WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1975-2004 featuring cancer

  1. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  2. Topological Features In Cancer Gene Expression Data

    Lockwood, Svetlana; Krishnamoorthy, Bala

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for exploring cancer gene expression data based on tools from algebraic topology. Our method selects a small relevant subset from tens of thousands of genes while simultaneously identifying nontrivial higher order topological features, i.e., holes, in the data. We first circumvent the problem of high dimensionality by dualizing the data, i.e., by studying genes as points in the sample space. Then we select a small subset of the genes as landmarks to construct topologic...

  3. FEATURES OF BILATERAL BREAST CANCER NODAL METASTASIS

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    hyalinosis of the stroma.The observed features of nodal metastasis associated with the morphological characteristics of the tumor tissue, may act as prognostic markers in determining the risk of lymph node metastases in women with bilateral breast cancer, which would have a significant aid in determining the prognosis of an individual patient, and, therefore, mean individual approach to the tactics of treatment of such patients.

  4. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  5. Posterior breast cancer: Mammographic and ultrasonographic features

    Janković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Posterior breast cancers are located in the prepectoral region of the breast. Owing to this distinctive anatomical localization, physical examination and mammographic or ultrasonographic evaluation can be difficult. The purpose of the study was to assess possibilities of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasonography in detection and differentiation of posterior breast cancers. Methods. The study included 40 women with palpable, histopathological confirmed posterior breast cancer. Mammographic and ultrasonographic features were defined according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. Results. Based on standard two-view mammography 87.5%, of the cases were classified as BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories, while after additional mammographic views all the cases were defined as BIRADS 4 and 5 categories. Among 96 mammographic descriptors, the most frequent were: spiculated mass (24.0%, architectural distortion (16.7%, clustered microcalcifications (12.6% and focal asymmetric density (12.6%. The differentiation of the spiculated mass was significantly associated with the possibility to visualize the lesion at two-view mammography (p = 0.009, without the association with lesion diameter (p = 0.083 or histopathological type (p = 0.055. Mammographic signs of invasive lobular carcinoma were significantly different from other histopathological types (architectural distortion, p = 0.003; focal asymmetric density, p = 0.019; association of four or five subtle signs of malignancy, p = 0.006. All cancers were detectable by ultrasonography. Mass lesions were found in 82.0% of the cases. Among 153 ultrasonographic descriptors, the most frequent were: irregular mass (15.7%, lobulated mass (7.2%, abnormal color Doppler signals (20.3%, posterior acoustic attenuation (18.3%. Ultrasonographic BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were defined in 72.5% of the cases, without a significant difference among various histopathological types (p = 0

  6. Hybrid Local Feature Selection In DNA Analysis Based Cancer Classification

    Akila, M.; Mr.S.Senthamarai kannan

    2012-01-01

    Feature selection, as a preprocessing step to machine learning, is effective in reducing dimensionality, removing irrelevant data and increasing learning accuracy. The development of microarray dataset technology has supplied a large volume of data to many fields. In particular, it has been applied to prediction and diagnosis of cancer, so that it helps us to exactly predict and diagnose cancer. To precisely classify cancer we have to select genes related to cancer. The challenging task in ca...

  7. feature - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    "Cancer is a disease of the genome," noted Lynda Chin, M.D., professor of dermatology, Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. "And understanding the impact of genomic changes in the proteome is critically important for converting genomic knowledge into something that a clinician can use on their patients."

  8. Analysis of Colon Cancer Features in Croatia

    Silovski, Hrvoje; Buković, Damir; Silovski, Tajana; Jelinčić, Željko; Majerović, Mate; Malojčić, Branko

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative parametars were evaluated in 186 colorectal cancer patients. Quality of life was evaluated in subgroup of 84 patients. Correlation between Dukes stage of disease and qualitative (gender, blood type, marital status, region of Croatia from where patients were coming) and quantitative biological parametars (age, body mass index) was analysed. There was no statistically significant difference considering distribution of the patients disease stage and gende...

  9. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer in young patients

    Liu, Shushang; Feng, Fan; Xu, Guanghui; Liu, Zhen; Tian, Yangzi; Guo, Man; Lian, Xiao; Cai, Lei; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer in young patients are both limited and controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer in young patients after curative resection. Methods From May 2008 to December 2014, 198 young patients (age ≤ 40 years) and 1096 middle-aged patients (55 ≤ age ≤ 64 years) were enrolled in this study. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of gast...

  10. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement.

  11. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement

  12. Biomolecular features of clinical relevance in breast cancer

    Daidone, M.G.; Paradiso, A.; Gion, M.; Harbeck, N.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Schmitt, M.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and its consequent complexity is a major challenge for physicians and biologists. Notwithstanding its potential curability due to the availability of treatment modalities which are effective in the presence of favourable clinical or pathobiological features,

  13. Lung cancer in central Tunisia: epidemiology and clinicopathological features.

    Missaoui, Nabiha; Hmissa, Sihem; Landolsi, Hanene; Korbi, Skander; Joma, Wafa; Anjorin, Affissath; Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Beizig, Nadia; Mokni, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide but data from Tunisia are limited. The aim of this research was to describe the epidemiology, pathology and clinical features of lung cancer in Central Tunisia. All lung cancer cases diagnosed during a 15-year period were analyzed based on the data of the Cancer Registry of the Center of Tunisia. Five-year age-specific rates, world age-standardized rates (ASR), and annual percent change were calculated using annual data on population size and the estimated age structure. A total of 1,882 incident cases of lung cancer were registered (1,782 males, 100 females). The median age at diagnosis was 64 years for males and 61 years for females, with ASRs of 35.2 per 100,000 among males and 1.5 among females. Over time, there were significant decreasing trends by -6.5% (95% CI: -12.9%; -0.2%) for females and a stable incidence for males at an annual rate of +0.2% (95% CI: -1.6%; +1.8%). The predominant histological type was squamous cell carcinoma in males (36.9%) and adenocarcinoma in females (52%). During 2003-2007, adenocarcinoma became the most frequent (33.7%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (30.3%) in males. The majority of tumor cases were diagnosed at advanced stages (79.9%). In conclusion, lung cancer has remained the most common cancer diagnosed at advanced stages among Tunisian men. Our findings justify the need to plan and develop effective programs aiming at the control and prevention of the spread of lung cancer in Tunisia. PMID:22296375

  14. Clinicopathological features of early gastric cancer with duodenal invasion

    Tsutomu Namikawa; Kazuhiro Hanazaki

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of early gastric cancer (EGC) with duodenal invasion is ext remely low, al though advanced gastric cancer that arises in the antrum occasionally invades the duodenum. We investigated the clinicopathological features of EGC with duodenal invasion and provided strategies for clinical management. A Medline search was performed using the keyword "early gastric cancer" and "duodenal invasion". Additional articles were obtained from references within the papers identified by the Medline search. We revealed that EGC with duodenal invasion was of the superficial spreading type of tumor. Tumors > 60 mm in size invaded the duodenum more extensively, and the distance of duodenal invasion from the pyloric ring was further in the elevated type than in the depressed type of tumor. There was no significant difference between the length of duodenal invasion and the histological type of the tumor. Gastric cancer located adjacent to the pyloric ring, even if cancer invasion was confined to the mucosa or submucosa, was more likely to invade the duodenum. The present study reveals that the elevated type of EGC is associated with more extensive duodenal invasion when the tumor size is > 60 mm, thus highlighting the importance of identification of duodenal invasion in these cases. We also reveal that sufficient duodenal resection with a cancer-free distal surgical margin should be performed in cases of duodenal invasion.

  15. Feature Selection and Molecular Classification of Cancer Using Genetic Programming

    Jianjun Yu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite important advances in microarray-based molecular classification of tumors, its application in clinical settings remains formidable. This is in part due to the limitation of current analysis programs in discovering robust biomarkers and developing classifiers with a practical set of genes. Genetic programming (GP is a type of machine learning technique that uses evolutionary algorithm to simulate natural selection as well as population dynamics, hence leading to simple and comprehensible classifiers. Here we applied GP to cancer expression profiling data to select feature genes and build molecular classifiers by mathematical integration of these genes. Analysis of thousands of GP classifiers generated for a prostate cancer data set revealed repetitive use of a set of highly discriminative feature genes, many of which are known to be disease associated. GP classifiers often comprise five or less genes and successfully predict cancer types and subtypes. More importantly, GP classifiers generated in one study are able to predict samples from an independent study, which may have used different microarray platforms. In addition, GP yielded classification accuracy better than or similar to conventional classification methods. Furthermore, the mathematical expression of GP classifiers provides insights into relationships between classifier genes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GP may be valuable for generating effective classifiers containing a practical set of genes for diagnostic/ prognostic cancer classification.

  16. Clinical Features of Liver Cancer with Cerebral Hemorrhage.

    Lu, Qiuhong; Chen, Li; Zeng, Jinsheng; Huang, Gelun; Qin, Chao; Cheng, Daobin; Yu, Lixia; Liang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cerebral hemorrhage is common in patients with cancer, but the clinical features and pathogenesis of liver cancer patients with cerebral hemorrhage are not well known. MATERIAL AND METHODS Liver cancer patients who developed cerebral hemorrhage were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 2003 and December 2014. We retrospectively analyzed clinical presentations, results of laboratory tests, and imaging examinations. The clinical features and pathogenesis were summarized. RESULTS Among 11133 patients with liver cancer, 9 patients (0.08%), including 3 females and 6 males met the inclusion criteria. The age range was 48-73 years and the average age was 61.67±8.97 years. Five patients did not have traditional hemorrhage risk factors and 4s had the risk factors; however, all had developed hepatocellular carcinoma, and 3 had developed metastasis. All 9 patients showed elevated tumor markers: an increased AFP level was detected in 6 patients, coagulation dysfunctions in 8 patients, and abnormal liver functions in 6 patients. Five patients had developed cerebral hemorrhagic lesions in the lobes of their brains, while hemorrhagic lesions in the basal ganglia occurred in 3 patients and in the brainstem in only 1 patient. Four patients had clear consciousness, while 5 patients were in coma and showed poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS Patients who have liver cancer complicated with cerebral hemorrhage usually lack traditional risk factors of cerebral hemorrhage. The site of cerebral hemorrhage is often detected in the lobes of the brain. Coagulation dysfunctions might be the main pathogenesis of liver cancer complicated with cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27209058

  17. Breast Cancer Detection with Gabor Features from Digital Mammograms

    Yufeng Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new breast cancer detection algorithm, named the “Gabor Cancer Detection” (GCD algorithm, utilizing Gabor features is proposed. Three major steps are involved in the GCD algorithm, preprocessing, segmentation (generating alarm segments, and classification (reducing false alarms. In preprocessing, a digital mammogram is down-sampled, quantized, denoised and enhanced. Nonlinear diffusion is used for noise suppression. In segmentation, a band-pass filter is formed by rotating a 1-D Gaussian filter (off center in frequency space, termed as “Circular Gaussian Filter” (CGF. A CGF can be uniquely characterized by specifying a central frequency and a frequency band. A mass or calcification is a space-occupying lesion and usually appears as a bright region on a mammogram. The alarm segments (suspicious to be masses/calcifications can be extracted out using a threshold that is adaptively decided upon the histogram analysis of the CGF-filtered mammogram. In classification, a Gabor filter bank is formed with five bands by four orientations (horizontal, vertical, 45 and 135 degree in Fourier frequency domain. For each mammographic image, twenty Gabor-filtered images are produced. A set of edge histogram descriptors (EHD are then extracted from 20 Gabor images for classification. An EHD signature is computed with four orientations of Gabor images along each band and five EHD signatures are then joined together to form an EHD feature vector of 20 dimensions. With the EHD features, the fuzzy C-means clustering technique and k-nearest neighbor (KNN classifier are used to reduce the number of false alarms. The experimental results tested on the DDSM database (University of South Florida show the promises of GCD algorithm in breast cancer detection, which achieved TP (true positive rate = 90% at FPI (false positives per image = 1.21 in mass detection; and TP = 93% at FPI = 1.19 in calcification detection.

  18. Brain metastases from esophageal cancers. Clinical features and treatment results

    Metastatic brain tumors from esophageal cancer are relatively rare. We analyzed the clinical features and results of treatment in 14 cases of brain metastases from esophageal carcinoma. The average time to diagnosis of brain metastases in the 11 patients with metachronous lesions was 13 months. The average age of patients at the diagnosis of brain metastasis was 65 years. Most patients had T4 or N1 disease at the time of diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Performance status of grade 3 was most frequent at the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis. Treatment for brain metastases was surgery followed by radiation in five cases, radiotherapy alone in seven cases, and conservative treatment in two cases. The median survival time of all patients from the treatment of brain metastases was 2 months, with only one patient alive after more than one year. Improvement in neurological symptoms was demonstrated in 42% of cases. These extremely poor treatment results reflect the fact that most patients at the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis had poor performance status and the presence of extracerebral metastases. Therefore, a short-course, high-dose-per-fraction treatment for brain metastases from esophageal cancer should be selected from the viewpoint of quality of life. (author)

  19. Quantitative imaging features to predict cancer status in lung nodules

    Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Atwater, Thomas; Antic, Sanja; Li, Qian; Walker, Ronald; Smith, Gary T.; Massion, Pierre P.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Background: We propose a systematic methodology to quantify incidentally identified lung nodules based on observed radiological traits on a point scale. These quantitative traits classification model was used to predict cancer status. Materials and Methods: We used 102 patients' low dose computed tomography (LDCT) images for this study, 24 semantic traits were systematically scored from each image. We built a machine learning classifier in cross validation setting to find best predictive imaging features to differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. Results: The best feature triplet to discriminate malignancy was based on long axis, concavity and lymphadenopathy with average AUC of 0.897 (Accuracy of 76.8%, Sensitivity of 64.3%, Specificity of 90%). A similar semantic triplet optimized on Sensitivity/Specificity (Youden's J index) included long axis, vascular convergence and lymphadenopathy which had an average AUC of 0.875 (Accuracy of 81.7%, Sensitivity of 76.2%, Specificity of 95%). Conclusions: Quantitative radiological image traits can differentiate malignant from benign lung nodules. These semantic features along with size measurement enhance the prediction accuracy.

  20. Distribution and pathological features of pancreatic, ampullary, biliary and duodenal cancers resected with pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Chandrasegaram, Manju D.; Chiam, Su C; Chen, John W.; Khalid, Aisha; Mittinty, Murthy L; Neo, Eu L.; Tan, Chuan P; Dolan, Paul M; Brooke-Smith, Mark E.; Kanhere, Harsh; Worthley, Chris S

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer (PC) has the worst survival of all periampullary cancers. This may relate to histopathological differences between pancreatic cancers and other periampullary cancers. Our aim was to examine the distribution and histopathologic features of pancreatic, ampullary, biliary and duodenal cancers resected with a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to examine local trends of periampullary cancers resected with a PD. Methods A retrospective review of PD between January 2000 a...

  1. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review)

    NAKAMURA, KANAKO; Banno, Kouji; YANOKURA, MEGUMI; Iida, Miho; ADACHI, MASATAKA; Masuda, Kenta; UEKI, ARISA; KOBAYASHI, YUSUKE; NOMURA, HIROYUKI; Hirasawa, Akira; TOMINAGA, EIICHIRO; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9–2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10–15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65–75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage II...

  2. How do patient and hospital features influence outcomes in small-cell lung cancer in England?

    Rich, A L; Tata, L J; Free, C M; Stanley, R. A.; Peake, M D; Baldwin, D. R.; Hubbard , R B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to systematically determine how features of patients and hospitals influence access to chemotherapy and survival for people with small-cell lung cancer in England. Methods: We linked the National Lung Cancer Audit and Hospital Episode Statistics and used multiple logistic and Cox regression analyses to assess the influence of patient and hospital features on small-cell lung cancer outcomes. Results: There were 7845 patients with histologically proven small-cell lung ca...

  3. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Noriyuki Horiguchi; Tomomitsu Tahara; Tomohiko Kawamura; Masaaki Okubo; Takamitsu Ishizuka; Yoshihito Nakagawa; Mitsuo Nagasaka; Tomoyuki Shibata; Naoki Ohmiya

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. C...

  4. Automated prostate cancer detection via comprehensive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging texture feature models

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North America. Auto-detection of prostate cancer can play a major role in early detection of prostate cancer, which has a significant impact on patient survival rates. While multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has shown promise in diagnosis of prostate cancer, the existing auto-detection algorithms do not take advantage of abundance of data available in MP-MRI to improve detection accuracy. The goal of this research was to design a radiomics-based auto-detection method for prostate cancer via utilizing MP-MRI data. In this work, we present new MP-MRI texture feature models for radiomics-driven detection of prostate cancer. In addition to commonly used non-invasive imaging sequences in conventional MP-MRI, namely T2-weighted MRI (T2w) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), our proposed MP-MRI texture feature models incorporate computed high-b DWI (CHB-DWI) and a new diffusion imaging modality called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI). Moreover, the proposed texture feature models incorporate features from individual b-value images. A comprehensive set of texture features was calculated for both the conventional MP-MRI and new MP-MRI texture feature models. We performed feature selection analysis for each individual modality and then combined best features from each modality to construct the optimized texture feature models. The performance of the proposed MP-MRI texture feature models was evaluated via leave-one-patient-out cross-validation using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier trained on 40,975 cancerous and healthy tissue samples obtained from real clinical MP-MRI datasets. The proposed MP-MRI texture feature models outperformed the conventional model (i.e., T2w+DWI) with regard to cancer detection accuracy. Comprehensive texture feature models were developed for improved radiomics-driven detection of prostate cancer using MP-MRI. Using a

  5. CT features in second cancers of the maxillary sinus

    Five patients with a second maxillary cancer (squamous cell carcinoma), which developed 6 to 17 years after initial treatment for the first cancer on the opposite side, were compared with 21 control cases with a primary cancer on the basis of computed tomography (CT) findings. Generally, the second cancer was found at an earlier stage. The specific CT findings of early sinus carcinoma were uneven soft tissue distribution in the antrum and tumor permeation with bone fragments remaining at the original tumor site. These findings may be helpful for distiguishing this cancer from benign chronic sinusitis and/or other malignant sinus disease. The pterygoid process, medial bony wall, and ethmoid sinus had a tendency to be spared in most of the 5 patients with second maxillary cancer compared to the 21 control cases. (orig.)

  6. Atrophy of the Tongue as the Presenting Feature of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Abdullah, Zreik; Darrad, Maitrey; Pathak, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed solid organ cancer in men and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United Kingdom. Commonly, it metastasizes to bones and lymph nodes, however, in advanced hormonerefractory disease it may involve the skull base leading to associated cranial nerve palsies. Cranial nerve palsy as the presenting feature of advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first ...

  7. Cowden Syndrome Presenting as Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical Features

    Seo, Mirinae [Dept. of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Moon, Hyeong Gon [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hye Shin [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Cowden syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal dominant disease which is characterized by multiple hamartomas of the skin, mucous membrane, brain, breast, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of Cowden syndrome implicates an increased risk of developing breast cancer. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with Cowden syndrome that presented as breast cancer with concomitant bilateral exuberant benign masses in both breasts.

  8. Human prostate cancer stem cells: new features unveiled

    Yuting Sun; Wei-Qiang Gao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare sub-population of phenotypically distinct cancer cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics.They are tumourigenic, meanwhile capable of self-renewal and forming differentiated progenies.CSCs are believed to be resistant to the standard therapeutics, and provide the cell reservoir for tumour initiation.1 Understanding CSCs or in another word, tumour-initiating cells, is of critical therapeutic importance.

  9. Senescent cells harbour features of the cancer epigenome

    Cruickshanks, Hazel A; McBryan, Tony; Nelson, David M.; VanderKraats, Nathan D.; Shah, Parisha P.; van Tuyn, John; Rai, Taranjit Singh; Brock, Claire; Donahue, Greg; Dunican, Donncha S; Drotar, Mark E.; Meehan, Richard R.; Edwards, John R.; Berger, Shelley L.; Adams, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Altered DNA methylation and associated destabilization of genome integrity and function is a hallmark of cancer. Replicative senescence is a tumour suppressor process that imposes a limit on the proliferative potential of normal cells that all cancer cells must bypass. Here we show by whole-genome single-nucleotide bisulfite sequencing that replicative senescent human cells exhibit widespread DNA hypomethylation and focal hypermethylation. Hypomethylation occurs preferentially at gene-poor, l...

  10. Colorectal cancer complicated by perforation. Specific features of surgical tactics

    S. N. Shchaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the immediate results of surgical interventions for colorectal cancer complicated by perforation.Materials and methods. The immediate results of surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed in 56 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by perforated colon cancer, who had been treated at Smolensk surgical hospitals in 2001 to 2013. Patients with diastatic perforation of the colon in the presence of decompensated obturation intestinal obstruction of tumor genesis were not included into this investigation.Results. The immediate results of uni- and multistage surgical interventions were analyzed in relation to the extent of peritonitis and the stage of colon cancer. More satisfactory immediate results were observed after multistage surgical treatment. Following these interventions, a fatal outcome of disseminated peritonitis in the presence of performed colorectal cancer was recorded in 8 (53.3 % cases whereas after symptomatic surgery there were 11 (67.8 % deaths. A fatal outcome was noted in 1 case (7.7 % after multistage surgery.Discussion. The results of surgical treatment in the patients with perforated colorectal cancer are directly related to the degree of peritonitis and the choice of surgical tactics.

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Imaging features of unusual cancer in children

    Ayda A. Youssef

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Pediatric NPC is generally not suspected clinically until late into the disease process. Awareness that NPC can occur in children should prompt careful evaluation for distinctive radiographic features. Earlier diagnosis may then direct the patient to timely appropriate therapy when these key radiographic features are present and recognized.

  12. [Particular features of lymph dissection in operations for gastric cancer].

    Iaitskiĭ, A N; Danilov, I N

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize the technique of lymph dissection, a method of intraoperative mapping of lymph outflow tracts was used with a lymphotropic dye Blue patente V. It allowed better orientation during lymphodissection in operations for gastric cancer. The detection and investigation of the "signal" lymph node as the most probable object of lymphogenic metastazing can improve the accuracy of postoperative staging of gastric cancer. Visualization of the lymph nodes in the preparation made it possible to increase the number of lymph nodes sent for histological investigation. PMID:18522180

  13. Inflammation, Autophagy, and Obesity: Common Features in the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    Gukovsky, Ilya; Ning LI; Todoric, Jelena; Gukovskaya, Anna; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and autophagy are cellular defense mechanisms. When these processes are deregulated (deficient or overactivated) they produce pathologic effects, such as oxidative stress, metabolic impairments, and cell death. Unresolved inflammation and disrupted regulation of autophagy are common features of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, obesity, a risk factor for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, promotes inflammation and inhibits or deregulates autophagy, creating an env...

  14. Management and performance features of cancer centers in Europe: A fuzzy-set analysis

    Wind, Anke; Lobo, Mariana Fernandes; Dijk, van Joris; Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Laranja-Pontes, Jose; Conceicao Goncalves, da Vitor; Harten, van Wim; Rocha-Goncalves, Francisco Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The specific aim of this study is to identify the performance features of cancer centers in the European Union by using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The fsQCA method represents cases (cancer centers) as a combination of explanatory and outcome conditions. This study uses dat

  15. X-ray features of pulmonary metastases of thyroid cancer

    Lutsenko, I.V. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Onkologicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR))

    Metastases of thyroid cancer to the chest cavity organs were detected in 19.4%. They were found most frequently in the pulmonary tissue (75.8%), in the mediastinal lymph nodes (57.9%), less frequently in the lymph nodes of the roots of the lungs (30.4%) and very rarely in the pleura (2.6%). X-ray signs of metastases are identical for all histological structures of thyroid cancer. The most typical are multiple lesions (91.8%). The nodular form is found in 74.5%, the nodal form in 17.2.%. Solitary metastases and cancerous lymphangitis are rarely noted (7.2 and 0.9% respectively. The regression of metastases, spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumonia are rarely observed as well (1.8, 0.9 and 1.8%) respectively). The doubling time of the size of metastatic tumors of thyroid cancer ranges from 52 to 379 days. The use of radioactive iodine and hormones inhibits their growth rates.

  16. X-ray features of pulmonary metastases of thyroid cancer

    Metastases of thyroid cancer to the chest cavity organs were detected in 19.4%. They were found most frequently in the pulmonary tissue (75.8%), in the mediastinal lymph nodes (57.9%), less frequently in the lymph nodes of the roots of the lungs (30.4%) and very rarely in the pleura (2.6%). X-ray signs of metastases are identical for all histological structures of thyroid cancer. The most typical are multiple lesions (91.8%). The nodular form is found in 74.5%, the nodal form in 17.2.%. Solitary metastases and cancerous lymphangitis are rarely noted (7.2 and 0.9% respectively. The regression of metastases, spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumonia are rarely observed as well (1.8, 0.9 and 1.8%) respectively). The doubling time of the size of metastatic tumors of thyroid cancer ranges from 52 to 379 days. The use of radioactive iodine and hormones inhibits their growth rates

  17. Cancer metabolic reprogramming:impor tance, main features, and potentials for precise targeted anti-cancer therapies

    Liem Minh Phan; Sai-Ching Jim Yeung; Mong-Hong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells are well documented to rewire their metabolism and energy production networks to support and enable rapid proliferation, continuous growth, survival in harsh conditions, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to cancer treatments. Since Dr. Otto Warburg’s discovery about altered cancer cell metabolism in 1930, thousands of studies have shed light on various aspects of cancer metabolism with a common goal to find new ways for effectively eliminating tumor cells by targeting their energy metabolism. hTis review highlights the importance of the main features of cancer metabolism, summarizes recent remarkable advances in this ifeld, and points out the potentials to translate these scientiifc ifndings into life-saving diagnosis and therapies to help cancer patients.

  18. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy. PMID:27212944

  19. Risk of Breast Cancer in Women with False-Positive Results according to Mammographic Features.

    Castells, Xavier; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Posso, Margarita; Román, Marta; Vernet-Tomas, Maria; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Domingo, Laia; Vidal, Carmen; Baré, Marisa; Ferrer, Joana; Quintana, María Jesús; Sánchez, Mar; Natal, Carmen; Espinàs, Josep A; Saladié, Francina; Sala, María

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To assess the risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive screening results according to radiologic classification of mammographic features. Materials and Methods Review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. This retrospective cohort study included 521 200 women aged 50-69 years who underwent screening as part of the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program between 1994 and 2010 and who were observed until December 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer and the 95% confidence interval (CI) in women with false-positive mammograms as compared with women with negative mammograms. Separate models were adjusted for screen-detected and interval cancers and for screen-film and digital mammography. Time without a breast cancer diagnosis was plotted by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results When compared with women with negative mammograms, the age-adjusted HR of cancer in women with false-positive results was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.95; P breast cancer, particularly women who had calcifications at mammography. Women who had more than one examination with false-positive findings and in whom the mammographic features changed over time had a highly increased risk of breast cancer. Previous mammographic features might yield useful information for further risk-prediction models and personalized follow-up screening protocols. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26878225

  20. Enhanced cancer recognition system based on random forests feature elimination algorithm.

    Ozcift, Akin

    2012-08-01

    Accurate classifiers are vital to design precise computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems. Classification performances of machine learning algorithms are sensitive to the characteristics of data. In this aspect, determining the relevant and discriminative features is a key step to improve performance of CADx. There are various feature extraction methods in the literature. However, there is no universal variable selection algorithm that performs well in every data analysis scheme. Random Forests (RF), an ensemble of trees, is used in classification studies successfully. The success of RF algorithm makes it eligible to be used as kernel of a wrapper feature subset evaluator. We used best first search RF wrapper algorithm to select optimal features of four medical datasets: colon cancer, leukemia cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer. We compared accuracies of 15 widely used classifiers trained with all features versus to extracted features of each dataset. The experimental results demonstrated the efficiency of proposed feature extraction strategy with the increase in most of the classification accuracies of the algorithms. PMID:21567124

  1. Diagnostic features of lung metastases differentiated thyroid cancer

    T. M. Geliashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The worldwide increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC is mainly due to a rise in its major form of differentiated TC (DTC: papillary. Most patients with DTC have a good prognosis; 10-year survival overall rates are as high as 85 %, but not greater than 40 % in a group of patients with distant metastases. At the same time, the lung is the most frequent target for distant metastases, accounting for 70 % of all sites.Objective: to estimate and compare the capabilities of different diagnostic techniques to detect lung metastases of DTC. Materials and methods. The results of diagnosing lung metastases were retrospectively analyzed in 36 patients (33 women and 3 men; mean age 53 years with DTC (29 patients with papillary TC and 7 with follicular TC treated at the department of radiotherapy with systemic therapy, Chelyabinsk Regional Clinical Oncology Center from 2011 to 2014.Results. Chest X-ray could reveal pulmonary metastases in 13 (36 % patients; lung pathology foci were absent in 23 (64 % patients. 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS proved to be of informative value in 24 (66.7 % patients, it displayed no increased accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the lung of 12 (33.3 % cases. Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT of the chest was carried out in 22 (61 % patients; out of them 21 (95.5 % were found to have 1.4-to-20-mm lung cancer foci. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT was performed in 18 (50 % patients, which showed 3–26-mm lung pathology foci in all the patents; out of them 16 (88.9 % were detected to have metastases owing to the CT component of this method. Thus, the highest sensitivity was exhibited by MSCT (95.5 %, 18FDG PET / CT (100 % due to its CT component, and 131I WBS (66.7 %.Conclusion. When lung metastases of DTC are suspected, 1 chest X-ray should be used as a screening test; 2 131I WBS should be performed in all patients; 3 MSCT of the chest is

  2. Ovarian and Breast Cancer Spheres Are Similar in Transcriptomic Features and Sensitive to Fenretinide

    Haiwei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are resistant to chemotherapy and are ability to regenerate cancer cell populations, thus attracting much attention in cancer research. In this report, we first demonstrated that sphere cells from ovarian cancer cell line A2780 shared many features of CSCs, such as resistance to cisplatin and able to initiate tumors in an efficient manner. Then, we conducted cDNA microarray analysis on spheres from ovarian A2780 cells, and from breast MCF7 and SUM159 cells, and found that molecular pathways underlying spheres from these cancer cell lines were similar to a large extent, suggesting that similar mechanisms are involved in the genesis of CSCs in both ovarian and breast cancer types. In addition, we showed that spheres from these cancer types were highly sensitive to fenretinide, a stimulus of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. Thus, our results not only provide important insights into mechanisms underlying CSCs in ovarian and breast cancer, but also lead to the development of more sophisticated protocols of cancer therapy in near future.

  3. Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN. (note)

  4. NOTE: Prostate cancer multi-feature analysis using trans-rectal ultrasound images

    Mohamed, S. S.; Salama, M. M. A.; Kamel, M.; El-Saadany, E. F.; Rizkalla, K.; Chin, J.

    2005-08-01

    This note focuses on extracting and analysing prostate texture features from trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for tissue characterization. One of the principal contributions of this investigation is the use of the information of the images' frequency domain features and spatial domain features to attain a more accurate diagnosis. Each image is divided into regions of interest (ROIs) by the Gabor multi-resolution analysis, a crucial stage, in which segmentation is achieved according to the frequency response of the image pixels. The pixels with a similar response to the same filter are grouped to form one ROI. Next, from each ROI two different statistical feature sets are constructed; the first set includes four grey level dependence matrix (GLDM) features and the second set consists of five grey level difference vector (GLDV) features. These constructed feature sets are then ranked by the mutual information feature selection (MIFS) algorithm. Here, the features that provide the maximum mutual information of each feature and class (cancerous and non-cancerous) and the minimum mutual information of the selected features are chosen, yeilding a reduced feature subset. The two constructed feature sets, GLDM and GLDV, as well as the reduced feature subset, are examined in terms of three different classifiers: the condensed k-nearest neighbour (CNN), the decision tree (DT) and the support vector machine (SVM). The accuracy classification results range from 87.5% to 93.75%, where the performance of the SVM and that of the DT are significantly better than the performance of the CNN.

