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Sample records for 18th radiation biology

  1. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: As we move into the new millennium, it is important that we understand the effect which radiation has on biological tissues. An understanding of the importance of these effects is essential in a number of areas including radiation therapy for cancer treatment and space travel as we attempt to proceed further from Earth for longer periods of time. Nanodosimetry enables the energy deposition of ionizing radiation on a DNA scale to be determined. This is extremely important for not only biological applications but also electronic applications, as the effect of radiation on microelectronics needs to be determined before they are deployed or installed. However, further investigation is required to link the output of the gas nanodosimeter to the actual effect of the radiation on a biological system. The purpose of this research is to conduct nanodosimetric measurements of proton radiation fields at the proton accelerator of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) in an attempt to verify a Monte Carlo simulation system. To achieve this, these measurements will be compared to the output from a Monte Carlo simulation system that is being developed to simulate the nanodosimetric spectra of the LLUMC beamline. Once verified, this Monte Carlo system will provide a very powerful tool with which to measure the effect of radiation fields on a nanoscopic level without submitting humans or expensive electronics to such a potentially damaging environment

  2. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: Ethylene, propylene and their copolymers have a wide range of applications in the manufacture of medical goods. These items generally require sterilization, which can be done by autoclaving or treatment with ethylene oxide gas. However, these methods can lead either to oxidation of the polymers or inclusion of a carcinogenic gas, so radiation sterilization offers a preferable alternative. Radiolysis of polymers can lead to yellowing and loss of tensile properties, so radiation stabilizers are added to the polymers to avoid these undesirable effects. One the types of stabilizer used is a low molecular weight compound that can scavenge radicals. These are referred to as mobilizers. In this paper the effectiveness of dioctylphthalate, DOP, as mobilizer for a copolymer of ethylene and propylene, produced for the manufacture of medical syringes, will be discussed

  3. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process is a controlled/'living' free radical polymerisation process that was invented in Australia by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSRIO) group led by Ezio Rizzardo. RAFT polymerisation has proven to be a powerful tool for the synthesis of polymers with predetermined molecular weight and low polydispersity. The RAFT process is capable of effecting living free radical polymerisation control over a great variety of monomers (eg (meth)acrylates, styrenes, acrylamides, vinyl acetate). The RAFT technique uses thiocarbonylthio compounds to mediate the polymerisation via a reversible chain transfer process. This leads to the establishment of an equilibrium under which all the propagating chains have approximately the same chain length at the same instant of time. The RAFT agent typically possesses a thiocarbonylthio group (S=C-S) with substituents R (radical leaving group) and Z (activating/stabilising group), which govern the reaction kinetics and the degree of structural control. In 2001, we reported the synthesis of RAFT agents (phenyl dithio acetates) that can be applied at low/ambient temperatures in the polymerization of alkyl acrylates and styrene. Low/ambient temperature RAFT agents allow the application of γ-radiation as source of initiation. The combination of γ-radiation and ambient temperature RAFT agents allows performing living polymerization at ambient temperature up to high conversions. This technique also opens the possibility to graft narrow polydisperse polymers from existing polymer surfaces. We have applied RAFT polymerization in conjunction with γ-radiation to graft various monomers (e.g. styrene, m-isopropenyl-α,α'-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI), N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide) from solid polypropylene phases that can be used for applications in combinatorial chemistry (eg peptide synthesis and scavenger reactions)

  4. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: Methylproamine is the current lead compound of a new class of DNA-binding radioprotectors being developed in the Research Laboratories at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne. The salient features of methylproamine are its radioprotective potency and the generic nature of the apparent radioprotective mechanism. Like the 'classic' aminothiol radioprotectors exemplified by amifostine, methylproamine suppresses the initial radiochemical damage induced in DNA by ionising radiation. However, survival curve studies with cultured cells have demonstrated that methylproamine is 100-fold more potent than WR1065, the active metabolite of amifostine. The radioprotective mechanism seems to involve reduction by the DNA-bound drug of transient radiation-induced oxidising species on DNA. This mechanism implies some electron transfer along DNA, from the DNA-bound drug to the oxidising species. In vivo radioprotection of mouse lung, GI tract and bone marrow has been demonstrated following systemic administration of methylproamine to mice. The commercial potential of radioprotectors resides in two distinct arenas. Until recently, most of our efforts have focused on the use of methylproamine to protect normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy patients, but a quite different opportunity arises from the imperative to develop countermeasures to the threat of radiation terrorism. Our prospects in both arenas have been lifted by the results of synthesis and screening of a pilot library of ∼50 methylproamine analogues, promising the emergence of new lead drugs. In particular, although methylproamine is a potent radioprotector, at higher concentrations it becomes cytotoxic, but one member of the pilot library shows a wider efficacy 'window'. We plan to continue this lead optimisation process by synthesis and screening of a much larger library of analogues, and we are seeking the support of a commercial partner

