zero and not statistically significant. At Natal at 12-13 km, the trend is +3.7 ± 3.0 percent per year, and at Malindi (in Africa) at 11-12 km, it is +5.0 ± 4.6 percent per year, both statistically significant. Generally in the free troposphere, positive trends are seen, but are statistically not significant for most regions. In the planetary boundary layer, statistically significant positive trends are seen at Kuala Lumpur (in Southeast Asia) and at Fiji (in the southwestern Pacific), and a statistically significant negative trend is seen at Paramaribo (in South America). The trend analysis is also made for four different seasons. Around the tropopause, seasonality in trend is small for all stations. In the upper troposphere, at Fiji and at Samoa, negative trends are seen in SON, but positive trends are seen in DJF.

  4. Discoveries about Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) and a Future Perspective on NASA's Ozone Sensors

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . We also have archived 'TTO' data from the Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite (1979-1992). The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. We look forward to future ozone sensors from NASA; four will be launched in 2004 as part of the EOS AURA Mission. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.nsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. The stations are: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; R,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil, Malindi, Kenya; Paramaribo, Surinam. From the first 3-4 years of data (presently greater than 1700 sondes), the following features emerge: (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays strong convective signatures.

  5. Gravity and Rossby wave signatures in the tropical troposphere and lower stratosphere based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-03-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profiles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency (Kuala Lumpur (3°N, 102°E), and Ascension Island (8°S, 15°W). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  6. Gravity and Rossby Wave Signatures in the Tropical Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profIles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency 20%). Gravity wave and Rossby wave indices (GWI, RWI) are formulated to facilitate analysis of interannual variability of wave signatures among sites. GWI is positively correlated with a standard ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) index over American Samoa (14degS, 171degW) and negatively correlated at Watukosek, Java (7.5degS, 114degE), Kuala Lumpur (3degN, 102degE), and Ascension Island (80degS, 15degW). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  7. Research at GANIL 1998/2000

    Frankland, J.; Rothard, H.; Bex, M. (eds.)

    2002-01-01

    The present compilation, which gathers 72 articles, tends to reflect a variety of experimental and theoretical works performed at GANIL in the years 1998-2000. This ''just-before-SPIRAL'' period was characterized in nuclear physics by a strong increase in the number of experiments dedicated to the study of the structure of nuclei far from stability. The identification of the doubly-magic {sup 48}Ni and study of the neighbouring nuclei are among the most spectacular results of this research. The contributions have been parted into the following topics: 1) nuclear theory, 2) exotic nuclei: reactions, 3) exotic nuclei: spectroscopy, 4) hot nuclei and hot matter, 5) instrumentation, 6) collisions of ions with atoms and molecules, 7) collisions with solids and surfaces, transport phenomena, energy deposition and sputtering, 8) induced effects in condensed matter including nano-structuration, and 9) radiation chemistry and radiobiology. (A.C.)

  8. Research at GANIL 1998/2000

    The present compilation, which gathers 72 articles, tends to reflect a variety of experimental and theoretical works performed at GANIL in the years 1998-2000. This ''just-before-SPIRAL'' period was characterized in nuclear physics by a strong increase in the number of experiments dedicated to the study of the structure of nuclei far from stability. The identification of the doubly-magic 48Ni and study of the neighbouring nuclei are among the most spectacular results of this research. The contributions have been parted into the following topics: 1) nuclear theory, 2) exotic nuclei: reactions, 3) exotic nuclei: spectroscopy, 4) hot nuclei and hot matter, 5) instrumentation, 6) collisions of ions with atoms and molecules, 7) collisions with solids and surfaces, transport phenomena, energy deposition and sputtering, 8) induced effects in condensed matter including nano-structuration, and 9) radiation chemistry and radiobiology. (A.C.)

  9. STUK research projects 1998-2000

    The primary goal of STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, is to prevent and limit the harmful effects of radiation. The research conducted by STUK yields new information related to the use, occurrence and effects of radiation and promotes the supervision of nuclear safety. STUK research projects 1998 - 2000 summarizes STUK's own research projects and commissioned research designed to promote the supervision of nuclear safety. Information on the research projects and related publications is also available on STUK's WWW pages at www.stuk.fi. The work done on the safe use of nuclear power and nuclear waste management mainly comprises commissioned research projects which derive from the needs of authorities, and are funded and directed by STUK. This research is conducted by organizations outside STUK, but supervised by STUK experts. In some cases, STUK personnel are also involved. The goal of this research work is to produce the information needed for decision-making, to develop supervisory methods and to ensure that recent developments in science and technology are taken into account in action to promote safe use of nuclear power. STUK's own research focuses on radiation protection and the health effects of radiation. During 1998 - 2000, the main emphasis will be on projects supporting the Finnish national environmental health action plan, the health risks of radiation, emergency preparedness and cooperation with neighbouring CEE areas. EU directives on radiation protection and medical exposure to radiation also influence the course taken by research carried out at STUK. STUK's research activities are now more international than ever; the institute is involved in more then 20 research projects funded by EU. Apart from the EU and the Nordic countries, STUK's main partners are to be found in Russia, Estonia and the USA. (orig.)

  10. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Ozone Climatology (2005-2009): Tropospheric and Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Profiles with Comparisons to Omi-based Ozone Products

    Thompson, Anne M.; Miller, Sonya K.; Tilmes, Simone; Kollonige, Debra W.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Schmidlin, F. J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Komala, Ninong; Maata, Matakite; bt Mohammad, Maznorizan; Nguyo, J.; Mutai, C.; Ogino, S-Y; Da Silva, F. Raimundo; Paes Leme, N. M.; Posny, Francoise; Scheele, Rinus; Selkirk, Henry B.; Shiotani, Masato; Stubi, Rene; Levrat, Gilbert; Calpini, Bertrand; Thouret, Valerie; Tsuruta, Haruo; Canossa, Jessica Valverde; Voemel, Holger; Yonemura, S.; Andres Diaz, Jorge; Tan Thanh, Nguyen T.; Thuy Ha, Hoang T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a regional and seasonal climatology of SHADOZ ozone profiles in the troposphere and tropical tropopause layer (TTL) based on measurements taken during the first five years of Aura, 2005-2009, when new stations joined the network at Hanoi, Vietnam; Hilo, Hawaii; Alajuela Heredia, Costa Rica; Cotonou, Benin. In all, 15 stations operated during that period. A west-to-east progression of decreasing convective influence and increasing pollution leads to distinct tropospheric ozone profiles in three regions: (1) western Pacific eastern Indian Ocean; (2) equatorial Americas (San Cristobal, Alajuela, Paramaribo); (3) Atlantic and Africa. Comparisons in total ozone column from soundings, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, on Aura, 2004-) satellite and ground-based instrumentation are presented. Most stations show better agreement with OMI than they did for EPTOMS comparisons (1998-2004; Earth-ProbeTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), partly due to a revised above-burst ozone climatology. Possible station biases in the stratospheric segment of the ozone measurement noted in the first 7 years of SHADOZ ozone profiles are re-examined. High stratospheric bias observed during the TOMS period appears to persist at one station. Comparisons of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone and the daily Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) product (based on OMIMLS) show that the satellite-derived column amount averages 25 low. Correlations between TTOR and the SHADOZ sondes are quite good (typical r2 0.5-0.8), however, which may account for why some published residual-based OMI products capture tropospheric interannual variability fairly realistically. On the other hand, no clear explanations emerge for why TTOR-sonde discrepancies vary over a wide range at most SHADOZ sites.

  11. SPAM, Activity report 1998-2000

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules'', (SPAM) during the 1998-2000 period: developments in terms of structure, staff, science, collaborations and contracts. SPAM is one of the laboratories in DRECAM (Departement de Recherche sur l'Etat Condense les Atomes et les Molecules), itself depending on the DSM (Direction des Sciences de la Matiere) of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in five chapters. Chapters 1 gathers all the work performed on the light sources, that is to say the evolutions of the femtosecond laser facilities (G1 group) and the achievements on the new SU5 synchrotron line and the Free Electron Laser (part of G3 group). Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the scientific results obtained by the G2 and G3 groups respectively. Chapter 4 gathers all information on SPAM scientific communication while chapter 5 lists interactions with the scientific community. (A.L.B.)

  12. SPAM, Activity report 1998-2000

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules'', (SPAM) during the 1998-2000 period: developments in terms of structure, staff, science, collaborations and contracts. SPAM is one of the laboratories in DRECAM (Departement de Recherche sur l'Etat Condense les Atomes et les Molecules), itself depending on the DSM (Direction des Sciences de la Matiere) of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in five chapters. Chapters 1 gathers all the work performed on the light sources, that is to say the evolutions of the femtosecond laser facilities (G1 group) and the achievements on the new SU5 synchrotron line and the Free Electron Laser (part of G3 group). Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the scientific results obtained by the G2 and G3 groups respectively. Chapter 4 gathers all information on SPAM scientific communication while chapter 5 lists interactions with the scientific community. (A.L.B.)

  13. STUK research projects 1998-2000; Saeteilyturvakeskuksen tutkimushankkeet 1998-2000

    Salomaa, S.; Eloranta, E.; Heimbuerger, H.; Jokela, K.; Jaervinen, H

    1998-07-01

    The primary goal of STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, is to prevent and limit the harmful effects of radiation. The research conducted by STUK yields new information related to the use, occurrence and effects of radiation and promotes the supervision of nuclear safety. STUK research projects 1998 - 2000 summarizes STUK`s own research projects and commissioned research designed to promote the supervision of nuclear safety. Information on the research projects and related publications is also available on STUK`s WWW pages at www.stuk.fi. The work done on the safe use of nuclear power and nuclear waste management mainly comprises commissioned research projects which derive from the needs of authorities, and are funded and directed by STUK. This research is conducted by organizations outside STUK, but supervised by STUK experts. In some cases, STUK personnel are also involved. The goal of this research work is to produce the information needed for decision-making, to develop supervisory methods and to ensure that recent developments in science and technology are taken into account in action to promote safe use of nuclear power. STUK`s own research focuses on radiation protection and the health effects of radiation. During 1998 - 2000, the main emphasis will be on projects supporting the Finnish national environmental health action plan, the health risks of radiation, emergency preparedness and cooperation with neighbouring CEE areas. EU directives on radiation protection and medical exposure to radiation also influence the course taken by research carried out at STUK. STUK`s research activities are now more international than ever; the institute is involved in more then 20 research projects funded by EU. Apart from the EU and the Nordic countries, STUK`s main partners are to be found in Russia, Estonia and the USA. (orig.)

  14. The SHADOZ Data Base: History, Archive Web Guide, and Sample Climatologies

    White, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde) is a project to augment and archive ozonesonde data from ten tropical and subtropical ozone stations. Started in 1998 by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and other US and international co-investigators, SHADOZ is an important tool for tropospheric ozone research in the equatorial region. The rationale for SHADOZ is to: (1) validate and improve remote sensing techniques (e.g., the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite) for estimating tropical ozone, (2) contribute to climatology and trend analyses of tropical ozone and (3) provide research topics to scientists and educate students, especially in participating countries. SHADOZ is envisioned as a data service to the global scientific community by providing a central public archive location via the internet: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. While the SHADOZ website maintains a standard data format for the archive, it also informs the data users on the differing stations' preparation techniques and data treatment. The presentation navigates through the SHADOZ website to access each station's sounding data and summarize each station's characteristics. Since the start of the project in 1998, the SHADOZ archive has accumulated over 600 ozonesonde profiles and received over 30,000 outside data requests. Data also includes launches from various SHADOZ supported field campaigns, such as, the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), Sounding of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) and Aerosols99 Atlantic Cruise. Using data from the archive, sample climatologies and profiles from selected stations and campaigns will be shown.

  15. 8 Hour Ozone Design Value for 1998-2000

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Ozone design value is based on the average of the annual 4th highest daily 8-hour maximum over a 3-year period (1998-2000) in this case. This is a human health...

  16. Comparison of Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ with Remote Sensing Retrievals from Suomi-npp Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS) was launched October 28, 2011 on-board the Suomi NPP satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov). OMPS is the next generation total column ozone mapping instrument for monitoring the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. OMPS includes a limb profiler to measure the vertical structure of stratosphere ozone down to the mid-troposphere. This study uses tropical ozonesonde profile measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz) archive to evaluate total column ozone retrievals from OMPS and concurrent measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the predecessor of OMPS with a data record going back to 2004. We include ten SHADOZ stations that contain data overlapping the OMPS time period (2012-2013). This study capitalizes on the ozone profile measurements from SHADOZ to evaluate OMPS limb profile retrievals. Finally, we use SHADOZ sondes and OMPS retrievals to examine the agreement with the GEOS-5 Ozone Assimilation System (GOAS). The GOAS uses data from the OMI and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain the total column and stratospheric profiles of ozone. The most recent version of the assimilation system is well constrained to the total column compared with SHADOZ ozonesonde data.

  17. The Quasi-biennial Oscillation and annual variations in tropical ozone from SHADOZ and HALOE

    J. C. Witte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the tropical ozone mixing ratio perturbation fields generated from a monthly ozone climatology using 1998 to 2006 ozonesonde data from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ network and the 13 year satellite record from 1993 to 2005 obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE. The lengthy time series and high vertical resolution of the ozone and temperature profiles from the SHADOZ sondes coupled with good tropical coverage north and south of the equator gives a detailed picture of the ozone structure in the lowermost stratosphere down through the tropopause where the picture obtained from HALOE measurements is blurred by coarse vertical resolution. Ozone perturbations respond to annual variations in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC in the region just above the cold-point tropopause to around 20 km. Strong annual signals of alternating positive and negative ozone anomalies are observed and correlate well with temperature anomalies. Above 20 km, ozone and temperature perturbations are dominated by the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO. Both satellite and sonde records show good agreement between positive and negative ozone mixing ratio anomalies and alternating QBO easterly and westerly wind shears from the Singapore rawinsondes with a mean periodicity of 26 months for SHADOZ and 25 months for HALOE. There is a temporal offset of one to three months with the ozone QBO preceding the wind shear. Horizontal length scales for the annual cycle and the QBO, obtained using the temperature anomalies and wind shears in the thermal wind equation, compare well with theoretical calculations.