  5. Expression of eag1 channel associated with the aggressive clinicopathological features and subtype of breast cancer

    Liu, Guang-Xu; Yu, Yun-Cui; He, Xiang-ping; Ren, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Fen; He, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: Expression of eag1 channel (Eag1) is associated with cell malignant transformation, tumor cell metastasis and poor prognosis of the patient. This study aimed at examining whether expression of the Eag1 associated with aggressive clinicopathological feature and the molecular subtype of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: 109 patients who received breast cancer operation during January 2009 to December 2010 in Chinese-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University were recruite...

  6. Exploring new quantitative CT image features to improve assessment of lung cancer prognosis

    Emaminejad, Nastaran; Qian, Wei; Kang, Yan; Guan, Yubao; Lure, Fleming; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Due to the promotion of lung cancer screening, more Stage I non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are currently detected, which usually have favorable prognosis. However, a high percentage of the patients have cancer recurrence after surgery, which reduces overall survival rate. To achieve optimal efficacy of treating and managing Stage I NSCLC patients, it is important to develop more accurate and reliable biomarkers or tools to predict cancer prognosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate a new quantitative image analysis method to predict the risk of lung cancer recurrence of Stage I NSCLC patients after the lung cancer surgery using the conventional chest computed tomography (CT) images and compare the prediction result with a popular genetic biomarker namely, protein expression of the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) genes. In this study, we developed and tested a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to segment lung tumors and initially compute 35 tumor-related morphologic and texture features from CT images. By applying a machine learning based feature selection method, we identified a set of 8 effective and non-redundant image features. Using these features we trained a naïve Bayesian network based classifier to predict the risk of cancer recurrence. When applying to a test dataset with 79 Stage I NSCLC cases, the computed areas under ROC curves were 0.77±0.06 and 0.63±0.07 when using the quantitative image based classifier and ERCC1, respectively. The study results demonstrated the feasibility of improving accuracy of predicting cancer prognosis or recurrence risk using a CAD-based quantitative image analysis method.

  7. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p < 0.0001), reddish (p = 0.0001), and smaller (p = 0.0095) lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm) and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (p = 0.077, 0.0867, resp.). Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy. PMID:27212944

  8. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Noriyuki Horiguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group. Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p<0.0001, reddish (p=0.0001, and smaller (p=0.0095 lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (p=0.077, 0.0867, resp.. Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, p<0.0001. Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy.

  9. Imaging feature changes of rats with implanted liver cancer after electrochemotherapy

    Objective: To study the changes of imaging features of rats with implanted liver cancer before and after electrochemotherapy (EChT). Methods: Immediate cancerous ascites injection method was used to form rats liver cancer model. The imaging features of rats with implanted liver cancer, including tumor size, density, border, enhancement and signal were observed with CT and MRI respectively. Results: The characteristic imagings showed all these rats bearing single, round tumor in liver seven days later. Low density lesions were seen in pre-contrast scans and tumor border intensification were seen on contrast scans. Low signal lesions were found in MRI T1WI and high signal lesions were revealed on MRI T2WI. Seven days after EchT, low density lesions were seen in pre-contrast scan and non-enhanced appearances were seen in contrast scan by CT. High signal and mixed signal lesion were seen in MRI T1WI and relative low signal lesion were seen in MRI T2WI. Conclusions: Imaging features analysis is useful to assess the therapeutic effect on rats with implanted liver cancer before and after EChT

  10. Cuckoo search optimisation for feature selection in cancer classification: a new approach.

    Gunavathi, C; Premalatha, K

    2015-01-01

    Cuckoo Search (CS) optimisation algorithm is used for feature selection in cancer classification using microarray gene expression data. Since the gene expression data has thousands of genes and a small number of samples, feature selection methods can be used for the selection of informative genes to improve the classification accuracy. Initially, the genes are ranked based on T-statistics, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and F-statistics values. The CS is used to find the informative genes from the top-m ranked genes. The classification accuracy of k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN) technique is used as the fitness function for CS. The proposed method is experimented and analysed with ten different cancer gene expression datasets. The results show that the CS gives 100% average accuracy for DLBCL Harvard, Lung Michigan, Ovarian Cancer, AML-ALL and Lung Harvard2 datasets and it outperforms the existing techniques in DLBCL outcome and prostate datasets. PMID:26547979

  11. Combining targeted drugs to overcome and prevent resistance of solid cancers with some stem-like cell features

    Jokinen, Elina; Laurila, Niina; Koivunen, Peppi; Koivunen, Jussi P

    2014-01-01

    Treatment resistance significantly inhibits the efficiency of targeted cancer therapies in drug-sensitive genotypes. In the current work, we studied mechanisms for rapidly occurring, adaptive resistance in targeted therapy-sensitive lung, breast, and melanoma cancer cell lines. The results show that in ALK translocated lung cancer lines H3122 and H2228, cells with cancer stem-like cell features characterized by high expression of cancer stem cell markers and/or in vivo tumorigenesis can media...

  12. Analysis of the Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Dehong Yang; Hong Liu; Jing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical and pathological features,as well as prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients.METHODS A total of 509 cases of operable breast cancer from January,2002 to June,2002 treated in the Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University were analyzed.The Her-2,ER and PR status was determined using immunohistochemistry.Of the total cases,one group was identified as triple negative breast cancer,ie defined as ER,PR and Her-2 negative.The other group was nontriple-negative breast cancer.Clinicopathologic features of the groups were compared and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS)analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.RESULTS Of the total cases,21.4% (109/509) of cases were found to be triple- negative while 78.6% (400/509) were non-triplenegative.The triple negative group had higher incidence rates than the non-triple-negative group of the medullary type and Grade Ⅲ tumors (P < 0.05).There was no other difference in the clinicopathologic features between the 2 groups.From follow-up to June,2007,21.1% (23/109) of the triple-negative group and 12.7%(51/400) of the non-triple negative group had a local recurrence or distant metastasis,resulting in a significant difference (P < 0.05).In the triple-negative group and non-triple-negative group,5-year DFS were 78.9% and 87.3% respectively.There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.031).CONCLUSION Compared with non-triple-negative breast cancer,triple-negative breast cancer patients have an increased likehood of a local recurrence or distant metastasis and a poorer prognosis.

  13. Ensemble based system for whole-slide prostate cancer probability mapping using color texture features.

    DiFranco, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    We present a tile-based approach for producing clinically relevant probability maps of prostatic carcinoma in histological sections from radical prostatectomy. Our methodology incorporates ensemble learning for feature selection and classification on expert-annotated images. Random forest feature selection performed over varying training sets provides a subset of generalized CIEL*a*b* co-occurrence texture features, while sample selection strategies with minimal constraints reduce training data requirements to achieve reliable results. Ensembles of classifiers are built using expert-annotated tiles from training images, and scores for the probability of cancer presence are calculated from the responses of each classifier in the ensemble. Spatial filtering of tile-based texture features prior to classification results in increased heat-map coherence as well as AUC values of 95% using ensembles of either random forests or support vector machines. Our approach is designed for adaptation to different imaging modalities, image features, and histological decision domains.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Feature Extraction Methods for the Classification of Prostate Cancer from TRUS Medical Images

    Manavalan Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing Prostate cancer is a challenging task for Urologists, Radiologists, and Oncologists. Ultrasound imaging is one of the hopeful techniques used for early detection of prostate cancer. The Region of interest (ROI is identified by different methods after preprocessing. In this paper, DBSCAN clustering with morphological operators is used to extort the prostate region. The evaluation of texture features is important for several image processing applications. The performance of the features extracted from the various texture methods such as histogram, Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM, Gray-Level Run-Length Matrix (GRLM, are analyzed separately. In this paper, it is proposed to combine histogram, GLRLM and GLCM in order to study the performance. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is adopted to classify the extracted features into benign or malignant. The performance of texture methods are evaluated using various statistical parameters such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The comparative analysis has been performed over 5500 digitized TRUS images of prostate.

  15. Cancer Basics

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  16. New Molecular Features of Colorectal Cancer Identified - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Investigators from the National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) who comprehensively analyzed 95 human colorectal tumor samples, have determined how gene alterations identified in previous analyses of the same samples

  17. Predicting non-small cell lung cancer prognosis by fully automated microscopic pathology image features

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Zhang, Ce; Berry, Gerald J.; Altman, Russ B.; Ré, Christopher; Rubin, Daniel L.; Snyder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer worldwide, and histopathological assessment is indispensable for its diagnosis. However, human evaluation of pathology slides cannot accurately predict patients' prognoses. In this study, we obtain 2,186 haematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology whole-slide images of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and 294 additional images from Stanford Tissue Microarray (TMA) Database. We extract 9,879 quantitative image features and use regularized machine-learning methods to select the top features and to distinguish shorter-term survivors from longer-term survivors with stage I adenocarcinoma (P<0.003) or squamous cell carcinoma (P=0.023) in the TCGA data set. We validate the survival prediction framework with the TMA cohort (P<0.036 for both tumour types). Our results suggest that automatically derived image features can predict the prognosis of lung cancer patients and thereby contribute to precision oncology. Our methods are extensible to histopathology images of other organs. PMID:27527408

  18. Analysis on Clinical Features of 2168 Patients with Lung Cancer Diagnosed by Bronchoscope

    Yu Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical features of lung cancer diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Methods: The clinical features of 2168 patients with lung cancer diagnosed by bronchoscopy were retrospectively analyzed, including gender, age, pathological type, diseased region, manifestations under bronchoscopy and methods of drawing materials. Results: The ratio of male/female was 4.8:1 and the peak onset age was 60 - 69 years old. The major pathological type was squamous cell carcinoma (44.5%, then adenocarcinoma (25.9% and small cell lung cancer (18.3%. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was the highest in males (50.6%, while that of adenocarcinoma in females (56.2%. The positive diagnostic rates of forceps biopsy, brush biopsy, bronchial alveolar lavage and transbronchial needle aspiration were 81.6%, 49.4%, 18.2% and 62.6%, respectively, whereas that of biopsy combined with brush biopsy came up to 89.0%. Conclusion: Bronchoscopy is an important method in diagnosis of lung cancer. Different ages and genders of patients with lung cancer have different onset, and the distribution of pathological types is diverse. Attaching more importance to bronchoscopy and improving biopsy technique can significantly improve the diagnostic rate and provide reliable evidences for clinical treatment.

  19. Analysis on Clinical Features of 2168 Patients with Lung Cancer Diagnosed by Bronchoscope

    Zhang Yu; Yu Like; Xie Haiyan; Hu Weihua; Hao Keke; Xia Ning

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical features of lung cancer diagnosed by bronchoscopy. Methods:The clinical features of2168 patients with lung cancer diagnosed by bronchoscopy were retrospectively analyzed, including gender, age, pathological type, diseased region, manifestations under bronchoscopy and methods of drawing materials. Results:The ratio of male/female was 4.8:1 and the peak onset age was 60~69 years old. The major pathological type was squamous cell carcinoma (44.5%), then adenocarcinoma (25.9%) and small cell lung cancer (18.3%). The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was the highest in males (50.6%), while that of adenocarcinoma in females (56.2%). The positive diagnostic rates of forceps biopsy, brush biopsy, bronchial alveolar lavage and transbronchial needle aspiration were 81.6%, 49.4%, 18.2% and 62.6%, respectively, whereas that of biopsy combined with brush biopsy came up to 89.0%. Conclusion: Bronchoscopy is an important method in diagnosis of lung cancer. Different ages and genders of patients with lung cancer have different onset, and the distribution of pathological types is diverse. Attaching more importance to bronchoscopy and improving biopsy technique can signiifcantly improve the diagnostic rate and provide reliable evidences for clinical treatment.

  20. Early detection of breast cancer mass lesions by mammogram segmentation images based on texture features

    Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of masses or abnormalities which is related to breast cancer.The calcifications. The challenge lies in early and accurate detection to overcome the development of breast cancer that affects more and more women throughout the world. Breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages with the help of the digital mammogram images. Masses appear in a mammogram as fine, granular clusters, which are often difficult to identify in a raw mammogram. The incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in recent years. This paper proposes a computer aided diagnostic system for the extraction of features like mass lesions in mammograms for early detection of breast cancer. The proposed technique is based on a four-step procedure: (a) the preprocessing of the image is done, (b) regions of interest (ROI) specification, (c) supervised segmentation method includes two to stages performed using the minimum distance (M D) criterion, and (d) feature extraction based on Gray level Co-occurrence matrices GLC M for the identification of mass lesions. The method suggested for the detection of mass lesions from mammogram image segmentation and analysis was tested over several images taken from A L-llwiya Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq.The proposed technique shows better results.

  1. Immature truncated O-glycophenotype of cancer directly induces oncogenic features

    Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Dabelsteen, Sally; Madsen, Frey Brus;

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression of immature truncated O-glycans is a characteristic feature observed on virtually all epithelial cancer cells, and a very high frequency is observed in early epithelial premalignant lesions that precede the development of adenocarcinomas. Expression of the truncated O-glycan s......Aberrant expression of immature truncated O-glycans is a characteristic feature observed on virtually all epithelial cancer cells, and a very high frequency is observed in early epithelial premalignant lesions that precede the development of adenocarcinomas. Expression of the truncated O......-glycans, as well as relocation of glycosyltransferases controlling initiation of O-glycosylation from Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum. Truncated O-glycans have been proposed to play functional roles for cancer-cell invasiveness, but our understanding of the biological functions of aberrant glycosylation in...... cancer is still highly limited. Here, we used exome sequencing of most glycosyltransferases in a large series of primary and metastatic pancreatic cancers to rule out somatic mutations as a cause of expression of truncated O-glycans. Instead, we found hypermethylation of core 1 β3-Gal...

  2. An Approach with Support Vector Machine using Variable Features Selection on Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Sandeep Chaurasia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis and clinical outcome prediction are among the most important emerging applications of machine learning. In this paper we have used an approach by using support vector machine classifier to construct a model that is useful for the breast cancer survivability prediction. We have used both 5 cross and 10 cross validation of variable selection on input feature vectors and the performance measurement through bio-learning class performance while measuring AUC, specificity and sensitivity. The performance of the SVM is much better than the other machine learning classifier.

  3. Clinical features and prognosis of obese breast cancer patients:a retrospective study*

    Zhendong Zheng; Heng Cao; Shuxian Qu; Yongye Liu; Ying Piao; Xiaodong Xie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to investigate the prognosis of obese breast cancer patients. Methods:This study was conducted on a total of 317 breast cancer patients who were histopathological y and clinical y diagnosed at the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region (China) from 2004 to 2006. Clinical data including height, weight, age at diagnosis, tumor size, lymph node status, menopausal status, family history of cancer and hormone receptor status were col-lected. Log-rank test was performed to compare the disease free survival (DFS) and overal survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to make multivariate analysis. The Chi square test was used to compare the clinical features among normal weight group, overweight group, and obese group. Results:Obesity was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P=0.022) and OS (P=0.032) in breast cancer patients. In the stratified analysis based on the hormone receptor status, obesity was independently associated with OS in patients with negative ER/PR (P=0.002), but such association was not observed in patients with positive hormone receptors. Obesity was also associated with lymph node status (P=0.001) and smoking (P=0.009). Conclusion:Obesity is associated with poor DFS and OS in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, maintaining normal weight may benefit breast cancer patients.

  4. Mesenchymal traits are selected along with stem features in breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres

    Borgna, Silvia; Armellin, Michela; di Gennaro, Alessandra; Maestro, Roberta; Santarosa, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that invasive properties of breast cancers rely on gain of mesenchymal and stem features, which has suggested that the dual targeting of these phenotypes may represent an appealing therapeutic strategy. It is known that the fraction of stem cells can be enriched by culturing breast cancer cells as mammospheres (MS), but whether these pro-stem conditions favor also the expansion of cells provided of mesenchymal features is still undefined. In the attempt to shed light on this issue, we compared the phenotypes of a panel of 10 breast cancer cell lines representative of distinct subtypes (luminal, HER2-positive, basal-like and claudin-low), grown in adherent conditions and as mammospheres. Under MS-proficient conditions, the increment in the fraction of stem-like cells was associated to upregulation of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin and downregulation of the epithelial markers expressed by luminal cells (E-cadherin, KRT18, KRT19, ESR1). Luminal cells tended also to upregulate the myoepithelial marker CD10. Taken together, our data indicate that MS-proficient conditions do favor mesenchymal/myoepithelial features, and indicate that the use of mammospheres as an in vitro tumor model may efficiently allow the exploitation of therapeutic approaches aimed at targeting aggressive tumors that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID:23095640

  5. Staging of Prostate Cancer Using Automatic Feature Selection, Sampling and Dempster-Shafer Fusion

    Sandeep Chandana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique of automatically selecting the best pairs of features and sampling techniques to predict the stage of prostate cancer is proposed in this study. The problem of class imbalance, which is prominent in most medical data sets is also addressed here. Three feature subsets obtained by the use of principal components analysis (PCA, genetic algorithm (GA and rough sets (RS based approaches were also used in the study. The performance of under-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE and a combination of the two were also investigated and the performance of the obtained models was compared. To combine the classifier outputs, we used the Dempster-Shafer (DS theory, whereas the actual choice of combined models was made using a GA. We found that the best performance for the overall system resulted from the use of under sampled data combined with rough sets based features modeled as a support vector machine (SVM.

  6. Time-Trend in Epidemiological and Pathological Features of Schistosoma-Associated Bladder Cancer

    To investigate the different emerging trends in the features of bladder cancer along 17 years. Patients and Methods: During a 17-year period (1988- 2004), 5071 epithelial bladder cancer patients underwent radical cystectomy at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Egypt. The time was divided into 3 time periods to detect changes of the clinico pathologic features of patients in these periods. Results: There was a significant progressive increase in the patients' age with time and decrease in squamous/ transitional ratio, with transient increase in male predominance during the 2nd time period. Moreover, there was a decrease in the well differentiated (grade 1) tumor (p<0.001) and an increase in the frequency of pelvic nodal involvement (p<0.001). Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients were significantly older than those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (p<0.001). Progressive increase of age with time was evident in TCC, SCC and adenocarcinoma patients. Male to female ratio changed significantly in TCC and SCC. Conclusion: Time trend was confirmed with relative decrease in frequency of SCC and increase of TCC with changes in their pathological details. The differences between their characteristics and that of the Western countries are decreasing.

  7. The Morphologic Features and Accuracy of Preoperative T-Staging in Resected Gallbladder Cancers

    Jo, Sung Ehn; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kang, Young Hye; Suh, Chang Hae [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Yong [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Suk Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    To assess the morphological features and the accuracy of T staging images in surgically- proven gallbladder cancers, retrospectively. Images of 59 surgically-proven gallbladder cancers were reviewed. Morphologic features, shape, size of tumors and the presence of stones or sludge within the images were evaluated and correlated with surgicopathologic findings. Polypoid masses were shown in 49 cases (83%). The sizes of tumors were well correlated with surgicopathologic T-stage. With ROC evaluation, the size cutoff point to differentiate the {<=} T1 versus {>=} T2 lesions was 2.4 cm. Stones or sludge were found in 25 cases (42%). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivities, specificities, and accuracy of the ability to differentiate the {<=} T1 versus {>=} T2 lesions were 75%, 86%, 46%, 96%, 85% and those of the ability to differentiate {<=} T2 versus {>=} T3 lesions were 89%, 49%, 45%, 90%, and 61%, respectively. Image analysis showed that polypoid mass and wall thickening were major findings. With this in mind, polypoid mass shows the possibility of gallbladder cancer originating from adenoma, even if the size is larger than 2 or 2.4 cm, the surgicopathologic stage could be low. Moreover, the accuracy of image based T stage on pericholecystic infiltration and wall thickening was low.

  8. CXCR7 mediates TGFβ1-promoted EMT and tumor-initiating features in lung cancer.

    Wu, Y-C; Tang, S-J; Sun, G-H; Sun, K-H

    2016-04-21

    In the tumor microenvironment, chemokine system has a critical role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. The acquisition of stem-like properties by cancer cells is involved in metastasis and drug resistance, which are pivotal problems that result in poor outcomes in patients with lung cancer. Patients with advanced lung cancer present high plasma levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), which correlate with poor prognostic features. Therefore, TGFβ1 may be important in the tumor microenvironment, where chemokines are widely expressed. However, the role of chemokines in TGFβ1-induced tumor progression still remains unclear. In our study, TGFβ1 upregulated CXC chemokine receptor expression, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) formation in lung adenocarcinoma. We found that CXCR7 was the most upregulated chemokine receptor induced by TGFβ1. CXCR7 knockdown resulted in reduction of migration, invasion and EMT induced by TGFβ1, whereas CXCR4 knockdown did not reverse TGFβ1-promoted EMT. CXCR7 silencing significantly decreased cancer sphere-forming capacity, stem-like properties, chemoresistance and TGFβ1-induced CSC tumor initiation in vivo. In clinical samples, high TGFβ1 and CXCR7 expression was significantly associated with the late stages of lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, TGFβ1 and CXCR7 coexpression was positively correlated with the CSC marker, CD44, which is associated with lymph node metastasis. Besides, patients with high expression of both CXCR7 and TGFβ1 presented a significantly worse survival rate. These results suggest that the TGFβ1-CXCR7 axis may be a prognostic marker and may provide novel targets for combinational therapies to be used in the treatment of advanced lung cancer in the future. PMID:26212008

  9. Identification of prognostic molecular features in the reactive stroma of human breast and prostate cancer.

    Anne Planche

    Full Text Available Primary tumor growth induces host tissue responses that are believed to support and promote tumor progression. Identification of the molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and elucidation of its crosstalk with tumor cells may therefore be crucial for improving our understanding of the processes implicated in cancer progression, identifying potential therapeutic targets, and uncovering stromal gene expression signatures that may predict clinical outcome. A key issue to resolve, therefore, is whether the stromal response to tumor growth is largely a generic phenomenon, irrespective of the tumor type or whether the response reflects tumor-specific properties. To address similarity or distinction of stromal gene expression changes during cancer progression, oligonucleotide-based Affymetrix microarray technology was used to compare the transcriptomes of laser-microdissected stromal cells derived from invasive human breast and prostate carcinoma. Invasive breast and prostate cancer-associated stroma was observed to display distinct transcriptomes, with a limited number of shared genes. Interestingly, both breast and prostate tumor-specific dysregulated stromal genes were observed to cluster breast and prostate cancer patients, respectively, into two distinct groups with statistically different clinical outcomes. By contrast, a gene signature that was common to the reactive stroma of both tumor types did not have survival predictive value. Univariate Cox analysis identified genes whose expression level was most strongly associated with patient survival. Taken together, these observations suggest that the tumor microenvironment displays distinct features according to the tumor type that provides survival-predictive value.

  10. Breast Cancer with Neoductgenesis: Histopathological Criteria and Its Correlation with Mammographic and Tumour Features

    Wenjing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Breast cancer with mammographic casting type calcifications, high grade DCIS with an abnormal number of ducts, periductal desmoplastic reaction, lymphocyte infiltration, and tenascin-C (TN-C overexpression has been proposed to represent a more aggressive form of breast cancer and has been denominated as breast cancer with neoductgenesis. We developed histopathological criteria for neoductgenesis in order to study reproducibility and correlation with other tumour markers. Methods. 74 cases of grades 2 and 3 DCIS, with or without an invasive component, were selected. A combined score of the degree(s of concentration of ducts, lymphocyte infiltration, and periductal fibrosis was used to classify cases as showing neoductgenesis, or not. Diagnostic reproducibility, correlation with tumour markers, and mammographic features were studied. Results. Twenty-three of 74 cases were diagnosed with neoductgenesis. The kappa value between pathologists showed moderate reproducibility (0.50 (95% CI; 0.41–0.60. Neoductgenesis correlated significantly with malignant type microcalcifications and TN-C expression (P=0.008 and 0.04 and with ER, PR, and HER2 status (P<0.00001 for all three markers. Conclusions. We developed histological criteria for breast cancer with neoductgenesis. Neoductgenesis, by our applied histopathological definition was related to more aggressive tumour biology and malignant mammographic calcifications.

  11. Comparison of MRI of liver cancer (preoperative and resected liver specimen) and pathological feature

    Twenty-one nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and eighteen nodules of liver metastasis, which were confirmed pathologically, were investigated by MRI before operation and MRI of resected liver specimen. Pre-operative MRI pointed out all HCCs and seventeen metastases. STIR method was most useful for detection of HCCs. T2WI and STIR method were most useful for detection of liver metastases. Pre-operative MRI also revealed 93% of capsule formation, 29% of septal formation, 75% of fatty metamorphosis of HCC and 75% of necrosis of liver metastasis, and post-operative MRI of resected specimens revealed 100% of capsule formation, 71% of septal formation, 75% of fatty metamorphosis of HCC and 88% of necrosis of liver metastasis. T1WI showed a high intensity halo surrounding metastasis. This characteristic peripheral halo was seen in 22% of metastases. These findings corresponded to pathological feature of liver cancer. MRI was thought to be useful diagnostic modality of liver cancer. (author)

  12. Beyond breast cancer: mammographic features and mortality risk in a population of healthy women.

    Rachel A Murphy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast fibroglandular (dense tissue is a risk factor for breast cancer. Beyond breast cancer, little is known regarding the prognostic significance of mammographic features. METHODS: We evaluated relationships between nondense (fatty breast area and dense area with all-cause mortality in 4,245 initially healthy women from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project; 1,361 died during a mean follow-up of 28.2 years. Dense area and total breast area were assessed using planimeter measurements from screening mammograms. Percent density reflects dense area relative to breast area and nondense area was calculated as the difference between total breast area and dense area. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, greater nondense and total breast area were associated with increased risk of death (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24 and HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.19, per SD difference while greater dense area and percent density were associated with lower risk of death (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95 and HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92, per SD difference. Associations were not attenuated with adjustment for race, education, mammogram type (x-ray or xerogram, smoking status, diabetes and heart disease. With additional adjustment for body mass index, associations were diminished for all features but remained statistically significant for dense area (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, per SD difference and percent density (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.98, per SD difference. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that dense area and percent density may relate to survival in healthy women and suggest the potential utility of mammograms beyond prediction of breast cancer risk.

  13. Expression of BNIP3 in invasive breast cancer: correlations with the hypoxic response and clinicopathological features

    Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family induced under hypoxia. Low or absent expression has recently been described in human tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, resulting in poor prognosis. Little is known about BNIP3 expression in invasive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of BNIP3 in invasive breast cancer at the mRNA and protein level in correlation with the hypoxic response and clinicopathological features. In 40 cases of invasive breast cancer, BNIP3 mRNA in situ hybridization was performed on frozen sections with a digoxigenin labeled anti-BNIP3 probe. Paraffin embedded sections of the same specimens were used to determine protein expression of BNIP3, Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and its downstream targets Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut-1) and Carbonic Anhydrase (CAIX) by immunohistochemistry. BNIP3 mRNA was expressed in 16/40 (40%) of the cases and correlated with BNIP3 protein expression (p = 0.0218). Neither BNIP3 protein nor mRNA expression correlated with expression of HIF-1α expression or its downstream targets. Tumors which showed loss of expression of BNIP3 had significantly more often lymph node metastases (82% vs 39%, p = 0.010) and showed a higher mitotic activity index (p = 0.027). BNIP3 protein expression was often nuclear in normal breast, but cytoplasmic in tumor cells. BNIP3 expression is lost in a significant portion of invasive breast cancers, which is correlated with poor prognostic features such as positive lymph node status and high proliferation, but not with the hypoxic response

  14. Expression of BNIP3 in invasive breast cancer: correlations with the hypoxic response and clinicopathological features

    de Weger Roel A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3 is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family induced under hypoxia. Low or absent expression has recently been described in human tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, resulting in poor prognosis. Little is known about BNIP3 expression in invasive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of BNIP3 in invasive breast cancer at the mRNA and protein level in correlation with the hypoxic response and clinicopathological features. Methods In 40 cases of invasive breast cancer, BNIP3 mRNA in situ hybridization was performed on frozen sections with a digoxigenin labeled anti-BNIP3 probe. Paraffin embedded sections of the same specimens were used to determine protein expression of BNIP3, Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α and its downstream targets Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut-1 and Carbonic Anhydrase (CAIX by immunohistochemistry. Results BNIP3 mRNA was expressed in 16/40 (40% of the cases and correlated with BNIP3 protein expression (p = 0.0218. Neither BNIP3 protein nor mRNA expression correlated with expression of HIF-1α expression or its downstream targets. Tumors which showed loss of expression of BNIP3 had significantly more often lymph node metastases (82% vs 39%, p = 0.010 and showed a higher mitotic activity index (p = 0.027. BNIP3 protein expression was often nuclear in normal breast, but cytoplasmic in tumor cells. Conclusion BNIP3 expression is lost in a significant portion of invasive breast cancers, which is correlated with poor prognostic features such as positive lymph node status and high proliferation, but not with the hypoxic response.

  15. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong Il; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Histopathologic features could affect the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer and detection rate on FDG PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer by correlating it with the histopathologic features of the tumors. Fifty patients with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were referred for preoperative FDG-PET/CT scans were enrolled in this study. The detection rate of PET/CT and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor were compared using the WHO, Lauren, Ming and Borrmann classifications and tumor size and location. In 45 of the 50 patients (90 %), the primary gastric tumors were detected by FDG PET/CT. On comparison using the WHO classification, the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of the tubular type were significantly higher than those of the poorly cohesive type. On comparison using the Lauren and Ming classifications, the SUV{sub maxs} of the intestinal type and expanding type were significantly higher than those of the diffuse and infiltrative type, respectively. On comparison using the Borrmann classification and tumor size and location, there was no significant difference in the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of primary gastric tumors. This study demonstrates that the poorly cohesive type according to the WHO classification, diffuse type according to the Lauren classification and infiltrative type according to the Ming classification have low FDG uptake in patients with locally advanced gastric carcinoma. Understanding the relationship between primary tumor FDG uptake and histopathologic features would be helpful in detecting the primary tumor by FDG PET/CT in patients with gastric cancer.

  16. Correlation between High Resolution Dynamic MR Features and Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    To correlate high resolution dynamic MR features with prognostic factors in breast cancer. One hundred and ninety-four women with invasive ductal carcinomas underwent dynamic MR imaging using T1-weighted three dimensional fast low-angle shot (3D-FLASH) sequence within two weeks prior to surgery. Morphological and kinetic MR features were determined based on the breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) MR imaging lexicon. Histological specimens were analyzed for tumor size, axillary lymph node status, histological grade, expression of estrogen receptor (ER), expression of progesterone receptor (PR), and expression of p53, c-erbB-2, and Ki-67. Correlations between the MR features and prognostic factors were determined using the Pearson x2 test, linear-by-linear association, and logistic regression analysis. By multivariate analysis, a spiculated margin was a significant, independent predictor of a lower histological grade (p < 0.001), and lower expression of Ki-67 (p = 0.007). Rim enhancement was significant, independent predictor of a higher histological grade (p < 0.001), negative expression of ER (p 0.001), negative expression of PR (p < 0.001) and a larger tumor size (p = 0.006). A washout curve may predict a higher level of Ki-67 (p = 0.05). Most of the parameters of the initial enhancement phase cannot predict the status of the prognostic factors. Only the enhancement ratio may predict a larger tumor size (p 0.05). Of the BI-RADS-MR features, a spiculated margin may predict favorable prognosis, whereas rim enhancement or washout may predict unfavorable prognosis of breast cancer

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Swarm Intelligence Techniques for Feature Selection in Cancer Classification

    Chellamuthu Gunavathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection in cancer classification is a central area of research in the field of bioinformatics and used to select the informative genes from thousands of genes of the microarray. The genes are ranked based on T-statistics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and F-test values. The swarm intelligence (SI technique finds the informative genes from the top-m ranked genes. These selected genes are used for classification. In this paper the shuffled frog leaping with Lévy flight (SFLLF is proposed for feature selection. In SFLLF, the Lévy flight is included to avoid premature convergence of shuffled frog leaping (SFL algorithm. The SI techniques such as particle swarm optimization (PSO, cuckoo search (CS, SFL, and SFLLF are used for feature selection which identifies informative genes for classification. The k-nearest neighbour (k-NN technique is used to classify the samples. The proposed work is applied on 10 different benchmark datasets and examined with SI techniques. The experimental results show that the results obtained from k-NN classifier through SFLLF feature selection method outperform PSO, CS, and SFL.