  5. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: In Australia there have been reported more than 200 species of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) including: cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens. Working at the species level of BSC poses particular difficulties for different aspects of environmental management because of the problems caused by in taxonomy, small size, lack of experts for identification and the intermixing of taxa. From the 1970s BSC classification based on the morphology has been utilised for ecological studies. This study explores the possibility of spectral classification of BSC components for ecological studies and considers the use of hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. Although, in some locations the percentage cover of BSC exceeds 70% of land cover, many previous remote sensing studies of land cover have either neglected BSC, or considered it as one group. In this study visible and near-infrared (350-1100 nm) reflectance spectra of BSC were collected with a UniSpec PPSystem spectrometer in the laboratory under a 1000 W Halogen lamp. Biological components varied in chlorophyll, physiological status, colour and other pigment contents. The measured spectra demonstrate considerable variation both within and between species. Factors contributing to spectral variation were identified by principal components analysis. Functional, taxonomic and morphological groups of BSC species were classified using discriminant analysis of the narrow-bands (3.3 nm) spectra. Both principal components and discriminant analysis showed promising results for grouping BSC variation and finally 9 groups from 21 field groups (33 species) were classified

  6. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: Cell survival studies can provide important information on the behaviour of various cell lines when exposed to a wide range of different radiations. Such studies are an important feature of microdosimetry and nanodosimetry projects that are currently being conducted in collaboration between LLUMC and the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) at the University of Wollongong. Irradiation with light ions (protons and helium) of low energies requires very thin samples (10μm or less) in order to limit the energy degradation and the resulting spread of linear energy transfer (LET) within the sample. The problem in such studies is to be able to reproducibly produce thin films of cells for irradiations. If cells are allowed to attach to surfaces, they show a wide range of shapes and sizes. In addition, the thickness of the fluid layer surrounding the cell, needed to keep them viable, may vary from sample to sample and is subject to evaporation if the cells are kept at ambient temperatures. Thus, typical techniques used in radiobiology will are subject to random and systematic errors, and a better approach is needed for reproducible track-segment experiments. A test strip has been designed at LLUMC and is currently being implemented into current radiobiology projects. However, before full integration of this system, GEANT4 Monte Carlo studies were conducted in order to assess the change in energy and LET from a range of particles proceeding though the sample in order to assess its suitability to such studies. The design of this system and the results of the Monte Carlo study will be presented here

  7. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a wide band-gap compound semiconductor material used in room temperature radiation detection applications. The relatively high average Z of this material, in comparison to that of silicon or germanium, provides good stopping power for gamma-ray detection with moderate energy resolution characteristics. These properties make the material attractive for use in radiation detection applications where small physical dimensions and reasonable spectral resolution are required. In order to obtain high performing CZT based detectors it is important to select the highest quality CZT material, in terms of the crystallographic purity, for detector fabrication. In this work a variety of characterisation tools were used to analyse substrates of single crystal CZT material for stoichiometry of the crystallographic defects which give rise to deep and shallow energy levels within the bandgap. The energy levels and relative population of the deep levels were characterised showing non-uniformity for the deep levels in single crystal CZT. The charge collection properties of a CZT test structure fabricated from the most defect free material was investigated using the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) with 3 MeV protons. The results show the charge collection properties below and surrounding the perimeter of the junction which result from a combination of drift collection and charge diffusion. The results of this analysis are to be used for an improved simulation using GEANT4 of the charge transport properties in a CZT based Compton suppression spectrometer. GEANT4 is being used to optimise the configuration and new concepts for improvements to the detector design for particular applications

  8. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: In recent years, we have developed an ion counting nanodosimeter capable of measuring the distribution of radiation-induced ions in a millimetric, wall-less sensitive volume in a low-pressure gas. The sensitive volume models an equivalent nanometric volume of DNA. At Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC), this device has been equipped with a silicon microstrip telescope that tracks the primary particles, allowing correlation of nanodosimetric data with particle position relative to the sensitive volume. Here we report on the design and performance of this tracking nanodosimeter, tested with a broad 250MeV proton beam. We demonstrate that particle coordinate information in the silicon tracker combined with nanodosimetric data can map the ionization pattern of track segments in three dimensions with a resolution of about 5 tissue-equivalent nanometers. The precision tracking capability also enabled us to perform measurements aimed at verification of the wall-less sensitive volume dimensions, for which only simulated data were available. We have seen that the tracking nanodosimetry data and Monte Carlo simulation results agreed well, thus allowing application of this technique to experimental track-structure studies of charged particles

  9. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: Selenium is an environmentally relevant trace metal, recognised not only for its role as an essential trace nutrient in living systems, but also for its devastating impacts at elevated concentrations, including fish deformities and death from selenium-laden waters and sediment. There are escalating concerns that the consumption of selenium-contaminated foods (e.g. fish and bivalves) will have an impact on human health. A comprehensive understanding of organic and inorganic selenium tissue concentrations is required if we are to assess the toxic effects of selenium in marine organisms and the flow-on effects to human consumers. Currently, whole sediment bioassays measuring total metal concentration effects are being used to assess the toxicity of metal contaminated sediments. However, for most sediment-dwelling organisms, sediments particles, pore waters and overlying waters, as well as food sources (e.g. algae) may all contribute to the accumulation of metal contaminants. Furthermore, the species of metal (and not the total metal concentration) in each of these compartments will also modify metal toxicity and uptake rates. For most species routinely used in toxicity tests, the relative importance of the different contaminant exposure pathways (overlying waters, sediment, food) has not been evaluated. If we know which compartment(s) induce toxic responses in the test organisms, we can use that knowledge to more effectively manage contaminated environments. The radiotracer 75Se produced in HIFAR was used to determine the uptake routes and accumulation sites in biological organisms. Comparatively, high sensitivity of gamma counter techniques and minimal sample preparation to ICP-MS and AAS provided for a faster and more efficient method to monitor the uptake of selenium. Biodistribution studies evaluating the bioavailability of Se from water, sediment and algae in the endemic Australian marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is presently under investigation and