  18. Governance Matters III : Governance Indicators for 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents estimates of six dimensions of governance for 199 countries and territories for 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002 developed in the context of an ongoing project to measure governance across countries. Section one describes the data used in developing this round of the governance indicators, which include several new sources. Data sources used in the earlier studies were upda...

  19. Aircrew personnel dosimetry at airline companies in the Czech Republic during 1998-2000

    Studies aimed at personnel dosimetry of civil aviation aircrew members were initiated in the Czech Republic in 1998. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained during the period of 1998-2000. The dosimetric measurements were carried out for the companies CSA, Fischer Air, and Travel Service, which wish to comply with the requirements of the relevant Czech legislation. The average exposure level, expressed in terms of the annual effective dose, was found to lie within the range of 1.5 to 2 mSv, which is more than as observed for many other professions exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. DISSAnet: Development of an Information Science Research Network in the Republic of South Africa 1998-2000

    Wormell, Irene; Bothma, Theo J. D.; Ralebipi, Rocky M. D.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the concept of the NORDIC academic cooperation model (NorFa), in 1998-2000 Danish and international information scientists initiated a co-operative effort to build an education and research network among LIS institutions in South Africa. The paper reports the successful completion of the project, with 20 MA and Ph.D. students selected…

  1. Patterns of care in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer in Northern Bavaria 1998-2000

    Purpose: A patterns-of-care study of radiotherapy (RT) in prostate cancer was performed in Northern Bavaria, Germany, to characterize patient selection, treatment strategies and outcome for the time period 1998-2000. Material and Methods: Patients who received curative-intent radical or postoperative RT were identified from the databases of six centers (one university, five teaching/regional hospitals). Two centers treated < 20 patients and were excluded from further analysis. At the remaining four centers, 148 patients receiving radical RT and 134 undergoing postoperative RT were analyzed for pretreatment and RT characteristics and actuarial biochemical control (BC; ASTRO definition). Results: All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal external-beam techniques. In radical RT patients, cT- and cN-stages as well as the frequency of (neo)adjuvant hormonal therapy (53-91%) and RT to pelvic nodes (2-97%) and the mean total RT dose (64.8-71.0 Gy) varied significantly between centers. In postoperative RT, centers differed significantly in R-status, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and nodal RT frequency (2-89%), whereas total RT doses were similar (62.3-64.8 Gy). After radical RT, 5-year BC was 68.6% and differed significantly between centers on univariate analysis. In a multivariate model, only total RT dose showed a trend toward an effect on BC. In postoperative RT patients, overall 5-year BC was 82.1%, and age and initial PSA were associated with BC on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: From 1998 to 2000, radical RT for prostate cancer at the Northern Bavarian centers now studied was performed with three-dimensional conformal technique to conservative total doses and selection criteria for postoperative RT were highly variable. (orig.)

  2. Incidencia de cáncer en Navarra (1998-2000 Incidence of cancer in Navarre

    E. Ardanaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1998 y 2000 se registraron un promedio anual de 3.303 casos de cáncer invasivo en Navarra, el 58% en hombres. Si exceptuamos los tumores de piel no melanoma el número anual de casos fue de 2.495, con tasas de incidencia bruta de 559 y 372 por 100.000 en hombres y en mujeres y unas tasas ajustadas a la población mundial de 312 y 203 por 100.000, respectivamente. Entre los hombres las cuatro localizaciones tumorales más frecuentemente diagnosticadas fueron próstata, pulmón, colorectal y vejiga que sumaron el 57% de todos los casos. Entre las mujeres destacan por su frecuencia los tumores de mama, colorectal, cuerpo de útero y ovario que sumaron el 54% del total de los casos. Respecto al quinquenio 1993-97, la incidencia global de cáncer en el trienio 1998-2000 ha aumentado un 4,2% en los hombres y un 7,4% en las mujeres. A destacar el aumento de incidencia de cáncer de pulmón y linfomas no Hodgkin en ambos sexos y del cáncer de mama en mujeres y próstata en hombres. Continúan descendiendo las tasas de incidencia de cáncer de estómago en ambos sexos, siguiendo la tendencia iniciada en los 70.Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of

  3. QBO and ENSO variability in temperature and ozone from SHADOZ, 1998-2005

    Lee, S.; Shelow, D. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Miller, S. K.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature and ozone profiles from SHADOZ (1998-2005) radiosonde and ozonesonde profiles are analyzed. Data from four representative stations are used to investigate regional differences as well as QBO and ENSO influences on vertically fine structure. Principal components of the ozone profile time series at Kuala Lumpur (101°E, 3°N) are adopted as a stratospheric QBO index to study tropospheric temperature and ozone signatures associated with the QBO. A downward propagating QBO ozone signal extends to the mid-troposphere where the phase analysis of the temperature anomalies implies that the driving force is a zonal mean overturning circulation associated with thermal wind adjustment. The maximum tropospheric ozone anomalies associated with the QBO are ≈8 ppbv, about 10-20% that of typical tropical tropospheric ozone values, and differ in phase at the four sites. Temperature and ozone fields, linearly regressed against the QBO index, suggest that dynamical processes, including horizontal transport, play an important role in the observed tropospheric ozone anomalies. Temperature profiles, regressed against the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), reveal anomalously cool, but also wavy lower stratospheric temperature anomalies over Kuala Lumpur and Nairobi (37°E, 1°S). Tropospheric ozone profiles associated with the SOI show a statistically significant signal that is consistent with anomalous vertical motions that are known to occur during ENSO, but also exhibit fluctuations at a 40-50 day time scale.

  4. Progress report 1998 - 2000

    This document reviews all the activities of the CSNSM (nuclear spectrometry and mass spectrometry center). The activities, developments and particular hits or results are presented within 10 themes: 1) nuclear structure, 2) induced fission and exotic nuclei, 3) atomic mass and basic symmetries, 4) nuclear astrophysics, 5) micro-meteorites, 6) mass spectrometry through an accelerator, 7) solid state physics, 8) superconductivity, 9) physical chemistry aspects of irradiation, and 10) electromagnetic separation of ions

  5. Social class differences in secular trends in established coronary risk factors over 20 years: a cohort study of British men from 1978-80 to 1998-2000.

    Sheena E Ramsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978-80 and 1998-2000 differed between socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged 40-59 years was followed-up from 1978-80 to 1998-2000; data on blood pressure (BP, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI and cigarette smoking were collected at both points in 4252 survivors. Social class was based on longest-held occupation in middle-age. Compared with men in non-manual occupations, men in manual occupations experienced a greater increase in BMI (mean difference = 0.33 kg/m(2; 95%CI 0.14-0.53; p for interaction = 0.001, a smaller decline in non-HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.18 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.11-0.25, p for interaction≤0.0001 and a smaller increase in HDL cholesterol (difference in mean change = 0.04 mmol/l; 95%CI 0.02-0.06, p for interaction≤0.0001. However, mean systolic BP declined more in manual than non-manual groups (difference in mean change = 3.6; 95%CI 2.1-5.1, p for interaction≤0.0001. The odds of being a current smoker in 1978-80 and 1998-2000 did not differ between non-manual and manual social classes (p for interaction = 0.51. CONCLUSION: Several key risk factors for CHD and type 2 diabetes showed less favourable changes in men in manual occupations. Continuing priority is needed to improve adverse cardiovascular risk profiles in socially disadvantaged groups in the UK.

  6. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni Penner serotypes in broiler flocks 1998-2000 in a small Danish community with special reference to serotype 4-complex

    Wedderkopp, A.; Nielsen, E.M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2003-01-01

    During the period January 1998-December 2001, all Danish broiler flocks were monitored bacteriologically for thermophilic campylobacters and isolates were stored at -80 degreesC. Six neighbouring broiler farms in a small community were selected for detailed examination of all Campylobacter jejuni...... isolated (n = 180) from these farms during 1998-2000 using Penner serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The area and the farms were selected according to their prevalence of campylobacter so that both farms with low and high frequencies of campylobacter positive flocks were included in...... the study. The frequency of campylobacter positive flocks on the six farms ranged from 24.5 to 72.7%. One hundred and eighty of the isolates were C. jejuni (included in this study), 14 isolates were C. coli whereas 7 isolates belonged to other species but were not further identified. By serotyping of...

  7. Evaluation of Environmental Tritium Level in Air and Precipitation in the Area of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid. 1998-2000

    Concentration of tritium in environmental samples (air, precipitation) has been determined during 1998-2000, by using electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintillation counting. Atmospheric tritium concentration of tritiated water vapor (HTO), expressed in Bq/l varies within a range of 0,77-10.82 giving an overall average value of 1,81±1,82. HTO expressed in mBq/m''3 air varies within a range of 4,6-70; no correlation with the atmospheric humidity was observed. Tritium concentration in the precipitation ranges from 0.35 to 2,18 Bq/l, without seasonal variations. The tritium concentration in the air of the laboratory was approximately five times higher than in the atmosphere due to evaporation of tritium standard water during the process of the samples. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Association of stressful life events with acute myocardial infarction in population in the city of Niš within the period from 1998-2000.

    Deljanin Zorana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stressful life events present a very important category of psychosocial stress. A few studies have showed that a psychosocial stress represents a very important risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but measures of stress may not be suitable for different countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of stressful life events with AMI in the period of 1998-2000 in the population of the city of Niš. Methods. A case-control study included 100 patients with the first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 healthy subjects, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the city of Niš. The data of stressful life events were obtained by the Scaling of life events by Paykel ES, modified by the authors consistent with the examined population and the period of investigation. The Yates χ2 test, odds ratio - OR and their 99% interval of confidence were used as statistical procedures. Results. The results showed that stressful life events in the period of investigation were very important risk factors for AMI with a statistically significant level (p = 0.000. Huge financial problems (OR = 202.36, Ci = 24.82-4387.58, violation of law (OR = 168.00, Ci = 10.66-6658.96 and serious illness of family members (OR = 159.60, Ci = 19.05- 3514.81 were the highest risk for AMI. The patients who reported that his/her son or other member of family had been gone to the army (or mobilization before the illness onset, had 138 times higher risk of AMI (Ci = 14.98-3222.47, χ2 = 40.95, p = 0.000, while the patients who had mobilized themselves had 84 times higher risk (Ci = 7.00- 2363.06, χ2 = 23.87, p = 0.000. Effect of several stressful life events lead to significantly increased risk of AMI and that significance is larger as the number of life events is more frequent (one life event: OR = 28.41, Ci = 3.73- 593.52; χ2 = 17.40, p = 0.000; ≥ 4: OR = 336.00, Ci = 28.31- 9760.28, χ2 = 50

  9. Evaluation of Environmental Tritium Level in Air and Precipitation in the Area of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid. 1998-2000; Evaluacion de los niveles de Tritio Ambiental en Aire y Lluvia en el Area del Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 1998-2000

    Romero del Hombrebueno, B.; Simon, M.A.; Larena, P.

    2001-07-15

    Concentration of tritium in environmental samples (air, precipitation) has been determined during 1998-2000, by using electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintillation counting. Atmospheric tritium concentration of tritiated water vapor (HTO), expressed in Bq/l varies within a range of 0,77-10.82 giving an overall average value of 1,81{+-}1,82. HTO expressed in mBq/m''3 air varies within a range of 4,6-70; no correlation with the atmospheric humidity was observed. Tritium concentration in the precipitation ranges from 0.35 to 2,18 Bq/l, without seasonal variations. The tritium concentration in the air of the laboratory was approximately five times higher than in the atmosphere due to evaporation of tritium standard water during the process of the samples. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPECIFIC EBV ANTIBODIES BETWEEN CHILDREN MANIFEST CLASSIC TRIAD OF MONONUCLEOSIS WIT UNAFFECTED CHILDREN IN HAZRAT RASOOL AKRAM HOSPITAL (1998-2000

    Samile Noorbakhsh

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein barr virus (EBV is one of seven known herpes virus pathogenic for humans.Since it is ubiquitous, it infects nearly 95% of individuals worldwide by adulthood .EBV is the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis(IMand is implicated in burkitt lymphoma,nasopharyngeal carcinoma and x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.Diagnosis of IM based upon clinical manifesta¬tions in conjunction with hematologic evidence for lymphocytosis;and serologi¬cal changes such as heterophil antibody and or antibodies to EBV specific pro¬teins.The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of acute and chronic infections by examining the levels of antibodies against viral capsid ( VCA-IgG and VCA-IgM and Epstein Barr nuclear antibody (EBNA-IgG in the serum of children with IM syndrome (patient group and the serum of unaffected children (control group. This longitudinal case-control study was performed on thirty one children between 1 to 14 years old who were admitted to the pediatric ward of Rasool Akram hospital; based on diagnostic parameters for IM within two years( 1998-2000. Fortheen patients were eliminated due to other diagnosis .The average age of remaining 17 patients was 6.9+3.3, male/female ratio= 9/8.The results of this study showed a significant difference (p 0.038between the amount of EBNA-IgG but no significant difference in the amount of VCA-IgG,VCA-IgM between case and control groups. .There is no difference between case and con¬trol groups in negative values for VCA- IgM ,VCA -IgG and EBNA-IgG.