  18. A comparative analysis of swarm intelligence techniques for feature selection in cancer classification.

    Gunavathi, Chellamuthu; Premalatha, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection in cancer classification is a central area of research in the field of bioinformatics and used to select the informative genes from thousands of genes of the microarray. The genes are ranked based on T-statistics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and F-test values. The swarm intelligence (SI) technique finds the informative genes from the top-m ranked genes. These selected genes are used for classification. In this paper the shuffled frog leaping with Lévy flight (SFLLF) is proposed for feature selection. In SFLLF, the Lévy flight is included to avoid premature convergence of shuffled frog leaping (SFL) algorithm. The SI techniques such as particle swarm optimization (PSO), cuckoo search (CS), SFL, and SFLLF are used for feature selection which identifies informative genes for classification. The k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) technique is used to classify the samples. The proposed work is applied on 10 different benchmark datasets and examined with SI techniques. The experimental results show that the results obtained from k-NN classifier through SFLLF feature selection method outperform PSO, CS, and SFL. PMID:25157377

  19. Multiple Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Automatic Features Extraction Algorithm for Cervical Cancer Recognition

    Mohammad Subhi Al-batah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, cancer of uterine cervix is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The current methods (i.e., Pap smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC to screen for cervical cancer are time-consuming and dependent on the skill of the cytopathologist and thus are rather subjective. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent computer vision system to assist pathologists in overcoming these problems and, consequently, produce more accurate results. The developed system consists of two stages. In the first stage, the automatic features extraction (AFE algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a neuro-fuzzy model called multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (MANFIS is proposed for recognition process. The MANFIS contains a set of ANFIS models which are arranged in parallel combination to produce a model with multi-input-multioutput structure. The system is capable of classifying cervical cell image into three groups, namely, normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. The experimental results prove the capability of the AFE algorithm to be as effective as the manual extraction by human experts, while the proposed MANFIS produces a good classification performance with 94.2% accuracy.

  20. Multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with automatic features extraction algorithm for cervical cancer recognition.

    Al-batah, Mohammad Subhi; Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat; Klaib, Mohammad Fadel; Al-Betar, Mohammed Azmi

    2014-01-01

    To date, cancer of uterine cervix is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The current methods (i.e., Pap smear and liquid-based cytology (LBC)) to screen for cervical cancer are time-consuming and dependent on the skill of the cytopathologist and thus are rather subjective. Therefore, this paper presents an intelligent computer vision system to assist pathologists in overcoming these problems and, consequently, produce more accurate results. The developed system consists of two stages. In the first stage, the automatic features extraction (AFE) algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a neuro-fuzzy model called multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (MANFIS) is proposed for recognition process. The MANFIS contains a set of ANFIS models which are arranged in parallel combination to produce a model with multi-input-multioutput structure. The system is capable of classifying cervical cell image into three groups, namely, normal, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). The experimental results prove the capability of the AFE algorithm to be as effective as the manual extraction by human experts, while the proposed MANFIS produces a good classification performance with 94.2% accuracy. PMID:24707316

  1. Cancer Feature Selection and Classification Using a Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Maolong Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feature gene selection for cancer classification, which employs an optimization algorithm to select a subset of the genes. We propose a binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (BQPSO for cancer feature gene selection, coupling support vector machine (SVM for cancer classification. First, the proposed BQPSO algorithm is described, which is a discretized version of original QPSO for binary 0-1 optimization problems. Then, we present the principle and procedure for cancer feature gene selection and cancer classification based on BQPSO and SVM with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV. Finally, the BQPSO coupling SVM (BQPSO/SVM, binary PSO coupling SVM (BPSO/SVM, and genetic algorithm coupling SVM (GA/SVM are tested for feature gene selection and cancer classification on five microarray data sets, namely, Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Lung, and Lymphoma. The experimental results show that BQPSO/SVM has significant advantages in accuracy, robustness, and the number of feature genes selected compared with the other two algorithms.

  2. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  3. Lipocalin 2 expression is associated with aggressive features of endometrial cancer

    . Increased LCN2 expression is associated with aggressive features and poor prognosis in endometrial cancer

  4. Relationship between COX-2 expression and clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers

    詹俊; 刘建平; 朱兆华; 姚和瑞; 陈春燕

    2004-01-01

    Background Cyclo-oxgenase 2 (COX-2) is involved in prostaglandin synthesis in central nervous system, and it also plays a role in human carcinogenesis. Our purpose of this study is to investigate the COX-2 expression in different development stages of colorectal cancer, and to discuss the relationship between the gene expression and clinicopathological features of the cancer.Methods COX-2 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining in 76 surgical specimens of colorectal cancer (44 of advanced stage and 32 of early stage), thirty-three adenomas and 18 normal colonic mucosal tissues taken by endoscopic biopsy. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the relation of COX-2 to prognosis.Results COX-2 expression, divided into 4 grades from "-" to"+++", is respectively 83.3%, 16.7%, 0% and 0% in normal colonic mucosal tissues; 12.1%, 42.4%, 36.4% and 9.1% in adenomas; 6.3%, 28.1%, 46.9% and 18.7% in early colorectal cancers (ECCs), and 6.8%, 20.5%, 18.2% and 54.5% in advanced colorectal cancers (CRCs). The differences in COX-2 expression between advanced CRCs and early colorectal cancers (ECCs) as well as between the advanced CRCs and adenomas were statistically significant (P<0.01); but there was no significant difference between ECCs and adenomas. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant difference in the survival curves between low high COX-2 groups (P<0.05). Cox proportional hazards regression showed that COX-2 expression was related to poorer long-term outcome with a hazard ratio of 2.665 unadjusted for other variables (P<0.05), and COX-2 expression was an independent risk factor of poor prognosis.Conclusions COX-2 expression is gradually up-regulated in the development from normal epithelium to adenomas and from ECCs to advanced CRCs. Alhough the COX-2 protein can not be regarded as a tumor marker to diagnose CRCs early, COX-2 expression can be regarded as an independent risk factor of poor

  5. Frequency of her-2/neu receptor positivity and its association with other features of breast cancer

    Carcinoma breast is the commonest malignancy of females all over the world and second leading cause of death due to cancer among females. In Pakistan it is more common at a young age contrary to the West where it is more common in old age (after 60 years). The objectives of this cross sectional study were to determine the frequency of HER-2/neu receptor over-expression and its association with some of the features of breast cancer like patient age, ER/PR status, tumour size, histological grade and axillary lymph node involvement. This study was conducted at Surgical C Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute of Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from January 2007 to December 2007. Study included all patients with breast cancer admitted in Surgical 'C' unit LRH, Peshawar for Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM). The resected specimens were sent to histopathologist for immunohistochemical (IHC) studies (HER-2/neu receptor and ER/PR) and detailed histopathological analysis including tumour subtype, size, histological grade and involvement of axillary lymph nodes. Patients refusing HER-2/neu receptor immunohistochemistry were excluded from the study. Name, age, sex, other relevant data, detailed history and clinical examination findings and results of investigation were recorded. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 10. This study included 24 female patients of breast cancer having modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Age distribution ranged from 32-75 years with a Mean+-SD of age 48.3+-18.2 years. Fifteen out of 24 patients (62.5%) were >40 years, while nine patients out of 24 (37.5%) were =40 years of age. The HER-2/neu receptor status was found positive in 11 patients (45.9%) and negative in 13 patients (54%) of the total cases. HER-2/neu receptor positivity was not significantly associated with histopathological sub-type (p>0.05), number of axillary lymph nodes involved (p>0.05) and histological grade (p>0.05). While, it was significantly associated with tumour size (p<0

  6. Clinical features, outcome and risk factors in cervical cancer patients after surgery for chronic radiation enteropathy

    Radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy have long been mainstays of cervical cancer treatment. Early stage cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB1–IIA) is traditionally treated using radical surgery combined with radiotherapy, while locally advanced cervical cancer is treated using radiotherapy alone or chemoradiotherapy. In this retrospective study, we describe and analyse the presenting clinical features and outcomes in our cohort and evaluate possible risk factors for postoperative morbidity in women who underwent surgery for chronic radiation enteropathy (CRE). One hundred sixty-six eligible cervical cancer patients who underwent surgery for CRE were retrospectively identified between September 2003 and July 2014 in a prospectively maintained database. Among them, 46 patients received radical radiotherapy (RRT) and 120 received radical surgery plus radiotherapy (RS + RT). Clinical features, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and risk factors for postoperative morbidity were analysed. RS + RT group patients were more likely to present with RTOG/EORTC grade III late morbidity (76.1 % vs 92.5 %; p = 0.004), while RRT group patients tended to show RTOG/EORTC grade IV late morbidity (23.9 % vs 7.5 %; p = 0.004). One hundred forty patients (84.3 %) were treated with aggressive resection (anastomosis 57.8 % and stoma 26.5 %). Overall and major morbidity, mortality and incidence of reoperation in the RRT and RS + RT groups did not differ significantly (63 % vs 64.2 % [p = 1.000], 21.7 % vs 11.7 % [p = 0.137], 6.5 % vs 0.8 % [p = 0.065] and 6.5 % vs 3.3 % [p = 0.360], respectively). However, incidence of permanent stoma and mortality during follow-up was higher in the RRT group than in the RS + RT group (44.2 % vs 12.6 % [p = 0.000] and 16.3 % vs 3.4 % [p = 0.004], respectively). In multivariate analysis, preoperative anaemia was significantly associated with overall morbidity (p = 0.015), while severe intra-abdominal adhesion (p = 0.017), ASA grades III–V (P = 0

  7. Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: dynamic contrast enhanced - magnetic resonance imaging based features are associated with molecular subtypes

    Wang, Shijian; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor with upgrading incidence in females. The key to decrease the mortality is early diagnosis and reasonable treatment. Molecular classification could provide better insights into patient-directed therapy and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. It is known that different molecular subtypes have different characteristics in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Therefore, we assumed that imaging features can reflect molecular information in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between dynamic contrasts enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) features and molecular subtypes in breast cancer. Sixty patients with breast cancer were enrolled and the MR images were pre-processed for noise reduction, registration and segmentation. Sixty-five dimensional imaging features including statistical characteristics, morphology, texture and dynamic enhancement in breast lesion and background regions were semiautomatically extracted. The associations between imaging features and molecular subtypes were assessed by using statistical analyses, including univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression. The results of multivariate regression showed that imaging features are significantly associated with molecular subtypes of Luminal A (p=0.00473), HER2-enriched (p=0.00277) and Basal like (p=0.0117), respectively. The results indicated that three molecular subtypes are correlated with DCE-MRI features in breast cancer. Specifically, patients with a higher level of compactness or lower level of skewness in breast lesion are more likely to be Luminal A subtype. Besides, the higher value of the dynamic enhancement at T1 time in normal side reflect higher possibility of HER2-enriched subtype in breast cancer.

  8. MRI and pathological features of different molecular subtypes of breast cancers

    Objective: To investigate the MRI and pathological features of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: The data of 202 patients who underwent primary breast cancer resection were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had MRI preoperatively. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer defined by immunohistochemistry were classified as basal-like, luminal and HER-2 overexpression. Morphology (including mass or non-mass like enhancement, shape and margin of masses, unifocal or multifocal masses) and enhancement characteristics on MRI, histologic types and grades of tumors were analyzed with Chi-square test, exact test, Fisher exact test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Wilcoxon test. Results: Among the 202 patients, 34 were basal-like, 144 were luminal and 24 were HER-2 overexpression. The number of mass cases in each subtype was 29, 133 and 19 respectively,making no significant difference (χ2=4.136, P=0.126). As for the shape of basal-like lesions,8 were round,19 were lobular and 2 were irregular, while this distribution was 23, 58, 52 in luminal subtype and 1, 11, 7 in HER-2 overexpression subtype (χ2=13.391, P<0.05). The margin was also strikingly different among three groups (smooth, spiculate, irregular): 20, 5, 4 respectively in basal-like, 27, 53, 53 respectively in luminal, and 4, 7, 8 respectively in HER-2 overexpression (χ2=28.515, P<0.01). 52.6% (10/19) of HER-2 overexpression cases were multifocal, while only 6.9% (2/29) of luminal and 8.0% (24/133) of basal-like ones were multifocal (χ2=16.140, P<0.01). Characteristics in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were statistically different, with homogeneous, heterogeneous, and rim enhancement 0, 13, 16 respectively in basal-like cases, 28, 93, 11 respectively in luminal cases and 2, 11, 6 respectively in HER-2 overexpression cases (P<0.01). However, the difference for enhancement curve did not reach significance (P =0.457). Histologic types were significantly different among molecular subtypes (P

  9. Comprehensive profiling of DNA methylation in colorectal cancer reveals subgroups with distinct clinicopathological and molecular features

    Most previous studies of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been conducted on a relatively small numbers of CpG sites. In the present study we performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of CRC with the aim of characterizing CIMP subgroups. DNA methylation at 1,505 CpG sites in 807 cancer-related genes was evaluated using the Illumina GoldenGate® methylation array in 28 normal colonic mucosa and 91 consecutive CRC samples. Methylation data was analyzed using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. CIMP subgroups were compared for various clinicopathological and molecular features including patient age, tumor site, microsatellite instability (MSI), methylation at a consensus panel of CpG islands and mutations in BRAF and KRAS. A total of 202 CpG sites were differentially methylated between tumor and normal tissue. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of methylation data from these sites revealed the existence of three CRC subgroups referred to as CIMP-low (CIMP-L, 21% of cases), CIMP-mid (CIMP-M, 14%) and CIMP-high (CIMP-H, 65%). In comparison to CIMP-L tumors, CIMP-H tumors were more often located in the proximal colon and showed more frequent mutation of KRAS and BRAF (P < 0.001). Comprehensive DNA methylation profiling identified three CRC subgroups with distinctive clinicopathological and molecular features. This study suggests that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are involved with the CIMP-H pathway of CRC rather than with distinct CIMP subgroups

  10. Predicting the pathological features of the mesorectum before the laparoscopic approach to rectal cancer.

    Fernández Ananín, Sonia; Targarona, Eduardo M; Martinez, Carmen; Pernas, Juan Carlos; Hernández, Diana; Gich, Ignasi; Sancho, Francesc J; Trias, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Pelvic anatomy and tumour features play a role in the difficulty of the laparoscopic approach to total mesorectal excision in rectal cancer. The aim of the study was to analyse whether these characteristics also influence the quality of the surgical specimen. We performed a prospective study in consecutive patients with rectal cancer located less than 12 cm from the anal verge who underwent laparoscopic surgery between January 2010 and July 2013. Exclusion criteria were T1 and T4 tumours, abdominoperineal resections, obstructive and perforated tumours, or any major contraindication for laparoscopic surgery. Dependent variables were the circumferential resection margin (CMR) and the quality of the mesorectum. Sixty-four patients underwent laparoscopic sphincter-preserving total mesorectal excision. Resection was complete in 79.1% of specimens and CMR was positive in 9.7%. Univariate analysis showed tumour depth (T status) (P = 0.04) and promontorium-subsacrum angle (P = 0.02) independently predicted CRM (circumferential resection margin) positivity. Tumour depth (P CRM. Bony pelvis dimensions influenced the quality of the specimen obtained by laparoscopy. These measurements may be useful to predict which patients will benefit most from laparoscopic surgery and also to select patients in accordance with the learning curve of trainee surgeons. PMID:24950725

  11. Tobacco and Cancer

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  12. Importance of Molecular Features of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer for Choice of Treatment

    Moran, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Approximately 85% of lung cancer is categorized as non–small cell lung cancer, and traditionally, non–small cell lung cancer has been treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Targeted agents that inhibit the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway have been developed and integrated into the treatment regimens in non–small cell lung cancer. Currently, approved epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors ...

  13. Pathological Features of Gastric Cancer in Zhuanghe High-risk Area in China during 1992-2005

    GONG Yue-hua; SUN Li-ping; LIU Yan-hou; HUANG he; SUN Guo-peng; WANG Quan-gang; YIN Yuan-jun; YUAN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pathological features and chronological changes of 1003 cases with gastric cancer in Zhuanghe high-risk area during 1992-2005 and the relationship between the changes and etiology factors in order tO make a clue for gastric cancer prevention. Methods:A total of 1003 gastric cancer specimens resected surgically between 1992-2005 in Zhuanghe Center Hospital were studied.The specimens were fixed in formalin and diagnosed by routine pathology. Results:The incidence of patients with gastric cancer was highest at age of 60-69,the next high was at age of 50-59 and it was significantly higher in male than in female(P<0.001),the ratio was 3.0∶1.During the past 14 years,there were 159(15.9%)EGC,195(19.4%)moderate and 649(64.7%)advanced gastric cancer detected.In macroscopical features,type Ⅲ remained dominant in EGC,the next was mixed type in EGC.In advanced gastric cancer the Borrmann's type Ⅲ remained the dominant,the next was type Ⅱ.For nodal metastasis,positive cases were decreasing and negative were increasing in EGC,moreover negative cases were higher than positive ones each year.There was no obvious trend in advanced cancer but positive cases were higher than negative ones each year.In histological features,papillary,moderately and poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma remained downtrend,mucus adenocarcinoma and undifferentiation cancer remained uptrend year after year.The radio of intestinal to diffuse type decreased from 0.78 to 0.62 during the past 14 years. Conclusion:There were significant chorological trends of pathological characteristic of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe high-risk area during the past 14 years.

  14. mtDNA germ line variation mediated ROS generates retrograde signaling and induces pro-cancerous metabolic features

    Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Srivastava, Archita; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Manvati, Siddharth; Chopra, Rupali; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2014-01-01

    mtDNA non-synonymous germ line variation (G10398A; p.A114T) has remained equivocal with least mechanistic understanding in showing an association with cancer. This has necessitated showing in-vitro how an over-expression within mitochondria of either of the variants produces higher intracellular ROS, resulting in differential anchorage dependent and independent growth. Both these features were observed to be relatively higher in ND3:114T variant. An elevated amount of intracellular carbonylated proteins and a reduced activity of a key glycolytic enzyme, Pyruvate kinase M2, along with high glucose uptake and lactate production were other pro-cancerous features observed. The retrograde signaling through surplus ROS was generated by post-ND3 over-expression regulated nuclear gene expression epigenetically, involving selectively the apoptotic-DDR-pathways. The feature of ND3 over-expression, inducing ROS mediated pro-cancerous features in the cells in in vitro, was replicated in a pilot study in a limited number of sporadic breast tumors, suggesting the importance of mitochondrial germ-line variant(s) in enabling the cells to acquire pro-cancerous features. PMID:25300428

  15. Unsupervised feature construction and knowledge extraction from genome-wide assays of breast cancer with denoising autoencoders.

    Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Cheng, Chao; Greene, Casey S

    2015-01-01

    Big data bring new opportunities for methods that efficiently summarize and automatically extract knowledge from such compendia. While both supervised learning algorithms and unsupervised clustering algorithms have been successfully applied to biological data, they are either dependent on known biology or limited to discerning the most significant signals in the data. Here we present denoising autoencoders (DAs), which employ a data-defined learning objective independent of known biology, as a method to identify and extract complex patterns from genomic data. We evaluate the performance of DAs by applying them to a large collection of breast cancer gene expression data. Results show that DAs successfully construct features that contain both clinical and molecular information. There are features that represent tumor or normal samples, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and molecular subtypes. Features constructed by the autoencoder generalize to an independent dataset collected using a distinct experimental platform. By integrating data from ENCODE for feature interpretation, we discover a feature representing ER status through association with key transcription factors in breast cancer. We also identify a feature highly predictive of patient survival and it is enriched by FOXM1 signaling pathway. The features constructed by DAs are often bimodally distributed with one peak near zero and another near one, which facilitates discretization. In summary, we demonstrate that DAs effectively extract key biological principles from gene expression data and summarize them into constructed features with convenient properties. PMID:25592575

  16. Characterizing cancer cells with cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells

    Buchholz Thomas A; Lacerda Lara; Xu Wei; Robertson Fredika; Ueno Naoto T; Lucci Anthony; Landis Melissa D; Rodriguez Angel A; Li Li; Cohen Evan; Gao Hui; Krishnamurthy Savitri; Zhang Xiaomei; Debeb Bisrat G; Cristofanilli Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the first suggestion of prospectively identifiable cancer stem cells in solid tumors, efforts have been made to characterize reported cancer stem cell surrogates in existing cancer cell lines, and cell lines rich with these surrogates have been used to screen for cancer stem cell targeted agents. Although 293T cells were derived from human embryonic kidney, transplantation of these cells into the mammary fat pad yields aggressive tumors that self-renew as evidenced b...

  17. Correlation of pretreatment hemoglobin and platelet counts with clinicopathological features in colorectal cancer in Saudi population

    Eyad F Al-Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Saudi Arabia, colorectal cancers (CRCs are registered as the second most common cancers. However, no data has been reported about correlation of the severity of the anemia and pretreatment platelets level with clinicopathological features of CRCs. We aimed to evaluate the association between pretreatment hemoglobin and platelets level and the clinicopathological features of CRC patients in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Between September 2005 and November 2011, One hundred and fifty-four confirmed CRC patients underwent thorough physical examination, blood investigations, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS, and computed tomography (CT for staging before surgery. Findings of physical assessment, EUS, CT, and pathological specimens were correlated with pretreatment hemoglobin and platelets levels the Pearson-Kendall tau correlative coefficients. Results: The mean age of cohort was 56.6 years (range: 26-89. Left-sided CRC were predominant (97 patients; 63%. Mean size of primary tumor was 6 cms (1-18 SD ± 3.55. Mean values of hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit, white blood cells, and platelets were 11.9 SD ± 2.3, 35.5 SD ± 5.7, 4.43 × 10 6 /mL SD ± 0.6, 7.67 10 6 /mL SD ± 2.44, and 343 × 10 3 /mL SD ± 164.4, respectively. Pretreatment hemoglobin was inversely correlated with primary tumor size (R: 0.71, R2: 1.55, P = 0.0001 and nodal status (R: 0.02, R2: 0.05, P = 0.01. Right-sided CRC had significantly low pretreatment hemoglobin levels ( P = 0.001. Interestingly, pretreatment thrombocytosis was seen only in right-sided CRC (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Pretreatment anemia and thrombocytosis were found mainly in right-sided CRCs and advanced primary and nodal stages. Pretreatment hemoglobin and thrombocytosis can be considered as useful prognostic markers in CRC patients.

  18. Cancer of Unknown Primary in Adolescents and Young Adults: Clinicopathological Features, Prognostic Factors and Survival Outcomes.

    Kanwal Raghav

    Full Text Available Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYAs (15-39 years is increasingly recognized as a distinct clinical and biological entity. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP, a disease traditionally presenting in older adults with a median age of 65 years, poses several challenges when diagnosed in AYA patients. This study describes clinicopathological features, outcomes and challenges in caring for AYA-CUP patients.A retrospective review of 47 AYAs diagnosed with CUP at MD Anderson Cancer Center (6/2006-6/2013 was performed. Patients with favorable CUP subsets treated as per site-specific recommendations were excluded. Demographics, imaging, pathology and treatment data was collected using a prospectively maintained CUP database. Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test were used to estimate and compare overall survival. The cox-proportional model was used for multivariate analyses.Median age was 35 years (range 19-39. All patients underwent comprehensive workup. Adenocarcinoma was the predominant histology (70%. A median of 9 immunostains (range 2-29 were performed. The most common putative primary was biliary tract based on clinicopathological parameters as well as gene profiling. Patients presented with a median of 2 metastatic sites [lymph node (60%, lung (47%, liver (38% and bone (34%]. Most commonly used systemic chemotherapies included gemcitabine, fluorouracil, taxanes and platinum agents. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 10.0 (95% confidence interval (CI: 6.7-15.4 months. On multivariate analyses, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (Hazard ratio (HR 3.66; 95%CI 1.52-8.82; P = 0.004, ≥3 metastatic sites (HR 5.34; 95%CI 1.19-23.9; P = 0.029, and tissue of origin not tested (HR 3.4; 95%CI 1.44-8.06; P = 0.005 were associated with poor overall survival. Culine's CUP prognostic model (lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, liver metastases was validated in this cohort (median overall survival: good-risk 25.2 months vs

  19. Variability of Image Features Computed from Conventional and Respiratory-Gated PET/CT Images of Lung Cancer

    Jasmine A. Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiomics is being explored for potential applications in radiation therapy. How various imaging protocols affect quantitative image features is currently a highly active area of research. To assess the variability of image features derived from conventional [three-dimensional (3D] and respiratory-gated (RG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT images of lung cancer patients, image features were computed from 23 lung cancer patients. Both protocols for each patient were acquired during the same imaging session. PET tumor volumes were segmented using an adaptive technique which accounted for background. CT tumor volumes were delineated with a commercial segmentation tool. Using RG PET images, the tumor center of mass motion, length, and rotation were calculated. Fifty-six image features were extracted from all images consisting of shape descriptors, first-order features, and second-order texture features. Overall, 26.6% and 26.2% of total features demonstrated less than 5% difference between 3D and RG protocols for CT and PET, respectively. Between 10 RG phases in PET, 53.4% of features demonstrated percent differences less than 5%. The features with least variability for PET were sphericity, spherical disproportion, entropy (first and second order, sum entropy, information measure of correlation 2, Short Run Emphasis (SRE, Long Run Emphasis (LRE, and Run Percentage (RPC; and those for CT were minimum intensity, mean intensity, Root Mean Square (RMS, Short Run Emphasis (SRE, and RPC. Quantitative analysis using a 3D acquisition versus RG acquisition (to reduce the effects of motion provided notably different image feature values. This study suggests that the variability between 3D and RG features is mainly due to the impact of respiratory motion.

  20. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FORM FACTOR IN THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF BREAST CANCER NUCLEI

    杨建茹; 管增伟; 刘长安

    2001-01-01

    Objective In the present study, an important aspect in medical image analysis, quantification of form factor was investigated. It is suggested that nuclear form of both normal and cancer cells of the same tissue should be taken into account when FF( form factor) is analyzed.The value of FF can’t be independently used to serve as evidence. Because breast tissue is complex, breast cancer cells take on diverse and complicated morphological features.Methods Slides of the tissue sections of breast cancer were pathologically confirmed and analyzed in terms of the morphological parameters using DMRXA full-automatic bio-fluorescent microscope and Q550IW computer(Leica, Germany). Of the samples examined, there were 9 cases of adenocarcinoma and 6 normal controls.Results Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software. The results are listed in Table Ⅰ. We found that the nuclear area, perimeter, length and breadth of breast cancer cells were significantly higher than those of normal breast cells(P<0.01). From the data given in the paper it can be seen that FF in the control is significantly higher than that in breast cancer.Conclusion Breast tissue is complicated, consisting of simple cubiodal epithelium, simple columnar epithelium and multiple columnar epithelium, etc. These different cells may have round or ovoid nuclei. Breast cancer cells take on diverse and complicated morphological features. They are classified as duct, lobular and special carcinoma according to their histogenesis and morphological structures. Their nuclear morphological features are diverse as well. Therefore, nuclear form of both normal and cancer cells of the same tissue should be taken into account when form factor is analyzed, nuclear FF alone is not reliable enough to distinguish normal from malignant breast cells.

  1. Relationship between H.Pylori infection and clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer

    Aimed to assess the relationship between H.Pylori and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer by quantitative detection of H.Pylori. 157 patients were enrolled, all patients had a record of clinicopathological parameters. Specimens including the tumor and non-neoplastic were detected for H.Pylori by Real-Time PCR and analyzed clinical data retrospectively. Variables independently affecting prognosis were investigated by means of multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. H.Pylori infection was greater in non-neoplastic tissue than the tumor tissue (p < 0.05), H.Pylori infection and its copies were related to the tumor site and N staging (p < 0.05). Overall survival (OS) in all 157 patients has no correlation with the H.Pylori infection status (p = 0.715). As to the patients who underwent a curative surgery, relapse-free survival (RFS) has no correlation with the H.Pylori infection status (p = 0.639). Among the H.Pylori positive patients, OS and RFS of those with higher copies were longer than in patients with low copies, but there was no significant statistical difference. H.Pylori infection status and its copies were related to N staging. The OS and RFS in patients with positive H.Pylori status has no significant difference from the patients with negative H.Pylori status

  2. Clinical features and prognostic factors for patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer

    Jian He; Zhao-Chong Zeng; Ping Yang; Bing Chen; We Jiang; Shi-Suo Du

    2012-01-01

    To identify the clinical features and independent predictors of survival in patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer (PCa).We retrospectively analysed 115 PCa patients with bone metastases between 1997 and 2009.The overall survival rate after bone metastases was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.The prognostic factors were identified by univariate analysis using a log-rank test and by multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression models.The follow-up rate was 100%,the follow-up cases during 1,3 and 5 years were 103,79 and 55,respectively.The 1-,3- and 5-year survival rates were 89.1%,60.9% and 49.8%,respectively,with a median survival time of 48.5 months for patients with bone metastases from PCa.In univariate analysis,age,Gleason score,clinical stage,the number of bone lesions,alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level,invasion of neighbouring organs and non-regional lymph node metastases were correlated with prognosis.By multivariate analysis using Cox regression,ALP level,Gleason score and non-regional lymph node metastases were independent prognostic factors.These prognostic factors will help us to determine the appropriate dose and fraction of radiotherapy for these patients.

  3. Proteogenomic-based discovery of minor histocompatibility antigens with suitable features for immunotherapy of hematologic cancers.

    Granados, D P; Rodenbrock, A; Laverdure, J-P; Côté, C; Caron-Lizotte, O; Carli, C; Pearson, H; Janelle, V; Durette, C; Bonneil, E; Roy, D C; Delisle, J-S; Lemieux, S; Thibault, P; Perreault, C

    2016-06-01

    Pre-clinical studies have shown that injection of allogeneic T cells primed against a single minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA) could cure hematologic cancers (HC) without causing any toxicity to the host. However, translation of this approach in humans has been hampered by the paucity of molecularly defined human MiHAs. Using a novel proteogenomic approach, we have analyzed cells from 13 volunteers and discovered a vast repertoire of MiHAs presented by the most common HLA haplotype in European Americans: HLA-A*02:01;B*44:03. Notably, out of >6000 MiHAs, we have identified a set of 39 MiHAs that share optimal features for immunotherapy of HCs. These 'optimal MiHAs' are coded by common alleles of genes that are preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells. Bioinformatic modeling based on MiHA allelic frequencies showed that the 39 optimal MiHAs would enable MiHA-targeted immunotherapy of practically all HLA-A*02:01;B*44:03 patients. Further extension of this strategy to a few additional HLA haplotypes would allow treatment of almost all patients. PMID:26857467

  4. Analysis on the childhood and adolescent differentiated thyroid cancer: clinical features and radioiodine treatment

    Objective: Children with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) frequently present with more extensive disease than adults. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of child-hood and adolescent DTC and evaluate the outcome and safety of radioiodine treatment. Methods: The records of 38 childhood and adolescent DTC cases, with 28 females and 10 males (mean age: 16.4 years) were reviewed. At diagnosis, all had metastatic lesions with 38 at regional lymph nodes, 15 at lung, 2 at brain and bone. Twenty-three had a total thyroidectomy, 7 had subtotal thyroidectomy, 5 had lobectomy, and 3 had other treatment. All received post-operative radioiodine therapy. All had follow-up for at least one year. Results: At the time of follow-up, all were survive (with a median follow-up of 5.13 years). Four-teen patients had no evidence of disease, 16 had partial remission, and 8 were stable disease. Conclusions: DTC of the thyroid in childhood and adolescent has high risks of residual/recurrence and metastasis. Post-thyroidectomy oral administration of radioiodine was an effective and safety adjuvant therapy for outcomes. (authors)

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY BREAST CANCER TREATED BETWEEN 1997 AND 2010: A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE.