  10. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    was found to be ∼0.3mm. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS: The use of transmitted dose maps, instead of EPID raw pixel values, is not only able to detect the slight MLC shifts and uncertainties, but also is able to predict the amount of the variation of the delivered dose to the surrounding tissues that are to be protected during the radiation course. The simplicity, accuracy, efficiency and additional information about delivered dose are the advantages of this technique

  11. Proceedings of the 18th technical meeting on nuclear reactor and radiation for KURRI engineers and the 9th technical official group section 5 meeting in Kyoto University

    This report is a summary of 18th Technical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor and Radiation for KURRI Engineers in Kyoto University. This was also the 9th meeting for technical official group section 5 (nuclear and radiation) in Kyoto University. In the workshop, three special lectures held were: (1) 'On Border Between Subcritical and Supercritical', (2) 'Memories of Nuclear Power Plant Management for 40 Years', and (3) 'Introduction of Technical Office in Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University'. The technical presentations held were: (1) 'Radiation Background Study of Specialty Products in Senshu Region', (2) 'Introduction of Radioactivation Analysis at KUR', (3) 'Consideration of Critical Approach Method for KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC', (4) 'Evaluation of Temperature Coefficient of KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC'. As training for technical staffs in Technical Office, we visited the facility in Ashiu Research Forest. An introduction of this facility and the comments from the participants were included in this report. (S.K.)

  12. Biological effects of radiation

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  13. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 18th, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, July 21-24, 1981, Proceedings

    Tasca, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Single event upset phenomena are discussed, taking into account cosmic ray induced errors in IIL microprocessors and logic devices, single event upsets in NMOS microprocessors, a prediction model for bipolar RAMs in a high energy ion/proton environment, the search for neutron-induced hard errors in VLSI structures, soft errors due to protons in the radiation belt, and the use of an ion microbeam to study single event upsets in microcircuits. Basic mechanisms in materials and devices are examined, giving attention to gamma induced noise in CCD's, the annealing of MOS capacitors, an analysis of photobleaching techniques for the radiation hardening of fiber optic data links, a hardened field insulator, the simulation of radiation damage in solids, and the manufacturing of radiation resistant optical fibers. Energy deposition and dosimetry is considered along with SGEMP/IEMP, radiation effects in devices, space radiation effects and spacecraft charging, EMP/SREMP, and aspects of fabrication, testing, and hardness assurance.

  14. Introduction to radiation biology

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  15. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  16. Radiation biology for environment

    Environmental pollution problems such as the green-house effect by increase of CO2, acid rain caused by flue gases, and contamination of chemicals and pesticides in foods and water, have become serious in the world with the rapid development of industry and agriculture. To solve some of these problems, radiation treatment has being applied for the removal of the contaminants from flue gases and waste water from industrial plants. On the other hand, the contribution of radiation biology for these environmental pollution problems is not direct but it has contributed indirectly in many fields. This paper describes the contributions of radiation biology for environment in the following two topics: 1) control of insects and microorganisms, and 2) application of radiation for agricultural wastes

  17. Integrative radiation systems biology.

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group "Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer" of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology. PMID:24411063

  18. Integrative radiation systems biology

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  19. Biological radiation effects

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects and provides the fundamental basis for understanding the necessity of radiation protection as well as applications in radiotherapy. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are thoroughly discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects). It can be used by graduate students as an introduction and as a source book for all who want to become acquainted with this important field. It is an extended version of the original German book containing updated information and new material. (orig.) With 273 figs

  20. 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Rist, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.  .

  1. 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing

    Dobreva, Milena

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which research data is used and handled continue to capture public attention and are the focus of increasing interest. Electronic publishing is intrinsic to digital data management, and relevant to the fields of data mining, digital publishing and social networks, with their implications for scholarly communication, information services, e-learning, e-business and the cultural heritage sector. This book presents the proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing (ELPUB), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in June 2014. The conference brings together researchers and practitioners to discuss the many aspects of electronic publishing, and the theme this year is 'Let's put data to use: digital scholarship for the next generation'. As well as examining the role of cultural heritage and service organisations in the creation, accessibility, duration and long-term preservation of data, it provides a discussion forum for the appraisal, citation and licensing of research data and the n...

  2. Biological radiation effects

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man

  3. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...

  4. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel...

  5. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  6. Biological radiation effects

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed

  7. Biology relevant to space radiation

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  8. Biologically efficient solar radiation

    Grigalavicius, Mantas; Juzeniene, Asta; Baturaite, Zivile; Dahlback, Arne; Moan, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main source of vitamin D production and is also the most important environmental risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) development. In the present study the relationships between daily or seasonal UV radiation doses and vitamin D status, dietary vitamin D intake and CMM incidence rates at different geographical latitudes were investigated. North-South gradients of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) generation and CMM induction were calculated, b...