  11. A vigilância sanitária em Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000

    Iraildes Andrade Juliano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a organização da Vigilância Sanitária (Visa de Feira de Santana no processo de descentralização da saúde (1998-2000, apontando avanços e limites no cenário local. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, numa perspectiva histórico-social, cujo recorte espacial foi a Divisão de Vigilância Sanitária da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Os materiais empíricos foram os depoimentos de gestores, técnicos, inspetores sanitários e fontes documentais. A análise evidenciou a ausência de um projeto político para a gestão descentralizada das ações de Visa no município. Aponta limites: (desarticulação com o nível regional, recursos humanos temporários e sem qualificação técnica, dificuldades na utilização do incentivo financeiro, insuficiência de infra-estrutura e interferências políticas. Destaca avanços: cumprimento da Programação Pactuada e Integrada, cadastramento dos estabelecimentos sujeitos à fiscalização sanitária, articulações interinstitucionais. Esse processo necessita da mobilização de sujeitos sociais com capacidade de vocalização para inscrevê-lo numa agenda de prioridades, em prol da qualidade de vida da população.

  12. Evaluation of SHADOZ sondes, HALOE and SAGE II ozone profiles at the tropics from SAOZ UV-Vis remote measurements onboard long duration balloons

    F. Borchi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Long series of ozone profiles from 6 to 28 km at the Southern Tropics have been obtained from solar occultation measurements at twilight using a SAOZ spectrometer borne by long duration balloons. Two flights have been performed from Bauru in Brazil both in the summer, in February and March 2001 and 2003, from where the balloons are moving westward at almost constant latitude (20°±5° S. The flight in 2001 passed right over Reunion Island where the SAOZ measurements could be compared to those of both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone lidars. In the stratosphere, compared to that of SAOZ, the measurements of the SHADOZ ozonesondes network, and the HALOE and SAGE II instruments in orbit are found a little noisier (2–3% for SAGE II, 3–4% for HALOE, 4–5% for the sondes, and of insignificant or small high biased (SAGE II. No differences in altitude could be found between SAOZ and SAGE II at all levels, and HALOE above 22 km. But the ozonesondes appear to be systematically displaced upwards by some 400–700 m at all levels, and the HALOE profiles do show an increasing altitude bias at decreasing altitude below 22 km. In the upper troposphere, the SAOZ measurements are found consistent with those of the sondes at Reunion Island and high biased on average over the Western Pacific, at American Samoa and Fiji. Compared to SAOZ, SAGE II shows a 50–60% low bias similar to that already found with the ozonesondes, and a 2–2.5 times larger zonal variability, suggesting a degradation of its precision below the tropopause. Finally, the unrealistic large offsets and variability in the HALOE data compared to all others suggest that its measurements are no reliable in the tropical troposphere below 17 km.

  13. Structural Image of Arc-Arc Collision in Central Hokkaido, Japan, Revealed from Integrated Analysis for Controlled Source Seismic Data of the 1998-2000 Hokkaido Transect Project

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Tanio; Kurashimo, Eiji; Tsumura, Noriko; Abe, Susumu; Noda, Katsuya; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    The Hidaka region in the central part of Hokkaido Island, Japan is known as an arc-arc collision zone where the Kuril Arc (southern part of eastern Hokkaido) has been collided against the NE Japan Arc (western Hokkaido) since the middle Miocene. This collision is a controlling factor for the formation of the Hidaka Mountains, the westward obduction of the middle/upper part of lower crustal rocks of the Kuril Arc (the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt) and the development of the foreland fold-and-thrust belt. The Hokkaido Transect Project from 1998 to 2000 was a multidisciplinary effort intended to clarify the structural deformation process associated with the arc-arc collision. The element of the active source experiment in this project was composed of a 227-km seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile running southern part of Hokkaido and three seismic reflection lines from the hinterland to the foreland crossing the Hidaka Mountains. The previous study for these data sets, mainly based on the forward modelling by the ray-tracing technique, revealed the collision structure in the upper and middle crustal levels beneath the Hidaka Mountains, and a thick sedimentary package developed beneath the fold-and-thrust belt (Iwasaki et al., 2004). The data sets collected through this project are of high quality, which enables us to apply more advanced interpretation techniques. Because refraction/wide-angle reflection method and near-vertical reflection profiling are complimentary to each other, simultaneous evaluation for these two kinds of data set is expected to yield significant improvement for structural modelling and its geophysical/geological interpretation. In the present analysis, seismic tomography analysis was applied to a combined set of a large amount of near vertical reflection data and the refraction data. This analysis was mainly undertaken to confirm the validity of the upper 20-km crustal structure deduced from the previous result (Iwasaki et al. 2004) and

  14. Infrared spectra of U.S. automobile original finishes (1998-2000). IX. identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments using extended range FT-IR spectroscopy, XRF spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis.

    Suzuki, Edward M

    2014-09-01

    Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was the first viable synthetic pearl pigment developed 50 years ago. It was only used for a limited time period in automotive paint (model years 1998-2000), serving to produce luster for a single Chrysler black metallic color. Identification of this pigment in an unknown automotive paint can thus facilitate determination of the vehicle of origin. Bismuth oxychloride imparts effects similar to those produced by silver/white mica pearlescent pigments, and such a pigment was used together with bismuth oxychloride in at least one original equipment manufacturer (OEM) basecoat. Silver/white micas are now used primarily in white pearl tricoat systems. This article describes the identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments in automotive finishes using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis. Data for some cadmium pigments, which were used in automotive paint several decades ago, are also presented as they produce infrared absorptions similar to that of bismuth oxychloride. PMID:24646090

  15. U.S. nuclear plant decommissioning funding adequacy - by individual funds, utilities, reactors, and industry-wide - assessed by Monte Carlo and baseline trend methods: 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2004

    This paper assesses, over years 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2004 - using varying sets of assumption values - the adequacy of decommissioning funding (year-end) for United States' nuclear electric power plants. I assess each of the 222 individual trust funds and 99 utility owners (as of August 2003), as well as each of the 122 reactors, and industry-wide. Individual trust fund results are the most important because, in general, dollars may not be transferred from one fund to another to strengthen a less-adequately financed fund. Using stochastic (Monte Carlo) analysis (20,000 iterations) to incorporate risk, or uncertainty, in my simulation modeling, I assess funding adequacy for 2004, but with estimated balances and contributions data for 2004. The paper also assesses the baseline (most likely) trends in funding adequacy, using 'point' estimates for years 1998, 2000, 2001, and stochastic medians for 2004. I compute two measures of funding adequacy relative to two respective benchmark levels: (1) adequacy of 'current year' fund balances; and (2), adequacy of 'recent-year' fund contributions. The former is a more 'looking-backward' measure relative to a benchmark (i.e., current balance embodies all past year contributions and rates of return on fund assets); the latter, more 'looking-forward' relative to a forward benchmark. I use decommissioning fund balances data for 2000 and 1998, as reported by the utilities to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as additional balances, yearly contributions, rates of return, and cost escalation data over 1997-2001 obtained in a 2002 survey of owners by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). The most fundamental conclusion that one should draw from my simulation modeling results - whether using Monte Carlo or baseline trend analysis - is that these decommissioning adequacy percentages for the 222 funds are extremely variable, although a sizable majority of funds are likely above benchmark. Reduced variability

  16. Progress report 1998 - 2000; Rapport d'activite 1998 - 2000

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document reviews all the activities of the CSNSM (nuclear spectrometry and mass spectrometry center). The activities, developments and particular hits or results are presented within 10 themes: 1) nuclear structure, 2) induced fission and exotic nuclei, 3) atomic mass and basic symmetries, 4) nuclear astrophysics, 5) micro-meteorites, 6) mass spectrometry through an accelerator, 7) solid state physics, 8) superconductivity, 9) physical chemistry aspects of irradiation, and 10) electromagnetic separation of ions.

  17. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777) in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    N. Baskaran; Venkatesan, S.; J. Mani; Srivastava, S. K.; Desai, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropi...

  18. Evaluation of SHADOZ sondes, HALOE and SAGE II ozone profiles at the tropics from SAOZ UV-Vis remote measurements onboard long duration balloons

    F. Borchi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from 10 to 26km have been obtained at almost constant latitude (20 ± 5° S in the tropics using SAOZ UV-vis spectrometers flown onboard long duration balloons in 2001 and 2003. The precision of the measurements is estimate to be better than 2% in the stratosphere (3.5% accuracy and 5-6% in the troposphere (12% and 25% accuracy at 15km and 10km respectively with an altitude uncertainty of -30 ± 25m. The variability of ozone concentration along a latitudinal circle at 20° S in the SH summer is found smaller than 3-4% above 20km, but increasing rapidly below in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL. The high correlation between PV and ozone suggests that most of this variability can be attributed to quasi-horizontal exchange with the mid-latitude stratosphere. The performances of the SHADOZ ozonesonde network, HALOE and SAGE II in the tropics have been studied by comparison with SAOZ measurements. In the stratosphere, the main discrepancies arise from differences in altitude registration, particularly sensitive between 20 and 26km in the tropics because of the strong gradient of ozone concentration. In the upper troposphere, the SAOZ measurements are consistent with those of the sondes and the lidar in cloud free conditions, but biased high by 60% on average compared to ozonesondes over the Western Pacific, at American Samoa and Fiji. The likely explanation is the frequent occurrence of near zero ozone layers in the convective clouds of the South Pacific Convergence Zone which cannot be seen by SAOZ as well as all ground-based and space borne remote sensing instruments. Compared to SAOZ, SAGE II displays a 50-60% low bias similar to that already known with the ozonesondes, and a larger zonal variability. However, the significant correlation with PV suggests that useful information on tropospheric ozone could be derived from SAGE II. Finally, the unrealistic large offsets and variability in the HALOE data compared to all others

  19. White-fronted Goose Telementry, 1998-2000 [ds330

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) distribution and movements during winter in Central California were determined during...

  20. Scientific report 1998-2000. Service of molecular chemistry

    The Service of Molecular Chemistry (SCM) constitutes a significant part of fundamental chemistry at the Direction for the Science of Matter (DSM). Furthermore, its scientific programmes benefit from the contact with teams of CEA who carry out applied research relevant to nuclear energy as well as to new technologies and industrial innovation. Several cooperative actions (which involve, among other persons, PhDs and post-docs) with the other operational Directions of CEA (DO) illustrate this will of SCM to establish its fundamental research within the frame of the broader CEA missions acknowledged by the French government. The scientific report is organized as follows: as simplified organization chart relates the SCM to the Department and the Direction to which it is bound, and states the personnel (CEA, CNRS, University, PhDs, post-docs, etc). The organization chart of the SCM then brings to the fore the relationship between thematic Groups and teams. A general presentation of the main guidelines of the researches of the Service, organized by Groups, precedes a detailed description of the results obtained for each of the scientific themes tackled by the teams with mention of the involved scientists. Publications and patents appear at the end. Finally the research perspectives of SCM emphasize the inflexion to our activities which will be given in the next two years. (author)

  1. Scientific report 1998-2000. Service of molecular chemistry

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Service of Molecular Chemistry (SCM) constitutes a significant part of fundamental chemistry at the Direction for the Science of Matter (DSM). Furthermore, its scientific programmes benefit from the contact with teams of CEA who carry out applied research relevant to nuclear energy as well as to new technologies and industrial innovation. Several cooperative actions (which involve, among other persons, PhDs and post-docs) with the other operational Directions of CEA (DO) illustrate this will of SCM to establish its fundamental research within the frame of the broader CEA missions acknowledged by the French government. The scientific report is organized as follows: as simplified organization chart relates the SCM to the Department and the Direction to which it is bound, and states the personnel (CEA, CNRS, University, PhDs, post-docs, etc). The organization chart of the SCM then brings to the fore the relationship between thematic Groups and teams. A general presentation of the main guidelines of the researches of the Service, organized by Groups, precedes a detailed description of the results obtained for each of the scientific themes tackled by the teams with mention of the involved scientists. Publications and patents appear at the end. Finally the research perspectives of SCM emphasize the inflexion to our activities which will be given in the next two years. (author)

  2. Pesticide Impact Assessment in Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, 1998 - 2000 Growing Season

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tule Lake and the adjacent Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (TLNWR and LKNWR) serve as key spring/fall staging and overwintering areas for Pacific Flyway...

  3. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Stenella Abundance Research (STAR) 1998-2000, 2003, and 2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Stenella Abundance Research Project (STAR) is a multi-year cetacean and ecosystem assessment study designed to assess the status of dolphin stocks which have...

  4. Catch-Up Growth of Children After Renal Transplantation - Labafi-Nejad Hospital (1998-2000

    H Otukesh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with coronary renal failure had problems with their catch-up growth. The aim of this study was the Assessment of catch-up growth of children after renal transplantation by analyzing the 6 months changes in height deficit and height standard deviation scores (SDS on age, sex, initial height deficit, initial SDS, graft function, renal failure duration and renal transplantation duration. Methods and Materials: Between 22 September 1998 and 2000, 25 pediatric recipients followed up quarterly for height in the Labafi-Nejad hospital. Data on height submitted at each 6-month follow-up were converted into height and SDS. All the results were analyzed by simple and multiple regression and t-test. Results: 68 percents were male and 32 percent were female Mean age at transplantation was 10.39±2.95 SD years. The average duration of renal transplantation was 20.7±8.96 SD months. The aerage of height deficit was 20.7 cm (±10.55 SD and SDS -3.5 (±1.72 SD at the time of renal transplantation. The height deficit was more significant in the patients with tubulopathy. Catch-up growth observed at month 12. That was more obvious in females, in patients with tubulopathy disorders, in preemptives and in all three age groups. Simple and stepwise regression analysis showed that at month 12 only initial height deficit (P<0.05 and at month 24, only sex (P<0.05 were independent predictor of improved height post transplantation. Catch-up growth were seen in more student patients and girls. This may be the result of puberty spurt that occur two years sooner in girls than in boys. Conclusion: In this study we concluded that the renal transplantation alone is not sufficient measure for correction of catch-up growth in renal failure children and because of that the other treatments should come under consideration.

  5. Oceanographic Data And Information Network For Africa (Odinafrica) Final Report 1998-2000

    2000-01-01

    The Agreement between the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Government of Flanders (Kingdom of Belgium) for cooperation in the marine sciences, was signed at UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France on 6 March 1998 by Dr Federico Mayor, Director-General of UNESCO and Mr. Luc Van den Brande, Minister-President of the Flemish Government. The agreement provided the framework support for the development of the Ocean Data and Information Network for Africa...