    Žitnjak, Daniela; Soldić, Željko; Kust, Davor; Bolanća, Ante; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer accounted for 28% of all new cancers and 18% of female cancer deaths in Europe in 2010. It is the most common type of cancer in women in Croatia, with an incidence rate of 56.9/100 000 in the year 2010, and the highest number of newly diagnosed women aged between 60 and 64. Multiple factors are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: advancing age, family history, exposure to endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones, dietary factors, benign breast disease, and environmental factors. To assess demographic and clinicopathologic features of primary breast cancer, we retrospectively analyzed 870 patients treated in our institution between 1997 and 2010. Data were obtained from medical documentation and a printed questionnaire regarding life habits. Most of our patients presented with a breast lump and were self-diagnosed by breast examination. This fact highlights the need of regular breast self-examination, although it should also be taken into account that most of our patients did not attend regular mammography screening (only 31%). One of the most concerning facts is that the mean time from observing the first symptom to visiting a physician was 4 months. Previous studies have identified ignorance, fear and fatalistic attitudes, poor socioeconomic conditions, and illiteracy as important factors resulting in delay. Considering these facts, education and raising awareness about the disease in the general population is one of the key weapons for lowering breast cancer mortality. PMID:26666098

  6. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways

  7. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    Lee, Kang Nyeong [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho Soon, E-mail: hschoi96@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sun Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Healthcare Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam [Pathology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

  8. Differential CT features between malignant mesothelioma and pleural metastasis from lung cancer or extra thoracic primary tumor mimicking malignant mesothelioma

    To evaluate the differential CT features found among malignant mesothelioma and pleural metastasis from lung cancer and from extra-thoracic primary tumor which on CT mimic malignant mesothelioma. Forty-four patients who on chest CT scans showed pleural thickening suggesting malignant pleural disease and in whom this condition was pathologically confirmed were included in this study. On the basis of their pathologically proven primary disease (malignant mesothelioma (n=3D14), pleural metastasis of lung cancer (n=3D18), extra thoracic primary tumor (n=3D12). They were divided into three groups. Cases of lung which on CT showed a primary lung nodule or endobronchial mass with pleural lesion, or manifested only pleural effusion, were excluded. The following eight CT features were retrospectively analyzed: 1) configuration of pleural lesion (type I, single or multiple separate nodules, type II, localized flat pleural thickening, type III, diffuse flat pleural thickening; type IV, type III with pleural nodules superimposed; type V, mass filling the hemithorax), 2) the presence of pleural effusion, 3) chest wall or rib invasion, 4) the involvement of a major fissure, 5) extra-pleural fat proliferation, 6) calcified plaque, 7) metastatic lymph nodes, 8) metastatic lung modules. In malignant mesothelioma, type IV (8/14) or II (4/14) pleural thickening was relatively frequent. Pleural metastasis of lung cancer favored type IV (8/18) or I (6/18) pleural thickening, while pleural metastasis from extrathoracic primary tumor showed a variable thickening configuration, except type V. Pleural metastasis from lung cancer and extrapleural primary tumor more frequently showed type I configuration than did malignant mesothelioma, and there were significant differences among the three groups. Fissural involvement, on the other hand, was significantly more frequent in malignant mesothelioma than in pleural metastasis from lung cancer or extrapleural primary tumor. Metastatic lymph nodes

  9. Facial Nerve Palsy: An Unusual Presenting Feature of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Ozcan Yildiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women; it is responsible for 1.3 million deaths annually worldwide. It can metastasize to any organ. The most common site of metastasis in the head and neck region is the brain; however, it can also metastasize to the oral cavity, gingiva, tongue, parotid gland and lymph nodes. This article reports a case of small cell lung cancer presenting with metastasis to the facial nerve.

  10. Review on Feature Selection Techniques and the Impact of SVM for Cancer Classification using Gene Expression Profile

    George, G Victo Sudha; 10.5121/ijcses.2011.2302

    2011-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology has modernized the approach of biology research in such a way that scientists can now measure the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously in a single experiment. Gene expression profiles, which represent the state of a cell at a molecular level, have great potential as a medical diagnosis tool. But compared to the number of genes involved, available training data sets generally have a fairly small sample size for classification. These training data limitations constitute a challenge to certain classification methodologies. Feature selection techniques can be used to extract the marker genes which influence the classification accuracy effectively by eliminating the un wanted noisy and redundant genes This paper presents a review of feature selection techniques that have been employed in micro array data based cancer classification and also the predominant role of SVM for cancer classification.

  11. Statistical Feature-based Neural Network Approach for the Detection of Lung Cancer in Chest X-Ray Images K.

    K.A.G. Udeshani, R.G.N. Meegama & T.G.I. Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, if detected successfully at early stages, enables many treatment options,reduced risk of invasive surgery and increased survival rate. This paper presents a novelapproach to detect lung cancer from raw chest X-ray images. At the first stage, we use apipeline of image processing routines to remove noise and segment the lung from otheranatomical structures in the chest X-ray and extract regions that exhibit shape characteristicsof lung nodules. Subsequently, first and second order statistical texture features areconsidered as the inputs to train a neural network to verify whether a region extracted in thefirst stage is a nodule or not . The proposed approach detected nodules in the diseased areaof the lung with an accuracy of 96% using the pixel-based technique while the feature-basedtechnique produced an accuracy of 88%.

  12. REVIEW ON FEATURE SELECTION TECHNIQUES AND THE IMPACT OF SVM FOR CANCER CLASSIFICATION USING GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE

    G.Victo Sudha George

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The DNA microarray technology has modernized the approach of biology research in such a way thatscientists can now measure the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously in a singleexperiment. Gene expression profiles, which represent the state of a cell at a molecular level, have greatpotential as a medical diagnosis tool. But compared to the number of genes involved, available trainingdata sets generally have a fairly small sample size for classification. These training data limitationsconstitute a challenge to certain classification methodologies. Feature selection techniques can be usedto extract the marker genes which influence the classification accuracy effectively by eliminating the unwanted noisy and redundant genes This paper presents a review of feature selection techniques that havebeen employed in micro array data based cancer classification and also the predominant role of SVMfor cancer classification.

  13. A new set of wavelet- and fractals-based features for Gleason grading of prostate cancer histopathology images

    Mosquera Lopez, Clara; Agaian, Sos

    2013-02-01

    Prostate cancer detection and staging is an important step towards patient treatment selection. Advancements in digital pathology allow the application of new quantitative image analysis algorithms for computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) on digitized histopathology images. In this paper, we introduce a new set of features to automatically grade pathological images using the well-known Gleason grading system. The goal of this study is to classify biopsy images belonging to Gleason patterns 3, 4, and 5 by using a combination of wavelet and fractal features. For image classification we use pairwise coupling Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers. The accuracy of the system, which is close to 97%, is estimated through three different cross-validation schemes. The proposed system offers the potential for automating classification of histological images and supporting prostate cancer diagnosis.

  14. The Immunohistochemical Assessment of ALDH1 Activity in Breast Cancer and it’s Correlation With Pathologic Features

    Molanae S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 is a marker of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells that has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis. Studies on the detection of ALDH1+ cells can help the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of ALDH1 in breast cancer and its relationship with the pathological features of the tumors.Methods: ALDH1 activity was studied by immunohistochemistry in 121 paraffin-embedded histological samples of breast cancer patients from Department of Pathology of Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2006-2007. The relationship of ALDH1 with the pathological features of the tumors (size, grade, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion was also investigated.Results: Eighty-five percent of breast cancer samples expressed ALDH1 in their cytoplasm with a wide range of intensity (weak, moderate and strong, while 18 samples (14.9% were completely negative. The majority of cases (97.1% showed ALDH1 positivity in the stroma of tumors which varied from weak (2.9% to strong (73.5%. ALDH1 H-score (ALDH1% × intensity of tumor cells varied from 0 to 240 (mean= 80. ALDH1 H-score was ≤80 in 62 (51.2% and >80 in 59 (48.8% samples. There was no statistically significant relationship between ALDH1 H-score and age (P=0.358, tumor size (P=0.375, tumor grade (P=0.207, lymph node metastasis (P=0.125 or vascular invasion (P=0.190.Conclusion: ALDH1 activity was demonstrated in 85.1% of breast cancer samples although its level of expression was not correlated with the pathologic features of breast tumors.

  15. Serum high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is closely associated with the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer

    Chung Jae

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a newly recognized factor regulating cancer cell tumorigenesis, expansion and invasion. We investigated the correlation between the serum HMGB1 levels and the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer and evaluated the validity of HMGB1 as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 227 subjects were classified into 5 disease groups according to the 'gastritis-dysplasia-carcinoma' sequence of gastric carcinogenesis and their serum levels of HMGB1 were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Clinical parameters, International Union Against Cancer (UICC TNM stage, cancer size, differentiation or lymphatic invasion, vascular or perineural invasion and prognosis were used as analysis variables. Results The serum HMGB1 levels were significantly different among disease groups (ANOVA, p and HMGB1 levels tended to increase according to the progression of gastric carcinogenesis. Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and poor prognosis (p . However, HMGB1 levels were not associated with patient gender or age, differentiation of tumor cells, or lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion, or the existence of distant metastasis in advanced cancer (p > 0.05. The sensitivity and specificity of serum HMGB1 was 71% and 67% (cut-off value of 5 ng/ml for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer, and 70% and 64% (cut-off value of 4 ng/ml for the diagnosis of high-risk lesions, respectively. These values were greater than those for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA (30–40% of sensitivity. Conclusion HMGB1 appears to be a useful serological biomarker for early diagnosis as well as evaluating the tumorigenesis, stage, and prognosis of gastric cancer.

  16. The Correlation between Microsatellite Instability and the Features of Sporadic Colorectal Cancer in the North Part of Iran

    Masoumeh Faghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between MSI and sporadic colorectal cancer in Guilan province, North part of Iran. Materials and Methods. A total of 96 patients who underwent resection for sporadic colorectal cancer in Guilan province were studied. No patients had positive family history of cancers. The frequencies of MSI were analyzed by testing the BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers. Results. MSI analysis revealed that 22.9% of the tumors (22 patients were microsatellite instability positive and 77.1% (74 patients were microsatellite instability negative. The highest rate of MSI (40.9% was found in the rectal region. MSI-H status was seen more frequently in distal tumors (P=0.04, odds ratio = 3.13, 0.96–10.14. Conclusions. Distal tumor location and MSI may associate with special clinicopathological features. It seems that there may be correlation with underlying genetic and immunologic mechanisms.

  17. Automated diagnosis of mammogram images of breast cancer using discrete wavelet transform and spherical wavelet transform features: a comparative study.

    Ganesan, Karthikeyan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chua, Chua Kuang; Min, Lim Choo; Abraham, Thomas K

    2014-12-01

    Mammograms are one of the most widely used techniques for preliminary screening of breast cancers. There is great demand for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer using mammograms. Texture based feature extraction techniques are widely used for mammographic image analysis. In specific, wavelets are a popular choice for texture analysis of these images. Though discrete wavelets have been used extensively for this purpose, spherical wavelets have rarely been used for Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer using mammograms. In this work, a comparison of the performance between the features of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Spherical Wavelet Transform (SWT) based on the classification results of normal, benign and malignant stage was studied. Classification was performed using Linear Discriminant Classifier (LDC), Quadratic Discriminant Classifier (QDC), Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Parzen Classifier (ParzenC). We have obtained a maximum classification accuracy of 81.73% for DWT and 88.80% for SWT features using SVM classifier. PMID:24000991

  18. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: clinical features and survival. Results from the Danish HNPCC register

    Myrhøj, T; Bisgaard, M L; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Svendsen, L B; Søndergaard, J O; Bülow, Steffen

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other carcinomas. Our aim was to evaluate tumour parameters and survival in HNPCC. METHODS: One hundred and eight Danish HNPCC patients...

  19. Computer extracted texture features on T2w MRI to predict biochemical recurrence following radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Ginsburg, Shoshana B.; Rusu, Mirabela; Kurhanewicz, John; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    In this study we explore the ability of a novel machine learning approach, in conjunction with computer-extracted features describing prostate cancer morphology on pre-treatment MRI, to predict whether a patient will develop biochemical recurrence within ten years of radiation therapy. Biochemical recurrence, which is characterized by a rise in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of at least 2 ng/mL above the nadir PSA, is associated with increased risk of metastasis and prostate cancer-related mortality. Currently, risk of biochemical recurrence is predicted by the Kattan nomogram, which incorporates several clinical factors to predict the probability of recurrence-free survival following radiation therapy (but has limited prediction accuracy). Semantic attributes on T2w MRI, such as the presence of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion and surrogate measure- ments of tumor size, have also been shown to be predictive of biochemical recurrence risk. While the correlation between biochemical recurrence and factors like tumor stage, Gleason grade, and extracapsular spread are well- documented, it is less clear how to predict biochemical recurrence in the absence of extracapsular spread and for small tumors fully contained in the capsule. Computer{extracted texture features, which quantitatively de- scribe tumor micro-architecture and morphology on MRI, have been shown to provide clues about a tumor's aggressiveness. However, while computer{extracted features have been employed for predicting cancer presence and grade, they have not been evaluated in the context of predicting risk of biochemical recurrence. This work seeks to evaluate the role of computer-extracted texture features in predicting risk of biochemical recurrence on a cohort of sixteen patients who underwent pre{treatment 1.5 Tesla (T) T2w MRI. We extract a combination of first-order statistical, gradient, co-occurrence, and Gabor wavelet features from T2w MRI. To identify which of these

  20. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  1. Unsupervised Skin cancer detection by combination of texture and shape features in dermoscopy images

    Hamed aghapanah rudsari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel unsupervised feature extraction method for detection of melanoma in skin images is presented. First of all, normal skin surrounding the lesion is removed in a segmentation process. In the next step, some shape and texture features are extracted from the output image of the first step: GLCM, GLRLM, the proposed directional-frequency features, and some parameters of Ripplet transform are used as texture features; Also, NRL features and Zernike moments are used as shape features. Totally, 63 texture features and 31 shape features are extracted. Finally, the number of extracted features is reduced using PCA method and a proposed method based on Fisher criteria. Extracted features are classified using the Perceptron Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, 4-NN, and Naïve Bayes. The results show that SVM has the best performance. The proposed algorithm is applied on a database that consists of 160 labeled images. The overall results confirm the superiority of the proposed method in both accuracy and reliability over previous works.

  2. Can radiomics features be reproducibly measured from CBCT images for patients with non-small cell lung cancer?

    Fave, Xenia, E-mail: xjfave@mdanderson.org; Fried, David [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mackin, Dennis; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Joy; Balter, Peter; Followill, David [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Stingo, Francesco [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Court, Laurence [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests radiomics features extracted from computed tomography (CT) images may be useful in prognostic models for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was designed to determine whether such features can be reproducibly obtained from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images taken using medical Linac onboard-imaging systems in order to track them through treatment. Methods: Test-retest CBCT images of ten patients previously enrolled in a clinical trial were retrospectively obtained and used to determine the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for 68 different texture features. The volume dependence of each feature was also measured using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Features with a high reproducibility (CCC > 0.9) that were not due to volume dependence in the patient test-retest set were further examined for their sensitivity to differences in imaging protocol, level of scatter, and amount of motion by using two phantoms. The first phantom was a texture phantom composed of rectangular cartridges to represent different textures. Features were measured from two cartridges, shredded rubber and dense cork, in this study. The texture phantom was scanned with 19 different CBCT imagers to establish the features’ interscanner variability. The effect of scatter on these features was studied by surrounding the same texture phantom with scattering material (rice and solid water). The effect of respiratory motion on these features was studied using a dynamic-motion thoracic phantom and a specially designed tumor texture insert of the shredded rubber material. The differences between scans acquired with different Linacs and protocols, varying amounts of scatter, and with different levels of motion were compared to the mean intrapatient difference from the test-retest image set. Results: Of the original 68 features, 37 had a CCC >0.9 that was not due to volume dependence. When the Linac manufacturer and imaging protocol

  3. Can radiomics features be reproducibly measured from CBCT images for patients with non-small cell lung cancer?

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests radiomics features extracted from computed tomography (CT) images may be useful in prognostic models for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was designed to determine whether such features can be reproducibly obtained from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images taken using medical Linac onboard-imaging systems in order to track them through treatment. Methods: Test-retest CBCT images of ten patients previously enrolled in a clinical trial were retrospectively obtained and used to determine the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for 68 different texture features. The volume dependence of each feature was also measured using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Features with a high reproducibility (CCC > 0.9) that were not due to volume dependence in the patient test-retest set were further examined for their sensitivity to differences in imaging protocol, level of scatter, and amount of motion by using two phantoms. The first phantom was a texture phantom composed of rectangular cartridges to represent different textures. Features were measured from two cartridges, shredded rubber and dense cork, in this study. The texture phantom was scanned with 19 different CBCT imagers to establish the features’ interscanner variability. The effect of scatter on these features was studied by surrounding the same texture phantom with scattering material (rice and solid water). The effect of respiratory motion on these features was studied using a dynamic-motion thoracic phantom and a specially designed tumor texture insert of the shredded rubber material. The differences between scans acquired with different Linacs and protocols, varying amounts of scatter, and with different levels of motion were compared to the mean intrapatient difference from the test-retest image set. Results: Of the original 68 features, 37 had a CCC >0.9 that was not due to volume dependence. When the Linac manufacturer and imaging protocol

  4. Relationship Between Blood Fibrinogen Concentration and Pathological Features of Cancer Patients: A 139-case Clinical Study

    Da-Yong Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and coagulation are among the most consistent host responses to the presence of a malignant tissue. Pathological angiogenesis and coagulation are often occurred in patients with solid tumors, especially in the occurrence of neoplasm metastasis and as targets for anti-metastatic drugs such as antiangiogenesis agents, coagulation-mediated agents and anticancer drugs. Since fibrinogen (Fib is the most abundant and key haemostatic protein taking part in angiogenesis and coagulation, its biological and pathophysiological roles in cancer patients are intriguing. To continue foundational and translational research on Fib-related cancer pathogenesis, a phase II survey of 139 patients was carried out at the Central Hospital of Jing-An district and Shanghai University, Shanghai, China. The mean BFC of the cancer patients in this survey was overall about 35-50% greater than that in the normal population. This study showed that the mean BFC was higher in patients with long-distance metastases (N1M1 patients than in patients with no sign of long-distance metastases (N0M0 patients. Mean BFCs were 4.42 g/L (n= 21 in patients with lung cancer, 4.36 g/L, and in patients with hepatic cancer (n=5, and 4.63 g/L in patients with stomach cancer (n=8, all higher than the average value of the cancer patients overall (4.16 g/L. However, patients with bowel and colon cancers 3.79 g/L (n=16 showed lower than them. BFC levels increased with increasing cancer duration (latency > 1 year. There was a slight decrease in BFC after one or two treatment cycles, but a more marked decrease after surgery. We propose that the BFC level in cancer patients may be influenced by and related to many aspects of cancer progression such as metastatic conditions, tumor origins, patient’s pathological stage and disease latency. As an important first-hand pathologic-therapeutics relationship study, it provides evidence for the potentiality of a new approach of Fib-targeted as

  5. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The cancer stem cells (CSCs) have important therapeutic implications for multi-resistant cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the key pathways frequently activated in liver CSCs is NF-kB signaling. METHODS: We evaluated the CSCs-depleting potential of NF......-kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western...... inhibition of NF-kB and HDAC signaling for treatment of liver cancer patients with poor prognosis....

  6. Features of gastritis predisposing to gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer

    Meining, A.; Riedl, B; Stolte, M

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...

  7. A case-based reasoning system using feature scaling for computer aided breast cancer

    In this paper a CBR system for mammography CAD that uses feature scaling to improve the systems classification performance is proposed. The CBR system was evaluated on the public DDSM mammography database. We use ROC analysis and leaving-one-out sampling to show that the feature weighting approach results in improved ROC performance. (orig.)

  8. Heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer: mammographic, US, and MR imaging features according to androgen receptor expression

    Bae, Min Sun; Song, Sung Eun; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, So Yeon; Park, In-Ae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-16

    Our aim was to determine whether triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) with and without androgen receptor (AR) expression have distinguishing imaging features on mammography, breast ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. AR expression was assessed immunohistochemically in 125 patients with TNBC from a consecutive series of 1,086 operable invasive breast cancers. Two experienced radiologists blinded to clinicopathological findings reviewed all imaging studies in consensus using the BI-RADS lexicon. The imaging and pathological features of 33 AR-positive TNBCs were compared with those of 92 AR-negative TNBCs. The presence of mammographic calcifications with or without a mass (p < 0.001), non-mass enhancement on MR imaging (p < 0.001), and masses with irregular shape or spiculated margins on US (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002) and MR imaging (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001) were significantly associated with AR-positive TNBC. Compared with AR-negative TNBC, AR-positive TNBC was more likely to have a ductal carcinoma in situ component (59.8 % vs. 90.9 %, p = 0.001) and low Ki-67 expression (30.4 % vs. 51.5 %, p = 0.030). AR-positive and AR-negative TNBCs have different imaging features, and certain imaging findings can be useful to predict AR status in TNBC. (orig.)

  9. Auto-Segmentation of Head and Neck Cancer using Textural features

    Hollensen, Christian; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Højgaard, Liselotte;

    Purpose: The conventional treatment for non-metastatic Head & Neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is radiation therapy. Despite technological advances and improved efficacy radiation therapy still relies on manual delineation of gross tumour volume which is both time consuming and prone to inter...... inside and outside the GTV respectively to choose an appropriate feature combination for segmentation of the GTV. The feature combination with the highest dissimilarity was extracted on PET and CT images from the remaining 25 HNC patients. Using these features as input for a level set segmentation method...

  10. Clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    袁瑛; 叶俊; 郑树

    2004-01-01

    Background Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPPC) is one of the most common genetic syndrome related with mutation of human mismatch repair genes. This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (sHNPCC) criteria I and the clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-HNPCC (ICG-HNPCC) and sHNPCC families.Methods Twenty-nine ICG-HNPCC families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria and 34 sHNPCC families fulfilling the sHNPCC criteria I were collected. PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing analysis were employed to screen the germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in these families.Results The ICG group had more colorectal cancer (CRC) patients per family than did the suspected group (P0.05), mutation type, and mutation distribution. Comparison of the families with and without mutation showed no significant difference in CRC patients per family, Lynch classification, and tumor spectrum.Conclusions ICG-HNPCC and sHNPCC families that have similar clinical manifestations and genetic basis indicate a similar nature for cancer development. The application of sHNPCC criteria I will facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment of small families.

  11. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: clinical features and survival. Results from the Danish HNPCC register

    Myrhøj, T; Bisgaard, M L; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen;

    1997-01-01

    were compared with 870 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The median age at CRC diagnosis was 41 years in the HNPCC group. HNPCC patients had significantly more carcinomas located to the right colon (68% against 49% in controls), more synchromous tumours (7% versus 1%), more...

  12. Investigation of Endoscopic and Pathologic Features for Safe Endoscopic Treatment of Superficial Spreading Early Gastric Cancer.

    Lee, Kyong Joo; Pak, Kyung Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong Bai; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Hee Man; Lee, Sang Kil

    2016-04-01

    Superficial spreading early gastric cancer (EGC) is a rare disease that is treated mainly by surgery. There are few studies on the safety of endoscopic treatment for patients with superficial spreading EGC. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the risk of lymph node metastasis of superficial spreading EGC and (2) investigate the potential criteria for endoscopic treatment of superficial spreading EGC using surgical specimens.Between 2000 and 2010, patients who received curative surgery of R0 resection at Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) for early gastric cancer were enrolled. The superficial spreading EGC was defined as cancer in which the longest tumor length was ≥6 cm. The medical records of the patients were reviewed retrospectively.Of the 3813 patients with EGC, 140 (3.7%) had lesions ≥ 6 cm, whereas 3673 (96.3%) had lesions EGC had higher rates of submucosal cancer (59.3% vs 45.7%, P = 0.002), lymphovascular invasion (18.6% vs 9.8%, P EGC (EGC, as compared with a tumor EGC. In mucosal cancer without ulcers, tumors ≥ 6 cm had a higher rate of lymph node metastasis than tumors ≤ 2 cm; however, this trend was not significant (7.7% vs 5.3%, P = 0.455).Superficial spreading EGC was not associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis compared with common EGC. We suggest that differentiated intramucosal superficial spreading EGC without ulceration can be treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:27057862

  13. A computerized global MR image feature analysis scheme to assist diagnosis of breast cancer: a preliminary assessment

    Objectives: To develop a new computer-aided detection scheme to compute a global kinetic image feature from the dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and test the feasibility of using the computerized results for assisting classification between the DCE-MRI examinations associated with malignant and benign tumors. Materials and Methods: The scheme registers sequential images acquired from each DCE-MRI examination, segments breast areas on all images, searches for a fraction of voxels that have higher contrast enhancement values and computes an average contrast enhancement value of selected voxels. Combination of the maximum contrast enhancement values computed from two post-contrast series in one of two breasts is applied to predict the likelihood of the examination being positive for breast cancer. The scheme performance was evaluated when applying to a retrospectively collected database including 80 malignant and 50 benign cases. Results: In each of 91% of malignant cases and 66% of benign cases, the average contrast enhancement value computed from the top 0.43% of voxels is higher in the breast depicted suspicious lesions as compared to another negative (lesion-free) breast. In classifying between malignant and benign cases, using the computed image feature achieved an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 with 95% confidence interval of [0.762, 0.898]. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the global contrast enhancement feature of DCE-MRI can be relatively easily and robustly computed without accurate breast tumor detection and segmentation. This global feature provides supplementary information and a higher discriminatory power in assisting diagnosis of breast cancer

  14. A computerized global MR image feature analysis scheme to assist diagnosis of breast cancer: a preliminary assessment

    Yang, Qian [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Li, Lihua, E-mail: lilh@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang [Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, 310010 (China); Zheng, Bin [College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To develop a new computer-aided detection scheme to compute a global kinetic image feature from the dynamic contrast enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and test the feasibility of using the computerized results for assisting classification between the DCE-MRI examinations associated with malignant and benign tumors. Materials and Methods: The scheme registers sequential images acquired from each DCE-MRI examination, segments breast areas on all images, searches for a fraction of voxels that have higher contrast enhancement values and computes an average contrast enhancement value of selected voxels. Combination of the maximum contrast enhancement values computed from two post-contrast series in one of two breasts is applied to predict the likelihood of the examination being positive for breast cancer. The scheme performance was evaluated when applying to a retrospectively collected database including 80 malignant and 50 benign cases. Results: In each of 91% of malignant cases and 66% of benign cases, the average contrast enhancement value computed from the top 0.43% of voxels is higher in the breast depicted suspicious lesions as compared to another negative (lesion-free) breast. In classifying between malignant and benign cases, using the computed image feature achieved an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 with 95% confidence interval of [0.762, 0.898]. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the global contrast enhancement feature of DCE-MRI can be relatively easily and robustly computed without accurate breast tumor detection and segmentation. This global feature provides supplementary information and a higher discriminatory power in assisting diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. Clinical manifestations and radiological features may contribute to the early diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma after breast cancer

    Aim: To describe the clinical manifestations and radiological features contributing to the early diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) after radiotherapy for breast cancer. Materials and methods: This retrospective analysis included four typical cases of RIS diagnosed at Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences between 1980 and 2013. Patient and imaging characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes were extracted from patients' medical records. Two pathologists reviewed all histological slides. Results: All four cases were misdiagnosed and treated for several months as cases of breast cancer relapse. CT using the bone-window setting and three-dimensional reconstructions clearly displayed bone tumours of RIS in three cases. Skin alterations were observed in all cases. At the time of RIS diagnosis, three patients were free of breast cancer. In one patient with bilateral breast cancer and lung metastasis, chemotherapy resulted in complete remission of the metastasis, but RIS progression. No RIS in this series responded to chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. Conclusions: Abnormalities appearing in the radiation field long after RT should alert clinicians to the potential development of RIS. Careful physical examination and follow-up imaging studies are necessary. The presence of skin alterations, bone tumours at CT or radiography, and poor response to anti-cancer drugs may contribute to the early detection of RIS. Biopsy should be performed immediately when RIS is suspected. - Highlights: • Abnormalities in the radiation field should alert to the development of RIS. • Skin alterations and bone tumors on images may contribute to the early detection. • Biopsy should be performed immediately when Radiation-induced sarcoma is suspected

  16. Anatomic feature-based registration for patient set-up in head and neck cancer radiotherapy

    Modern radiotherapy equipment is capable of delivering high precision conformal dose distributions relative to isocentre. One of the barriers to precise treatments is accurate patient re-positioning before each fraction of treatment. At Massachusetts General Hospital, we perform daily patient alignment using radiographs, which are captured by flat panel imaging devices and sent to an analysis program. A trained therapist manually selects anatomically significant features in the skeleton, and couch movement is computed based on the image coordinates of the features. The current procedure takes about 5 to 10 min and significantly affects the efficiency requirement in a busy clinic. This work presents our effort to develop an improved, semi-automatic procedure that uses the manually selected features from the first treatment fraction to automatically locate the same features on the second and subsequent fractions. An implementation of this semi-automatic procedure is currently in clinical use for head and neck tumour sites. Radiographs collected from 510 patient set-ups were used to test this algorithm. A mean difference of 1.5 mm between manual and automatic localization of individual features and a mean difference of 0.8 mm for overall set-up were seen

  17. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population:the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen

    Hong-Wen Gao; Masaaki Kuwahara; Xue-Jian Zhao; Yu-Lin Li; Shan Wu; Yi-Shu Wang; Hai-Feng Zhang; Yu-Zhuo Pan; Ling Zhang; Hiroo Tateno; Ikuro Sato

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods: A total of 12 027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) test (oy Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was >4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Results: Of the 12 027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were >4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA <4.0 ng/mL] who had obstructive symptoms) undertook prostate biopsy. Of the 158 biopsies, 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma were found (25.9 %, 41/158). The moderately differentiated carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma accounted for 61% and 34%, respectively. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA and the Gleason scores in the 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.312, P < 0.01) was established. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA value of the 41 prostatic carcinoma and the positive counts of carcinoma in sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P < 0.01), indicating a significant linear relationship between serum tPSA and the size of tumor.Conclusion: This study was the first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  18. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE CURRENT DIAGNOSIS OF COLORECTAL CANCER LIVER METASTASES

    T. Yu. Danzanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of an optimal algorithm of ray diagnostic examinations in the case of colorectal cancer liver metastases is extremely important. The paper reviews the literature on the diagnosis of colorectal cancer liver metastases. Diagnosis of liver metastases is based on imaging techniques that allow you to assess the condition of the liver, the number and size of lesions and the number of parameters on which the patient is suitable for radical surgery. Described ultrasound (US, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI semiotics of liver metastases, and reflect additional information that can be obtained using beam methods of research, which is of great importance in determining resectability and preoperative planning of surgery. We consider differential diagnosis with benign tumors of the liver. The value and priority of such methods of radiation diagnosis as ultrasound with contrast, CT and MRI contrast agents, is widely debated among experts.