  9. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  10. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  11. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ''biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons

  12. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  13. Radiation biology and oncology

    Chinese hamster indicated (line CHO) were cultured under hypoxic conditions and their clonogenicity and cell cycle distributions were measured as a function of the gassing period. Cells cultured under 1000 ppM O2 exhibited a biphasic reduction in cell survival. Cell cycle analyses indicd that hypoxic cells traversed the cell cycle at a reduced rate depending on the level of oxygen tension. The radiosensitivity of CHO cells cultured under hypoxic conditions was also measured at 24 h intervals for 96 h. Radiation survival curves also indicated that the hypoxic cells traversed the cell cycle at slow rates, exhibiting a slightly increased radiosensitivity of the hypoxic cells at 24 h, followed by decreased radiosensitivity at 72 h. These results indicate that hypoxia induced a partial synchronization of cells which persisted over prolonged periods (i.e., up to six times the normal culture doubling time). To test whether the radiation-induced delay in cell progression is dependent on the level of cell survival, CHO cells were first exposed to nitrogen gas for a period of 1 h followed by x-irradiation under the same nitrogen gassing or under aerated conditions. The results indicated that for a given dose, the cell progression delay was considerably less for hypoxic cells. These findings suggest that radiation-induced cell progression delay is cell-survival dependent. In another study, interactions between x rays or alpha particles from plutonium and drugs [nitrogen mustard (NM), actinomycin D (AMD)] were measured using V79 cells. Cells were exposed to radiation first, followed by drug exposure for 1 h. The data indicated that there seems to be no significant difference between x-ray-NM and alpha-NM interactions. A study using AMD instead of NM indicated that drug treatment after alpha irradiation resulted in an increased steepening of the survival curve, suggesting that there is an interaction between alpha particles and AMD

  14. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  15. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent

  16. Biology with neutron radiation

    Neutron diffraction, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments provide important information on the structure, interactions and dynamics of biological molecules. This arises from the unique properties of the neutron and of its interaction with matter. Coherent and incoherent neutron scattering amplitudes and cross-sections are very different for H and 2H (deuterium). Deuterium labelling by chemical or biochemical methods and H2O:2H2O exchange is the basis of high resolution crystallography experiments to locate functionally important H-atoms in protein molecules. It is also very important in low resolution crystallography and small angle scattering experiments to solve large complex structures, such as protein-nucleic acid complexes or biological membrane systems, by using contrast variation techniques. The energies of neutrons with a wavelength of the order of 1 - 10 A are similar to thermal energies and inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been done with different energy resolutions (≥∼ 1 μeV) to characterise the functional dynamics of proteins in solution and in membranes. (author)

  17. Low level radiation: biological effects

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  18. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  19. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    Lenten, K.J.; Greenstock, C.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  20. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  1. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  2. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...... development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...

  3. Emerging frontiers in radiation biology

    Radiation biology owes its origin to the spectacular success in the treatment of human diseases by x-rays and radium, just after their respective discoveries in 1895-96. From the very inception it has attracted researchers from all disciplines of science. The target and hit theory developed by physicists, dominated the scene till the advent of radiation chemistry concepts which offered an entirely different perspective to the mechanisms involved in biological effects of radiations and their modification by endogenous and exogenous agents like radioprotectors and radiosensitisers including hyperthermia. The applied aspect of radiation biology mainly relates to radiation therapy of cancer which, in spite of its long existence, is still to achieve scientific perfection. Nevertheless, it did not wait -and fortunately so-, for its radiobiological rationality but continued its development to be the main modality for cancer treatment today. Several approaches are now being attempted to improve its efficacy by selectively damaging the cancerous cells while sparing the normal tissues and also by devising suitable predictive assays for radioresponse of different tumours to enable individualisation of treatment schedules. (author). 99 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H2O2(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H2O2(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  5. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-15

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

  6. Biophysical models in radiation biology

    Models serve a variety of purposes: to link physics and biology; to interpolate and extrapolate to dose regions where direct biological measurements of statistical significance are not feasible; to address basic mechanisms; to suggest new experiments designed to test hypotheses predicted by the model. In the past, the modeling arena has been dominated by dose-response curves for cell killing which have slowly but surely incorporated more and more of the biological factors that are known to be important. At the present time, the modelers urgently need to follow the revolution in the new biology as quantitative data become available. There are several areas involved: i. the relation between DNA strand breaks, initial breaks as measured by the premature chromosome condensation technique and cell lethality. ii. modeling of oncogenic transformation as a function of dose and of radiation quality. iii. modeling of oncogenic transformation as a function of oncogene activation. iv. modeling of oncogene activation and suppressor cell deletion as a function of radiation dose and radiation quality. (author)

  7. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  8. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  9. Weekly Report for June 18th-22nd

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the week June 18th-22nd,the Mainland stock markets showed a flat while the Hong Kong Hang Seng Index hit its new historical high. The index of Shanghai Stock decreased 1% weekly and that of Shenzhen Stock enjoyed a weekly increase of 0.2%.

  10. Radiation biology of low doses

    Present risk assessments and standards in radiation protection are based on the so-called linear no-threshold (LNT) dose - effect hypothesis, i.e., on a linear, proportional relationship between radiation doses and their effects on biological systems. This concept presupposes that any dose, irrespective of its level and time of occurrence, carries the same risk coefficient and, moreover, that no individual biological effects are taken into account. This contribution presents studies of low energy transfer (LET) radiation which deal with the risk of cancer to individual cells. According to the LNT hypothesis, the relationship for the occurrence of these potential effects should be constant over the dose range: successful repair, cell death, mutation with potential carcinogenesis. The results of the studies presented here indicate more differentiated effects as a function of dose application as far as damage to cellular DNA by ionizing radiation is concerned. At the same overall dose level, multiple exposures to low doses sometimes give rise to much smaller effects than those arising from one single exposure to the total dose. These adaptive effects of cells are known from other studies. The results of the study allow the conclusion to be drawn that non-linear relationships must be assumed to exist for the LET radiation considered. Correspondingly, the linear no-threshold hypothesis model should at least be reconsidered with respect to the low dose range in the light of recent biological findings. The inclusion of other topical research findings also could give rise to a new, revised, risk-oriented approach in radiological protection. (orig.)