  6. Barriers to dietary control among pregnant women with phenylketonuria--United States, 1998-2000.

    2002-02-15

    Newborns in the United States are screened for phenylketonuria (PKU), a metabolic disorder that when left untreated is characterized by elevated blood phenylalanine (phe) levels and severe mental retardation (MR). An estimated 3,000-4,000 U.S.-born women of reproductive age with PKU have not gotten severe MR because as newborns their diets were severely restricted in the intake of protein-containing foods and were supplemented with medical foods (e.g., amino acid-modified formula and modified low-protein foods). When women with PKU do not adhere to their diet before and during pregnancy, infants born to them have a 93% risk for MR and a 72% risk for microcephaly. These risks result from the toxic effects of high maternal blood phe levels during pregnancy, not because the infant has PKU. The restricted diet, which should be maintained for life, often is discontinued during adolescence. This report describes the pregnancies of three women with PKU and underscores the importance of overcoming the barriers to maintaining the recommended dietary control of blood phe levels before and during pregnancy. For maternal PKU-associated MR to be prevented, studies are needed to determine effective approaches to overcoming barriers to dietary control. PMID:11898925

  7. Working Together To Build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation Findings from 1998-2000.

    Walker, Karen E.; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    The Beacons Initiative aimed to transform eight public schools (five middle schools and three high schools) into youth and family centers in low-income neighborhoods in San Francisco, California. Using a coalition of local partners and funding from public agencies and foundations, the centers served 7,500 youth and adults between July 1, 1999, and…

  8. Contaminants in Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Eggs and Prey Items, Arizona, 1998-2000

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study documented concentrations and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals in addled eggs and potential prey of the endangered southwestern...

  9. Whose Frames Mattered? The Feasibility Study in the Municipality of Tierp 1998-2000

    In December 2001 SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) presented a ranking list of the eight feasibility studies carried out in Sweden. The feasibility study in Tierp was cited as showing that potentially good bedrock could be found in the municipality and SKB therefore asked to carry out a site investigation. Tierp is a neighbouring municipality to Oesthammar, a municipality that hosts nuclear power plants, with around 20,000 inhabitants and an area of 1543 km2. This paper focuses on why the Municipal Council in Tierp voted 'no' to further investigations even though SKB pointed out the municipality as having potentially good bedrock. In 1998 a feasibility study in Tierp was started. The arguments presented for a feasibility study were: the proximity to Forsmark nuclear power plant in Oesthammar, responsibilities for future generations, and that an investigation of the municipality could be used for other purposes. The main question this paper asks is the following: why did the Municipal Council in Tierp say 'no' to further investigations? This question is of interest since SKB claimed that Tierp had potentially good bedrock. The hypothesis is that the democratic models (representative democracy, discursive democracy or technocracy) present in the feasibility study and the boundary work carried out, i.e. how the boundary between science and politics was drawn, and which actors had access to the discussion on the public agenda, influenced the decision of the Council. The main sources used are interviews and a Swedish governmental investigation report about the feasibility studies. Twelve fairly open interviews with actors from the municipal organization, SKB, local opinion groups and the media were carried out. The questions cover how hey worked with the study, how the municipality organized its work, how they defined the nuclear waste issues and how they tried to communicate their views to other actors

  10. Incidencia de cáncer en Navarra (1998-2000) Incidence of cancer in Navarre

    Ardanaz, E.; Moreno, C; M.E. Pérez de Rada Arístegui; C. Ezponda; N. Navaridas

    2004-01-01

    Entre 1998 y 2000 se registraron un promedio anual de 3.303 casos de cáncer invasivo en Navarra, el 58% en hombres. Si exceptuamos los tumores de piel no melanoma el número anual de casos fue de 2.495, con tasas de incidencia bruta de 559 y 372 por 100.000 en hombres y en mujeres y unas tasas ajustadas a la población mundial de 312 y 203 por 100.000, respectivamente. Entre los hombres las cuatro localizaciones tumorales más frecuentemente diagnosticadas fueron próstata, pulmón, colorectal y v...

  11. NELSWG Common Loon Contaminant Project: New York Field Report, 1998-2000

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic inputs of mercury into the environment have resulted in an increasing gradient of mercury from west to east across North America. In conjunction, the...

  12. Solar observations with Rio de Janeiro Danjon astrolabe: diameter variations and its correlations (1998-2000)

    Neto, Eugênio Reis

    2013-01-01

    This work has aimed to analyze the 1998 to 2000 campaign of solar diameter surveying. The employed instrument was a Danjon astrolabe, at the Observat\\'orio Nacional campus, and specially modified for the solar observations. During the time lapse, 10807 independent measurements of the solar diameter were made, Eastwards and Westwards from the local meridian and evenly distributed. An image treatment has been devised to account for the camera dark current and flat field, using IRAF routines. A study of the observational conditions upon the final outcome was made. The mean temperature at the observation is shown as the most influential parameter upon the final result. Next to it also the temperature variation, the Fried's factor, and the standard deviation of the reflected parabola presented a minor and complex degree of influence. The derived corrections are of the order of hundredths of arc seconds, thus being tenfold smaller than the typical error of one observation. The mean semidiameter for the time lapse (...

  13. Application to STVF from CBT for the Period 1998-2000

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    The application from Center for Broadband Telecommunications summarises research progress and milestones for the period Jan. 1, 1995 - June 30, 1997. It also describes international and national cooperation along with research plans and milestones....

  14. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  15. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  16. Earthquakes in Southern California

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  17. European Southern Observatory

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  18. Southern (In)hospitality

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  19. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…

  20. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  1. Accretion of southern Alaska

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  2. Assessing the impacts of methylmercury on piscivorous wildlife as indicated by the common loon, 1998-2000: 2000 final report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic inputs of mercury (Hg) into the environment have significantly increased in the past few decades. In conjunction, the current availability of...

  3. Evolution of magma conduits during the 1998-2000 eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island

    Fukushima, Yo; Cayol, Valerie; Philippe, Durand; Didier, Massonnet

    2010-01-01

    At basaltic volcanoes, magma is transported to the surface through dikes (magmafilled fractures), but the evolution of these dikes as eruptions proceed is rarely documented. In March 1998, after five and a half years of quiescence, Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island) entered into a new eruptive phase characterized by intense eruptive activity. Coeruptive displacements recorded by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) for the first five eruptions of the cycle are analyzed...

  4. Magma transfer at Piton de la Fournaise volcano from 3D modelling of radar interferometric data for 1998-2000

    Fukushima, Yo

    2005-01-01

    Après cinq ans et demi de sommeil, le volcan du Piton de la Fournaise (île de la Réunion, Océan Indien) est entré dans un nouveau cycle d'activité en mars 1998. Des données d'interférométrie radar (InSAR) montrent que des déplacements complexes sont associés aux cinq premières éruptions du cycle survenues entre 1998 et 2000. Une méthode a été développée pour déterminer des géométries réalistes et les surpressions des intrusions de dykes à partir de données InSAR. Cette méthode est basée sur l...

  5. Muelle y edificio de servicios en el puerto de Alicante, España (1997-1998-2000

    García-Solera, Juan A.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The competition consisted in designing a quay for thedisembarkation of local passengers and a building housing akiosk and shaded waiting area on top of it. This was asplendid opportunity for exploring the two extremes ofconstruction most closely linked to the sea: the building of adike and platform using civil engineering techniques inaddition to a small building made with the quality ofmaterials, fit and precision characteristic of the best navalarchitecture. Construction of the quay started with largeblocks of concrete and stone, earth moving and underwateranchoring. It then continue above water, as if it were a boat indry dock, with wood and metal, assembling, fitting together,tightening screws...It was proposed to design and asymmetric quay that wouldlook in a specific direction so that the boats would notobstruct the views from the building. The height of thebuilding was kept to a minimun seeking the predominanthorizontality of any view of a port. The building resolutelyraises its own verticality competing masts of the sailboatslining the dock to greet those who arrive at the citty,The building is intend ed to have an ambiguous relationshipwith the sea. The metal balcony, lack of handrails, lightness,lack of definition between inside and outside and between thesea and land all contribute to creating such a relationship.El concurso consistía en el diseño de un muelle para eldesembarque de viajeros de cercanías y, sobre él, unaedificación que albergase un quiosco y sombra de espera.Una oportunidad espléndida para explorar los dos extremosde la construcción más ligada a la mar: la ejecución deldique y su plataforma con técnicas de ingeniería civil y la deuna pequeña construcción realizada con la calidad material,el ajuste y la precisión propias de la mejor arquitecturanaval. Se construye primero con grandes masas de hormigóny piedra, con movimientos de tierras, con fondeossubmarinos. Se construye después en seco, como si de unbarco se tratara, con madera y metal, ensamblando,encajando, atornillando...Se propone un muelle asimétrico que mira en una direcciónconcreta y permite que las embarcaciones no obstruyan consu presencia las vistas desde la edificación. La construcciónse eleva lo mínimo posible, en busca de la horizontalidaddominante en cualquier visión portuaria, y eleva a lo alto,decidida, su propia vertical que, en competencia con lospalos de vela de los barcos que pueblan la dársena, saluda aquienes llegan a la ciudad.Se pretende una relación ambigua con el mar. El vuelometálico, la ausencia de barandillas, la ligereza, laindefinición del exterior-interior, de mar y tierra, lapropician.

  6. Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System, 1998-2000 Progress Report.

    Downing, Sandra L.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted an ongoing research and development project to expand and improve technology for Passive-Integrated-Transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project during 1999-2000 was divided into six individual projects, which are covered separately in this report.

  7. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  8. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  9. Cold War in Southern Africa

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

    Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts , Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation , Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot “Cold War†: The USSR in Southern Africa , London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 p...

  10. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  11. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  12. Indians and Southern Colonial Statutes

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1974-01-01

    Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)

  13. Notes on Southern African Tuberales

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Tuberales have been found in Southern Africa.  Terfezia pfeilii Henn. occurs in the Kalahari Desert and adjacent areas of the Cape Province, Botswana and South-West Africa. The other two,  Terfezia austroafricana sp. nov. and  Choiromyces echinulatus sp. nov., are known only from the Cape.  C. echinulatus is the first representative of that genus to be collected in Africa or the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  15. Unemployment Risk in Southern Greece

    Stavros Rodokanakis

    2010-01-01

    The basic aim of this paper is to investigate the impact that educational level of individuals and participation in training programmes have on their job prospects in Southern Greece (namely the regions of Southern Aegean and Crete) during the implementation of the first Community Support Framework (1989-1993). We try to see whether the educational level itself and participation in training programmes increased the chances of finding a job. More specifically, we research what are the social a...

  16. MULES IN SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: REVISITED

    Garrett, Martin A., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides additional empirical evidence concerning the choice of the mule as the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production in the latter 19th and early 20th century. While the mule was uniquely suited to the crops and climate of the region, two divergent arguments have been presented as to why the mule was the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production. This research reevaluates these arguments and provides evidence that it was, in fact, the characte...

  17. Fire in Southern Greece

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 56.4 by 63.5 kilometers (35 by 39

  18. Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions

    Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.

  19. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  20. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the

  1. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  2. Southern Universities: Are They Rising?

    Whitehead, John S.

    1986-01-01

    This essay reviews four recent works on Southern universities: (1) "The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History" (Dyer, 1985); (2) "A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia" (Boney, 1984); (3) To Foster Knowledge: A History of the University of Tennessee 1794-1970" (Montgomery, et al., 1984); and (4) "Gone with the Ivy: A Biography…

  3. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  4. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  5. Photographs of the southern heavens

    West, R M

    1975-01-01

    The 1 m Schmidt telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has been used for a number of sky surveys. In particular a main task has been an examination of the southern night sky between declinations of -20 degrees and -90 degrees . This exercise is known as the ESO(B) Survey (or Quick Blue Survey); some of the more interesting results are shown and are briefly discussed. The photographic plates used were Kodak II a-o. There are photographs of the two Magellanic Clouds and of the galaxy NGC 1313 and the globular cluster NGC 6752. A spectrogram of our Galaxy for wavelengths in the band 3900 A to 4900 A, taken with the telescope's large objective prism is also shown. (0 refs).

  6. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    H M Rajesh; M Santosh

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2 ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba–Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher fH2O favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  7. Youth Unemployment in Southern Europe

    João Leão; Guida Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.

  8. The Southern Altiplano of Bolivia

    Alvarez-Flores, Ricardo; Bommel, Pierre; Bourliaud, Jean; Chevarria Lazo, Marco; Cortes, Geneviève; CRUZ, Pablo; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, Pierre; Joffre, Richard; Leger, Francois; Nina Laura, Juan Peter; Rambal, Serge; Rivière, Gilles; Tichit, Muriel; Tourrand, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa has been a staple food for Andean populations for millennia. Today, it is a much-appreciated product on the international health-food, organic and fair-trade food markets. Quinoa producers in the southern Altiplano of Bolivia initiated this change approximately 40 years ago. On high desert land, they succeeded in developing a thriving agricultural crop for export. Although they enjoy lucrative niche markets, quinoa producers are not specialized farmers, nor do most of them live yearrou...

  9. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  10. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  11. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  12. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  13. Classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    Catto, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There is a wide variety of flavours of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere, with differing structures and lifecycles. Previous studies have classified these manually using upper level flow features or satellite data. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first identified), has been used to objectively classify these cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere. This simple method is able to separate the cyclones into classes with quite different development mechanisms and lifecycle characteristics. Some of the classes seem to coincide with previous manual classifications on shorter timescales, showing their utility for climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  14. Venomous snakebites in southern Croatia.