  19. Relationship between Full-Field Digital Mammographic Features and Clinicopathologic Characteristics in 176 Cases with Breast Cancer

    Zhe Sun; Hongwei Liang; Huimian Xu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Different mammographic features are probably predictive of different prognosis. However, ambiguity still exists in understanding the relationship between them. In resent years, digital mammography has been available for clinical use which has led to a revolution in the resolving of images and an increase in early-stage breast cancer detection.Based on the above knowledge, this study was performed to evaluate the relationship between full-field digital mammographic features and clinicopathologic characteristics in breast cancer.METHODS Digital mammograms of 176 patients with pathologically proven breast cancer were reviewed. Also, clinical and pathologic records (histological types and axillary lymph nodes status) were retrospectively examined.RESULTS Most of the patients with a solitary microcalcification were young women under the age of 50(84.4%), but the majority of the patients with microcalcifications complicated by a mass were elderly women. Microcalcifications detected by mammography occurred frequently in ductal carcinoma in situ (28.1%) and in early invasive carcinoma (15.6%). Breast cancers with expression of microcalcifications combined with a spiculate mass had a high metastatic rate of axillary lymph nodes (69.4%). A high metastatic rate of axillary lymph nodes was also found in the patients with solitary worm-like microcalcifications (57.1%), solitary spiculate mass (53.7%) and solitary non-worm-like microcalcifications (44.4%). Simple worm-like microcalcifications accompanied with metastasis of 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes occurred in 42.9% of the(6/14) cases. The patients with microcalcifications combined by a spiculate mass and with metastasis of 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes accounted for 27.8% (10/36) of the cases,and those with metastases of 10 and over accounted for 16.7% (6/36).CONCLUSION Solitary microcalcifications occur frequently in young women and are usually associated with early breast cancer. There is a close relationship

  20. The clinical study for features of liver metastasis of breast cancer on imaging and its response to arterial infusion chemotherapy

    Arterial infusion chemotherapy (FAMia) was performed in 35 patients with liver metastasis of breast cancer after radical mastectomy, which was suspected to be the limiting factor of the prognosis, and the relationship between the morphological types of liver metastases, percentage of the liver involved, their angiographic features, tumor makers and chemotherapeutic response was discussed. In most cases, metastatic lesions were detected as a hypoechoic area on US and as a low-density area on CT scan. On their angiographic features these lesions were revealed as hypervascular tumors in most cases and enlarged hepatic artery and obstruction of portal vein brunch were seen each in over 50 % of cases. In morphological type, diffuse small nodular patterns were seen in 54 % of cases. AL-P was the most sensitive indicator to detect the liver metastasis of beast cancer. FAMia were performed as one shot administration for 12 patients and as low-dose intermittent administration with implanted silicon reservoir for 23 patients. The regimen of low-dose intermittent administration was simultaneous using of 5-FU : 334 mg/sqm/W, MMC : 2.7 mg/sqm/2 W, ADM : 20 mg/sqm/4 W. In 26 evaluable cases, the response rate was 80.8 % (PR 21, NC 4, PD 1) and 50 % survival time was 14.0 months in responders and 2.0 months in non-responders. The case with under 40 % of the liver involved or with few large mass type revealed partial response. Arterial infusion chemotherapy was thus shown to be an effective treatment for liver metastasis of breast cancer, but that the response to the treatment differed for the percentage of the liver involved and each morphological type. (author)

  1. Histopathological features of breast tumours in BRCA1, BRCA2 and mutation-negative breast cancer families

    Histopathological features of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumours have previously been characterised and compared with unselected breast tumours; however, familial non-BRCA1/2 tumours are less well known. The aim of this study was to characterise familial non-BRCA1/2 tumours and to evaluate routine immunohistochemical and pathological markers that could help us to further distinguish families carrying BRCA1/2 mutations from other breast cancer families. Breast cancer tissue specimens (n = 262) from 25 BRCA1, 20 BRCA2 and 74 non-BRCA1/2 families were studied on a tumour tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and p53 as well as the histology and grade of these three groups were compared with each other and with the respective information on 862 unselected control patients from the archives of the Pathology Department of Helsinki University Central Hospital. Immunohistochemical staining of erbB2 was also performed among familial cases. BRCA1-associated cancers were diagnosed younger and were more ER-negative and PgR-negative, p53-positive and of higher grade than the other tumours. However, in multivariate analysis the independent factors compared with non-BRCA1/2 tumours were age, grade and PgR negativity. BRCA2 cases did not have such distinctive features compared with non-BRCA1/2 tumours or with unselected control tumours. Familial cases without BRCA1/2 mutations had tumours of lower grade than the other groups. BRCA1 families differed from mutation-negative families by age, grade and PgR status, whereas ER status was not an independent marker

  2. Testing Map Features Designed to Convey the Uncertainty of Cancer Risk: Insights Gained From Assessing Judgments of Information Adequacy and Communication Goals

    Severtson, Dolores J.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to communicating the uncertainty of environmental health risks include preferences for certain information and low numeracy. Map features designed to communicate the magnitude and uncertainty of estimated cancer risk from air pollution were tested among 826 participants to assess how map features influenced judgments of adequacy and the intended communication goals. An uncertain versus certain visual feature was judged as less adequate but met both communication goals and addressed n...

  3. Association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the DCE-MRI images and breast cancer

    Yang, Qian; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Chengjie; Zheng, Bin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of breast yields high sensitivity but relatively lower specificity. To improve diagnostic accuracy of DCE-MRI, we investigated the association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the left and right breasts and breast cancer detection with the hypothesis that due to the growth of angiogenesis associated with malignant lesions, the average dynamic contrast enhancement computed from the breasts depicting malignant lesions should be higher than negative or benign breasts. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a database involving 130 DCE-MRI examinations including 81 malignant and 49 benign cases. We developed a computerized scheme that automatically segments breast areas depicted on MR images and computes kinetic features related to the bilateral asymmetry of contrast enhancement ratio between two breasts. An artificial neural network (ANN) was then used to classify between malignant and benign cases. To identify the optimal approach to compute the bilateral kinetic feature asymmetry, we tested 4 different thresholds to select the enhanced pixels (voxels) from DCE-MRI images and compute the kinetic features. Using the optimal threshold, the ANN had a classification performance measured by the area under the ROC curve of AUC=0.79+/-0.04. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.75 and 0.67, respectively. The study suggested that the bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features or contrast enhancement of breast background tissue could provide valuable supplementary information to distinguish between the malignant and benign cases, which can be fused into existing computer-aided detection schemes to improve classification performance.

  4. TU-C-17A-10: Patient Features Based Dosimetric Pareto Front Prediction In Esophagus Cancer Radiotherapy

    Wang, J; Zhao, K; Peng, J; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Jin, X [1st Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to study the feasibility of the dosimetric pareto front (PF) prediction based on patient anatomic and dosimetric parameters for esophagus cancer patients. Methods: Sixty esophagus patients in our institution were enrolled in this study. A total 2920 IMRT plans were created to generated PF for each patient. On average, each patient had 48 plans. The anatomic and dosimetric features were extracted from those plans. The mean lung dose (MLD), mean heart dose (MHD), spinal cord max dose and PTV homogeneous index (PTVHI) were recorded for each plan. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract overlap volume histogram (OVH) features between PTV and other critical organs. The full dataset was separated into two parts include the training dataset and the validation dataset. The prediction outcomes were the MHD and MLD for the current study. The spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical features and dosimetric features. The PF was fit by the the stepwise multiple regression method. The cross-validation method was used to evaluation the model. Results: The mean prediction error of the MHD was 465 cGy with 100 repetitions. The most correlated factors were the first principal components of the OVH between heart and PTV, and the overlap between heart and PTV in Z-axis. The mean prediction error of the MLD was 195 cGy. The most correlated factors were the first principal components of the OVH between lung and PTV, and the overlap between lung and PTV in Z-axis. Conclusion: It is feasible to use patients anatomic and dosimetric features to generate a predicted PF. Additional samples and further studies were required to get a better prediction model.

  5. In vivo relevant mixed urolithins and ellagic acid inhibit phenotypic and molecular colon cancer stem cell features: A new potentiality for ellagitannin metabolites against cancer.

    Núñez-Sánchez, María Ángeles; Karmokar, Ankur; González-Sarrías, Antonio; García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Brown, Karen; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) offer a novel paradigm for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment and dietary polyphenols may contribute to battle these cells. Specifically, polyphenol-derived colon metabolites have the potential to interact with and affect colon CSCs. We herein report the effects against colon CSCs of two mixtures of ellagitannin (ET) metabolites, ellagic acid (EA) and the gut microbiota-derived urolithins (Uro) at concentrations detected in the human colon tissues following the intake of ET-containing products (pomegranate, walnuts). These mixtures reduce phenotypic and molecular features in two models of colon CSCs: Caco-2 cells and primary tumour cells from a patient with CRC. The mixture containing mostly Uro-A (85% Uro-A, 10% Uro-C, 5% EA) was most effective at inhibiting the number and size of colonospheres and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH, a marker of chemoresistance) whereas the mixture containing less Uro-A but IsoUro-A and Uro-B (30% Uro-A, 50% IsoUro-A, 10% Uro-B, 5% Uro-C, 5% EA) had some effects on the number and size of colonospheres but not on ALDH. These data support a role for polyphenols metabolites in the control of colon cancer chemoresistance and relapse and encourage the research on the effects of polyphenols against CSCs. PMID:26995228

  6. Breast cancer mitosis detection in histopathological images with spatial feature extraction

    Albayrak, Abdülkadir; Bilgin, Gökhan

    2013-12-01

    In this work, cellular mitosis detection in histopathological images has been investigated. Mitosis detection is very expensive and time consuming process. Development of digital imaging in pathology has enabled reasonable and effective solution to this problem. Segmentation of digital images provides easier analysis of cell structures in histopathological data. To differentiate normal and mitotic cells in histopathological images, feature extraction step is very crucial step for the system accuracy. A mitotic cell has more distinctive textural dissimilarities than the other normal cells. Hence, it is important to incorporate spatial information in feature extraction or in post-processing steps. As a main part of this study, Haralick texture descriptor has been proposed with different spatial window sizes in RGB and La*b* color spaces. So, spatial dependencies of normal and mitotic cellular pixels can be evaluated within different pixel neighborhoods. Extracted features are compared with various sample sizes by Support Vector Machines using k-fold cross validation method. According to the represented results, it has been shown that separation accuracy on mitotic and non-mitotic cellular pixels gets better with the increasing size of spatial window.

  7. CARM1 and PRMT1 are dysregulated in lung cancer without hierarchical features.

    Elakoum, Rania; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Oussalah, Abderrahim; Wissler, Marie-Pierre; Clément-Duchêne, Christelle; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Namour, Farès

    2014-02-01

    CARM1 and PRMT1 are 2 Protein Arginine Methyl Transferases (PRMT) dysregulated in cancer. CARM1 function is contradictory and depicted as facilitating proliferation or differentiation. PRMT1 is required for cell proliferation. CARM1 and PRMT1 cooperate for gene regulation. We report that CARM1 and PRMT1 are significantly overexpressed in 60 patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas (NSCLC). CARM1 and PRMT1 correlated in healthy but not tumor tissue. Their levels of expression in tumor tissue were proportional to their levels of expression in the counterpart healthy tissue. Only CARM1 expression was found to be correlated with tumor differentiation and neither CARM1 nor PRMT1 expression was correlated with survival. Accordingly, CARM1 and PRMT1 are overexpressed in 2 NSCLC cell lines, A549 and H1299. Targeting PRMT1 with siRNA reduced proliferation, by decreasing cell growth and inhibiting soft agar colony formation, and promoted differentiation, by increasing the epithelial markers cytokeratin 7 and 8 and decreasing Neuromedin B receptor, which binds a mitogenic factor. siCARM1 yielded similar consequences but the conditions with siCARM1 reflected inhibition of both CARM1 and PRMT1. Together these results suggest that CARM1 and PRMT1 are involved in proliferation in lung cancer with no hierarchy of one protein over the other. The fact that CARM1 targeting suppresses PRMT1 in addition to CARM1 reinforces the functional importance of CARM1/PRMT1 interaction. PMID:24211191

  8. Prognostic Value and Reproducibility of Pretreatment CT Texture Features in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Purpose: To determine whether pretreatment CT texture features can improve patient risk stratification beyond conventional prognostic factors (CPFs) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 91 cases with stage III NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy. All patients underwent pretreatment diagnostic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) followed by 4-dimensional CT (4D-CT) for treatment simulation. We used the average-CT and expiratory (T50-CT) images from the 4D-CT along with the CE-CT for texture extraction. Histogram, gradient, co-occurrence, gray tone difference, and filtration-based techniques were used for texture feature extraction. Penalized Cox regression implementing cross-validation was used for covariate selection and modeling. Models incorporating texture features from the 33 image types and CPFs were compared to those with models incorporating CPFs alone for overall survival (OS), local-regional control (LRC), and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM). Predictive Kaplan-Meier curves were generated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Patients were stratified based on whether their predicted outcome was above or below the median. Reproducibility of texture features was evaluated using test-retest scans from independent patients and quantified using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). We compared models incorporating the reproducibility seen on test-retest scans to our original models and determined the classification reproducibility. Results: Models incorporating both texture features and CPFs demonstrated a significant improvement in risk stratification compared to models using CPFs alone for OS (P=.046), LRC (P=.01), and FFDM (P=.005). The average CCCs were 0.89, 0.91, and 0.67 for texture features extracted from the average-CT, T50-CT, and CE-CT, respectively. Incorporating reproducibility within our models yielded 80.4% (±3.7% SD), 78.3% (±4.0% SD), and 78

  9. Prognostic Value and Reproducibility of Pretreatment CT Texture Features in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Fried, David V. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhou, Shouhao [Division of Quantitative Sciences, Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mawlawi, Osama [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Court, Laurence E., E-mail: LECourt@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether pretreatment CT texture features can improve patient risk stratification beyond conventional prognostic factors (CPFs) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 91 cases with stage III NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy. All patients underwent pretreatment diagnostic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) followed by 4-dimensional CT (4D-CT) for treatment simulation. We used the average-CT and expiratory (T50-CT) images from the 4D-CT along with the CE-CT for texture extraction. Histogram, gradient, co-occurrence, gray tone difference, and filtration-based techniques were used for texture feature extraction. Penalized Cox regression implementing cross-validation was used for covariate selection and modeling. Models incorporating texture features from the 33 image types and CPFs were compared to those with models incorporating CPFs alone for overall survival (OS), local-regional control (LRC), and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM). Predictive Kaplan-Meier curves were generated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Patients were stratified based on whether their predicted outcome was above or below the median. Reproducibility of texture features was evaluated using test-retest scans from independent patients and quantified using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). We compared models incorporating the reproducibility seen on test-retest scans to our original models and determined the classification reproducibility. Results: Models incorporating both texture features and CPFs demonstrated a significant improvement in risk stratification compared to models using CPFs alone for OS (P=.046), LRC (P=.01), and FFDM (P=.005). The average CCCs were 0.89, 0.91, and 0.67 for texture features extracted from the average-CT, T50-CT, and CE-CT, respectively. Incorporating reproducibility within our models yielded 80.4% (±3.7% SD), 78.3% (±4.0% SD), and 78

  10. Hereditary/familial versus sporadic prostate cancer: few indisputable genetic differences and many similar clinicopathological features.

    Alberti, C

    2010-01-01

    Genetic factors and their interactions with environmental conditions and internal microenvironment influence the prostate cancer (PC) development, so that gene expression couldn't strictly occur on the basis of reductionist determinisms of DNA causality but should also conform to multifactorial and stochastic events, moreover, considering the pre-RNA alternative splicing-mediated multi-protein assemblying mechanisms. Nevertheless, after age and ethnic background, the strongest epidemiological risk factor for PC is a positive family history. However, apart from RNaseL-, ElaC2-, MSR1-genes, there are not other identified high-risk genetic variants which might be considered responsible for hereditary PC, moreover suggesting that familial PC is a genetically heterogeneous disease, many gene loci rather than a specific major susceptibility gene predisposing to it. Gene-environment interactions play a crucial role in cancer development especially when low penetrance genes, such as in case of genetic polymorphisms, are the major players. Several epidemiological studies show, in some families, a possible, either syncronous or metachronous, association of other tumors (breast, brain, gastrointestinal tumors, lymphomas) with PC, thus suggesting a common genetic background. As far as the role of androgen metabolism and androgen receptor (AR)-related genes in the development of familial PC is concerned, a small number of either guanine-guanine-cytosine (risk. Regarding the expression of both androgen and estrogen receptor-related genes in sporadic and hereditary PC, the immunohistochemistry findings show that the percentage of AR-positive cancer cells is higher in hereditary PC than in sporadic forms, whereas the mean number of estrogen-alpha-receptor-positive stromal cells is higher in sporadic PC rather than in that hereditary. As for 5-alpha-steroid-reductase-2 gene, the dinucleotide thymine-adenine repeated 18 times on the last exon, confers an increased PC predisposition

  11. Detection of metabolic syndrome features among childhood cancer survivors: A target to prevent disease

    Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon1, Angela Maria Spinola-Castro1, Gil Guerra-Junior21Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP/EPM, Brazil; 2Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, State University of Campinas – FCM/UNICAMP, BrazilAbstract: Along with the growing epidemic of obesity, the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease morbidity, and mortality are increasing markedly. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia commonly cluster together as a condition currently known as metabolic syndrome. Thus far, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction are the primary events of the metabolic syndrome. Several groups have recommended clinical criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonetheless, in what concerns children and adolescents, there are no unified definitions, and modified adult criteria have been suggested by many authors, despite major problems. Some pediatric disease states are at risk for premature cardiovascular disease, with clinical coronary events occurring very early in adult life. Survivors of specific pediatric cancer groups, particularly acute lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, testicular cancer, and following bone marrow transplantation, may develop metabolic syndrome traits due to: hormonal deficiencies (growth hormone deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and gonadal failure, drug or radiotherapy damage, endothelial impairment, physical inactivity, adipose tissue dysfunction, and/or drug-induced magnesium deficiency. In conclusion, some primary and secondary prevention remarks are proposed in order to reduce premature cardiovascular disease risk in this particular group of patients.Keywords: metabolic syndrome X, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, obesity, growth hormone

  12. Characteristic spectral features of the polarized fluorescence of human breast cancer in the wavelet domain

    Gharekhan, Anita H; Gupta, Sharad; Panigrahi, Prasanta K; Pradhan, Asima

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet transform of polarized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues is found to localize spectral features that can reliably differentiate normal and malignant tissue types. The intensity differences of parallel and perpendicularly polarized fluorescence spectra are subjected to investigation, since the same is relatively free of the diffusive background. A number of parameters, capturing spectral variations and subtle changes in the diseased tissues in the visible wavelength regime, are clearly identifiable in the wavelet domain. These manifest both in the average low pass and high frequency high pass wavelet coefficients.

  13. Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Concomitant EGFR, KRAS, and ALK Mutation: Clinicopathologic Features of 12 Cases

    Lee, Taebum; Lee, Boram; Choi, Yoon-La; Han, Joungho; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Um, Sang-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were thought to be mutually exclusive, some tumors harbor concomitant mutations. Discovering a driver mutation on the basis of morphologic features and therapeutic responses with mutation analysis can be used to understand pathogenesis and predict resistance in targeted therapy. Methods: In 6,637 patients with NSCLC, 12 patients who had concomitant mutations were selected and clinicopathologic features were reviewed. Clinical characteristics included sex, age, smoking history, previous treatment, and targeted therapy with response and disease-free survival. Histologic features included dominant patterns, nuclear and cytoplasmic features. Results: All patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma and had an EGFR mutation. Six patients had concomitant KRAS mutations and the other six had KRAS mutations. Five of six EGFR-KRAS mutation patients showed papillary and acinar histologic patterns with hobnail cells. Three of six received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and showed partial response for 7–29 months. All six EGFR-ALK mutation patients showed solid or cribriform patterns and three had signet ring cells. Five of six EGFR-ALK mutation patients received EGFR TKI and/or ALK inhibitor and four showed partial response or stable disease, except for one patient who had acquired an EGFR mutation. Conclusions: EGFR and ALK mutations play an important role as driver mutations in double mutated NSCLC, and morphologic analysis can be used to predict treatment response. PMID:27086595

  14. Staging of cervical cancer based on tumor heterogeneity characterized by texture features on 18F-FDG PET images

    Mu, Wei; Chen, Zhe; Liang, Ying; Shen, Wei; Yang, Feng; Dai, Ruwei; Wu, Ning; Tian, Jie

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the staging value of the tumor heterogeneity characterized by texture features and other commonly used semi-quantitative indices extracted from 18F-FDG PET images of cervical cancer (CC) patients. Forty-two patients suffering CC at different stages were enrolled in this study. Firstly, we proposed a new tumor segmentation method by combining the intensity and gradient field information in a level set framework. Secondly, fifty-four 3D texture features were studied besides of SUVs (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV). Through correlation analysis, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves analysis, some independent indices showed statistically significant differences between the early stage (ES, stages I and II) and the advanced stage (AS, stages III and IV). Then the tumors represented by those independent indices could be automatically classified into ES and AS, and the most discriminative feature could be chosen. Finally, the robustness of the optimal index with respect to sampling schemes and the quality of the PET images were validated. Using the proposed segmentation method, the dice similarity coefficient and Hausdorff distance were 91.78   ±   1.66% and 7.94   ±   1.99 mm, respectively. According to the correlation analysis, all the fifty-eight indices could be divided into 20 groups. Six independent indices were selected for their highest areas under the ROC curves (AUROC), and showed significant differences between ES and AS (P  Pearson correlation of RP under different sampling schemes is 0.9991   ±   0.0011. RP is a highly stable feature and well correlated with tumor stage in CC, which suggests it could differentiate ES and AS with high accuracy.

  15. Skin cancer texture analysis of OCT images based on Haralick, fractal dimension and the complex directional field features

    Raupov, Dmitry S.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Khramov, Alexander G.

    2016-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is usually employed for the measurement of tumor topology, which reflects structural changes of a tissue. We investigated the possibility of OCT in detecting changes using a computer texture analysis method based on Haralick texture features, fractal dimension and the complex directional field method from different tissues. These features were used to identify special spatial characteristics, which differ healthy tissue from various skin cancers in cross-section OCT images (B-scans). Speckle reduction is an important pre-processing stage for OCT image processing. In this paper, an interval type-II fuzzy anisotropic diffusion algorithm for speckle noise reduction in OCT images was used. The Haralick texture feature set includes contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity evaluated in different directions. A box-counting method is applied to compute fractal dimension of investigated tissues. Additionally, we used the complex directional field calculated by the local gradient methodology to increase of the assessment quality of the diagnosis method. The complex directional field (as well as the "classical" directional field) can help describe an image as set of directions. Considering to a fact that malignant tissue grows anisotropically, some principal grooves may be observed on dermoscopic images, which mean possible existence of principal directions on OCT images. Our results suggest that described texture features may provide useful information to differentiate pathological from healthy patients. The problem of recognition melanoma from nevi is decided in this work due to the big quantity of experimental data (143 OCT-images include tumors as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Malignant Melanoma (MM) and Nevi). We have sensitivity about 90% and specificity about 85%. Further research is warranted to determine how this approach may be used to select the regions of interest automatically.

  16. The features of kinetics of 153Sm-oksabifor in bone metastases of cancer of different localization

    Provide evaluation of investigation of kinetics of 153Sm-oksabifor in metastases of cancer the results of complex scintigraphic investigations of 26 patients who were treated by radionuclide therapy were analyzed. The angioscintigraphy during 60 seconds, dynamic scintigraphy during 60-90 minutes and whole body scanning after intravenous bolus injection of 4130-4950 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical in sequence were made. Considerable variability of indices of the radiopharmaceutical kinetics was determined. The features of angioscintigrams from bone metastases with intensive accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical are a short descending segment or its absents and passing an ascending segment into plateau or slowly ascending curve, which are determined the radiopharmaceutical fixation in metastases during first passing the bolus through the vessels. Character of the radiopharmaceutical fixation at angioscintigraphy may be a prognostic factor of the efficacy of radionuclide therapy

  17. Mammographic, sonographic and MR imaging features of invasive micropapillary breast cancer

    Alsharif, Shaza; Daghistani, Razan; Kamberoğlu, Elif Aşik; Omeroglu, Atilla; Meterissian, Sarkis; Mesurolle, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.mesurolle@muhc.mcgill.ca

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Describe mammographic, sonographic and MRI findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast. Materials and methods: Review of the pathology database identified 43 patients (mean age, 59.3 years) with the diagnosis of breast IMPC. Three patients had no available imaging studies. Mammograms (40), breast ultrasounds (33) and MRIs (8) were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists in consensus following the BI-RADS Lexicon. Clinical, histopathologic features, as well as hormone status were recorded. Results: Twenty patients presented with palpable abnormality (20/40, 50%). Thirty-five patients had an abnormal mammogram (87.5%, 35/40) showing 39 lesions, 29 corresponding to masses (29/39, 74.4%), 11 associated with microcalcifications and two associated with architectural distortion. Sonography identified 41 masses (in 33 patients) displaying an irregular shape (30/41, 73.2%), appearing hypoechoic (39/41, 95%), with spiculated or angular margins (26/41, 63.4%), non-parallel orientation (26/41, 63.4%) and combined acoustic posterior pattern (18/41, 44%). MRI identified 13 lesions (in eight patients), 12 as masses (12/13, 92.3%) with irregular or spiculated margins (12/12, 100%), eight displaying an irregular or lobulated shape (8/12, 66.7%), six with homogeneous internal enhancement (6/12, 50%) and eight with type 3 enhancement curve (8/12, 61.5%). Associated non-mass like enhancement was noted in two patients. Twenty-nine patients had associated lymphovascular invasion (29/40, 72.5%) and axillary lymph node metastases were present in 22 of the 39 patients (22/39, 56%). Conclusion: Invasive ductal carcinoma with IMPC features display imaging findings highly suspicious of malignant lesions. They are associated with high lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases rates.

  18. Non-small cell lung cancer: evaluation of the relationship between fibrosis and washout feature at dynamic contrast enhanced CT

    Objective: To correlate dynamic parameters at contrast enhanced CT and interstitial fibrosis grade of' non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NSCLC were evaluated by multi-slice CT. Images were obtained before and at 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180, 300, 540, 720, 900 and 1200 s after the injection of contrast media, which was administered at a rate of 4 ml/s for a total of 420 mg I/kg body weight. Washout parameters were calculated. Lung cancer specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain and collagen and elastic double stain. Spearman test was made to analyze correlation between dynamic parameters and interstitial fibrosis grade of tumor. Results: Twenty- nine NSCLC demonstrated washout at 20 min 12.1 (0.32-58.0) HU, washout ratio at 20 minutes 15.3% (0.3%-39.2%), slope of washout at 20 minutes 0.0152%/s (0.0007%/s-0.0561%/s). Interstitial fibrosis of 29 lesions was graded as grade Ⅰ (10), grade Ⅱ (14) and grade Ⅲ (5). There were significant correlation between washout at 20 min (r=-0.402, P<0.05), washout ratio at 20 min (r= -0.372, P<0.05), slope of washout ratio (r=-0.459, P<0.05) and interstitial fibrosis grade in tumors. Conclusion: NSCLC washout features at dynamic multi-detector CT correlates with interstitial fibrosis in the tumor. (authors)

  19. Predicting Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Eligible for Active Surveillance by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Ottavio de Cobelli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS score in predicting pathologic features in a cohort of patients eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy.A total of 223 patients who fulfilled the criteria for "Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance", were included. Mp-1.5 Tesla MRI examination staging with endorectal coil was performed at least 6-8 weeks after TRUS-guided biopsy. In all patients, the likelihood of the presence of cancer was assigned using PIRADS score between 1 and 5. Outcomes of interest were: Gleason score upgrading, extra capsular extension (ECE, unfavorable prognosis (occurrence of both upgrading and ECE, large tumor volume (≥ 0.5 ml, and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and Decision Curve Analyses (DCA were performed for models with and without inclusion of PIRADS score.Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association of PIRADS score with upgrading (P < 0.0001, ECE (P < 0.0001, unfavorable prognosis (P < 0.0001, and large tumor volume (P = 0.002. ROC curves and DCA showed that models including PIRADS score resulted in greater net benefit for almost all the outcomes of interest, with the only exception of SVI.mpMRI and PIRADS scoring are feasible tools in clinical setting and could be used as decision-support systems for a more accurate selection of patients eligible for AS.

  20. Biological Features of Human Papillomavirus-related Head and Neck Cancers Contributing to Improved Response.

    Cleary, C; Leeman, J E; Higginson, D S; Katabi, N; Sherman, E; Morris, L; McBride, S; Lee, N; Riaz, N

    2016-07-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the sixth most common malignancy globally, and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal HNSCCs are associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Patients with HPV-associated tumours have markedly improved overall and disease-specific survival compared with their HPV-negative counterparts when treated with chemoradiation. Although the difference in outcomes between these two groups is clearly established, the mechanism underlying these differences remains an area of investigation. Data from preclinical, clinical and genomics studies have started to suggest that an increase in radio-sensitivity of HPV-positive HNSCC may be responsible for improved outcomes, the putative mechanisms of which we will review here. The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have recently documented a multitude of molecular differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumours. Preclinical investigations by multiple groups have explored possible mechanisms of increased sensitivity to therapy, including examining differences in DNA repair, hypoxia and the immune response. In addition to differences in the response to therapy, some groups have started to investigate phenotypic differences between the two diseases, such as tumour invasiveness. Finally, we will conclude with a brief review of ongoing clinical trials that are attempting to de-escalate treatment to minimise long-term toxicity while maintaining cure rates. New insights from preclinical and genomic studies may eventually lead to personalised treatment paradigms for HPV-positive patients. PMID:27052795

  1. Microbiological and host features associated with corynebacteriosis in cancer patients: a five-year study

    CAS Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During a five-year period, 932 clinical isolates from cancer patients treated in a Brazilian reference centre were identified as corynebacteria; 86% of the cultures came from patients who had been clinically and microbiologically classified as infected and 77.1% of these patients had been hospitalised (71.1% from surgical wards. The adult solid tumour was the most common underlying malignant disease (66.7%. The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that hospitalised patients had a six-fold greater risk (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.15-26.30 p = 0.033 related to 30-day mortality. The predominant species were Corynebacterium amycolatum (44.7%, Corynebacterium minutissimum (18.3% and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (8.5%. The upper urinary tracts, surgical wounds, lower respiratory tracts, ulcerated tumours and indwelling venous catheters were the most frequent sources of C. amycolatum strains. Corynebacterium jeikeium infection occurred primarily in neutropenic patients who have used venous catheters, while infection caused by C. amycolatum and other species emerged mainly in patients with solid tumours.

  2. Membranous glomerulonephritis: histological and serological features to differentiate cancer-related and non-related forms.

    Murtas, Corrado; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-08-01

    Membranous nephropathy is a frequent cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. In most patients, it appears as a primary renal disease but in about 20 % of cases membranous nephropathy is associated with systemic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, infections or cancer, or with drug exposure. Reliable differentiation between primary and secondary membranous nephropathy has important implications for the patient, because of different therapeutic approaches between the different forms. The recent in vivo definition of glomerular targets of autoimmunity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy represented a real breakthrough and nowadays more than one podocyte antigen is considered in some way implicated in the pathogenesis of human membranous nephropathy. Specific antibodies against all these components have been detected in serum of patients and could become biomarkers of membranous nephropathy and/or of disease activity. In this brief review, we discuss the usefulness of newly described autoantibodies in the differential diagnosis of secondary membranous nephropathy. Histological clues for recognizing the two pathological entities are also analysed with regard to the available scientific evidence on this issue. Our evaluation shows that more research is needed to identify the best approach to reach a correct diagnosis of primary or secondary membranous nephropathy. PMID:26810113

  3. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series

  4. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Yiqun Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775. The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003. The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006 and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006. There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026 and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030. CONCLUSION: Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  5. Association of computerized texture features on MRI with early treatment response following laser ablation for neuropathic cancer pain: preliminary findings.

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar F; Jiang, Benjamin; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-10-01

    was considered. Our quantitative approach first involved intensity standardization to allow for grayscale MR intensities acquired pre- and post-LITT to have a fixed tissue-specific meaning within the same imaging protocol, the same body region, and within the same patient. An affine registration was then performed on individual post-LITT MRI protocols to a reference MRI protocol pre-LITT. A total of 78 computerized texture features (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, Gabor) are then extracted from pre- and post-LITT MP-MRI on a per-voxel basis. Quantitative, voxelwise comparison of the changes in MRI texture features between pre- and post-LITT MRI indicate that (a) Gabor texture features at specific orientations were highly sensitive as well as specific in predicting subtle microarchitectural changes within and around the ablation zone pre- and post-LITT, (b) FLAIR was identified as the most sensitive MRI protocol in identifying early treatment changes yielding a normalized percentage change of 360% within the ablation zone relative to its pre-LITT value, and (c) GRE was identified as the most sensitive MRI protocol in quantifying changes outside the ablation zone post-LITT. Our preliminary results thus indicate potential for noninvasive computerized MP-MRI features over volumetric features in determining localized microarchitectural early focal treatment changes post-LITT for neuropathic cancer pain treatment. PMID:26870745

  6. Features of fatigue in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Xianping Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the fatigue status and related factors in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC 1-5 years after surgery. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 254 patients with stage IA or IB NSCLC, who had undergone surgery. They completed several surveys, including the Brief Fatigue Inventory, Karnofsky Performance Scale, Physical Activity Questionnaire, Baseline Dyspnea Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The association between fatigue and functional status was assessed using Chi-square analysis. Spearman rank correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess the correlation between fatigue and various other factors. Results: The overall incidence of postoperative fatigue was 59.8%. Among patients with moderate to severe fatigue, 21.1% had obvious dysfunction, whereas only 9.6% of patients with mild or no fatigue (χ2 = 5.369; P = 0.02 showed obvious dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that functional status (odds ratio [OR]: 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-6.19, concurrent lung disease (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.08-4.99, depression (OR: 6.39; 95% CI: 2.42-17.35, and anxiety (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.13-4.87 were independent risk factors for fatigue, whereas physical activity (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11-0.73 could prevent fatigue. Conclusion: More than half of the patients with early-stage NSCLC experienced fatigue 1-5 years after surgery, and moderate to severe fatigue was often associated with obvious dysfunction. The strong association of fatigue with anxiety, depression, and lung complications suggests that fatigue and other symptoms constitute a symptom cluster. Therefore, comprehensive treatment methods may achieve better therapeutic results.