  11. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  12. Biological imaging in radiation oncology

    Grosu, A.L.; Wiedenmann, N.; Molls, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this study was to discuss the value of integrating biological imaging (PET, SPECT, MRS etc.) in radiation treatment planning and monitoring. Studies in patients with brain tumors have shown that, compared to CT and MRI alone, the image fusion of CT/MRI and amino acid SPECT or PET allows a more correct delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and planning target volume (PTV). For FDG-PET, comparable results with different techniques are reported in the literature also for bronchial carcinoma, ear-nose-and-throat tumors, and cervical carcinoma, or, in the case of MRS, for prostate cancer. Imaging of hypoxia, cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, and gene expression leads to the identification of differently aggressive areas of a biologically inhomogeneous tumor mass that can be individually and more appropriately targeted using innovative IMRT. Thus, a biological, inhomogeneous dose distribution can be generated, the so-called dose painting. In addition, the biological imaging can play a significant role in the evaluation of the therapy response after radiochemotherapy. Clinical studies in ear-nose-and-throat tumors, bronchial carcinoma, esophagus carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the therapy response are higher compared to anatomical imaging (CT and MRI). Clinical and experimental studies are required to define the real impact of these investigations in radiation treatment planning, and especially in the evaluation of therapy response. (orig.)

  13. The academician astronomers travelling in the 18th century.

    Dumont, S.; Débarbat, S.

    1999-04-01

    In the 18th century, astronomers of the Académie des sciences of Paris made various contributions to the improvement of navigation: terrestrial determinations of longitude which improved charts for navigators, testing of marine clocks for longitude determinations at sea. In order to resolve the Cassini-Newton controversy regarding the shape of the Earth, the Académie proposed in 1735, that two expeditions should be made with a view to measuring a meridian arc. The results concluded that the Earth was flat on the sides of the poles, as predicted by Newton. By the mid-18th century, the first purely astronomical expedition (La Caille, Cap of Good Hope) led to the creation of an austral celestial map and new parallaxes. Later, Chappe d'Auteroche, Le Gentil and Pingré travelled to observe two transits of Venus over the Sun (1761, 1769) for the improvement of the solar parallax.

  14. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...... development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers on...

  15. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    The efficient dose of ionizing radiation (I.R.), expressed in sievert is a weighting of the deposited energy (absorbed dose in grays) by factors that take into account the radiation hazard and tissues radiosensitivity. it is useful in radiation protection because it allows to add exposures to ionizing radiation of different nature. for low doses, it has no probabilistic value. The determinist effects of ionizing radiation are observed from thresholds of several hundred of milli sievert. The seriousness grows with the dose. The whole-body doses exceeding 8 Sv are always lethal. The radio-induced cancers are observed only for doses exceeding 100 to 200 mSv for adults, delivered at a self important dose rate. Their seriousness does not depend on the dose. Their appear fortuity (stochastic effect) with a various individual susceptibility, genetically determined. The number of eventual radio-induced cancers coming from the exposure of a high number of persons to low dose of ionizing radiation (<100 mSv) cannot be evaluated with a linear without threshold model. these models, however usually used, do not take into account the biological reality of cell defense mechanisms, tissues or whole body defense mechanisms, these one being different against low or high doses of ionizing radiation. Against low doses, the preponderant mechanism is the elimination of potentially dangerous damaged cells. Against high doses, the repair of damaged cells is imperative to preserve the tissue functions. It can lead to DNA repair errors (radio-induced mutations) and canceration. The radio-induced congenital malformations are effects with threshold. The radio-induced carcinogenesis in utero is a stochastic effect. The radio-induced hereditary congenital malformations have never been highlighted for man. (N.C.)

  16. Biology relevant to space radiation

    Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-30

    There are only very limited data on the health effects to humans from the two major components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. As a result, predictions of the accompanying effects must be based either on (1) data generated through studies of experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences higher than those in space, or (2) extrapolations from studies of gamma and x rays. Better information is needed about the doses, dose rates, and the energy and LET spectra of the radiations at the organ level that are anticipated to be encountered during extended space missions. In particular, there is a need for better estimates of the relationship between radiation quality and biological effects. In the case of deterministic effects, it is the threshold that is important. The possibility of the occurrence of a large solar particle event (SPE) requires that such effects be considered during extended space missions. Analyses suggest, however, that it is feasible to provide sufficient shielding so as to reduce such effects to acceptable levels, particularly if the dose rates can be limited. If these analyses prove correct, the primary biological risks will be the stochastic effects (latent cancer induction). The contribution of one large SPE to the risk of stochastic effects while undesirable will not be large in comparison to the potential total dose on a mission of long duration.