    Luksić, Boris; Bradarić, Nikola; Prgomet, Sandra

    2006-03-01

    This retrospective study is based on the analysis of 542 snakebite envenomation cases in southern Croatia, which were treated in the University Hospital Split over the period of 21 years. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of venomous snakebite in southern Croatia, epidemiological and clinical features of snakebite and treatment in the region. The mean annual snakebite incidence in southern Croatia was 5.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The nose- horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) was responsible for most bites, only a small proportion being inflicted by the adder (Vipera berus). People of all ages were affected (1 - 82 year old), but the bites were more frequent in individuals older than 50 (46% of the cases) and in children and adolescents 19 year old and younger (27% of the cases). Most snakebite accidents happened in warm spring and summer months, the highest number occurring in May (22%). A majority of the victims were rural people engaged in agricultural activities. Bites on the upper limbs were more frequent (57%) than bites on the lower limbs (42%). With regard to envenomation severity, there were 15.1% minor, 40.5% mild, 26% moderate and 18% severe cases. Two victims died (0.4%). The antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb was given to virtually all patients, and complications following its administration were rare. The antivenom was used more often than it was suggested by the symptoms present. PMID:16617597

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  16. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  17. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  18. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  19. Cold war in Southern Africa : review article

    Graham, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    1. Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa's Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978-1-86888-456-8, xix + 342 pp. 2. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-47420-7, 253 pp. 3. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot "Cold War": The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978-0745324722, 320 pp.

  20. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  1. Seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika

    Lavayssiere, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.; Bull, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global seismic networks document frequent and unusually deep earthquakes in East African rift sectors lacking central volcanoes. The deep seismicity means that we can use earthquakes to probe the geometry and kinematics of fault systems throughout the crust, and to understand the distribution of strain between large offset border fault systems and intrabasinal faults. The southern Tanganyika rift zone has the highest seismicity rate within East Africa during the period 1973-present, yet earlier temporary seismometer networks have been too sparse in space and time to relocate earthquakes with location and depth errors of Lake Tanganyika since June 2014 using a network at 12 broadband seismic stations. The distribution of earthquakes shows that deformation primarily occurs on large offset border faults beneath the lake. Subsidiary earthquake activity occurs along the subparrallel Rukwa graben, and beneath the NE-SW striking Mweru rift. The distribution of earthquakes suggests the southern end of lake Tanganyika is characterized by a network of intersecting NNW and NE striking faults. The depths of earthquakes are distributed throughout the crust, consistent with the relatively strong lithosphere.

  2. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in southern Vietnamese children

    K.T.D. Thai; T.Q. Binh; P.T. Giao; H.L. Phuong; L.Q. Hung; N. van Nam; T.T. Nga; M.G.A. Goris; P.J. de Vries

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in southern Vietnam. Methods: All pupils (n = 961) of two primary schools in two communes in southern Vietnam were screened for the presence of serum Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Leptospira IgM was tested in 92 randomly selected sa

  3. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here...... of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging....

  4. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  5. Southern Mexico Miocene Magmatic Activity

    Layer, P.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic activity in southern Mexico have been occurred in three important volcanic regions: Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (TVF), Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), and Tacaná Volcanic Complex (TVC). This activity produce alkaline and calc-alkaline products. The TVF has been active since 7 Ma ago producing Na-alkaline basanite, trachybasalt, and trachyandesite (41 63 wt% SiO2), and calc-alkaline basalts, basaltic-andesites, and andesites (45 63 wt% SiO2). The CVA including El Chichon Volcano produced calc-alkaline magmas varying from andesites to dacites (57 65 wt% SiO2) emitted between 2100 ka ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ka and K-alkaline magmas emitted from 1.1 Ma ago (trachybasalt, 46 51 wt% SiO2) to the Recent (trachyandesite, 57 63 wt% SiO2). The TVC emitted calc-alkaline products varying from basaltic-andesite (52 57 wt% SiO2) as mafic enclaves, andesites (57 63 wt% SiO2), and dacites (63 68 wt% SiO2). El Chichón and TVF present slight enrichments in K2O, Na2O, Rb, Sr, Th, U, Cs, and LREE respect to TVC, these are signatures related to subduction environment. The presence of alkaline magmas at El Chichón and TVF correspond to mantle low degree melts that reach the surface along with calc-alkaline lavas due to a tensional stress field that allows their pass to the surface. In the generation of the magmas of southern Mexico three components are involved: mantle partial melting fluids, fluid from subducted lithosphere, and continental crust, likely interacting in different ratios through time and in different proportions from SW to NE.

  6. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling. Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater- treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and were the worst conditions measured in the network. Trout Creek is heavily impacted due to erosion, and Valley Creek near Atglen and West Branch Red Clay Creek are influenced by wastewater discharges. Hydrologic conditions in 1999, including a prolonged drought and a flood, influenced chemical concentrations and macroinvertebrate community structure throughout the county. Concentrations of nutrients and ions were lower in 1999 when compared to 1998 and 2000 concentrations. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from 1999 contained lower numbers of individuals when compared to 1998 and 2000 but had similar community structure. Results from chemical and biological sampling in 2000 indicated that the benthic-macroinvertebrate community structure and the concentrations of nutrients and ions recovered to pre-1999 levels.

  7. La carrera por la comunicación local (1998-2000) “Los grandes” se atreven con “lo pequeño”

    Carmen Egea Santiago

    2002-01-01

    En el presente artículo se presenta un estudio sobre los diarios regionales y locales que surgen de la mano de grandes grupos de comunicación españoles, entre los años 1998 y 2000. En estos años se producen también significativas alianzas entre los grandes conglomerados de las comunicaciones, que encuentran en el mercado local y regional un lugar desde el que favorecer su expansión. ABSTRACT This article presents an study about the regional and local press belongs to spanish comunications gro...

  8. La carrera por la comunicación local (1998-2000 “Los grandes” se atreven con “lo pequeño”

    Carmen Egea Santiago

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta un estudio sobre los diarios regionales y locales que surgen de la mano de grandes grupos de comunicación españoles, entre los años 1998 y 2000. En estos años se producen también significativas alianzas entre los grandes conglomerados de las comunicaciones, que encuentran en el mercado local y regional un lugar desde el que favorecer su expansión. ABSTRACT This article presents an study about the regional and local press belongs to spanish comunications groups and appears betwen 1998 and 2000. These years know aliances of the comunications groups, that see the regional and local market like a place to grow.

  9. Systemic Modeling for the diagnosis of the interaction climate-malaria in Colombia, application during El Nino 1997-1998 and La Nina 1998-2000

    A vector-borne disease model has been developed to represent the entomological, epidemiological and climatic interactions of malaria transmission conductive to disease outbreaks in Nuqui prone-region, Choco province, along the pacific Colombian coast. Considering breeding place availability model and several predator-prey-food models allow us to represent the vectorial densities fluctuations observed during the field's campaigns. The comprehensive model has been applied to represent malaria incidence during the period Nov/1997-Feb/2001 (1200 days simulation period), when both El Nino and la Nina events strongly affected the hydro-climatology of Colombia. The model has been run for observed climatic patterns such as mean daily temperatures, total daily precipitation records, and mean daily relative humidities gathered by a nearby climatological station. Diverse temperature scenarios have been considered to deepen the understanding of the entomological-climatic linkages conductive to malaria outbreaks. Sensitivity analysis and instabilities cases have been also studied during the experimentation-validation processes. Obtained results allow us to conclude that the model constitutes a promising tool to deepen the understanding of the ecological, entomological, and epidemiological linkages conductive to malaria outbreaks

  10. Os projetos de pesquisa de enfermagem no CNPQ: seu percurso, suas temáticas, suas aderências -1998/2000

    Joséte Luzia Leite; M.ª Cristina S. Figueiredo Trezza; Regina Maria dos Santos; Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes; Vanda Elisa Andres Felli

    2001-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como objeto as temáticas dos projetos de pesquisa em Enfermagem encaminhados a uma agência governamental de fomento à pesquisa - o CNPq - no período de novembro de 1998 a novembro de 2000. Tem como objetivos identificar as temáticas predominantes nesses projetos e discutir as aderências das temáticas identificadas com as linhas de pesquisa em estudo pela categoria, com apoio da CAPES e as prioridades estabelecidas pelo CNPq para indução à pesquisa. Para atingir esses obj...

  11. Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kazakhstan and Kyrgystan during 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005 were caused by viruses of the genotypes VIIb and VIId

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infects domesticated and wild birds throughout the world and infections with virulent NDV strains continue to cause disease outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. To assess the evolutionary characteristics of 28 NDV strains isolated from chickens in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz...

  12. Hugo Chávez:construcción hegemónica del poder y desplazamiento de los actores tradicionales en Venezuela (1998-2000

    Juan E. Romero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la llegada al poder de Hugo Chávez, en las elecciones de 1998, comenzó la configuración de unas nuevas relaciones de poder en el sistema político venezolano (SPV. Estas relaciones estaban determinadas por la naturaleza de los actores políticos que accedieron al poder, el funcionamiento institucional implementado a partir de la convocatoria a una Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (ANC, la formulación de una nueva Carta Magna y la implementación de un Régimen de Transición del poder Público. Chávez, a través de estructuras políticas como el Movimiento Quinta República (MVR y los partidos agrupados en torno al Polo Patriótico (PP ejecutaron un proceso que los llevo a construir una hegemonía dentro del sistema político que tiene como base la Constitución de 1999, relegando a las organizaciones políticas tradicionales.

  13. Data on streamflow and quality of water and bottom sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and...

  14. Rice market integration in southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Yetty Oktarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates rice market integration among five provinces in southern Sumatra using data from monthly retail rice markets during 2004-2009. The degree of integration was measured across provinces using vector error correction model. Result revealed that there is spatial market integration in southern Sumatra. Province of Bangka Belitung can make price adjustment more quickly compared to others provinces. In the long run period, rice price in Jambi province, Lampung province, and Bangka Belitung province became a reference price of rice in southern Sumatra. The study suggests policy recommendation for government to intervention this situation.

  15. Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)

    Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

  16. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1982

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1982. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  18. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective...

  19. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Residential Segregation in Southern Cities: 1970

    And Others; Roof, Wade Clark

    1976-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the age, size, percent black, and occupational income differential in 32 southern cities, the findings show that age is still the strongest predictor of residential segregation. (Author)

  1. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  2. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common...

  3. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1999. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  5. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  6. Nearshore marine fish assemblages in southern California

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish benthic trawls were completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data from 425 fisheries independent trawls ranging from 2-215...

  7. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  8. Education for transformative leadership in Southern Africa

    Preece, J

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that education for transformative leadership in a southern African context needs to nurture an understanding of the relationship between spirituality and charisma. This argument is based on a review of some literature pertaining to transformative learning, transformative leadership, and African value systems. The article explores the relationship between transformative leadership and transformative learning and education theories, and relates them to a specific southern Af...

  9. Climatically driven fluctuations in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Murphy, Eugene J.; Trathan, Philip N; Watkins, Jon L.; Reid, Keith; Meredith, Michael P.; Forcada, Jaume; Thorpe, Sally E.; Johnston, Nadine M; Rothery, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Determining how climate fluctuations affect ocean ecosystems requires an understanding of how biological and physical processes interact across a wide range of scales. Here we examine the role of physical and biological processes in generating fluctuations in the ecosystem around South Georgia in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean have previously been shown to be generated through atmosp...

  10. ENVIRONMENT, INCOME, AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    Chapman, Duane

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that rural forest and agricultural resources in Southern Africa are overused, in the sense that both biomass and harvest levels are significantly below levels of maximum sustainable yield. However, economic theory suggests that high interest and time preference rates cause the economic optimum to coincide with generally-observed patterns. In addition, low income may be the driving factor behind high interest and time preference rates. In macro-economic terms, Southern Af...

  11. What Is the Southern California Earthquake Center?

    Aki, Keiiti; Henyey, Thomas; Heaton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    On February 11, Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., Chairman of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, together with the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, and state and local officials, helped inaugurate the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) on the campus of the University of Southern California. SCEC is one of 14 new NSF Science and Technology Centers and includes a substantial commitment from the USGS for FY91. The center is a consortium of sev...

  12. Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992

    Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

    1992-01-01

    The Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992, comprises 4035 references to the scientific literature on Southern California's Channel Islands. The Bibliography was compiled by the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and is presented here in a February 1993 version. The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History presents a California Channel Islands Bibliography on its website. It has more recent references and overlaps considerably with this bibliography. How...

  13. Rice market integration in southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Yetty Oktarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates rice market integration among five provinces in southern Sumatra using data from monthly retail rice markets during 2004-2009. The degree of integration was measured across provinces using vector error correction model. Result revealed that there is spatial market integration in southern Sumatra. Province of Bangka Belitung can make price adjustment more quickly compared to others provinces. In the long run period, rice price in Jambi province, Lampung province, and Ba...

  14. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Lucia Leporatti; Guarrera Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture ...

  15. Southern Bohemian route of industrial heritage

    Vladimír Dvořák; Blažena Gehinová; Dagmar Škodová Parmová; Eva Jaderná; Eduard Šitler

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the industrial heritage and its usage in the frame of tourism service supply. There were three so called Anchor Points selected based on the ERIH methodology in the southern Bohemia. And there were also other regional and important places and points named for the future tourist route. The Southern Bohemian Route of Industrial Heritage was invented around the Anchor Point of Schwarzenberg Channel because of its importance in European heritage and its location next to the ...

  16. Grey literature revisited : the Southern African perspective

    Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa, M.M. (ISAS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    Re-examines grey literature on Southern Africa. Analyzes the material from the actual geographical field of concern to determine the suitable handling approach. Asses the extent to which the politico-economic and technological changes in Southern Africa have affected this literature, in terms of its quantities, subject matter, formats, use. Determines how to instil awareness of the value of grey literature first to sub-regional information scientists who will them promote networking and secon...

  17. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern...