  7. Pancreatic cancer: Lack of association between apparent diffusion coefficient values and adverse pathological features

    Aim: To identify retrospectively potential associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and tumour grade as well as other pathological features, using histopathological assessment from the Whipple procedure as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values of 0 and 500 s/mm2 before the Whipple procedure. Two radiologists independently recorded the ADC values of the tumour and benign pancreas for all cases. ADC values were compared with histopathological findings following the Whipple procedure. Results: The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.689 for benign pancreas and 0.695 for tumours, indicating good inter-reader agreement for ADC values. The mean ADC value was significantly lower in tumours than in benign pancreas for both readers (reader 1: 1.74 ± 0.34 × 10−3 mm2/s versus 2.08 ± 0.48 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively, p = 0.006; reader 2: 1.69 ± 0.41 × 10−3 mm2/s versus 2.11 ± 0.54 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively, p −3 mm2/s versus 1.78 ± 0.33 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively, p = 0.491; reader 2: 1.62 ± 0.33 × 10−3 mm2/s versus 1.75 ± 0.49 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively, p = 0.405). The area under the curve (AUC) for differentiation of poorly and well/moderately differentiated tumours was 0.611 and 0.596 for readers 1 and 2, respectively, and was not significantly better than an AUC of 0.500 for either reader (p ≥ 0.306). In addition, ADC was not significantly different for either reader between tumours with stage T3 versus stage T1/T2, between tumours with and without metastatic peri-pancreatic lymph nodes, or between tumours located in the pancreatic head versus other pancreatic regions (p ≥ 0.413). Conclusion: No associations between ADC values of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and tumour grade or other adverse pathological features were observed

  8. Expression of HIF-1α in breast cancer and precancerous lesions and the relationship to clinicopathological features

    Yun’ai Liang; Zengxin Li; Gangping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the expressions and clinical significance of HIF-1α in breast cancer and precancerous lesions, and analyze the relationship between the expressions and clinicopathological features in breast cancer. Methods: We analyzed the HIF-1α expression in 128 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas, 146 precancerous lesions patients including 89 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ and 57 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia. 53 cases of usual ductal hyperplasia breast tissues were selected as a control group. The specimens were evaluated for HIF-1α, estrogen re-ceptor (ER) & progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2/neu) and Ki-67. Immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively evaluated in at least 1000 cells examined under the microscope at 40 × magnification and recorded as the percentage of positive tumor cells over the total number of cells examined in the same area. The percentage scores were subsequently categorized. The express of HIF-1α and their relationship with multiple biological parameters including ER& PR, HER2/neu and Ki-67, the biomarkers levels of CA153, CA125 TSGF, and CEA in blood serum and nipple discharge, histological grade, region lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and recurrence on files were also assessed. Results:Compared with usual ductal hyperplasia, the positive expression rate of HIF-1α in atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carci-noma in situ and invasive ductal carcinomas group was significantly increased (P 14% groups, histological grade (I + II) and grade III invasive ductal carcinomas groups, with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and recurrence groups (P50 years), tumor diameter (≤ 2 cm vs > 2 cm; P > 0.05). The nipple discharge and serum levels of CA153, TSGF, CA125 and CEA in invasive ductal carcinomas HIF-1α positive patients were significantly higher than those in the negative patients (P <0.05). Conclusion: In breast cancer, HIF-1α expression

  9. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  10. Specific features of current intraperitoneal therapy in patients with ovarian cancer

    A. G. Kedrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today there are 3 trends in favor of intraperitoneal (IP chemotherapy: maintenance of its potential 5- and 10-year survival benefit in patients with ovarian cancer (OC; advantages of the IP administration of drugs even after nonoptimal surgery; enhancement of the efficiency of chemotherapy irrespective of the number of IP treatment cycles. There is also an expanded list of possible IP medicines and incorporation of novel targeted drugs into treatment regimens. However, the long-expected data of the most recent randomized trial GOG 0252 have proven deplorable and led to the activation of discussions on the role of IP therapy.Objective: to generalize the experience of 4 oncology departments with IP therapy in patients with disseminated OC and to compare the findings with those obtained by the world’s leading medical centers.Materials and methods. The retrospective analysis included 76 patients with Stage IIIC OC who had received IP chemotherapy in accordance with 3 regimens. For standardization of IP treatment procedures, the investigators assessed the following indicators: age; tumor morphological type; surgical radicality; catheter model and port placement procedure; drug administration route; number of treatment cycles; efficiency of therapy from expert ultrasonographic findings and CA-124, HE4, CA-19.9 marker levels, time to disease progression. The analysis also involved adverse manifestations, methods of their correction and the reasons for early treatment discontinuation were separately reported. The obtained data were processed using standard statistical programs.Results. 55 of the 76 patients could complete more than 4 IP therapy cycles. Among them, only 4 patients were observed to have disease progression at follow-ups lasting over 24 months.Conclusion. Current IP therapy is a safe and convenient drug treatment in patients with OC after optimal cytoreductive surgery. The mastery and standardization of the

  11. Computer-based image studies on tumor nests mathematical features of breast cancer and their clinical prognostic value.

    Lin-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The expending and invasive features of tumor nests could reflect the malignant biological behaviors of breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Useful information on cancer invasiveness hidden within tumor nests could be extracted and analyzed by computer image processing and big data analysis. METHODS: Tissue microarrays from invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 202 were first stained with cytokeratin by immunohistochemical method to clearly demarcate the tumor nests. Then an expert-aided computer analysis system was developed to study the mathematical and geometrical features of the tumor nests. Computer recognition system and imaging analysis software extracted tumor nests information, and mathematical features of tumor nests were calculated. The relationship between tumor nests mathematical parameters and patients' 5-year disease free survival was studied. RESULTS: There were 8 mathematical parameters extracted by expert-aided computer analysis system. Three mathematical parameters (number, circularity and total perimeter with area under curve >0.5 and 4 mathematical parameters (average area, average perimeter, total area/total perimeter, average (area/perimeter with area under curve <0.5 in ROC analysis were combined into integrated parameter 1 and integrated parameter 2, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that integrated parameter 1 (P = 0.040 was independent prognostic factor of patients' 5-year disease free survival. The hazard risk ratio of integrated parameter 1 was 1.454 (HR 95% CI [1.017-2.078], higher than that of N stage (HR 1.396, 95% CI [1.125-1.733] and hormone receptor status (HR 0.575, 95% CI [0.353-0.936], but lower than that of histological grading (HR 3.370, 95% CI [1.125-5.364] and T stage (HR 1.610, 95% CI [1.026 -2.527]. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated integrated parameter 1 of mathematical features (number, circularity and total perimeter of tumor nests could be a useful parameter to predict the

  12. Staging of cervical cancer based on tumor heterogeneity characterized by texture features on 18F-FDG PET images

    The aim of the study is to assess the staging value of the tumor heterogeneity characterized by texture features and other commonly used semi-quantitative indices extracted from 18F-FDG PET images of cervical cancer (CC) patients. Forty-two patients suffering CC at different stages were enrolled in this study. Firstly, we proposed a new tumor segmentation method by combining the intensity and gradient field information in a level set framework. Secondly, fifty-four 3D texture features were studied besides of SUVs (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV). Through correlation analysis, receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves analysis, some independent indices showed statistically significant differences between the early stage (ES, stages I and II) and the advanced stage (AS, stages III and IV). Then the tumors represented by those independent indices could be automatically classified into ES and AS, and the most discriminative feature could be chosen. Finally, the robustness of the optimal index with respect to sampling schemes and the quality of the PET images were validated. Using the proposed segmentation method, the dice similarity coefficient and Hausdorff distance were 91.78   ±   1.66% and 7.94   ±   1.99 mm, respectively. According to the correlation analysis, all the fifty-eight indices could be divided into 20 groups. Six independent indices were selected for their highest areas under the ROC curves (AUROC), and showed significant differences between ES and AS (P  <  0.05). Through automatic classification with the support vector machine (SVM) Classifier, run percentage (RP) was the most discriminative index with the higher accuracy (88.10%) and larger AUROC (0.88). The Pearson correlation of RP under different sampling schemes is 0.9991   ±   0.0011. RP is a highly stable feature and well correlated with tumor stage in CC, which suggests it could differentiate ES and AS with high

  13. Randomized trial addressing risk features and time factors of surgery plus radiotherapy in advanced head-and-neck cancer

    Purpose: A multi-institutional, prospective, randomized trial was undertaken in patients with advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma to address (1) the validity of using pathologic risk features, established from a previous study, to determine the need for, and dose of, postoperative radiotherapy (PORT); (2) the impact of accelerating PORT using a concomitant boost schedule; and (3) the importance of the overall combined treatment duration on the treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: Of 288 consecutive patients with advanced disease registered preoperatively, 213 fulfilled the trial criteria and went on to receive therapy predicated on a set of pathologic risk features: no PORT for the low-risk group (n=31); 57.6 Gy during 6.5 weeks for the intermediate-risk group (n=31); and, by random assignment, 63 Gy during 5 weeks (n=76) or 7 weeks (n=75) for the high-risk group. Patients were irradiated with standard techniques appropriate to the site of disease and likely areas of spread. The study end points were locoregional control (LRC), survival, and morbidity. Results: Patients with low or intermediate risks had significantly higher LRC and survival rates than those with high-risk features (p=0.003 and p=0.0001, respectively), despite receiving no PORT or lower dose PORT, respectively. For high-risk patients, a trend toward higher LRC and survival rates was noted when PORT was delivered in 5 rather than 7 weeks. A prolonged interval between surgery and PORT in the 7-week schedule was associated with significantly lower LRC (p=0.03) and survival (p=0.01) rates. Consequently, the cumulative duration of combined therapy had a significant impact on the LRC (p=0.005) and survival (p=0.03) rates. A 2-week reduction in the PORT duration by using the concomitant boost technique did not increase the late treatment toxicity. Conclusions: This Phase III trial established the power of risk assessment using pathologic features in determining the need for, and dose of

  14. Predicting Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Eligible for Active Surveillance by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    de Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela; Tagliabue, Elena; Raimondi, Sara; Bottero, Danilo; Cioffi, Antonio; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara; Petralia, Giuseppe; Cordima, Giovanni; Almeida, Gilberto Laurino; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Matei, Deliu Victor; Renne, Giuseppe; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Ferro, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) score in predicting pathologic features in a cohort of patients eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy. Methods A total of 223 patients who fulfilled the criteria for “Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance”, were included. Mp–1.5 Tesla MRI examination staging with endorectal coil was performed at least 6–8 weeks after TRUS-guided biopsy. In all patients, the likelihood of the presence of cancer was assigned using PIRADS score between 1 and 5. Outcomes of interest were: Gleason score upgrading, extra capsular extension (ECE), unfavorable prognosis (occurrence of both upgrading and ECE), large tumor volume (≥0.5ml), and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Decision Curve Analyses (DCA) were performed for models with and without inclusion of PIRADS score. Results Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association of PIRADS score with upgrading (P<0.0001), ECE (P<0.0001), unfavorable prognosis (P<0.0001), and large tumor volume (P = 0.002). ROC curves and DCA showed that models including PIRADS score resulted in greater net benefit for almost all the outcomes of interest, with the only exception of SVI. Conclusions mpMRI and PIRADS scoring are feasible tools in clinical setting and could be used as decision-support systems for a more accurate selection of patients eligible for AS. PMID:26444548

  15. Altered features and increased chemosensitivity of human breast cancer cells mediated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent heterogeneous cell population suitable for cell therapies in regenerative medicine. MSCs can also substantially affect tumor biology due to their ability to be recruited to the tumor stroma and interact with malignant cells via direct contacts and paracrine signaling. The aim of our study was to characterize molecular changes dictated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) and the effects on drug responses in human breast cancer cells SKBR3. The tumor cells were either directly cocultured with AT-MSCs or exposed to MSCs-conditioned medium (MSC-CM). Changes in cell biology were evaluated by kinetic live cell imaging, fluorescent microscopy, scratch wound assay, expression analysis, cytokine secretion profiling, ATP-based viability and apoptosis assays. The efficiency of cytotoxic treatment in the presence of AT-MSCs or MSCs-CM was analyzed. The AT-MSCs altered tumor cell morphology, induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, increased mammosphere formation, cell confluence and migration of SKBR3. These features were attributed to molecular changes induced by MSCs-secreted cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer cells. AT-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of SKBR3 cells in direct cocultures which was shown to be dependent on the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis. MSC-CM-exposed SKBR3 or SKBR3 in direct coculture with AT-MSCs exhibited increased chemosensitivity and induction of apoptosis in response to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. Our work further highlights the multi-level nature of tumor-stromal cell interplay and demonstrates the capability of AT-MSCs and MSC-secreted factors to alter the anti-tumor drug responses

  16. SU-E-J-270: Repeated 18F-FDG PET/CTs Based Feature Analysis for the Predication of Anal Cancer Recurrence

    Purpose: To identify PET/CT based imaging predictors of anal cancer recurrence and evaluate baseline vs. mid-treatment vs. post-treatment PET/CT scans in the tumor recurrence prediction. Methods: FDG-PET/CT scans were obtained at baseline, during chemoradiotherapy (CRT, midtreatment), and after CRT (post-treatment) in 17 patients of anal cancer. Four patients had tumor recurrence. For each patient, the mid-treatment and post-treatment scans were respectively aligned to the baseline scan by a rigid registration followed by a deformable registration. PET/CT image features were computed within the manually delineated tumor volume of each scan to characterize the intensity histogram, spatial patterns (texture), and shape of the tumors, as well as the changes of these features resulting from CRT. A total of 335 image features were extracted. An Exact Logistic Regression model was employed to analyze these PET/CT image features in order to identify potential predictors for tumor recurrence. Results: Eleven potential predictors of cancer recurrence were identified with p < 0.10, including five shape features, five statistical texture features, and one CT intensity histogram feature. Six features were indentified from posttreatment scans, 3 from mid-treatment scans, and 2 from baseline scans. These features indicated that there were differences in shape, intensity, and spatial pattern between tumors with and without recurrence. Recurrent tumors tended to have more compact shape (higher roundness and lower elongation) and larger intensity difference between baseline and follow-up scans, compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion: PET/CT based anal cancer recurrence predictors were identified. The post-CRT PET/CT is the most important scan for the prediction of cancer recurrence. The baseline and mid-CRT PET/CT also showed value in the prediction and would be more useful for the predication of tumor recurrence in early stage of CRT. This work was supported in part by the

  17. SU-E-J-270: Repeated 18F-FDG PET/CTs Based Feature Analysis for the Predication of Anal Cancer Recurrence

    Wang, J; Chuong, M; Choi, W; Lu, W [University of Maryland Baltimore School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Latifi, K; Saeed, N; Hoffe, S; Shridhar, R; Moros, E [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Tan, S [University of Maryland Baltimore School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huazhong University of Science& Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify PET/CT based imaging predictors of anal cancer recurrence and evaluate baseline vs. mid-treatment vs. post-treatment PET/CT scans in the tumor recurrence prediction. Methods: FDG-PET/CT scans were obtained at baseline, during chemoradiotherapy (CRT, midtreatment), and after CRT (post-treatment) in 17 patients of anal cancer. Four patients had tumor recurrence. For each patient, the mid-treatment and post-treatment scans were respectively aligned to the baseline scan by a rigid registration followed by a deformable registration. PET/CT image features were computed within the manually delineated tumor volume of each scan to characterize the intensity histogram, spatial patterns (texture), and shape of the tumors, as well as the changes of these features resulting from CRT. A total of 335 image features were extracted. An Exact Logistic Regression model was employed to analyze these PET/CT image features in order to identify potential predictors for tumor recurrence. Results: Eleven potential predictors of cancer recurrence were identified with p < 0.10, including five shape features, five statistical texture features, and one CT intensity histogram feature. Six features were indentified from posttreatment scans, 3 from mid-treatment scans, and 2 from baseline scans. These features indicated that there were differences in shape, intensity, and spatial pattern between tumors with and without recurrence. Recurrent tumors tended to have more compact shape (higher roundness and lower elongation) and larger intensity difference between baseline and follow-up scans, compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion: PET/CT based anal cancer recurrence predictors were identified. The post-CRT PET/CT is the most important scan for the prediction of cancer recurrence. The baseline and mid-CRT PET/CT also showed value in the prediction and would be more useful for the predication of tumor recurrence in early stage of CRT. This work was supported in part by the

  18. SU-E-J-243: Reproducibility of Radiomics Features Through Different Voxel Discretization Levels in F18-FDG PET Images of Cervical Cancer

    Purpose: Site-specific investigations of the role of Radiomics in cancer diagnosis and therapy are needed. We report of the reproducibility of quantitative image features over different discrete voxel levels in PET/CT images of cervical cancer. Methods: Our dataset consisted of the pretreatment PET/CT scans from a cohort of 76 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 31–76 years, treated with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between 45–50.4 Gy (median dose: 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based Brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median total dose: 28 Gy). Two board certified radiation oncologists delineated Metabolic Tumor volume (MTV) for each patient. Radiomics features were extracted based on 32, 64, 128 and 256 discretization levels (DL). The 64 level was chosen to be the reference DL. Features were calculated based on Co-occurrence (COM), Gray Level Size Zone (GLSZM) and Run-Length (RLM) matrices. Mean Percentage Differences (Δ) of features for discrete levels were determined. Normality distribution of Δ was tested using Kolomogorov - Smirnov test. Bland-Altman test was used to investigate differences between feature values measured on different DL. The mean, standard deviation and upper/lower value limits for each pair of DL were calculated. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) analysis was performed to examine the reliability of repeated measures within the context of the test re-test format. Results: 3 global and 5 regional features out of 48 features showed distribution not significantly different from a normal one. The reproducible features passed the normality test. Only 5 reproducible results were reliable, ICC range 0.7 – 0.99. Conclusion: Most of the radiomics features tested showed sensitivity to voxel level discretization between (32 – 256). Only 4 GLSZM, 3 COM and 1 RLM showed insensitivity towards mentioned discrete levels

  19. SU-E-J-243: Reproducibility of Radiomics Features Through Different Voxel Discretization Levels in F18-FDG PET Images of Cervical Cancer

    Altazi, B; Fernandez, D; Zhang, G; Biagioli, M; Moros, E; Moffitt, H. Lee [Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Site-specific investigations of the role of Radiomics in cancer diagnosis and therapy are needed. We report of the reproducibility of quantitative image features over different discrete voxel levels in PET/CT images of cervical cancer. Methods: Our dataset consisted of the pretreatment PET/CT scans from a cohort of 76 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 31–76 years, treated with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between 45–50.4 Gy (median dose: 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based Brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median total dose: 28 Gy). Two board certified radiation oncologists delineated Metabolic Tumor volume (MTV) for each patient. Radiomics features were extracted based on 32, 64, 128 and 256 discretization levels (DL). The 64 level was chosen to be the reference DL. Features were calculated based on Co-occurrence (COM), Gray Level Size Zone (GLSZM) and Run-Length (RLM) matrices. Mean Percentage Differences (Δ) of features for discrete levels were determined. Normality distribution of Δ was tested using Kolomogorov - Smirnov test. Bland-Altman test was used to investigate differences between feature values measured on different DL. The mean, standard deviation and upper/lower value limits for each pair of DL were calculated. Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) analysis was performed to examine the reliability of repeated measures within the context of the test re-test format. Results: 3 global and 5 regional features out of 48 features showed distribution not significantly different from a normal one. The reproducible features passed the normality test. Only 5 reproducible results were reliable, ICC range 0.7 – 0.99. Conclusion: Most of the radiomics features tested showed sensitivity to voxel level discretization between (32 – 256). Only 4 GLSZM, 3 COM and 1 RLM showed insensitivity towards mentioned discrete levels.

  20. Radiological imaging features and clinicopathological correlation of hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor: experience in a single tertiary cancer center

    O' Driscoll, Dearbhail; Athanasian, Edward; Hameed, Meera; Hwang, Sinchun [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the imaging features of hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT), which has a propensity towards local recurrence and the potential to transform into myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS). The study included 8 patients with a diagnosis of HFLT and imaging at a tertiary cancer center. Imaging studies included radiographs (n = 2), ultrasound (n = 3), and MRI (n = 16). Imaging features were evaluated including location, calcification, sonographic echogenicity, vascular flow, size, border, signal characteristics, contrast enhancement, and blooming on MRI. The HFLT was located in the ankle/foot in 4 out of 8 and was subcutaneous in 8 out of 8, ranging in size from 2 to 18 cm. Histology at initial diagnosis was HFLT in 5 out of 8 and HFLT with MIFS in 3 out of 8. None was calcified on radiography. On ultrasound 2 out of 3 were heterogeneously echogenic with ≥10 foci of vascular flow. Two out of 8 patients had MRI only at local recurrence. The tumor border was infiltrative in 4 out of 6 at initial diagnosis and in 2 patients with MRI at recurrence only. Fat and septae were present in 7 out of 8 at initial diagnosis and at recurrence. Signal intensity was iso-/hypointense to muscle on T1-weighted sequences in more than two thirds of the tumor in 4 out of 7 and hyperintense to muscle in at least one third of the tumor on fluid-sensitive sequences in 6 out of 8. Contrast enhancement was heterogeneous in 7 out of 7; blooming in two thirds of the tumor on gradient-echo sequence MRI indicated hemorrhage. The HFLT commonly presents as a mass with an infiltrative border, interspersed fat and septations at initial diagnosis and local recurrence on MRI regardless of histology of HFLT alone or with MIFS. Hemosiderin deposits may be detected as blooming on gradient-echo sequences. (orig.)

  1. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  2. Identification of More Feasible MicroRNA-mRNA Interactions within Multiple Cancers Using Principal Component Analysis Based Unsupervised Feature Extraction.

    Taguchi, Y-H

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA(miRNA)-mRNA interactions are important for understanding many biological processes, including development, differentiation and disease progression, but their identification is highly context-dependent. When computationally derived from sequence information alone, the identification should be verified by integrated analyses of mRNA and miRNA expression. The drawback of this strategy is the vast number of identified interactions, which prevents an experimental or detailed investigation of each pair. In this paper, we overcome this difficulty by the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction (FE), which reduces the number of identified miRNA-mRNA interactions that properly discriminate between patients and healthy controls without losing biological feasibility. The approach is applied to six cancers: hepatocellular carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, colorectal/colon cancer and breast cancer. In PCA-based unsupervised FE, the significance does not depend on the number of samples (as in the standard case) but on the number of features, which approximates the number of miRNAs/mRNAs. To our knowledge, we have newly identified miRNA-mRNA interactions in multiple cancers based on a single common (universal) criterion. Moreover, the number of identified interactions was sufficiently small to be sequentially curated by literature searches. PMID:27171078

  3. Follicular thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Clinicopathologic features, long-term survival, and risk factors for recurrence

    Children and adolescents represent 1-1.5% of all patients with thyroid cancer (TC). The vast majority of TC in children and adolescents is papillary TC; follicular TC (FTC) is exceedingly rare. In this study, we evaluate the clinical and pathological features of FTC in children and adolescents. We also report the risk factors for post-operative tumor recurrence and the associated outcomes. Twenty children and adolescents (under 21 years old) with FTC have been treated and followed at Noguchi Thyroid Clinic and Hospital Foundation since 1946. All patients underwent surgery (lobectomy, 11; subtotal thyroidectomy, 8; and total thyroidectomy, 1), and 8 patients received postoperative external beam radiation therapy. The incidence of FTC in children and adolescents was 1.9% among all FTC patients treated in our hospital. Histopathology revealed vascular and capsular invasion in 9 and 20 patients, respectively. The tumor recurrence rate in FTC with vascular invasion is significantly higher than in those without it (p=0.038). No other factors were significant. Patients with recurrences were treated with completion thyroidectomy and 131I radioactive iodine therapy. There were no significant differences in the rates of disease-free survival or cause-specific survival when pediatric/adolescent FTC patients were compared to adults with FTC. FTC is very rare among children and adolescents, but the outcomes are similar to those observed among adults. Vascular invasion is poor prognostic indicator in pediatric/adolescent FTC patients. (author)

  4. Features of nursing care provided for breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery. Comparison of nursing practices between certified nurses in breast cancer nursing and non-specialist nurses working with breast cancer patients

    This study aimed to identifying features of nursing care provided for breast cancer patients during the course of radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery and improve the quality of nursing care. Subjects were certified nurses in breast cancer nursing (CN) and non-specialist nurses working with breast cancer patients (NS). An anonymous survey questionnaire on nursing care and other practices provided before, during, and after radiotherapy was conducted by postal mail and the results were compared between CN and NS. Valid responses were obtained from 40 CN (41.2%) and 102 NS (56.7%). Significant differences between CN and NS were observed for 15 of 27 (55.6%) care items before radiotherapy, 18 of 18 (100%) items during radiotherapy, and 9 of 20 (45.0%) items after radiotherapy. Among the items with significant differences, significantly more NS than CN performed all nursing care items during the course of radiotherapy, except for one item provided before radiotherapy. These results demonstrate that it is necessary to facilitate enhanced collaboration and coordination between CN and NS providing nursing care for breast cancer patients in order to improve the quality of nursing care delivered to patients. (author)

  5. SU-E-J-258: Prediction of Cervical Cancer Treatment Response Using Radiomics Features Based On F18-FDG Uptake in PET Images

    Purpose: Radiomics have shown potential for predicting treatment outcomes in several body sites. This study investigated the correlation between PET Radiomics features and treatment response of cervical cancer outcomes. Methods: our dataset consisted of a cohort of 79 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 25–86 years, (median age at diagnosis: 50 years) all treated between: 2009–14 with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between: 45–50.4 Gy (median= 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median= 28 Gy). Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) in patient’s primary site was delineated on pretreatment PET/CT by two board certified Radiation Oncologists. The features extracted from each patient’s volume were: 26 Co-occurrence matrix (COM) Feature, 11 Run-Length Matrix (RLM), 11 Gray Level Size Zone Matrix (GLSZM) and 33 Intensity-based features (IBF). The treatment outcome was divided based on the last follow up status into three classes: No Evidence of Disease (NED), Alive with Disease (AWD) and Dead of Disease (DOD). The ability for the radiomics features to differentiate between the 3 treatments outcome categories were assessed by One-Way ANOVA test with p-value < 0.05 was to be statistically significant. The results from the analysis were compared with the ones obtained previously for standard Uptake Value (SUV). Results: Based on patients last clinical follow-up; 52 showed NED, 17 AWD and 10 DOD. Radiomics Features were able to classify the patients based on their treatment response. A parallel analysis was done for SUV measurements for comparison. Conclusion: Radiomics features were able to differentiate between the three different classes of treatment outcomes. However, most of the features were only able to differentiate between NED and DOD class. Also, The ability or radiomics features to differentiate types of response were more significant than SUV

  6. SU-E-J-258: Prediction of Cervical Cancer Treatment Response Using Radiomics Features Based On F18-FDG Uptake in PET Images

    Altazi, B; Fernandez, D; Zhang, G; Biagioli, M; Moros, E; Moffitt, H. Lee [Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiomics have shown potential for predicting treatment outcomes in several body sites. This study investigated the correlation between PET Radiomics features and treatment response of cervical cancer outcomes. Methods: our dataset consisted of a cohort of 79 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IVA, age range 25–86 years, (median age at diagnosis: 50 years) all treated between: 2009–14 with external beam radiation therapy to a dose range between: 45–50.4 Gy (median= 45 Gy), concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and MRI-based brachytherapy to a dose of 20–30 Gy (median= 28 Gy). Metabolic Tumor Volume (MTV) in patient’s primary site was delineated on pretreatment PET/CT by two board certified Radiation Oncologists. The features extracted from each patient’s volume were: 26 Co-occurrence matrix (COM) Feature, 11 Run-Length Matrix (RLM), 11 Gray Level Size Zone Matrix (GLSZM) and 33 Intensity-based features (IBF). The treatment outcome was divided based on the last follow up status into three classes: No Evidence of Disease (NED), Alive with Disease (AWD) and Dead of Disease (DOD). The ability for the radiomics features to differentiate between the 3 treatments outcome categories were assessed by One-Way ANOVA test with p-value < 0.05 was to be statistically significant. The results from the analysis were compared with the ones obtained previously for standard Uptake Value (SUV). Results: Based on patients last clinical follow-up; 52 showed NED, 17 AWD and 10 DOD. Radiomics Features were able to classify the patients based on their treatment response. A parallel analysis was done for SUV measurements for comparison. Conclusion: Radiomics features were able to differentiate between the three different classes of treatment outcomes. However, most of the features were only able to differentiate between NED and DOD class. Also, The ability or radiomics features to differentiate types of response were more significant than SUV.

  7. The influence of uncertain map features on risk beliefs and perceived ambiguity for maps of modeled cancer risk from air pollution

    Severtson, Dolores; Myers, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Maps are often used to convey information generated by models, for example, modeled cancer risk from air pollution. The concrete nature of images, such as maps, may convey more certainty than warranted for modeled information. Three map features were selected to communicate the uncertainty of modeled cancer risk: (a) map contours appeared in or out of focus, (b) one or three colors were used, and (c) a verbal-relative or numeric risk expression was used in the legend. Study aims were to asses...