  17. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  18. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  19. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1949-11-16

    This paper discusses procedures for research on biological effects of radiation, using mouse tissue: activation trace analysis including methods and proceedures for handling samples before during and after irradiation; methods and procedures for ion exchange study; method of separation and recovery of copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, pubidium and cesium. Also included are studies of trace elements with radioactive isotopes: the distribution of cobalt 60, zinc 65, and copper 64 in the cytoplasm and nuclei of normal mice and those with tumors. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    An important event of the year was the designation of our Laboratory as a Center for Radiological Research by the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Vice-President for Health Sciences. Center status acknowledges the size and importance of the research efforts in this area, and allows a greater measure of independence in administrative matters. While the name has changed from a Laboratory to a Center within the Medical School, the mission and charge remain the same. The efforts of the Center are a multidisciplinary mix of physics, chemistry, and biology, mostly at a basic level, with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection or radiation therapy. About a quarter of our funding, mostly individual research awards, could be regarded as in direct support of radiotherapy, with the remainder (an NCI program project grant and DOE grants) being in support of research addressing more basic issues. An important effort currently underway concerns ab-initio calculations of the dielectric response function of condensed water. This investigation has received the coveted designation, ''Grand Challenge Project,'' awarded by DOE to research work which represents ''distinct advance on a major scientific or engineering problem that is broadly recognized as important within the mission of the Department.''

  1. Biological research for radiation protection

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  2. Biological research for radiation protection

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by γ-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by γ-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate γ-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by γ-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  3. E. Biological effects of radiation on man

    This report firstly summarises information on the biological hazards of radiation and their relation to radiation dose, and hence estimates the biological risks associated with nuclear power production. Secondly, it describes the basis and present status of radiation protection standards in the nuclear power industry

  4. Roads and cities of $18^{th}$ century France

    Perret, Julien; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the $18^{th}$ century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science.

  5. Droughts in the Czech Lands during 18th century

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, O.; Valášek, H.; Dobrovolný, Petr

    Brno : Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban, O.; Trnka, M.), s. 110-114 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience . Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : droughts in the Czech lands * 18th century Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  6. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  7. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  8. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  9. Doses and biological effect of ionizing radiation

    Basic values and their symbols as well as units of physical dosimetry are given. The most important information about biological radiation effects is presented. Polish radiation protection standards are cited. (A.S.)

  10. Radiation biology for pediatric radiologists

    The biological effects of radiation result primarily from damage to DNA. There are three effects of concern to the radiologist that determine the need for radiation protection and the dose principle of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). (1) Heritable effects. These were thought to be most important in the 1950s, but concern has declined in recent years. The current ICRP risk estimate is very small at 0.2%/Sv. (2) Effects on the developing embryo and fetus include weight retardation, congenital anomalies, microcephaly and mental retardation. During the sensitive period of 8 to 15 weeks of gestation, the risk estimate for mental retardation is very high at 40%/Sv, but because it is a deterministic effect, there is likely to be a threshold of about 200 mSv. (3) Carcinogenesis is considered to be the most important consequence of low doses of radiation, with a risk of fatal cancer of about 5%/Sv, and is therefore of most concern in radiology. Our knowledge of radiation carcinogenesis comes principally from the 60-year study of the A-bomb survivors. The use of radiation for diagnostic purposes has increased dramatically in recent years. The annual collective population dose has increased by 750% since 1980 to 930,000 person Sv. One of the principal reasons is the burgeoning use of CT scans. In 2006, more than 60 million CT scans were performed in the U.S., with about 6 million of them in children. As a rule of thumb, an abdominal CT scan in a 1-year-old child results in a life-time mortality risk of about one in a thousand. While the risk to the individual is small and acceptable when the scan is clinically justified, even a small risk when multiplied by an increasingly large number is likely to produce a significant public health concern. It is for this reason that every effort should be made to reduce the doses associated with procedures such as CT scans, particularly in children, in the spirit of ALARA. (orig.)

  11. Radiation biology for pediatric radiologists

    Hall, Eric J. [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The biological effects of radiation result primarily from damage to DNA. There are three effects of concern to the radiologist that determine the need for radiation protection and the dose principle of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). (1) Heritable effects. These were thought to be most important in the 1950s, but concern has declined in recent years. The current ICRP risk estimate is very small at 0.2%/Sv. (2) Effects on the developing embryo and fetus include weight retardation, congenital anomalies, microcephaly and mental retardation. During the sensitive period of 8 to 15 weeks of gestation, the risk estimate for mental retardation is very high at 40%/Sv, but because it is a deterministic effect, there is likely to be a threshold of about 200 mSv. (3) Carcinogenesis is considered to be the most important consequence of low doses of radiation, with a risk of fatal cancer of about 5%/Sv, and is therefore of most concern in radiology. Our knowledge of radiation carcinogenesis comes principally from the 60-year study of the A-bomb survivors. The use of radiation for diagnostic purposes has increased dramatically in recent years. The annual collective population dose has increased by 750% since 1980 to 930,000 person Sv. One of the principal reasons is the burgeoning use of CT scans. In 2006, more than 60 million CT scans were performed in the U.S., with about 6 million of them in children. As a rule of thumb, an abdominal CT scan in a 1-year-old child results in a life-time mortality risk of about one in a thousand. While the risk to the individual is small and acceptable when the scan is clinically justified, even a small risk when multiplied by an increasingly large number is likely to produce a significant public health concern. It is for this reason that every effort should be made to reduce the doses associated with procedures such as CT scans, particularly in children, in the spirit of ALARA. (orig.)