  18. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  19. Discoveries about Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Satellite and Soundings

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been producing near-red time tropospheric ozone satellite maps from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) sensor since 1997. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument are at:. Pollution in the tropics is influenced by biomass burning and by transport patterns that favor recirculation and in other cases reflect climate variability like the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation [Thompson et al., 2001]. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical gradients in pollution. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Further insights into the role of chemical and dynamical influences have emerged from the first 4-5 years of SHADOZ data (more than 2000 ozone profiles). Highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric ozone suggest that dynamics is as important as pollution in determining tropical ozone distributions.

  20. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  1. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  2. Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust.

    Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen

    2009-08-21

    Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos da seneciose na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul Epidemiological aspects of seneciosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Fernando Sérgio Castilhos Karam

    2004-12-01

    of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This paper presents epidemiological data of 24 outbreaks in cattle and one in horses, diagnosed by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory at Pelotas University in southern Rio Grande do Sul, from 1998 to 2000. Additionally, data of 54 outbreaks which occurred in 1978-1997 were analyzed. The farms where outbreaks occurred in 1998-2000 were visited to obtain clinical and epidemiological data and to verify the presence of Senecio spp. Eleven outbreaks (45.83% affected cattle up to 3 years of age, and 13 (54.16% cattle over 3 years. Nine (37.5% outbreaks affected females and 15 (62.5% males. Ten (41.66% outbreaks occurred in spring, 4 (16.66% in summer, 5 (20.83% in autumn, and 5 (20.83% in winter. Morbidity rate was estimated with 4.92% and case fatality with 95.59%. The predomionating Senecio species were S. brasiliensis on 12 farms (57.14%, S. selloi on 10 (47.61%, S. oxyphyllus on 6 (28.57%, S. heterotrichius on 3 (14.28%, and S. leptolobus on 1 farm (4.76%. The main clinical signs were progressive emaciation, incoordination, diarrhea, tenesmus, rectal prolapse and aggressiveness. The clinical manifestation periods of affected cattle observed during the farm visits, or of cattle sent for post-mortem examination,were 24-96 hours in 4 outbreaks (16.66%, 4-7 days in 7 (29.16%, 1-2 weeks in 4 (16.66%, 2-3 weeks in 2 (8.33%, 1-2 months in 2 (8.33%, and 2-3 months in 1 outbreak (4.16%. In 4 outbreaks (16.66% the clinical manifestation period was not established. In outbreaks with longer clinical manifestation periods some animals showed photosensitization. The main necropsy findings were a hard and enlarged liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesenterium and abomasum, and increased amount of liquid in the cavities. Histopathological findings were fibroplasia, megalocytosis and biliary ductal proliferation of the liver, and spongy degeneration of the cerebral white matter. Samples of different Senecio species, in different seasons, were

  4. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  5. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    the southern African regions. Some of the main research problems that have been dealt with during this research are about (1) the heterogeneity scale of crustal structure and composition, (2) the depth extent of the cratonic keels and their layering, and (3) the strength of crustal anisotropy. The...

  6. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans.

  7. Gender, education and peace in southern Sudan

    Jackie Kirk

    2005-01-01

    Expanding access to education for boys and girls is a critical Millennium Development Goal and peace-building challenge. In southern Sudan, as in other post-conflict societies, many girls remain excluded from schooling opportunities which could help develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes to build a peaceful society.

  8. Fostering Technology Absorption in Southern African Enterprises

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This book seeks to understand how firms in southern Africa absorb technology and how policy makers can hurry the process along. It identifies channels of technology transfer and absorption through trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) and constraints to greater technology absorption, and it discusses policy options open to the government and the private sector in light of relevant inte...

  9. Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India

    Lewthwaite, Penny; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong How; Last, Anna; Kumar, Ravi; Desai, Anita; Begum, Ashia; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Shankar, M Veera; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection.

  10. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  11. Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?

    Nataša Intihar Klančar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?

  12. Southern African species of Mentha L. (Lamiaceae

    L. E. Codd

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Mentha L. occurring in Southern Africa are reviewed and a key is provided to two indigenous and one naturalized species.  M. wissii Launert is reduced to M. longifolia (L. Huds. subsp. wissii (Launert Codd.

  13. Getting southern Sudanese children to school

    Sibeso Luswata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Southern Sudan’s Go to School Initiative,supported by UNICEF, which seeks to get 1.6 millionchildren back in school by the end of 2007, incorporateskey elements of the INEE Minimum Standards for Educationin Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction.

  14. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  15. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea

  16. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Boubidi, Saïd C.; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  17. Geomorphic Aspects of Southern African Dryland Soils

    Eckardt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Southern African drylands are host to stable land surfaces with limited denudation rates. The resulting soils manifest long term weathering processes, including leaching, collapse and precipitation of calcium carbonate as is the case in the semi-arid Kalahari. Despite the thickness of some of the Kalahari soils and sands, they are furthermore depicting a range of neotectonic land forms and processes, associated with the contemporary rifting of the southern African continent. This is particularly apparent in satellite imagery and digital elevation data that can be used to examine regional scale surface characteristics. Southern Africa is also home to significant global and regional scale dust sources, which are mostly associated with inland basins and playas. Plumes of dust emitted from playas are able to impact upon downwind soil quality. This can be observed in the both the western Makgadikgadi as well as the Central Namib gravel plain. In the Namib playa dust contributes to the accumulation of gravel plain fines, leaching and massive pedogenic gypsum accumulations. It is apparent that Southern African dryland soils are home to aeolian inputs, host extensive duricrusts and depict neotectonic movement which should be of interest to the wider earth science community.

  18. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... CODE 3410-11-P...

  19. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in..., Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  20. Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159369.html Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer Conditions ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus could spread in southern Europe this summer ...

  1. Living in the shadows: internally displaced people in southern Africa

    Marion Ryan Sinclair

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Southern African Studies at the University of the Western Cape has recently begun a research project designed to investigate the extent, conditions and prognoses of internally displaced people (IDPs in southern African countries.

  2. Health Effects of the 2003 Southern California Wildfires on Children

    Künzli, Nino; Avol, Ed; Wu, Jun; Gauderman, W. James; Rappaport, Ed; Millstein, Joshua; Bennion, Jonathan; McConnell, Rob; Gilliland, Frank D.; Berhane, Kiros; Lurmann, Fred; Winer, Arthur; Peters, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: In late October 2003, Southern California wildfires burned more than 3,000 km2. The wildfires produced heavy smoke that affected several communities participating in the University of Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS).

  3. Revision of the genus Dombeya (Sterculiaceae in southern Africa

    I. C. Verdoon

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Dombeya Cav. occurring in southern Africa are revised and a key is provided to the eight species present in the region. A new record for southern Africa, D. quinqueseta (Del. Exell, is included.

  4. Techniques and strategies in neurocritical care originating from southern Scandinavia

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Jacobsen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years.......To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years....

  5. Southern Taiwan - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?

    Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of Taiwan is southern Taiwan. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of Taiwan is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central Taiwan the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern Taiwan [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern Taiwan, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern Taiwan the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from Taiwan by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern Taiwan itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central Taiwan orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around Taiwan shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern Taiwan, and that southern Taiwan is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of the Forest Vegetation Simulator Southern Variant (FVS-Sn)for Southern Appalachian Hardwoods

    Herring, Nathan Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The FVS-Sn model was developed by the USDA Forest Service to project and report forest growth and yield predictions for the Southern United States. It is able to project forest growth and yield for different forest types and management prescriptions, but it is a relatively new, complex, and untested model. These limitations notwithstanding, FVS-Sn once tested and validated could meet the critical need of a comprehensive growth and yield model for the mixed hardwood forests of the southern A...

  7. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III

    Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the develo...

  8. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  9. Variation in the abundance of southern fish species in the southern North Sea in relation to hydrography and wind

    Corten, A.; Kamp, van de G.

    1996-01-01

    Is the increased abundance of southern fish species in the southern North Sea during recent years a signal of a long-term trend, or can it be explained by random variability? Time-series data on the abundance of 12 southern fish species were derived from the 1st quarter International Bottom Trawling

  10. Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter

    2006-01-01

    20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

  11. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  12. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    Arridge, C S; Achilleos, N; Bogdanova, Y V; Bunce, E J; Cowley, S W H; Fazakerley, A N; Khurana, K K; Lamy, L; Leisner, J S; Roussos, E; Russell, C T; Zarka, P; Coates, A J; Dougherty, M K; Jones, G H; Krimigis, S M; Krupp, N

    2016-01-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth have enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989 but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly studying the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and iii) double cusp morphologies are...

  13. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013

    Thomas, Dana L.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K.; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gaul, Linda

    2016-01-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  14. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  15. Regional investments in Southern European cities

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the capacity of four medium-sized cities in Southern Europe, concerning the current situation of their assets (agglomeration economies, urban infrastructures, factors of labor and cost, etc.), the degree of development policies implementation and effectiveness by local authorities and finally the level of local authorities capacity to plan and implement particular policies and partnerships with the private sector in order to shape a favorable and attractive magnitude inve...

  16. Competitive Dynamics of Southern California's Clothing Industry

    Allen J. Scott

    2005-01-01

    A general outline of the functional and spatial characteristics of the clothing industry in Southern California is sketched out. Two important trends are noted: (a) the increasing design- and knowledge-intensive structure of the industry and (b) the marked increase in offshore subcontracting by local manufacturers that has occurred in recent years. The predicaments and promises of this situation are explored. Will the industry simply continue to lose its employment base in the region? Will it...

  17. Southern California: The Detroit of Electric Cars?

    Allen J. Scott

    1993-01-01

    The California economy is in the doldrums, especially in the Los Angeles region, owing in large part to the decline of aerospace-defense industries. The region also suffers from the nation's worst pollution problem, owing largely to its dependence on automobiles. So, we're led to ask whether these linked perils might be converted into a combined opportunity. We ask whether we might blunt both the environmental and the employment problems by building a new electric-vehicle industry in Southern...

  18. An ecological bibliography for southern Africa

    A. J. Engelbrecht

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available An ecological bibliography for southern Africa up until 1975 is currently being compiled. References recorded by researchers at the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria are being expanded and incorporated into a computer data base. All references are annotated with codes, key words, biomes and regions where applicable. The IBM/STAIRS programme package is used for retrieving references by means of authors and subject headings as well as sorting alphabetically.

  19. Beta-Thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia.

    Cao, A; Furbetta, M; Ximenes, A; Angius, A; Rosatelli, C; Tuveri, T; Scalas, M T; Falchi, A M; Maccioni, L; Melis, M A; R. Galanello

    1981-01-01

    In this study the prevalence of the different beta-thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia was investigated by cellulose acetate and agar gel electrophoresis or globin chain synthesis analysis on column chromatography or both in (1) all the patients (347) presenting with thalassaemia major or intermedia at our haematology service from 1976 to 1979, and (2) a group of 82 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major randomly chosen from 236 under our care. Apart from six subjects with...

  20. Vertical Eddy Fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    Zika, Jan D.; Le Sommer, Julien; Dufour, Carolina O.; Molines, Jean-Marc; Barnier, Bernard; Brasseur, Pierre; Dussin, Raphaël; Penduff, Thierry; Iudicone, Daniele; Lenton, Andrew; Madec, Gurvan; Mathiot, Pierre; Orr, James; Shuckburgh, Emily; Vivier, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    The overturning circulation of the Southern Ocean has been investigated using eddying coupled ocean–sea ice models. The circulation is diagnosed in both density–latitude coordinates and in depth–density coordinates. Depth–density coordinates follow streamlines where the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is equivalent barotropic, capture the descent of Antarctic Bottom Water, follow density outcrops at the surface, and can be interpreted energetically. In density–latitude coordinates, wind-driven ...

  1. Nuclear medicine development in the southern urals

    The last 25 years results of organization work at Nuclear Medicine cluster in the Southern Urals are presented. The main purpose of the project was - to create one of the largest Russian platforms for the development and application of nuclear technology. A successive branched system of radiopharmaceutical production and radiopharmaceuticals consumers effectively operate in the region, and is provided by prepared staff and is able to provide high-tech care for cancer patients using nuclear program in the field of health care

  2. Gulf of Antalya, Southern Turkish Coastline

    1984-01-01

    The historic and strategic southern Turkish coastline and Gulf of Antalya (37.0N, 31.0E) has, since ancient times, served as the classic land and sea invasion routes to the riches of the Near East as Persian, Greek, Roman and later European Crusader armies traveled the familiar routes of conquest. Even in modern times, this area is still the seat of political and military unrest as diverse cultural groups still strive for regional control.

  3. The Dynamics of Conflict in Southern Thailand

    Engvall, Anders; Andersson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged insurgency in Southern Thailand has claimed thousands of victims since the outbreak of major violence in 2004. Drawing on a unique data-set covering all violent incidents since 2004, a hot spot analysis shows that the bulk of the violence is concentrated in clusters of sub-districts forming hotbeds of conflict. Drivers of conflict are identified through a comparative analysis of the hotspots of violence with less violent areas. The analysis shows that identity manifested in lang...

  4. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  5. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    Jirarattanasopa P; Panon N; Hiranyachattada S; Bhurayanontachai P

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210&n...

  6. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    Jirarattanasopa, Pichai

    2014-01-01

    Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 2...

  7. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  8. Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  9. Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California

    Chaturvedi, Sudha; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Larsen, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus isolates from AIDS patients in southern California were characterized by molecular analyses. Pheromone MFα1 and MF a 1 gene fragments were polymerase chain reaction–amplified with fluorescently labeled primers and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on DNA analyzer. CE–fragment-length analyses (CE-FLAs) and CE–single-strand conformation polymorphisms (CE-SSCPs) were used to determine Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), C. neoformans (Cn) varieties neoformans (CnVN) and grubii (CnVG)...

  10. Leptospira infection among pigs in southern Vietnam

    Boqvist, Sofia

    2002-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that in pigs primarily causes reproductive disturbances. The disease is a zoonosis, i.e. it can be transmitted between animals and humans. Leptospirosis is spread worldwide, although it is of most importance in tropical regions where animal management and climate favour transmission and survival of the bacteria in the environment, such as the tropical Mekong delta (MD) in southern Vietnam. In the MD, reproduction disturbances in pigs due to infectious agen...