  8. TU-C-12A-09: Modeling Pathologic Response of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer to Chemo-Radiotherapy Using Quantitative PET/CT Features, Clinical Parameters and Demographics

    Zhang, H; Chen, W; Kligerman, S; D’Souza, W; Suntharalingam, M; Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tan, S [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Kim, G [Duke University, High Point, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop predictive models using quantitative PET/CT features for the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: This study included 20 patients who underwent tri-modality therapy (CRT + surgery) and had {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans before initiation of CRT and 4-6 weeks after completion of CRT but prior to surgery. Four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) conventional PET/CT response measures (SUVmax, tumor diameter, etc.); (2) clinical parameters (TNM stage, histology, etc.) and demographics; (3) spatial-temporal PET features, which characterize tumor SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns, geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT; and (4) all features combined. An optimal feature set was identified with recursive feature selection and cross-validations. Support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed for prediction of pathologic tumor response to CRT, using cross-validations to avoid model over-fitting. Prediction accuracy was assessed via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and precision was evaluated via confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC. Results: When applied to the 4 groups of tumor features, the LR model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.10), 0.73 (0.07), 0.90 (0.06), and 0.90 (0.06). The SVM model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.56 (0.07), 0.60 (0.06), 0.94 (0.02), and 1.00 (no misclassifications). Using spatial-temporal PET features combined with conventional PET/CT measures and clinical parameters, the SVM model achieved very high accuracy (AUC 1.00) and precision (no misclassifications), significantly better than using conventional PET/CT measures or clinical parameters and demographics alone. For groups with a large number of tumor features (groups 3 and 4), the SVM model achieved significantly higher accuracy than the LR model. Conclusion: The SVM model using all features

  9. TU-C-12A-09: Modeling Pathologic Response of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer to Chemo-Radiotherapy Using Quantitative PET/CT Features, Clinical Parameters and Demographics

    Purpose: To develop predictive models using quantitative PET/CT features for the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: This study included 20 patients who underwent tri-modality therapy (CRT + surgery) and had 18F-FDG PET/CT scans before initiation of CRT and 4-6 weeks after completion of CRT but prior to surgery. Four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) conventional PET/CT response measures (SUVmax, tumor diameter, etc.); (2) clinical parameters (TNM stage, histology, etc.) and demographics; (3) spatial-temporal PET features, which characterize tumor SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns, geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT; and (4) all features combined. An optimal feature set was identified with recursive feature selection and cross-validations. Support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed for prediction of pathologic tumor response to CRT, using cross-validations to avoid model over-fitting. Prediction accuracy was assessed via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and precision was evaluated via confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC. Results: When applied to the 4 groups of tumor features, the LR model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.10), 0.73 (0.07), 0.90 (0.06), and 0.90 (0.06). The SVM model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.56 (0.07), 0.60 (0.06), 0.94 (0.02), and 1.00 (no misclassifications). Using spatial-temporal PET features combined with conventional PET/CT measures and clinical parameters, the SVM model achieved very high accuracy (AUC 1.00) and precision (no misclassifications), significantly better than using conventional PET/CT measures or clinical parameters and demographics alone. For groups with a large number of tumor features (groups 3 and 4), the SVM model achieved significantly higher accuracy than the LR model. Conclusion: The SVM model using all features including

  10. Comparison of Clinicopathological Features and Treatments between Young (≤40 Years) and Older (>40 Years) Female Breast Cancer Patients in West China: A Retrospective, Epidemiological, Multicenter, Case Only Study

    Ke Wang; Yu Ren; Hongyuan Li; Ke Zheng; Jun Jiang; Tianning Zou; Binlin Ma; Hui Li; Qilun Liu; Jianghua Ou; Ling Wang; Wei Wei; Jianjun He; Guosheng Ren

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of young cases of breast cancer is higher in China compared to the western world. We aimed to explore differences in risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes of young female breast cancer compared to older patients in West China. We collected clinical information from 12,209 female breast cancer patients in West China, including risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes, from January 2010 to December 2012. Chi-square tests and the multi...

  11. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Tamer M Fouad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate

  12. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Ola Khorshid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate, toxicity and OS.

  13. Conserved features of cancer cells define their sensitivity of HAMLET-induced death; c-Myc and glycolysis

    Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj Kumar; Aits, Sonja; Urbano, Alexander; Northen, Trent; Powers, Scott; Bowen, Ben; Chao, Yinxia; Reindl, Wolfgang; Lee, Do Yup; Sullivan, Nancy Liu; Zhang, Jianping; Trulsson, Maria; Yang, Henry; Watson, James

    2011-01-01

    HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein-lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis for the difference in sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Using a combination of small hairpin RNA inhibition, proteomic ...

  14. Highly tumorigenic lung cancer CD133+ cells display stem-like features and are spared by cisplatin treatment

    Bertolini, Giulia; Roz, Luca; Perego, Paola; Tortoreto, Monica; Fontanella, Enrico; Gatti, Laura; Pratesi, Graziella; Fabbri, Alessandra; Andriani, Francesca; Tinelli, Stella; Roz, Elena; Caserini, Roberto; Lo Vullo, Salvatore; Camerini, Tiziana; Mariani, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The identification of lung tumor-initiating cells and associated markers may be useful for optimization of therapeutic approaches and for predictive and prognostic information in lung cancer patients. CD133, a surface glycoprotein linked to organ-specific stem cells, was described as a marker of cancer-initiating cells in different tumor types. Here, we report that a CD133+, epithelial-specific antigen-positive (CD133+ESA+) population is increased in primary nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ...

  15. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction of CT histogram based feature space for predicting recurrence-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2015-03-01

    Advantages of CT scanners with high resolution have allowed the improved detection of lung cancers. In the recent release of positive results from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in the US showing that CT screening does in fact have a positive impact on the reduction of lung cancer related mortality. While this study does show the efficacy of CT based screening, physicians often face the problems of deciding appropriate management strategies for maximizing patient survival and for preserving lung function. Several key manifold-learning approaches efficiently reveal intrinsic low-dimensional structures latent in high-dimensional data spaces. This study was performed to investigate whether the dimensionality reduction can identify embedded structures from the CT histogram feature of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) space to improve the performance in predicting the likelihood of RFS for patients with NSCLC.

  16. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene and features associated with EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    Wen MM; Wang XJ; Sun Y; Xia JH; Fan LB; Xing H; Zhang ZP; Li XF

    2016-01-01

    Miaomiao Wen, Xuejiao Wang, Ying Sun, Jinghua Xia, Liangbo Fan, Hao Xing, Zhipei Zhang, Xiaofei Li Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) define specific molecular subsets of lung cancer with distinct clinical features. We aimed at revealing th...

  17. Do Clinical and Demographic Features of Patients with Upper-Gastrointestinal Cancer Affect their Health-related Quality of Life?

    Ramezan-Ali Esmaili-Hesari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: SCC is predominant type of upper GI cancer in Khorasan provinces similar to the high risk area in Northern Iran. The specific health-related quality of life tool (EORTC QLQ-OG25 was able to distinguish most of the symptoms in patients with upper GI cancer .

  18. Modeling Pathologic Response of Esophageal Cancer to Chemoradiation Therapy Using Spatial-Temporal {sup 18}F-FDG PET Features, Clinical Parameters, and Demographics

    Zhang, Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tan, Shan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Chen, Wengen; Kligerman, Seth [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kim, Grace; D' Souza, Warren D.; Suntharalingam, Mohan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lu, Wei, E-mail: wlu@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct predictive models using comprehensive tumor features for the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: This study included 20 patients who underwent trimodality therapy (CRT + surgery) and underwent {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) both before and after CRT. Four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) conventional PET/CT response measures (eg, standardized uptake value [SUV]{sub max}, tumor diameter); (2) clinical parameters (eg, TNM stage, histology) and demographics; (3) spatial-temporal PET features, which characterize tumor SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns, geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT; and (4) all features combined. An optimal feature set was identified with recursive feature selection and cross-validations. Support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed for prediction of pathologic tumor response to CRT, cross-validations being used to avoid model overfitting. Prediction accuracy was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and precision was evaluated by confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC. Results: When applied to the 4 groups of tumor features, the LR model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.10), 0.73 (0.07), 0.90 (0.06), and 0.90 (0.06). The SVM model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.56 (0.07), 0.60 (0.06), 0.94 (0.02), and 1.00 (no misclassifications). With the use of spatial-temporal PET features combined with conventional PET/CT measures and clinical parameters, the SVM model achieved very high accuracy (AUC 1.00) and precision (no misclassifications)—results that were significantly better than when conventional PET/CT measures or clinical parameters and demographics alone were used. For groups with many tumor features (groups 3 and 4), the SVM model achieved significantly higher

  19. Modeling Pathologic Response of Esophageal Cancer to Chemoradiation Therapy Using Spatial-Temporal 18F-FDG PET Features, Clinical Parameters, and Demographics

    Purpose: To construct predictive models using comprehensive tumor features for the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: This study included 20 patients who underwent trimodality therapy (CRT + surgery) and underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) both before and after CRT. Four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) conventional PET/CT response measures (eg, standardized uptake value [SUV]max, tumor diameter); (2) clinical parameters (eg, TNM stage, histology) and demographics; (3) spatial-temporal PET features, which characterize tumor SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns, geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT; and (4) all features combined. An optimal feature set was identified with recursive feature selection and cross-validations. Support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed for prediction of pathologic tumor response to CRT, cross-validations being used to avoid model overfitting. Prediction accuracy was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and precision was evaluated by confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC. Results: When applied to the 4 groups of tumor features, the LR model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.10), 0.73 (0.07), 0.90 (0.06), and 0.90 (0.06). The SVM model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.56 (0.07), 0.60 (0.06), 0.94 (0.02), and 1.00 (no misclassifications). With the use of spatial-temporal PET features combined with conventional PET/CT measures and clinical parameters, the SVM model achieved very high accuracy (AUC 1.00) and precision (no misclassifications)—results that were significantly better than when conventional PET/CT measures or clinical parameters and demographics alone were used. For groups with many tumor features (groups 3 and 4), the SVM model achieved significantly higher accuracy than

  20. Mass spectrometry protein expression profiles in colorectal cancer tissue associated with clinico-pathological features of disease

    Studies of several tumour types have shown that expression profiling of cellular protein extracted from surgical tissue specimens by direct mass spectrometry analysis can accurately discriminate tumour from normal tissue and in some cases can sub-classify disease. We have evaluated the potential value of this approach to classify various clinico-pathological features in colorectal cancer by employing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Protein extracts from 31 tumour and 33 normal mucosa specimens were purified, subjected to MALDI-Tof MS and then analysed using the 'GenePattern' suite of computational tools (Broad Institute, MIT, USA). Comparative Gene Marker Selection with either a t-test or a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) test statistic was used to identify and rank differentially expressed marker peaks. The k-nearest neighbours algorithm was used to build classification models either using separate training and test datasets or else by using an iterative, 'leave-one-out' cross-validation method. 73 protein peaks in the mass range 1800-16000Da were differentially expressed in tumour verses adjacent normal mucosa tissue (P ≤ 0.01, false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis classified most tumour and normal mucosa into distinct cluster groups. Supervised prediction correctly classified the tumour/normal mucosa status of specimens in an independent test spectra dataset with 100% sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval: 67.9-99.2%). Supervised prediction using 'leave-one-out' cross validation algorithms for tumour spectra correctly classified 10/13 poorly differentiated and 16/18 well/moderately differentiated tumours (P = < 0.001; receiver-operator characteristics - ROC - error, 0.171); disease recurrence was correctly predicted in 5/6 cases and disease-free survival (median follow-up time, 25 months) was correctly predicted in 22

  1. Inhibition of glucose turnover by 3-bromopyruvate counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to gemcitabine

    Isayev, Orkhan; Rausch, Vanessa; BAUER, NATHALIE; Liu, Li; Fan, Pei; Zhang, Yiyao; Gladkich, Jury; Nwaeburu, Clifford C.; Mattern, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rückert, Felix; Zach, Sebastian; Haberkorn, Uwe; Gross, Wolfgang; Schönsiegel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, the aggressive growth and early metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is due to the activity of CSCs, which are not targeted by current therapies. Otto Warburg suggested that the growth of cancer cells is driven by a high glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether glycolysis inhibition targets CSCs and thus may enhance therapeutic efficacy. Four established and 3 primary PDA cell lines, non-malignant cells, and 3 patien...

  2. Comparison of clinical features in surgical treatment of lung cancer over two 10-year periods in Shinshu University Hospital

    Lung cancer is one of the most common fatal cancers. We retrospectively evaluated 949 resected cases of lung cancer from January 1985 to December 2004 by comparative analysis of the first (1985-1994) and second 10-year period (1995-2004) with reference to patient age, gender, chief complaint, histological type, tumor differentiation, tumor size, operative method, pathological stage, and survival rate. Surgical treatment for patients older than 75 years of age doubled in the second 10-year period. CT health screenings indicating lung cancer increased. The percentage of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma increased in both males and females. Cases of tumors less than 20 mm, especially those less than 10 mm, increased in the second 10-year period. The ratio of pneumonectomy decreased, and limited resection including partial resection and segmentectomy increased. The number of cases in pathological stage IA increased. The 5-year survival rates in stages IA, IIIA, IV, and overall in the second period were statistically higher than in the first period. An age of 70 years of more, being male, first medical contact other than CT health screening, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) elevation, histological type other than well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and pneumonectomy were all considered factors impacting survival in resected cases of lung cancer. (author)

  3. [Consensuses on lung cancer treatment by Chinese medicine experts from Beijing and Guangzhou and medication features in the North and South China].

    Wang, Shu-mei; Lin, Li-zhu; Nie, Hui

    2011-07-01

    To study the consensuses on lung cancer treatment by Chinese medicine experts from North China and South China, and to analyze their medication features from viewpoints such as the medication frequency, combination laws, medication classification by collecting 800 recipes on the treatment of lung cancer patients prescribed by 8 Chinese oncologists from Guanganmen Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, the Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Results showed that coix seed, poria, pinelliae tuber were the three herbs most commonly used in treatment of lung cancer by all experts. They generally accepted Pi invigorating and phlegm removing method as the basic treatment method for treating lung cancer. Secondly, they usually used white peony root, heterophylla falsestarwort root, and ophiopogonis tuber, etc. (with higher medication frequency) to nourish yin and moisten Fei. Thirdly, consistency was also shown in clearing heat, detoxication, and anticancer. Smilacis glabra, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Herba Hedyotis diffusae, Herba Scutellariae Barbatae were herbs used by all experts. However, there were differences between oncologists in North China and South China. Oncologists in South China paid more attention to heat toxin and blood stasis, while those in North China paid more attention to supplementing both qi and yin. PMID:21866673

  4. Intrinsic subtypes and tumor grades in breast cancer are associated with distinct 3-D power Doppler sonographic vascular features

    Chang, Yeun-Chung [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10041, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yao-Sian [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chiun-Sheng [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10041, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Center for Functional Onco-Imaging and Department of Radiological Science, University of California Irvine, California, CA 92868 (United States); Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ruey-Feng, E-mail: rfchang@csie.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasonographic (PDUS) vascular features of breast carcinoma according to intrinsic subtypes, nodal stage, and tumor grade. Materials and methods: Total 115 receiving mastectomy breast carcinomas (mean size, 2.5 cm; range, 0.7–6.5 cm), including 102 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), 10 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 3 invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) diagnosed after mastectomy, were used in this retrospective study. Sixty IDC had nodal status and histopathologic tumor grades available for analysis. Vascular features, including number of vascular trees (NV), longest path length (LPL), total vessel length (TVL), number of bifurcations (NB), distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), vessel diameter (VD), and vessel-to-volume ratio (VVR) were extracted using 3-D thinning method. The Mann–Whitney U test, Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal–Wallis test were performed as appropriate. Results: There was no significant difference of vascular features among IDC, DCIS and ILC. Except VD, vascular features in luminal type were significantly lower compared to HER2-enriched or triple negative types (p < 0.05). Compared to ER+ (estrogen receptor positive) tumors, all features in ER− (estrogen receptor negative) tumors were significantly higher (p < 0.01). Despite some significantly higher vascular features in high grade IDC compared to low and intermediate grade, there was no significant correlation between vascular features and nodal stages. Conclusion: Differences in 3-D PDUS vascular features among intrinsic types of IDC are attributed to their ER status. Vascular features extracted by 3-D PDUS correlate with tumor grades but not nodal stage in IDC.

  5. Comparison of the epidemiologic features and patterns of initial care for prostate cancer between public and private institutions: a survey by the Brazilian Society of Urology

    Aguinaldo Cesar Nardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological features and patterns of initial care for prostate cancer at public and private institutions in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,082 physicians affiliated to the Sao Paulo Section of the Brazilian Society of Urology were invited to participate in this cross-sectional, web-based survey. Between September 2004 and September 2005, participating urologists entered data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer in their practice. Data on patients attended at public institutions were analyzed and compared with those patients attended at private practice. RESULTS: One hundred and ten society members contributed with data from 1915 patients, 1026 (53.6% of whom from public institutions. When compared with patients attended at private institutions, those attended at public institutions were older and more likely to be black, had higher serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, had a higher probability of being diagnosed with metastatic disease, but were less likely to undergo prostatectomy (all P < 0.001. In multivariate analysis, age, biopsy Gleason score, and being attended at a public institution were independently associated with metastatic disease upon diagnosis. The significant predictors of nonsurgical treatment were age, black race, and higher serum levels of PSA. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide registry provides valuable information regarding patient demographics, clinical features, and patterns of care. The results of this study suggest that significant disparities exist for patients with prostate cancer attended at different health-care systems. The relative contribution of biological versus socioeconomic features remains uncertain.

  6. Notch-1 signaling promotes the malignant features of human breast cancer through NF-κB activation.

    Li Li

    Full Text Available The aberrant activation of Notch-1 signaling pathway has been proven to be associated with the development and progression of cancers. However, the specific roles and the underlying mechanisms of Notch-1 signaling pathway on the malignant behaviors of breast cancer are poorly understood. In this study, using multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that activation of Notch-1 signaling pathway promoted the malignant behaviors of MDA-MB-231 cells such as increased cell proliferation, colony formation, adhesion, migration, and invasion, and inhibited apoptosis; whereas deactivation of this signaling pathway led to the reversal of the aforementioned malignant cellular behaviors. Furthermore, we found that activation of Notch-1 signaling pathway triggered the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and up-regulated the expression of NF-κB target genes including MMP-2/-9, VEGF, Survivin, Bcl-xL, and Cyclin D1. These results suggest that Notch-1 signaling pathway play important roles in promoting the malignant phenotype of breast cancer, which may be mediated partly through the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results further suggest that targeting Notch-1 signaling pathway may become a newer approach to halt the progression of breast cancer.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF NEODJUVANT TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CONSIDERATION FOR THE IMMUNOPHENOTYPICAL FEATURES OF BREAST CANCER

    A. A. Subbotina; V. P. Letyagin; N. N. Tupitsyn; I. V. Vysotskaya; V. D. Yermilova

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is directly related to the expression of CD95 (FAS/APO-1) apoptosis receptor on cancer cells, which is confirmed with the pathomorphism and changes of CD95-positive cells during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (the most effective CAF regimen is cyclophosphan, doxorubicin, and 5- fluorouracil).

  8. A New Biological Feature of Natural Killer Cells: The Recognition of Solid Tumor-Derived Cancer Stem Cells

    Tallerico, Rossana; Garofalo, Cinzia; Carbone, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are classified as a member of the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) group 1. ILCs have been recently identified and grouped on the basis of their phenotypical and functional characteristics. They are effectors of innate immunity and are involved in secondary lymphoid organ generation and tissue remodeling. NK cells are powerful cytotoxic lymphocytes able to recognize and eliminate tumor- and virus-infected cells by limiting their spread and tissue damage. The recognition of tumor cells is mediated by both activating and inhibitory receptors. While in hematological malignancies the role played by NK cells is widely known, their role in recognizing solid tumors remains unclear. Recently, tumor cell populations have been divided into two compartments: cancer-initiating cells (CICs) or cancer stem cells (CSCs) and senescent tumor cells. Here, CSC will be used. CSCs are a small subset of malignant cells with stem-like properties that are involved in tumor maintenance and recurrence due to their ability to survive to traditional therapies; they are, moreover, poorly recognized by T lymphocytes. Recent data showed that NK cells recognize in vitro cancer-initiating cells derived from colon cancer, glioblastoma, and melanoma. However, more in vivo studies are urgently required to fully understand whether these new antitumor NK cells with cytotoxic capability may be considered in the design of new immunotherapeutic interventions. PMID:27242786

  9. Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer

    Kim Dong-Wan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic factors in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy differ from those of early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical significance of potential predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A total of 145 stage II and III breast cancer patients received neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. We examined the clinical and biological factors (ER, PR, p53, c-erbB2, bcl-2, and Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed clinical outcome and their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters. Results Among the clinicopathologic parameters investigated, none of the marker was correlated with response rate (RR except triple negative phenotype. Patients with triple negative phenotype showed higher RR (83.0% in triple negative vs. 62.2% in non-triple negative, p = 0.012 and pathologic complete RR (17.0% in triple negative vs. 3.1% in non-triple negative, p = 0.005. However, relapse free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS were significantly shorter in triple negative breast cancer patients (p p = 0.021, respectively. Low histologic grade, positive hormone receptors, positive bcl-2 and low level of Ki-67 were associated with prolonged RFS. In addition, positive ER and positive bcl-2 were associated with prolonged OS. In our homogeneous patient population, initial clinical stage reflects RFS and OS more precisely than pathologic stage. In multivariate analysis, initial clinical stage was the only significant independent prognostic factor to impact on OS (hazard ratio 3.597, p = 0.044. Conclusion Several molecular markers provided useful predictive and prognostic information in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy. Triple negative phenotype was associated with shorter survival, even though it was associated

  10. Downregulation of miR-92a is associated with aggressive breast cancer features and increased tumour macrophage infiltration.

    Sofie Nilsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression on a posttranscriptional level. These regulatory RNAs have been implicated in numerous cellular processes and are further deregulated in different cancer types, including breast cancer. MiR-92a is part of the miR-17∼92 cluster, which was first reported to be linked to tumourigenesis. However, little is known about the expression of miR-92a in breast cancer and potential associations to tumour properties. The expression of miR-92a was therefore characterized in 144 invasive breast cancer samples using in situ hybridization and related to clinico-pathological data as well as to selected key properties of the tumour stroma, including the presence of macrophages (CD68 and cancer activated fibroblasts (alpha-SMA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To measure miR-92a levels, an in situ hybridisation protocol was developed and validated using cell lines and miR-92a inhibitors. The expression in the tumour samples was objectively evaluated using digital image analysis program subtracting background activities. We found that the miR-92a expression varied between tumours and was inversely correlated to tumour grade (r = -0.276, p = 0.003 and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.008 and provided independent prognostic information in multivariate Cox analysis (HR: 0.375, CI: 0.145-0.972, p = 0.043. MiR-92a was moreover inversely correlated to the number of infiltrating macrophages in the tumour stroma (r = -0.357, p<0.001, and downregulation of miR-92a promoted cell migration (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that downregulation of miR-92a in breast cancer is linked to key epithelial and stromal properties as well as clinical outcome.

  11. THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF A RESPONSE TO A TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR AGAINST DIFFERENT HISTOLOGICAL TYPES OF KIDNEY CANCER (A REVIEW

    A. D. Kaprin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of a clinical trial covering patients with disseminated renal cell carcinoma of different histological types, who had no benefits from previous systemic therapy. The response of different histological types of kidney cancer to therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to sorafenib in particular, was studied within the trial. The findings strongly suggest that mainly patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma could achieve complete or partial remission.

  12. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene copy number gain in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC: prevalence, clinicopathologic features and prognostic implication.

    Min Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most aggressive form of breast cancer, and its molecular pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and implication of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK copy number change in IBC patients.We retrospectively collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and medical records of IBC patients from several institutes in Korea. ALK gene copy number change and rearrangement were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assay, and ALK expression status was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC staining.Thirty-six IBC patients including those with HER2 (+ breast cancer (16/36, 44.4% and triple-negative breast cancer (13/36, 36.1% were enrolled in this study. ALK copy number gain (CNG was observed in 47.2% (17/36 of patients, including one patient who harbored ALK gene amplification. ALK CNG (+ patients showed significantly worse overall survival compared to ALK CNG (- patients in univariate analysis (24.9 months vs. 38.1 months, p = 0.033. Recurrence free survival (RFS after curative mastectomy was also significantly shorter in ALK CNG (+ patients than in ALK CNG (- patients (n = 22, 12.7 months vs. 43.3 months, p = 0.016. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with adjustment for HER2 and ER statuses showed significantly poorer RFS for ALK CNG (+ patients (HR 5.63, 95% CI 1.11-28.44, p = 0.037.This study shows a significant presence of ALK CNG in IBC patients, and ALK CNG was associated with significantly poorer RFS.

  13. Clinical features of esophageal cancer in the octogenarian treated by definitive radiotherapy. A multi-institutional retrospective survey

    As age-related infirmity often influences treatment options and outcome of esophageal cancer, the optimization of treatment for the elderly, especially in octogenarians, has been the subject of considerable debate. We performed a retrospective, multi-institutional survey to assess the effect of age on the outcome of definitive radiotherapy for esophageal cancer by a questionnaire sent to eight institutions in Japan. There were 362 evaluable replies. The patients included 317 males and 45 females, with a median age of 72 years (range 35-93 years), and 96% had squamous cell carcinoma. There were 30 clinical stage I, 71 stage IIA, 17 stage IIB, 113 stage III and 116 stage IV cases. The stage was not specified in 16 cases. Multiple co-morbidities existed in 40% of the patients who were 70 years of age or older. There was no statistically significant age-related difference in the incidence of adverse reactions to radiotherapy (p>0.05). Overall survival was more significantly affected by Karnofsky Performance Status than by the patient's age. The influence of performance status on cumulative survival for stage I and II disease was more pronounced in patients in their 80s. The safety of radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma is not influenced by the patient's age. Because the performance status strongly influenced survival, the multi-disciplinary assessment of functional status is mandatory for optimizing the choice of treatment for patients in their 80s with esophageal cancer. (author)

  14. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  15. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  16. Prognostic significance of several histological features in intermediate and high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated with curative intent using surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy

    Full text: The purpose of the present study was to explore the prognostic significance of several histological features with respect to lymph node metastasis, failure-free survival (FeS), and overall survival (Os) in intermediate and high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated with curative intent. One hundred and eighty patients with endometrial cancer were treated with hysterectomy with or without lymphadenectomy and received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The mean follow-up period was 4.25 years (range 0.44-10.45 years). In multifactor analysis, fractional myometrial invasion (MI) (P = 0.047), histology (P < 0.001) and lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI) (P = 0.025) were significant predictors for FFS when nodal status was not included. When lymph node status was known, histology (P - 0.007) and LVSI (P = 0.014) remained significant factors for FFS. For OS, histology (P < 0.001) and fractional MI (P = 0.004) were the significant factors. Lymph node status could be predicted by tumour grading (P = 0.016) and absolute MI (P 0.002). Histology type and the presence of LVSI were the most important prognostic factors in high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Absolute MI and tumour grading were useful predictors of nodal spread.

  17. The fluorescent bioprobe with aggregation-induced emission features for monitoring to carbon dioxide generation rate in single living cell and early identification of cancer cells.

    Chen, Didi; Wang, Huan; Dong, Lichao; Liu, Pai; Zhang, Yahui; Shi, Jianbing; Feng, Xiao; Zhi, Junge; Tong, Bin; Dong, Yuping

    2016-10-01

    A novel fluorescent probe, tris (2-(dimethylamino) ethyl)-4,4',4″-(1H-pyrrole-1,2,5-triyl) tribenzoate (TPP-TMAE), with aggregation-enhanced emission (AEE) feature showed a simple, highly selective, specific, and instant response to trace amount carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of this special characteristic, TPP-TMAE is ideal to be a biomarker for in-situ monitoring of the CO2 generation rate during the metabolism of single living cell. The rates in single living HeLa cell, MCF-7 cell, and MEF cell were 6.40 × 10(-6)±6.0 × 10(-8) μg/h, 5.78 × 10(-6)±6.0 × 10(-8) μg/h, and 4.27 × 10(-7)±4.0 × 10(-9) μg/h, respectively. The distinct responses of TPP-TMAE to CO2 generated from cancer cells and normal cells suggested TPP-TMAE as a useful tool for deeper understanding metabolism process and distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells during the early diagnosis of cancers. PMID:27372422

  18. Elevated mammaglobin (h-MAM) expression in breast cancer is associated with clinical and biological features defining a less aggressive tumour phenotype

    Mammaglobin (h-MAM) is expressed mainly by breast epithelial cells, and this feature has been used to detect circulating breast cancer cells and occult metastases in sentinel axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients. However, the biological role of mammaglobin is completely unknown. We studied 128 fresh-frozen breast cancer specimens by means of reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and quantified their h-MAM mRNA expression. This was then correlated with histological and nuclear grade, oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression, c-erb-B2 and mutant p53 expression, as well as with cellular proliferation measured by means of the Ki67 labelling index, DNA ploidy and S-phase, and finally with the presence or not of invaded axillary nodes in the mastectomy specimen. In the univariate analysis, high h-MAM expression (above the median for the whole group) correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression, diploid DNA content, low Ki67 labelling index, low nuclear grade and almost significantly (P = 0.058) with the absence of axillary nodal invasion in the mastectomy specimen. In a final, multivariate model, only progesterone receptor expression, diploid DNA content and absence of nodal invasion were found to be independently associated with high h-MAM expression. All of the features associated with mammaglobin expression reflect, without exception, a less aggressive tumour phenotype. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this is attributable to h-MAM expression itself, or to another mechanism of which mammaglobin expression forms part

  19. Association between mRNA expression of chemotherapy-related genes and clinicopathological features in colorectal cancer: A large-scale population analysis.

    Shimamoto, Yuji; Nukatsuka, Mamoru; Takechi, Teiji; Fukushima, Masakazu

    2016-02-01

    To establish the individualized treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, factors associated with chemotherapeutic effects should be identified. However, to the best of our knowledge, few studies are available on this topic, although it is known that the prognosis of patients and sensitivity to chemotherapy depend on the location of the tumor and that the tumor location is important for individualized treatment. In this study, primary tumors obtained from 1,129 patients with colorectal cancer were used to measure the mRNA expression levels of the following genes associated with the effects of standard chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related thymidylate synthase (TYMS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP); folate-related dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS) and gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH); irinotecan-related topoisomerase I (TOP1); oxaliplatin-related excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1); biologic agent-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Large-scale population analysis was performed to determine the association of gene expression with the clinicopathological features, in particular, the location of the colorectal cancer. From the results of our analysis of the mRNA expression of these 10 genes, we noted the strongest correlation between DPYD and TYMP, followed by TYMS and DHFR. The location of the colorectal cancer was classified into 4 regions (the right‑ and left-sided colon, rectosigmoid and rectum) and was compared with gene expression. A significant difference in all genes, apart from VEGF, was noted. Of the remaining 9 genes, the highest expression of TYMS and DPYD was observed in the right‑sided colon; the highest expression of GGH and EGFR was noted in the left-sided colon; the highest expression of DHFR, FPGS, TOP1 and ERCC1 was noted in the rectosigmoid, whereas TYMP

  20. Biological Characteristics and Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer in Young Women-A Featured Population: Results from the Nora Study

    Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000-2002, patients (N>3500) were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged =50 years (N=1013) were stratified into age groups (=35, 36-40, 41-45, and 46-50 years). The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(x2=7.07; P=.008), HER2 amplification (x2=5.76; P=.01), and high (≤10%) Ki67 labelling index (x2=9.53; P=.002). Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (P40 versus =40, P<.0001, resp.). At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, P=.0021). Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per se is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial. human epidermal growth factor receptor

  1. Clinical features of Hispanic thyroid cancer cases and the role of known genetic variants on disease risk

    Estrada-Florez, Ana P.; Bohórquez, Mabel E.; Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Prieto, Rodrigo; Lott, Paul; Duque, Carlos S.; Donado, Jorge; Mateus, Gilbert; Bolaños, Fernando; Vélez, Alejandro; Echeverry, Magdalena; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid cancer (TC) is the second most common cancer among Hispanic women. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) and candidate studies identified 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs966423, rs2439302, rs965513, rs6983267, rs944289, and rs116909374), associated with increased TC risk in Europeans but their effects on disease risk have not been comprehensively tested in Hispanics. In this study, we aimed to describe the main clinicopathological manifestations and to evaluate the effects of known SNPs on TC risk and on clinicopathological manifestations in a Hispanic population. We analyzed 281 nonmedullary TC cases and 1146 cancer-free controls recruited in a multicenter population-based study in Colombia. SNPs were genotyped by Kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) technique. Association between genetic variants and TC risk was assessed by computing odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs). Consistent with published data in U.S. Hispanics, our cases had a high prevalence of large tumors (>2 cm, 43%) and a high female/male ratio (5:1). We detected significant associations between TC risk and rs965513A (OR = 1.41), rs944289T (OR = 1.26), rs116909374A (OR = 1.96), rs2439302G (OR = 1.19), and rs6983267G (OR = 1.18). Cases carried more risk alleles than controls (5.16 vs. 4.78, P = 4.8 × 10−6). Individuals with ≥6 risk alleles had >6-fold increased TC risk (OR = 6.33, P = 4.0 × 10−6) compared to individuals with ≤2 risk alleles. rs944289T and rs116909374A were strongly associated with follicular histology (ORs = 1.61 and 3.33, respectively); rs2439302G with large tumors (OR = 1.50); and rs965513A with regional disease (OR = 1.92). To our knowledge, this is the first study of known TC risk variants in South American Hispanics and suggests that they increase TC susceptibility in this population and can identify patients at higher risk of severe disease. PMID

  2. Clinical features of Hispanic thyroid cancer cases and the role of known genetic variants on disease risk.

    Estrada-Florez, Ana P; Bohórquez, Mabel E; Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Prieto, Rodrigo; Lott, Paul; Duque, Carlos S; Donado, Jorge; Mateus, Gilbert; Bolaños, Fernando; Vélez, Alejandro; Echeverry, Magdalena; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid cancer (TC) is the second most common cancer among Hispanic women. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) and candidate studies identified 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs966423, rs2439302, rs965513, rs6983267, rs944289, and rs116909374), associated with increased TC risk in Europeans but their effects on disease risk have not been comprehensively tested in Hispanics. In this study, we aimed to describe the main clinicopathological manifestations and to evaluate the effects of known SNPs on TC risk and on clinicopathological manifestations in a Hispanic population.We analyzed 281 nonmedullary TC cases and 1146 cancer-free controls recruited in a multicenter population-based study in Colombia. SNPs were genotyped by Kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) technique. Association between genetic variants and TC risk was assessed by computing odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs).Consistent with published data in U.S. Hispanics, our cases had a high prevalence of large tumors (>2 cm, 43%) and a high female/male ratio (5:1). We detected significant associations between TC risk and rs965513A (OR = 1.41), rs944289T (OR = 1.26), rs116909374A (OR = 1.96), rs2439302G (OR = 1.19), and rs6983267G (OR = 1.18). Cases carried more risk alleles than controls (5.16 vs. 4.78, P = 4.8 × 10). Individuals with ≥6 risk alleles had >6-fold increased TC risk (OR = 6.33, P = 4.0 × 10) compared to individuals with ≤2 risk alleles. rs944289T and rs116909374A were strongly associated with follicular histology (ORs = 1.61 and 3.33, respectively); rs2439302G with large tumors (OR = 1.50); and rs965513A with regional disease (OR = 1.92).To our knowledge, this is the first study of known TC risk variants in South American Hispanics and suggests that they increase TC susceptibility in this population and can identify patients at higher risk of severe disease. PMID:27512836

  3. Inhibition of glucose turnover by 3-bromopyruvate counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to gemcitabine.