  12. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  13. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: CT (computer tomography) data can be used to correct for SPECT (single photon emission computer tomography) attenuation when the relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) and CT Hounsfield Unit (HU) of a material, such as bone, is known. This research determined the relationship for a range of tissue equivalent materials using 120 kVp CT scans and six gamma ray producing SPECT radionuclides; Ga-67, I-123, I-131, In-111, Tc-99m and Tl-201. A lead container was modified to produce a narrow-beam of gamma rays with a radionuclide inside. Materials (water, oil, sawdust, wood, Perspex, bone) were positioned between the container and the gamma camera. Linear attenuation coefficients of each material were obtained at each radionuclide energy peak by increasing the thickness of the attenuating material and observing the change in the percentage of transmitted gamma rays reaching the gamma camera. The linear attenuation coefficients were plotted against HU values. A bilinear trend was fitted to the data at 0 HU for each of the peak energies. The relationships were mathematically defined from the two equations produced by the bilinear fit. The relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient of each material and the peak gamma-ray energy was also investigated. The resulting series of μ versus HU plots showed that at very low photon energies, the points in the plot were essentially linear. As the photon energy was increased, the slope of the fit for HU > 0 decreased. Equations derived from this research have successfully been used to construct a linear attenuation map for SPECT attenuation correction

  14. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: The Australian yabby Cherax destructor is tolerant of exposure to many trace metals including Zn and Cd. However it is not known if this tolerance is a result of a low rate of uptake of heavy metals by the yabby, increased excretion, or a combination of both. We now report on the use of radioisotopes of two environmental trace metals 65Zn and 109Cd to monitor the uptake by C. destructor of the essential metal Zn and the non-essential metal Cd, at low metal concentrations exposures. Juvenile C. destructor were exposed to three concentrations of Zn with 65Zn as a tracer for up to 48 hours. Yabbies were sampled at specific time intervals and counted live in tubes with freshwater using a gamma scintillation counter. Water was also sampled and counted at the same time intervals. At the end of the uptake phase, yabbies were dissected into the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, tail muscle and 'the rest' and each body compartment counted individually. The associated radioactivity was used to calculate the proportional compartmentalization of the trace metals within the body tissues. A similar experiment was repeated with various concentrations of Cd and 109Cd used to monitor its uptake at various time intervals. Unlike Zn, where its accumulation only plateaued at 72 hour the rate of uptake of Cd reached a plateau after 24 hours. A competitive study was also conducted with the yabbies. Here the yabbies were exposed to similar concentrations of Cd and Zn simultaneously and yabbies were counted to determine Zn and Cd at various intervals. The estimated rates for C. destructor are compared to those of other freshwater crustaceans in order to deduce whether its tolerance to trace metal toxicants is based on reduced rates of uptake

  15. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: The electroreduction of a manganese dioxide (MnO2) electrode in an aqueous lithium hydroxide electrolyte has been studied using slow-scan cyclic voltammetry. The electroreduced MnO2 surface was investigated under the electron beam irradiation by means of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopic (FTIR) techniques. Based on the XPS and FTIR results, the reduced material was found to be covered with a thick film of water (O 1s) which acted as a double layer and hence prevented detection of other elements. The electrode was thus irradiated with Ar+ for 60, 120, 240 and 480 min to remove the overlayer composed of a mixture of LiOH and Li2CO3. After the ion bombardment (4.0kV, 2μA, 500μm spot), the presence of reduced state of manganese (Mn 3s) and lithium (Li 1s) is detected in the electrode. The XPS and FTIR spectra reveal that the formation of an insoluble layer of Li2CO3 precedes the process of reduction. From the evidence based on the various techniques used, it is confirmed that lithium is electrochemically inserted into the host framework structure of MnO2 in aqueous solutions

  16. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    Full text: Tumour modelling has the potential to assist in cancer treatment planning, by providing clinicians with patient specific predictions of treatment outcome. By implementing different radiotherapy (RT) schedules on a model, differential treatment outcome in terms of cell kill may be predicted. With the ability to assign a cell as either oxic, transiently hypoxic (temporal oxygen variations) or chronically hypoxic, the current model uniquely integrates the phenomenon of radiobiological hypoxia, which has been proven to a macroscopic tumour parameters with prognostic value, as seen in multiple HNSCC clinical trials. Features of the tumour growth model will be presented, along with a sensitivity analysis of the growth rate versus interchangeable parameters such as the random seed number, proportion of cells types etc. This will be followed by a justification and description of the hypoxia modelling technique. The in-silico model is programmed in the FORTRAN 95 language and is dedicated to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) region. Each cell is declared as an object and possesses attributes which are stored as integers. The five attribute values are randomly selected from various distributions and stored for each cell. The attributes include; cell cycle time, the time of division, cell type, number of generations and pO2, which are condensed in to 6 bytes of memory space. In addition, the algorithm has been designed to incorporate a partial oxygen pressure (pO2) to mimic the microenvironment of each cell. The temporal characteristics of transient hypoxia considered have been taken from published literature. Cells are processed at a rate of 50,000 cells per second and using a symmetrical stem cell division probability of 2.5 %, tumour is developed with a doubling time of 45 days and a stem cell population of 1.6 % (values reported in the literature). A sensitivity analysis shows that the percentage probability of stem cell creation is the dominant factor affecting the final growth rate. A change in the distribution of pO2 versus cell number impacts significantly on tumour growth, as does the number of cells affected by transient hypoxia. Conclusions: An efficient computational of tumour growth has been developed creating a population of over 100 million cells in approximately 30 minutes. The percentage of stem cells is the parameter most influencing growth rate, and the oxygenatation status is an important factor to consider in a realistic tumour model of HNSCC because of the impact on the cell cycle time, necrotic death rate, radioresistance and the reoxygenation phenomenon during RT treatment of this tumour type