  11. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  12. Star Formation in Southern Seyfert Galaxies

    Forbes, Duncan; Norris, Ray

    1998-01-01

    We have produced radio maps, using the ATCA, of the central regions of six southern Seyfert 2 galaxies (NGC 1365, 4945, 6221, 6810, 7582, and Circinus) with circumnuclear star formation, to estimate the relative contribution of star formation activity compared to activity from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The radio morphologies range from extended diffuse structures to compact nuclear emission, with no evidence, even in the relatively compact sources, for synchrotron self--absorption. I...

  13. Competitive destination analysis in Southern European countries

    Águas, Paulo; Veiga, Célia; Reis, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist destinations for European Union Member States of Central and Northern Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden and the UK). Design/methodology/approach – Application of the market share analysis tool, initially developed by Faulkner, using secondary data from Eurosta...

  14. Propagation characteristics of thunderstorms in southern Germany

    Hagen, M.; Bartenschlager, B.; Finke, U.

    1998-05-01

    The propagation of thunderstorms in southern Germany was investigated. The thunderstorms were observed by a lightning position system during the summer months of the years 1992 to 1996. On average every second day thunderstorms were observed anywhere in southern Germany. In general thunderstorms approach from westerly and south-westerly directions. The average speed is 13 m/s. No significant relation between the occurrence of thunderstorms and the large scale synoptic pattern described by the Grosswetterlagen (large scale weather pattern) was found. Thunderstorms were observed during almost all Grosswetterlagen. The reduction to 8 weather pattern based on the low-level flow in southern Germany showed that thunderstorms are likely when the flow has westerly directions (43%) or easterly directions (20%). Three distinct groups of different lightning patterns could be identified; stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the wind shear were retrieved from the radio soundings from Muenchen and Stuttgart. On average CAPE was 583 J/kg for stationary, 701 J/kg for moving thunderstorms, and 876 J/kg for thunderstorm lines. The average bulk Richardson numbers are 152, 80 and 52 for stationary, moving thunderstorms and thunderstorm lines, respectively. The steering level was found to be at about 3 and 6 km m.s.l. However, it should be noted, that in most cases the soundings do not completely describe the local environment of thunderstorms, since radio soundings are only available twice a day. (orig.)

  15. [The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].

    Simon, G

    1986-09-01

    The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12268205

  16. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  17. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  18. Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa

    Kimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

  19. Probabilistic Drought Forecasting in Southern Taiwan Using El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index

    Shien-Tsung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic drought forecasting model to forecast meteorological drought in Southern Taiwan using the El Niño-SouthernNiño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO index. Meteorological drought is defined by the standardized precipitation index (SPI, and the ENSO index is El NiñoNiño sea surface temperature (SST. Two probabilistic forecasting model architectures were constructed based on the transition probabilities from El NiñoNiño SSTs to SPIs. Both model architectures forecast a one-month-ahead probability distribution for meteorological drought using different combinations of El NiñoNiño SST variables. Forecasting results showed the robustness of the probabilistic drought forecasting models. In addition, this study discussed the selection of El NiñoNiño SST variables used in the probabilistic drought forecasting model, and found that models with a single SST input outperformed those with multiple SST inputs.

  20. Eddies in the southern Mozambique Channel

    Quartly, G. D.; Srokosz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Agulhas Current system contains one of the world's strongest western boundary currents, and plays an important part in the warm water path of the global thermohaline circulation. However, there have been few surveys of the source regions of the Agulhas Current, and thus little in situ measurement of their variability. Utilizing the more than 5-year record of SeaWiFS data, we examine the eddy activity present in the southern portion of the Mozambique Channel. The two sources of Agulhas input from the central Indian Ocean (southward flow through the Mozambique Channel and westward flow around the southern limit of Madagascar) both show great temporal variability, with no clear seasonal signal. A number of large (˜200 km diameter) anticyclonic rings intermittently propagate poleward along the western edge of the channel, sweeping coastal waters into mid-channel. Their passage past Maputo appears to affect the circulation of the lee eddy in the Delagoa Bight. The eastern side of the channel is mainly characterized by cyclonic eddies. These are made manifest in the lee of the southern tip of Madagascar, although it is not clear whether many form there or just develop a visible presence due to entrainment of high-chlorophyll coastal waters. Several of these cyclonic eddies then appear to move in west-southwesterly direction. The chlorophyll data do reveal the apparent East Madagascar Retroflection on occasions, but do not show clear examples of the pinching off of anticyclonic eddies. However, surface waters from the East Madagascar Current may reach the African mainland on occasions when no retroflection is present.

  1. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  2. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  3. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    W. D Haacke

    1984-01-01

    The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone wi...

  4. The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari domain

    W. D Haacke

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofauna of the southern Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister north-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in both directions, resulting in an area in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wideranging.

  5. Dryland orchard development in southern Tamil Nadu

    With low annual rainfall and high potential of evaporation in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, it is difficult to grow the crops, successfully. Drylands of this tract are vulnerable to high radiation, high temperature and variable rainfall. Hence, dryfarming has become a risky enterprise in this zone and all the above factors altogether reduce the choice of agricultural crops. Considering the magnitude of the area and it's untapped potential, which offers enormous scope for dryland horticulture in this region and thereby improving the soil productivity for other crops too

  6. Eddies in the southern Mozambique Channel

    Quartly, G.D.; Srokosz, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Agulhas Current system contains one of the world's strongest western boundary currents, and plays an important part in the warm water path of the global thermohaline circulation. However, there have been few surveys of the source regions of the Agulhas Current, and thus little in situ measurement of their variability. Utilizing the more than 5-year record of SeaWiFS data, we examine the eddy activity present in the southern portion of the Mozambique Channel. The two sources of Agulhas inp...

  7. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  8. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  9. H2 fuelling infrastructure in Southern California

    'Full text:' The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is the local air agency covering the majority of southern California, and the entity legislatively responsible for bringing the region into compliance with the federal Clean Air standards by 2010. One of the tools used by the SCAQMD to accelerate achieving cleaner air is the funding of research, development, and demonstration projects for advanced, clean air technologies. One major focus has been on hydrogen and fuel cells for both stationary and mobile applications. The presentation will discuss the SCAQMD strategy and deployment efforts regarding the development and expansion of hydrogen fueling infrastructure in the South Coast Air Basin. (author)

  10. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    Middag, R.; Slooten van, C.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling posit...

  11. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area

  12. Epidemiology of cerebral palsy in Southern Denmark

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Dunkhase-Heinl, Ulrike; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and neuroimaging findings of cerebral palsy (CP) in a cohort of children born in Southern Denmark. Risk factors were analysed and aetiology considered. METHODS: A population-based cohort study covering 17....... Primary prevention of CP is possible if the numbers of preterm births and multiple pregnancies can be reduced. FUNDING: The Danish Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Programme is supported by the foundation "Ludvig og Sara Elsass Fond". TRIAL REGISTRATION: 2008-58-0034....

  13. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  14. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  15. Geo-Engineering in the Southern Ocean

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Dumping A German research vessel, the Polarstern, is on a 70 day exercise of dumping 20 tonnes of ferrous sulphate (iron sulphate, FeSO4) in the Southern Ocean at a latitude of 46° south. The LOHAFEX experiment of the Alfred Wegner Institute for Polar & Marine Research project will increase the iron level of the treated ocean area by a factor of up to 24 times “the natural iron concentration”. The target area is 20 kilometres in diameter, i.e. approximately 320 square kilometres. It ...

  16. Modelling Water Trade in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin

    Peterson, D.; Dwyer, G.; D. Appels; Fry, J

    2005-01-01

    This Productivity Commission staff working paper, 'Modelling Water Trade in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin', was released in November 2004. It examines the likely economic impacts of expanding water trade in the southern Murray-Darling Basin. The paper uses TERM-Water, a bottoms-up regional CGE model of the Australian economy, to examine the regional effects of expanding trade of irrigation water in the southern Murray-Darling Basin. The study finds that water trading dampens the impact of...

  17. Southern Ocean Sector Centennial Climate Variability and Recent Decadal Trends

    Latif, Mojib; Martin, Torge; Park, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the notion that some contribution to the recent decadal trends observed in the Southern Hemisphere, including the lack of a strong Southern Ocean surface warming, may have originated from longer-term internal centennial variability originating in the Southern Ocean. The existence of such centennial variability is supported by the instrumental sea surface temperatures (SSTs), a multimillennial reconstruction of Tasmanian summer temperatures from tree rings, and a mill...

  18. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  19. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  20. SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf Survey

    Subasavage, John P.; Lepine, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present early results from the SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf SURVEY (SSSWDS). Our initial sift of relatively bright (15 < V < 18), white dwarf candidates uses the technique of reduced proper motion with inputs from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database combined with photographic magnitudes. Crude distance estimates from the linear photographic magnitude-color relation of Oppenheimer et al. 2001 are obtained and permit prioritized follow-up. For confirmation of luminosity class, we use the SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon equipped with the Goodman Spectrograph and a moderate resolution grating. In tandem, we acquire multi-epoch, optical Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI photometry using the SMARTS 1.0m telescope atop CTIO. Combined with JHK from 2MASS, we compare the photometric SED to relevant white dwarf model atmospheres to estimate physical parameters (e.g., effective temperature, mass) and distance. For the nearest targets, specifically those within the RECONS (www.recons.org) horizon of 25 pc, we aim to obtain trigonometric parallaxes as part of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) project being conducted at the SMARTS 0.9m telescope. To date, we have confirmed 100 relatively bright, new white dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Of those, 13 are estimated to be within our 25 pc horizon-of-interest, including two that are estimated to be within 15 pc. Ongoing observations will boost these figures by the end of the project.

  1. The Eradication of Rinderpest from Southern Sudan

    In 1994, Veterinaires Sans Frontieres (VSF) Belgium was one of the NGOs that joined the Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) Livestock Programme coordinated by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in conflict-affected southern Sudan. The objective of the programme was to improve household food security through the control of rinderpest and the establishment of community-based animal health services. VSF Belgium trained and supported community-based animal health workers (CAHWs) in several agropastoralist communities of southern Sudan. The CAHWs carried out rinderpest vaccination using heat-stable vaccine, and provided vaccinations and treatments for other important diseases of cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. In 1996, VSF Belgium set up a training centre for mid-level animal health workers, to provide a cadre of animal health auxiliaries (AHAs) as CAHW supervisors and field coordinators. As a result of the widespread vaccination efforts, rinderpest outbreaks decreased and apparently stopped. The last confirmed rinderpest outbreak was in 1998, although there was a suspected but unconfirmed outbreak in 2001. About this time, FAO-GREP advised the Republic of Sudan to stop vaccinating and to enter the surveillance phase of the OIE Pathway to freedom from rinderpest.

  2. Reappraisal of the seismotectonics of southern Ontario

    The fundamental objectives of this study were to review and improve the seismological data base as an aid in more realistic evaluation of seismic hazard in southern Ontario. For this purpose, the following procedures have been undertaken: In the first stage, the types of errors in earthquake location files are identified, sources of uncertainties are discussed and a sensitivity analysis of the errors to different parameters is presented. In the second stage, a group location technique, Joint Hypocenter Determination (JHD), has been utilized to improve the locations of a group of 67 well-recorded events, mostly from the more active region near the Ottawa River and in western Quebec. The third stage, to relocate smaller and less reliably detected events in southern Ontario, utilized a nw algorithm, 'HYPOCENTER', which proved very efficient and flexible in the test runs for handling local explosion and natural events. A preliminary interpretation of the seismicity patterns in the study regions shows that earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger tend to align along preferred seismic trends which may, in turn, be controlled by weakness planes in the Earth's crust. These inferred trends coincide with dominant northwesterly and northeasterly striking structural directions. For earthquakes smaller than magnitude 4 prior to 1970 and for microearthquakes (M<3) which occurred near the Lake Ontario shoreline, the detection coverage was not sufficient to conclusively discuss accurate locations and causative mechanisms

  3. A CO Survey of the Southern Galaxy

    Bronfman, L.; May, J.; Luna, A.

    On December 12th 1982 the 1.2 mSouthern Millimeter Wave Telescope, an instrument specifically designed for CO surveys of molecular clouds in the Southern Galaxy, arrived Cerro Tololo after being constructed and tested atop the roof of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies by Columbia University staff and students, and by Universidad de Chile and NASA personnel. The telescope saw first light on December 22nd 1982, and has been operational ever since. During these years we have completed deep CO surveys of the Carina arm (Grabelsky et al. 1987), the IV galactic quadrant (Bronfman et al. 1988), the III galactic quadrant (May et al. 1993), and the galactic center (Bitran et al. 1997), contributing with a major fraction of the presently available galactic CO data. When combined with CO surveys of the I and II galactic quadrants obtained with its twin instrument, the Northern 1.2m Millimeter Wave Telescope now at the Center for Astrophysics, these data provided for the first time a complete, well sampled, and homogeneous picture of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way.

  4. Detector Considerations for a HAWC Southern Observatory

    DuVernois, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory in central Mexico is currently the world's only synoptic survey instrument for gamma rays above 1 TeV. Because there is significant interest in covering the full TeV sky with a survey instrument, we have examined options for a Southern Hemisphere extension to HAWC. In addition to providing all-sky coverage of TeV sources, a southern site could complement existing surveys of the densest part of the Galactic Plane, provide continuous monitoring of Galactic and extragalactic transient sources in both Hemispheres, and simplify the analysis of spatially extended signals such as diffuse gamma rays and the TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy. To take advantage of the air-shower physics and lower the energy threshold of the experiment as much as possible, a high altitude site above 5000 m a.s.l (vs. 4100 m a.s.l. at the current site in Mexico) has been specified. To facilitate efficient detector construction at such altitudes, the detector tanks would be assembled at lower a...