    Isayev, Orkhan; Rausch, Vanessa; Bauer, Nathalie; Liu, Li; Fan, Pei; Zhang, Yiyao; Gladkich, Jury; Nwaeburu, Clifford C; Mattern, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rückert, Felix; Zach, Sebastian; Haberkorn, Uwe; Gross, Wolfgang; Schönsiegel, Frank; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-07-15

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, the aggressive growth and early metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is due to the activity of CSCs, which are not targeted by current therapies. Otto Warburg suggested that the growth of cancer cells is driven by a high glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether glycolysis inhibition targets CSCs and thus may enhance therapeutic efficacy. Four established and 3 primary PDA cell lines, non-malignant cells, and 3 patient-tumor-derived CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures were analyzed by glucose turnover measurements, MTT and ATP assays, flow cytometry of ALDH1 activity and annexin positivity, colony and spheroid formation, western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, xenotransplantation, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of siRNA-mediated inhibition of LDH-A and LDH-B was also investigated. The PDA cells exhibited a high glucose metabolism, and glucose withdrawal or LDH inhibition by siRNA prevented growth and colony formation. Treatment with the anti-glycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate almost completely blocked cell viability, self-renewal potential, NF-κB binding activity, and stem cell-related signaling and reverted gemcitabine resistance. 3-bromopyruvate was less effective in weakly malignant PDA cells and did not affect non-malignant cells, predicting minimal side effects. 3-bromopyruvate inhibited in vivo tumor engraftment and growth on chicken eggs and mice and enhanced the efficacy of gemcitabine by influencing the expression of markers of proliferation, apoptosis, self-renewal, and metastasis. Most importantly, primary CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures were eliminated by 3-bromopyruvate. These findings propose that CSCs may be specifically dependent on a high glucose turnover and suggest 3-bromopyruvate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25015789

  4. Staining Features of GCDFP-15, ALA, CK7, CK20 and in Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancers

    Mehtat ÜNLÜ; Canda, Tülay; Ali SEVİNÇ; Ömer HARMANCIOĞLU; Saydam, Serdar; Mehmet Ali KOÇDOR; Görken, İlknur Bilkay

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of GCDFP-15, ALA, CK7 and CK20 in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary breast carcinoma and breast carcinoma metastases.Material and Method: Tissues from 84 primary female breast carcinomas, 36 breast carcinoma metastases, 11 primary breast carcinomas and their metastases, and 10 primary male breast carcinomas were stained for GCDFP-15, ALA, CK7 and CK20 and the staining features were analyzed.Results: GCDFP-15 w...

  5. The differences in ultrasound and clinicopathological features between basal-like and normal-like subtypes of triple negative breast cancer.

    Ziyao Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the ultrasound features and clinicopathological characteristics of basal-like subtype of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs.This study was approved by the ethical board of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. The patients' clinicopathological information was available. The ultrasound features of 62 tumors from 62 TNBC patients were interpreted. The immunohistochemical results of cytokertain5/6 (CK5/6 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR were used to classify the tumor into basal-like and normal-like groups. The association of the ultrasound features interpreted by experienced ultrasound doctors with the immunohistochemical classification was studied.Of the 62 TNBC cases, 42 (67.7% exhibited the basal-like phenotype and 20 (32.3% exhibited the normal-like phenotype based on the immunohistochemical CK5/6 and EGFR markers. Of all the tumors, 90.3% were invasive carcinomas. The basal-like tumors were significantly associated with a maximum diameter on ultrasound of more than 20 mm (36, 85.7% (P = 0.0014. The normal-like tumors usually exhibited lateral shadows (15, 75% (P = 0.0115 as well as microlobulated margins (12, 60% (P = 0.0204 compared to the basal-like subtype. Other ultrasound features showed no significant differences between the two groups.Although ultrasound cannot yet be used to differentiate between the basal-like subtype and normal-like subtype of TNBC, ultrasound can be used to provide some useful information to the clinicians.

  6. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene and features associated with EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    Wen MM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miaomiao Wen, Xuejiao Wang, Ying Sun, Jinghua Xia, Liangbo Fan, Hao Xing, Zhipei Zhang, Xiaofei Li Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR define specific molecular subsets of lung cancer with distinct clinical features. We aimed at revealing the clinical features of EML4-ALK fusion gene and EGFR mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Methods: We enrolled 694 Chinese patients with NSCLC for analysis. EML4-ALK fusion gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and EGFR mutations were analyzed by amplified refractory mutation system.Results: Among the 694 patients, 60 (8.65% patients had EML4-ALK fusions. In continuity correction χ2 test analysis, EML4-ALK fusion gene was correlated with sex, age, smoking status, and histology, but no significant association was observed between EML4-ALK fusion gene and clinical stage. A total of 147 (21.18% patients had EGFR mutations. In concordance with previous reports, EGFR mutation was correlated with age, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage, whereas patient age was not significantly associated with EGFR mutation. Meanwhile, to our surprise, six (0.86% patients had coexisting EML4-ALK fusions and EGFR mutations.Conclusion: EML4-ALK fusion gene defines a new molecular subset in patients with NSCLC. Six patients who harbored both EML4-ALK fusion genes and EGFR mutations were identified in our study. The EGFR mutations and the EML4-ALK fusion genes are coexistent. Keywords: NSCLC, EML4-ALK fusion gene, EGFR mutation, RT-PCR

  7. Relationship between morphological features and kinetic patterns of enhancement of the dynamic breast magnetic resonance imaging and clinico-pathological and biological factors in invasive breast cancer

    To investigate the relationship between the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of breast cancer and its clinicopathological and biological factors. Dynamic MRI parameters of 68 invasive breast carcinomas were investigated. We also analyzed microvessel density (MVD), estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and expression of p53, HER2, ki67, VEGFR-1 and 2. Homogeneous enhancement was significantly associated with smaller tumor size (T1: < 2 cm) (p = 0.015). Tumors with irregular or spiculated margins had a significantly higher MVD than tumors with smooth margins (p = 0.038). Tumors showing a maximum enhancement peak at two minutes, or longer, after injecting the contrast, had a significantly higher MVD count than those which reached this point sooner (p = 0.012). The percentage of tumors with vascular invasion or high mitotic index was significantly higher among those showing a low percentage (≤ 150%) of maximum enhancement before two minutes than among those ones showing a high percentage (>150%) of enhancement rate (p = 0.016 and p = 0.03, respectively). However, there was a significant and positive association between the mitotic index and the peak of maximum intensity (p = 0.036). Peritumor inflammation was significantly associated with washout curve type III (p = 0.042). Variations in the early phase of dynamic MRI seem to be associated with parameters indicatives of tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer

  8. Estimation of local spectrum content of cervical cancer-related features via two dimensional method of geometric restriction in frequency domain

    Digital colposcopy is an emerging new technology, which can be used as adjunct to the conventional Pap test for staging of cervical cancer and it can improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) in digital colposcopy has as a goal to segment and outline abnormal areas on the cervix, one of which is an important anatomical landmark on the ectocervix - the transformation zone (TZ). In this paper we proposed a new method for estimation of the local spectrum features of cervical cancer in vivo. We used a 2D method to estimate the energy of the local frequency bands, using a geometric restriction (GR). In the current work we reported up to 12 dB difference between the local power spectral density content of the region of interest (ROI) and (ROI)C for the mid-frequency band. We devised a method to present pseudo-color visual maps of the cervical images, useful for CAD and successful ROI segmentation. (author)

  9. Staging primary breast cancer. Are there tumour pathological features that correlate with a false-negative axillary ultrasound?

    Aim: To investigate whether the histopathological characteristics of primary breast cancer tumours could predict the likelihood of false-negative axillary ultrasound. Materials and methods: Screening and symptomatic patients were identified from pathology records and imaging and pathology records reviewed. True and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound groups were compared statistically in terms of tumour size, pathological type and grade, lymphovascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: Of 155 women with normal ultrasounds, 45 (29%) were node positive at axillary surgery. Breast tumour size was significantly different with the average size smaller in the true-negative group: 21 versus 30 mm (p < 0.02). The histological type varied significantly between the groups, with more lobular carcinomas in the false-negative group [6/110 (5%) versus 6/45 (13%), p < 0.001]. The false-negative group was also more likely to show lymphovascular invasion in the breast [6/110 (5%) versus 14/45 (31%), p < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in tumour grade or ER status. Conclusion: The present study has found significant differences in tumour characteristics between women with true-negative and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound in terms of size, primary tumour histological type and presence of lymphovascular invasion. In particular, axillary ultrasound in primary lobular carcinoma may be less accurate and a negative result is more likely to be spurious than with primary ductal carcinomas.

  10. Staging primary breast cancer. Are there tumour pathological features that correlate with a false-negative axillary ultrasound?

    Johnson, S., E-mail: sarahjljohnson@gmail.co [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Brown, S.; Porter, G.; Steel, J.; Paisley, K.; Watkins, R.; Holgate, C. [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To investigate whether the histopathological characteristics of primary breast cancer tumours could predict the likelihood of false-negative axillary ultrasound. Materials and methods: Screening and symptomatic patients were identified from pathology records and imaging and pathology records reviewed. True and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound groups were compared statistically in terms of tumour size, pathological type and grade, lymphovascular invasion, and oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Results: Of 155 women with normal ultrasounds, 45 (29%) were node positive at axillary surgery. Breast tumour size was significantly different with the average size smaller in the true-negative group: 21 versus 30 mm (p < 0.02). The histological type varied significantly between the groups, with more lobular carcinomas in the false-negative group [6/110 (5%) versus 6/45 (13%), p < 0.001]. The false-negative group was also more likely to show lymphovascular invasion in the breast [6/110 (5%) versus 14/45 (31%), p < 0.001]. There was no significant difference in tumour grade or ER status. Conclusion: The present study has found significant differences in tumour characteristics between women with true-negative and false-negative axillary staging ultrasound in terms of size, primary tumour histological type and presence of lymphovascular invasion. In particular, axillary ultrasound in primary lobular carcinoma may be less accurate and a negative result is more likely to be spurious than with primary ductal carcinomas.

  11. Fractal analysis of nuclear histology integrates tumor and stromal features into a single prognostic factor of the oral cancer microenvironment

    The lack of prognostic biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has hampered treatment decision making and survival in OSCC remains poor. Histopathological features are used for prognostication in OSCC and, although useful for predicting risk, manual assessment of histopathology is subjective and labour intensive. In this study, we propose a method that integrates multiple histopathological features of the tumor microenvironment into a single, digital pathology-based biomarker using nuclear fractal dimension (nFD) analysis. One hundred and seven consecutive OSCC patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 in Calgary, Canada were included in the study. nFD scores were generated from DAPI-stained images of tissue microarray (TMA) cores. Ki67 protein expression was measured in the tumor using fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and automated quantitative analysis (AQUA®). Lymphocytic infiltration (LI) was measured in the stroma from haematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained TMA slides by a pathologist. Twenty-five (23.4%) and 82 (76.6%) patients were classified as high and low nFD, respectively. nFD was significantly associated with pathological tumor-stage (pT-stage; P = 0.01) and radiation treatment (RT; P = 0.01). High nFD of the total tumor microenvironment (stroma plus tumor) was significantly associated with improved disease-specific survival (DSS; P = 0.002). No association with DSS was observed when nFD of either the tumor or the stroma was measured separately. pT-stage (P = 0.01), pathological node status (pN-status; P = 0.02) and RT (P = 0.03) were also significantly associated with DSS. In multivariate analysis, nFD remained significantly associated with DSS [HR 0.12 (95% CI 0.02-0.89, P = 0.04)] in a model adjusted for pT-stage, pN-status and RT. We also found that high nFD was significantly associated with high tumor proliferation (P < 0.0001) and high LI (P < 0.0001), factors that we and others have shown to be associated with improved survival in OSCC

  12. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  13. Histopathologic features of esophageal glands in the region of the gastroesophageal junction in Chinese patients with gastric cardiac cancer involving the esophagus

    Qin Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Qin Huang1,2,3, Lihua Zhang11Department of Pathology of the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China; 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, West Roxbury, MA, USA; 3Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Esophageal glands (EGs were implicated previously as a potential origin of carcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ. The studies of histopathology on diseases in EGs, however, are scarce. In the present study, we systematically investigated EGs in 36 resection cases of gastric cardiac carcinomas involving the esophagus (GCE in Chinese patients. All cases showed chronic inflammation in EGs and 14 (39% with Helicobacter pylori infection. Hyperplasia, atrophy, and dysplasia were common in EGs and observed in 21 (58%, 14 (39%, and 28 (78% cases, respectively. These changes were associated with various types of metaplasia, including intestinal (6, 17%, oncocytic (26, 72%, pancreatic acinar (11, 30%, and squamoid metaplasia (8, 22%. Oncocytic metaplasia was patchy, frequently replaced the entire lobule with dysplastic features. Pancreatic acinar metaplasia was present in superficial EGs as small acinar patches. Squamoid metaplasia was limited to the EG drainage ductile epithelium without keratin pearls or intercellular bridges; however, cytoplasmic vesicles and secretory vacuoles were common, suggesting dual differentiation. Dysplastic EGs featured architectural disarray with fused acini, cribriforming, abortive growth, and nuclear hyperchromasia, enlargement, and overlapping. The results demonstrate a spectrum of histopathologic changes in EGs and ductile epithelium, which is similar to those observed in GCE in Chinese patients.Keywords: esophageal glands, esophagus, stomach, cancer, Chinese

  14. Câncer ano-reto-cólico - aspectos atuais: I - câncer anal Anal canal and colorectal cancer - current features: I - anal canal cancer

    Júlio César M. Santos Jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão do tema - câncer anal - nessa revisão, apesar de sua relativa raridade, responde, em parte, ao propósito de chamar atenção para o significativo aumento dessa lesão e sua estreita relação com doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, principalmente causadas pelo vírus do papiloma humano (HPV; seus aspectos nosológicos, sua epidemiologia, sua etiologia multifatorial, seus fatores de riscos, sua prevenção e, em parte, para revelar a definição atual do tratamento.The inclusion of the theme - anal cancer - in this revision, in spite of its relative rarity, it answers, partly, to the purpose of calling attention for the significant increase of that lesion and its narrow relationship with sexually transmissible diseases mainly caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV; its nosologic aspects, epidemiology, etiology, and the multifactorial nature of risk that is associated to the disease, its prevention, and, partly, to reveal the current definition of the treatment.

  15. Rad51c- and Trp53-double-mutant mouse model reveals common features of homologous recombination-deficient breast cancers.

    Tumiati, M; Munne, P M; Edgren, H; Eldfors, S; Hemmes, A; Kuznetsov, S G

    2016-09-01

    Almost half of all hereditary breast cancers (BCs) are associated with germ-line mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes. However, the tumor phenotypes associated with different HR genes vary, making it difficult to define the role of HR in BC predisposition. To distinguish between HR-dependent and -independent features of BCs, we generated a mouse model in which an essential HR gene, Rad51c, is knocked-out specifically in epidermal tissues. Rad51c is one of the key mediators of HR and a well-known BC predisposition gene. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of Rad51c invariably requires inactivation of the Trp53 tumor suppressor (TP53 in humans) to produce mammary carcinomas in 63% of female mice. Nonetheless, loss of Rad51c shortens the latency of Trp53-deficient mouse tumors from 11 to 6 months. Remarkably, the histopathological features of Rad51c-deficient mammary carcinomas, such as expression of hormone receptors and luminal epithelial markers, faithfully recapitulate the histopathology of human RAD51C-mutated BCs. Similar to other BC models, Rad51c/p53 double-mutant mouse mammary tumors also reveal a propensity for genomic instability, but lack the focal amplification of the Met locus or distinct mutational signatures reported for other HR genes. Using the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A, we show that deletion of TP53 can rescue RAD51C-deficient cells from radiation-induced cellular senescence, whereas it exacerbates their centrosome amplification and nuclear abnormalities. Altogether, our data indicate that a trend for genomic instability and inactivation of Trp53 are common features of HR-mediated BCs, whereas histopathology and somatic mutation patterns are specific for different HR genes. PMID:26820992

  16. Phenotypic features and genetic characterization of male breast cancer families: identification of two recurrent BRCA2 mutations in north-east of Italy

    Miolo GianMaria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in men is an infrequent occurrence, accounting for ~1% of all breast tumors with an incidence of about 1:100,000. The relative rarity of male breast cancer (MBC limits our understanding of the epidemiologic, genetic and clinical features of this tumor. Methods From 1997 to 2003, 10 MBC patients were referred to our Institute for genetic counselling and BRCA1/2 testing. Here we report on the genetic and phenotypic characterization of 10 families with MBC from the North East of Italy. In particular, we wished to assess the occurrence of specific cancer types in relatives of MBC probands in families with and without BRCA2 predisposing mutations. Moreover, families with recurrent BRCA2 mutations were also characterized by haplotype analysis using 5 BRCA2-linked dinucleotide repeat markers and 8 intragenic BRCA2 polymorphisms. Results Two pathogenic mutations in the BRCA2 gene were observed: the 9106C>T (Q2960X and the IVS16-2A>G (splicing mutations, each in 2 cases. A BRCA1 mutation of uncertain significance 4590C>G (P1491A was also observed. In families with BRCA2 mutations, female breast cancer was more frequent in the first and second-degree relatives compared to the families with wild type BRCA1/2 (31.9% vs. 8.0% p = 0.001. Reconstruction of the chromosome phasing in three families and the analysis of three isolated cases with the IVS16-2A>G BRCA2 mutation identified the same haplotype associated with MBC, supporting the possibility that this founder mutation previously detected in Slovenian families is also present in the North East of our Country. Moreover, analysis of one family with the 9106C>T BRCA2 mutation allowed the identification of common haplotypes for both microsatellite and intragenic polymorphisms segregating with the mutation. Three isolated cases with the same mutation shared the same intragenic polymorphisms and three 5' microsatellite markers, but showed a different haplotype for 3' markers

  17. Superior cervical ganglion mimicking retropharyngeal adenopathy in head and neck cancer patients: MRI features with anatomic, histologic, and surgical correlation

    To describe the unique MRI findings of superior cervical ganglia (SCG) that may help differentiate them from retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLNs). A retrospective review of post-treatment NPC patients from 1999 to 2012 identified three patients previously irradiated for NPC that were suspected of having recurrent nodal disease in retropharyngeal lymph nodes during surveillance MRI. Subsequent surgical exploration revealed enlarged SCG only; no retropharyngeal nodal disease was found. A cadaveric head specimen was also imaged with a 3T MRI before and after dissection. In addition, SCG were also harvested from three cadaveric specimens and subjected to histologic analysis. The SCG were found at the level of the C2 vertebral body, medial to the ICA. They were ovoid on axial images and fusiform and elongated with tapered margins in the coronal plane. T2-weighted (T2W) signal was hyperintense. No central elevated T1-weighted (T1W) signal was seen within the ganglia in non-fat-saturated sequences to suggest the presence of a fatty hilum. Enhancement after gadolinium was present. A central ''black dot'' was seen on axial T2W and post-contrast images in two of the three SCG demonstrated. Histology showed the central black line was comprised of venules and interlacing neurites within the central portion of the ganglion. The SCG can be mistaken for enlarged RPLNs in post-treatment NPC patients. However, there are features which can help differentiate them from RPLNs, preventing unnecessary therapy. These imaging findings have not been previously described. (orig.)

  18. Superior cervical ganglion mimicking retropharyngeal adenopathy in head and neck cancer patients: MRI features with anatomic, histologic, and surgical correlation

    Loke, S.C.; Karandikar, A.; Goh, J.P.N. [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ravanelli, M.; Farina, D.; Maroldi, R. [Department of Radiology, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Ling, E.A. [National University of Singapore, Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Tan, T.Y. [Changi General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the unique MRI findings of superior cervical ganglia (SCG) that may help differentiate them from retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLNs). A retrospective review of post-treatment NPC patients from 1999 to 2012 identified three patients previously irradiated for NPC that were suspected of having recurrent nodal disease in retropharyngeal lymph nodes during surveillance MRI. Subsequent surgical exploration revealed enlarged SCG only; no retropharyngeal nodal disease was found. A cadaveric head specimen was also imaged with a 3T MRI before and after dissection. In addition, SCG were also harvested from three cadaveric specimens and subjected to histologic analysis. The SCG were found at the level of the C2 vertebral body, medial to the ICA. They were ovoid on axial images and fusiform and elongated with tapered margins in the coronal plane. T2-weighted (T2W) signal was hyperintense. No central elevated T1-weighted (T1W) signal was seen within the ganglia in non-fat-saturated sequences to suggest the presence of a fatty hilum. Enhancement after gadolinium was present. A central ''black dot'' was seen on axial T2W and post-contrast images in two of the three SCG demonstrated. Histology showed the central black line was comprised of venules and interlacing neurites within the central portion of the ganglion. The SCG can be mistaken for enlarged RPLNs in post-treatment NPC patients. However, there are features which can help differentiate them from RPLNs, preventing unnecessary therapy. These imaging findings have not been previously described. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of Clinicopathological Features and Treatments between Young (≤40 Years and Older (>40 Years Female Breast Cancer Patients in West China: A Retrospective, Epidemiological, Multicenter, Case Only Study.

    Ke Wang

    Full Text Available The incidence of young cases of breast cancer is higher in China compared to the western world. We aimed to explore differences in risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes of young female breast cancer compared to older patients in West China. We collected clinical information from 12,209 female breast cancer patients in West China, including risk factors, clinicopathological features and treatment modes, from January 2010 to December 2012. Chi-square tests and the multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied for statistical analysis. There were 2,682 young (≤40 years cases and 9,527 older cases at the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Young patients had a greater tumor diameter at diagnosis, and a higher probability of axillary lymph node and distant metastasis (P 40 years female breast cancer patients in West China. As some of these results differ from those found in the western female population, it is likely that the mechanism of tumorigenesis of young female breast cancer patients in West China may differ from that in western developed countries. Further investigation into the regional differences in breast cancer tumorigenesis is warranted.

  20. Cancer

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  1. Cancer

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  2. Prostate cancer - treatment

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  3. Prognostic value of stromal and epithelial periostin expression in human prostate cancer: correlation with clinical pathological features and the risk of biochemical relapse or death

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of POSTN expression following prostatectomy. Periostin (POSTN) expression in prostate cancer (PCa) and in normal specimens was evaluated in 90 patients by an immuno-reactive score(IRS) based on the intensity of immunostaining and on the quantity of stained cells. The t-test was applied to compare IRS values in cancer specimens to values in normal specimens. Pearson’s test was used to correlate POSTN expression to clinical pathologic features. PSA progression-free and survival curves were constructed by the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Multi-parametric models were constructed according to the Cox technique adding all the covariates predicting for either PSA progression or death into the models after univariate analysis. Both stromal and epithelial POSTN expression were significantly increased in tumor tissues. In particular, we found stromal expression to be significantly higher than epithelial expression as compared to normal tissues (p<0.000 and p=0.001).A significant correlation between POSTN epithelial expression and extra-prostatic extension was found (p=0.03). While high stromal expression was significantly associated with shorter survival (p=0.008), a low epithelial score significantly correlated with shorter PSA-free survival (p=0.04), suggesting that POSTN plays an apparently opposing biological role depending on its compartmentalization.Regardless of the mechanism that is involved, patients showing both high stromal and low epithelial expression made up a subgroup with a very bleak prognosis. Although requiring further validation through larger studies, our findings show that POSTN might represent a novel prognostic marker for PCa

  4. SU-E-J-256: Predicting Metastasis-Free Survival of Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy by Data-Mining of CT Texture Features of Primary Lesions

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) texture features of primary lesions and metastasis-free survival for rectal cancer patients; and to develop a datamining prediction model using texture features. Methods: A total of 220 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scans before CRT. The primary lesions on the CT images were delineated by two experienced oncologists. The CT images were filtered by Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (1.0–2.5: from fine to coarse). Both filtered and unfiltered images were analyzed using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis with different directions (transversal, sagittal, and coronal). Totally, 270 texture features with different species, directions and filter values were extracted. Texture features were examined with Student’s t-test for selecting predictive features. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed upon the selected features to reduce the feature collinearity. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression were applied to establish metastasis prediction models. Results: Forty-six of 220 patients developed metastasis with a follow-up time of more than 2 years. Sixtyseven texture features were significantly different in t-test (p<0.05) between patients with and without metastasis, and 12 of them were extremely significant (p<0.001). The Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of ANN was 0.72, and the concordance index (CI) of logistic regression was 0.71. The predictability of ANN was slightly better than logistic regression. Conclusion: CT texture features of primary lesions are related to metastasisfree survival of rectal cancer patients. Both ANN and logistic regression based models can be developed for prediction

  5. SU-E-J-256: Predicting Metastasis-Free Survival of Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy by Data-Mining of CT Texture Features of Primary Lesions

    Zhong, H; Wang, J; Shen, L; Hu, W; Wan, J; Zhou, Z; Zhang, Z [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) texture features of primary lesions and metastasis-free survival for rectal cancer patients; and to develop a datamining prediction model using texture features. Methods: A total of 220 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scans before CRT. The primary lesions on the CT images were delineated by two experienced oncologists. The CT images were filtered by Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (1.0–2.5: from fine to coarse). Both filtered and unfiltered images were analyzed using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis with different directions (transversal, sagittal, and coronal). Totally, 270 texture features with different species, directions and filter values were extracted. Texture features were examined with Student’s t-test for selecting predictive features. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed upon the selected features to reduce the feature collinearity. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression were applied to establish metastasis prediction models. Results: Forty-six of 220 patients developed metastasis with a follow-up time of more than 2 years. Sixtyseven texture features were significantly different in t-test (p<0.05) between patients with and without metastasis, and 12 of them were extremely significant (p<0.001). The Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of ANN was 0.72, and the concordance index (CI) of logistic regression was 0.71. The predictability of ANN was slightly better than logistic regression. Conclusion: CT texture features of primary lesions are related to metastasisfree survival of rectal cancer patients. Both ANN and logistic regression based models can be developed for prediction.

  6. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  7. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, p53 and Bcl-2 in Gastric Precancerous and Cancerous Lesions: Correlation with Clinical Features

    Tao Cui; Zu'an Zhu; Ying Liu; Qingyan Kong; Sujuan Fei

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), p53 and bcl-2 in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and to examine the expression of these proteins in relation to clinical features.METHODS The expressions of iNOS, p53 and bcl-2 proteins in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and their correlations with the clinical features were determined using immunohistochemical assays (Power VisionTM two-step method) on 84 gastric carcinomas and 54 gastric atypical hyperplastic tissues. Apoptotic cells were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL).RESULTS Expression of iNOS, p53 and bcl-2 was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma (GC) tissues than in gastric atypical hyperplastic tissues. Among the 84 carcinomas, the expression of p53 was observed in 50 (59.52%), bcl-2 in 43 (51.19%), and iNOS in 65 (77.58%). Overexpression of iNOS and bcl-2 in gastrlc carcinoma was related to tumor size and iNOS was related to the presence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). The expression of proteins did not correlate with age, sex, stage of disease, or differentiation. Expression of iNOS in gastric carcinoma tissues was positively correlated with bcl-2 expression (χ2=8.926, P=0.003),and also with p53 expression (χ2= 5.2430, P= 0.022). The mean apoptotic indexes (Al) were 1.29%±0.50 in low-grade atypical hyperplasia (LG),0.96%±0.36 in high-grade atypical hyperplasia (HG) and 0.70%±0.43 in GC, with the difference being significant between LG, HG and GC (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between iNOS expression and the Al in GC (t=3.0815, P=0.0028).CONCLUSION iNOS was expressed in the majority of gastric carcinoma tissues and correlated with cellular apoptosis associated with p53 and bcl-2 expression. iNOS overexpression is closely associated with p53 and bcl-2 accumulation status. iNOS may play a synergistic role in the pathogenesis of GC.

  8. The characteristics of Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells are modified by substrate topography with cell-like features and the polymer surface

    Tan LH

    2015-08-01

    those on a flat pST surface. This method, which provided substrates in vitro with cell-like features, enabled the study of effects of topographies that are similar to those experienced by cells in vivo. The observations establish that such a physical environment has an effect on cancer cell behavior independent of the characteristics of the substrate. The results support the concept that the physical topography of a cell’s environment may modulate crucial oncological signaling pathways; this suggests the possibility of cancer therapies that target pathways associated with the response to mechanical stimuli. Keywords: surface characteristics, cell culture platforms, physical microenvironment, cell response, drug targets, mechanical forces

  9. Relationship between the temporal changes in positron-emission-tomography-imaging-based textural features and pathologic response and survival in esophageal cancer patients

    Stephen ShingFan Yip

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although change in SUV measures and PET-based textural features during treatment have shown promise in tumor response prediction, it is unclear which quantitative measure is the most predictive. We compared the relationship between PET-based features and pathologic response and overall survival with the SUV measures in esophageal cancer. Methods: Fifty-four esophageal cancer patients received PET/CT scans before and after chemo-radiotherapy. Of these, 45 patients underwent surgery and were classified into complete, partial, and non-responders to the preoperative chemoradiation. SUVmax and SUVmean, two co-occurrence matrix (Entropy and Homogeneity, two run-length-matrix (High-gray-run-emphasis and Short-run-high-gray-run-emphasis, and two size-zone-matrix (High-gray-zone-emphasis and Short-zone-high-gray-emphasis textures were computed. The relationship between the relative difference of each measure at different treatment time points and the pathologic response and overall survival was assessed using the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC and Kaplan-Meier statistics respectively. Results: All Textures, except Homogeneity, were better related to pathologic response than SUVmax and SUVmean. Entropy was found to significantly distinguish non-responders from the complete (AUC=0.79, p=1.7x10^-4 and partial (AUC=0.71, p=0.01 responders. Non-responders can also be significantly differentiated from partial and complete responders by the change in the run length and size zone matrix textures (AUC=0.71‒0.76, p≤0.02. Homogeneity, SUVmax and SUVmean failed to differentiate between any of the responders (AUC=0.50‒0.57, p≥0.46. However, none of the measures were found to significantly distinguish between complete and partial responders with AUC0.25. Conclusions: For the patients studied, temporal change in Entropy and all Run length matrix were better correlated with pathological response and survival than the SUV

  10. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...