  5. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    Arridge, C. S.; Jasinski, J. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Lamy, L.; Leisner, J. S.; Roussos, E.; Russell, C. T.; Zarka, P.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jones, G. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth has enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989, but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly study the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that (i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, (ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and (iii) double cusp morphologies are consistent with the position of the cusp oscillating in phase with Saturn's global magnetospheric periodicities.

  6. Quantifying the deep convective temperature signal within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL)

    Paulik, L. C.; Birner, T.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics on a vast range of spatial and temporal scales, from individual convective plumes to planetary-scale circulations, play a role in driving the temperature variability in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Here, we aim to better quantify the deep convective temperature signal within the TTL using multiple datasets. First, we investigate the link between ozone and temperature in the TTL using the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) dataset. Low ozone ...

  7. Magma Piracy in the Southern Mariana Backarc

    Becker, N. C.; Fryer, P.; Martinez, F.; Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997 the southern Mariana convergent margin system has been mapped with Hydrosweep, MR-1, and SeaBeam swath sonar systems on five cruises resulting in 168,500 km2 of bathymetry data and 186,800 km2 of sidescan data, revealing anomalous processes relative to the rest of the Mariana region. Most of the Mariana Arc is characterized by arc volcanism dominated by large, central volcanoes located at the boundary between a backarc basin with slow-spreading ridge morphology and a nonaccretionary forearc composed of Eocene volcanic arc rocks But southwest of Tracey Seamount, the southernmost large central arc volcano, the character of the arc and backarc changes dramatically. The arc volcanoes become small or nonexistent, but those that do occur lie along relict spreading fabric within the backarc basin. Furthermore, the spreading center appears to have an inflated, fast-spreading morphology, including dueling propagator fabric, and this southern backarc basin forms a shallow plateau overall. The spreading center then becomes less well-defined west of 143oE, and the volcanism appears to cease altogether west of 142oE in an area of amagmatic rifting, an observation supported by earthquake focal mechanisms and magnetics. The inflated morphology of the spreading axis, along with the absence or reduced size of nearby arc volcanoes suggests that arc magmas have been entrained into the backarc-spreading magmatic system. This "magma piracy" would result in arc magma being erupted at the backarc spreading center, therefore the backarc crust would be formed in part from arc magmas. Dredge samples from along the active ridge show compositions consistent with this suggestion. We suggest that this magma piracy has dominated the southern backarc basin for at least the last 3 m.y. since the robust spreading began. We suggest that the apparently higher magma production rate and the hybridized crust could account for the shallowness of the basin, as the more evolved arc-lavas would

  8. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  9. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  10. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model indic

  11. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region...

  12. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in... sessions. July 6, 2010. Alan E. Koss, Designated Federal Official. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  13. New cooperative seismograph networks established in southern California

    Hill, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Southern California has more active faults located close to large, urban population centers than any other region in the United States. Reduction of risk to life and property posed by potential earthquakes along these active faults is a primary motivation for a cooperative earthquake research program between the U.S Geological Survey and major universities in Southern California. 

  14. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-Wen; Pei, Shu-Wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Xiong-Xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern Chi

  15. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that…

  16. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  17. The spatial distribution of southern clusters

    We present a determination of the spatial distribution of clusters in the Southern Cluster Survey. We find the mean separation of clusters to be 60 ± 5 h-1 Mpc and the two-point correlation function to be well fitted by a power-law with index -2.3. The associated correlation length is 30 ± 5 h-1 Mpc, although the results are consistent with there being no clustering on scales ≥ 20 h-1 Mpc. These results, calculated from the angular correlation function, are found to be robust; they are relatively insensitive to the parameters of the adopted model. We compare these results with those obtained from Abell's northern cluster catalogue by Bahcall and Soneira and advance reasons for the discrepancy at large separations. (author)

  18. Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan, Southern Mexico

    Viniegra-O, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1972, numerous large and giant oil fields have been discovered in the Reforma area of Chiapas and Tabasco States, southern Mexico, and on the offshore Campeche shelf west of Campeche State. The huge carbonate bank with which these discoveries are associated is called the Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan. Present trap structures are mainly fractured and faulted domal salt pillows created during the Laramide orogeny. The Great Carbonate Bank of Yucatan is believed to include not just the Yucatan Peninsula, but also a part of coastal Veracruz State, where several discoveries have been made in carbonate rocks of Early to Middle Cretaceous ages in thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, which are now buried beneath the coastal plain. It is probable that large, subthrust, anticlinal structures underlie the thrust sheets along the western margin of the Veracruz basin, and these when drilled, may contain important hydrocarbon accumulations. (JMT)

  19. Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) determination by a radioimmunoassay on dried blood spots was selected as the screening method for congenital hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand. Blood from the infant's heel was obtained in 7814 newborns on the fifth day of life. Infants with TSH values greater than 25 mU/L were recalled for a more careful clinical examination and to have their T4 (thyroxine) and TSH re-estimated. Fifty-four infants with TSH values between 25 and 50 mU/L were found to be normal at re-evaluation. These are still being followed longitudinally for full confirmation. Two with values above 50 mU/L, although clinically euthyroid, were found to be hypothyroid by T3, T4, thyroid scintigraphy and bone age on roentgenography. Replacement therapy has been started. We have shown that a screening program for neonatal hypothyroidism can be done, and is probably worthwhile and perhaps even cost-effective

  20. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

    Magalhães, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimeter for an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in about two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy ≤ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Explosions and Solar System, among others. The polarimeter is currently being built and its optics and electronics assembled. We will describe the current status of the project. This project is supported by FAPESP. AMM is also supported by CNPq.

  1. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham; Nielsen, Troels F.D.; Makovicky, Emil; Hutchison, Mark T.

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...... been conducted. No variation in P-T gradients between the three distinct crustal areas has been discerned. We find that the lithospheric mantle beneath this region extended to a depth of 215 km at the time of eruption, with a geotherm similar to those defined by peridotites from the Slave craton and...... the Kirkland Lake locality within the Superior craton. In supporting previous studies we find that the continental lithospheric mantle is layered and increases in fertility with depth. Twenty-five of 32 investigated samples are estimated to be derived from the diamond stability field that extends into...

  2. Prevalence of Asthma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Maryum Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAsthma is exaggerated response of immune system which is a leading cause of death in the third world. Main causes of asthma are allergy, smoking, drugs like NSAID (Aspirin and family history. Objective of study was to check the prevalence of asthma in different age groups and its impact on socioeconomical behaviors of the peoples of southern Punjab, by developing a questionnaire. Incidence of asthmatic attack in the age group of 20 to 60 years was more than in age group of 20 years, furthermore the incidence was found to be more common in females as compare to males. The smokers were at more risk to develop the disease as compared to the nonsmokers.

  3. Early ceramic sites in southern Lau, Fiji

    The Lau Group is a dispersed chain of islands in east Fiji trending north-south on the inactive Lau Ridge remnant volcanic arc, which is part of the convergent margin system comprising the Lau Basin and Tonga Ridge to the east. In the south of the Lau Group are several remote islands that are closer to Tangatapu than they are to the largest islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu in the Fiji Group. Two of these islands, Vatoa and Doi islands in the Ono-i-Lau Group, were visited briefly in 2006 after field work on Kabara when the government supply boat 'Sandy' made scheduled stops to unload and collect cargo. Lapita pottery and a fortification were recorded on Doi Island in the Ono Group, and on Vatoa Island a site with plain ware ceramics dating to c. 2000 cal. BP was located. The position of the two remote islands lying between the main islands of Fiji and Tongan archipelago suggests they were particularly subject to influence from population contacts and movements from islands to their east and west in prehistory. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century central and southern Lau were the centre of an important canoe building industry based on the hardwood Instia bijuga (vesi) used to construct large sailing canoes which were the prerogative of Tongan and Fijian chiefs. Archaeological and linguistic studies of the Lau Group suggest a complicated history of population movements earlier during Lapita (2900-2500 BP) and post-Lapita (∼2500-1000 BP) times, which can be examined from the study of ceramic sites in southern Lau. (author). 27 refs., 3 figs

  4. Thunderstorms and thunderstorm precipitations in southern Poland

    Bielec-Bąkowska Zuzanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses spatial and temporal variability in the occurrence of thunderstorms and related precipitation in southern Poland between 1951 and 2010. The analysis was based on thunderstorm observations and daily precipitation totals (broken down into the few ranges from 15 meteorological stations. It was found that precipitation accompanied an overwhelming majority of thunderstorms. The most frequent range of thunderstorm precipitation totals was 0.1–10.0 mm which accounted for 60% of all values while precipitation higher than 20.0 mm accounted only for ca. 8%. During the study period, long-term change in the number of days with thunderstorm precipitation within a certain range displayed no clear-cut trends. Exceptions included: 1 an increase in the number of days with thunderstorm precipitation in the lowest range of totals (0.1–10.0 mm at Katowice, Tarnów, Rzeszów and Lesko and decrease at Mt. Kasprowy Wierch, 2 an increase in the range 10.1–20.0 mm at Zakopane and 20.1–30.0 mm at Opole, 3 a decrease of the top range (more than 30.0 mm at Mt. Śnieżka. It was found that the heaviest thunderstorm precipitation events, i.e. totalling more than 30 mm, and those events that covered all or most of the study area, occurred at the time of air advection from the southern or eastern sectors and a passage of atmospheric fronts.

  5. Cooling and eutrophication of southern Chilean lakes.

    Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M; Cerda, Sergio; Briones, Daniela

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the impacts of global warming and human-disturbances on lakes is required for implementing management strategies aimed at mitigating the decline of the quality and availability of water for humans. We assessed temporal trends in water parameters, and the contribution of land use to the eutrophication of the largest lakes of central-southern Chile. The mean values of water parameters varied seasonally, with lakes Chapo and Caburgua exhibiting lower pH, temperature, and N/P ratio values. Over the assessed period (19 years), we found a temporal reduction in water conductivity and temperature of the lakes. The concentration of NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P and dissolved oxygen increased in all the lakes, but pH increased in eight out of the ten lakes. The negative temporal trend in temperature was more pronounced as the depth level increased. Lakes whose basins had a higher percentage of forest plantation and urban areas had larger values of Chlorophyll a and pH, as well as, smaller values of dissolved oxygen. Lakes whose basins included larger percentages of native forest had smaller nutrient (NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P) concentrations. Our findings suggest that decreased rainfall in central-southern Chile due to climate change may cause a decrease of particulate material that is carried by tributaries into the lakes. The observed temporal decrease in temperature, especially at the deeper levels, may be explained by the rapid melting of glaciers. Although the studied lakes are classified as oligotrophic, deforestation and expansion of urban areas around the lakes have led to increased nutrient input, thus accelerating their eutrophication. PMID:26437345

  6. The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand

    Jirarattanasopa P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pichai Jirarattanasopa,1 Nisa Panon,2 Siriphun Hiranyachattada,2 Patama Bhurayanontachai1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand Objective: To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error.Subjects and methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area.Results: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 µm, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001 and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02. Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age.Conclusion: Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 µm every year and 14.59 µm with 1 mm increase in axial length. Keywords: choroidal thickness, enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography, swept-source optical coherence tomography

  7. Biogeochemistry of southern Australian continental slope sediments

    Sediment cores from the middle to lower slope of the southern continental margin of Australia between the Great Australian Bight and western Tasmania are compared in terms of marine and terrigenous input signals during the Holocene. The mass accumulation rates of carbonate, organic carbon, biogenic Ba. and Al are corrected for lateral sediment input (focusing), using the inventory of excess 230Th in the sediment normalised to its known production rate in the water column above each site. The biogenic signal is generally higher in the eastern part of the southern margin probably due to enhanced productivity associated with seasonal upwelling off southeastern South Australia and the proximity of the Subtropical Front, which passes just south of Tasmania. The input of Al, representing the terrigenous signal, is also higher in this region reflecting the close proximity of river runoff from the mountainous catchment of southeastern Australia. The distribution pattern of Mn and authigenic U, together with pore-water profiles of Mn++, indicate diagenetic reactions driven by the oxidation of buried organic carbon in an oxic to suboxic environment. Whereas Mn is reduced at depth and diffuses upwards to become immobilised in a Mn-rich surface layer. U is derived from seawater and diffuses downward into the sediment, driven by reduction and precipitation at a depth below the reduction zone of Mn. The estimated removal rate of U from seawater by this process is within the range of U removal measured in hemipelagic sediments from other areas, and supports the proposition that hemipelagic sediments are a major sink of U in the global ocean. Unlike Mn, the depth profile of sedimentary Fe appears to be little affected by diagenesis, suggesting that little of the total Fe inventory in the sediment is remobilised and redistributed as soluble Fe. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Influence of southern sewage treatment plant on the wastewater quality of southern part of Hyderabad city

    The wastewater from southern part of Hyderabad city is pumped towards Southern Sewage Treatment Plant (SSTP), but most of the wastewater is leaked for agricultural purpose and a little wastewater reaches up to SSTP. SSTP has three facultative ponds followed by three maturation ponds with the total capacity of 6 million gallon per day (MGD). The wastewater after some biological treatment is again diverted for agriculture purposes. Six samples, three from different sewage stations pumping towards SSTP and three from SSTP were collected and analyzed for 30 different physico-chemical parameters. The sampling scheme was repeated 6 times during November 1999 to May 2000 at an interval of 4 to 5 weeks. The obtained results were analyzed on the statistical basis and a significant improvement was noticed in water quality for chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (D.O), Kjeldahl nitrogen, organic nitrogen and residues after biological treatment at SSTP. (author)

  9. 76 FR 68393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    2011-11-04

    ...; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the translocation of southern sea otters...

  10. Investment images in Southern Europe: an appreciation of firms in four Southern European cities

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the capacity of four medium-sized cities in Southern Europe, concerning the current situation of their assets (agglomeration economies, urban infrastructures, factors of labor and cost, etc.), the degree of development policies implementation and effectiveness by local authorities and finally the level of local authorities capacity to plan and implement particular policies and partnerships with the private sector in order to shape a favorable and attractive investment ima...