  17. Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in biological research

    This book deals with the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in the various aspects of biological research. The following topics were presented: labelled compounds; conformation-function relationships of hormonal polypeptides and their spectroscopic study; neutron scattering and neutron diffraction for biological studies; high resolution autoradiography; radioimmunoassay; nuclear medicine; transfer of excitation energy in photosynthesis; radioagronomy; radiation preservation of food

  18. 18th and 19th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Patel, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures in particular. The application-related contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research; innovative fields such as coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations are highlighted. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 18th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in October 2013 and subsequent Workshop of the same name held at Tohoku University in March 2014.  

  19. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. PMID:27217252

  20. [The interpretation of pulmonary tuberculosis in the 18th century].

    Bernier, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis took on alarming proportions in the 18th-century Europe. This study examines the ways learned medical practitioners presented the causes of the malady in Great Britain and France, by analyzing 12 medical treatises. Four etiological models appears to have dominated medical thinking in this context: theories that emphasize contagion; those which attribute the cause to physiological disorders; those which find the origin in hereditary predispositions; and those theories which observe a link with behaviour and lifestyles. The study also shows how one of these theories - the hereditary theory - eventually triumphed over the others and became the dominant for the better part of the 19th century, and will be examined within the context of the growth of liberal and individualist ideology. PMID:15977379

  1. 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    This volume features papers from the 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, held by the University of Zaragoza in collaboration with the Spanish Association of Project Management and Engineering (AEIPRO). It illustrates the state of the art in this emerging area. Readers will discover ways to increase the effectiveness of project engineering as well as the efficiency of project management. The papers, written by international researchers and professionals, cover civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, safety, labor risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Overall, this book contributes to the improvement of project engineering research and enhances the transfer of results to the job of project engineers and project managers around the world. It will appeal to all professionals in the field as well as researchers and teachers involved in the traini...

  2. Biology responses to low dose radiation

    Biology responses to low dose radiation is the most important problem of medical radiation and radiation protection. The especial mechanism of low dose or low dose rate induced cell responses, has been found independent with linear no-threshold model. This article emphasize to introduce low dose or low dose rate induced biology responses of adaptive response, by-effect, super-sensitivity and genomic instability. (authors)

  3. Nanodosimetry, from radiation physics to radiation biology.

    Grosswendt, B

    2005-01-01

    In view of the fact that early damage to genes and cells by ionising radiation starts with the early damage to segments of the DNA, it is a great challenge to radiation research to describe the general behaviour of ionising radiation in nanometric target volumes (nanodosimetry). After summarising basic aspects of nanodosimetry, an overview is given about its present state. As far as experimental procedures are concerned, main emphasis is laid on single-ion counting and single-electron counting methods, which use millimetric target volumes filled with a low-pressure gas to simulate nanometric target volumes at unit density. Afterwards, physical principles are discussed, which can be used to convert experimental ionisation cluster-size distributions into those caused by ionising radiation in liquid water. In the final section, possibilities are analysed of how to relate parameters derived from the probability of cluster-size formation in liquid water to parameters derived from radiobiological experiments. PMID:16381675

  4. Nanodosimetry, from radiation physics to radiation biology

    In view of the fact that early damage to genes and cells by ionising radiation starts with the early damage to segments of the DNA, it is a great challenge to radiation research to describe the general behaviour of ionising radiation in nano-metric target volumes (nanodosimetry). After summarising basic aspects of nanodosimetry, an overview is given about its present state. As far as experimental procedures are concerned, main emphasis is laid on single-ion counting and single-electron counting methods, which use millimetric target volumes filled with a low-pressure gas to simulate nano-metric target volumes at unit density. Afterwards, physical principles are discussed, which can be used to convert experimental ionisation cluster-size distributions into those caused by ionising radiation in liquid water. In the final section, possibilities are analysed of how to relate parameters derived from the probability of cluster-size formation in liquid water to parameters derived from radiobiological experiments. (authors)

  5. Biological effects of proton radiation: an update

    Proton radiation provides significant dosimetric advantages when compared with gamma radiation due to its superior energy deposition characteristics. Although the physical aspects of proton radiobiology are well understood, biological and clinical endpoints are understudied. The current practice to assume the relative biological effectiveness of low linear energy transfer (LET) protons to be a generic value of about 1.1 relative to photons likely obscures important unrecognised differentials in biological response between these radiation qualities. A deeper understanding of the biological properties induced by proton radiation would have both radiobiological and clinical impact. This article briefly points to some of the literature pertinent to the effects of protons on tissue-level processes that modify disease progression, such as angiogenesis, cell invasion and cancer metastasis. Recent findings hint that proton radiation may, in addition to offering improved radio-therapeutic targeting, be a means to provide a new dimension for increasing therapeutic benefits for patients by manipulating these tissue-level processes. (authors)

  6. 18th Stage of the 2004 Tour de France

    Relations with the Hosts States Service

    2004-01-01

    Haute-Savoie / Pays de Gex 23 July 2004 On Friday 23 July 2004, the 18th stage of the Tour de France cycle race will be departing from Annemasse (Haute-Savoie) and heading for Lons-le-Saunier (Jura), passing through Archamps, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Collonges, Farges, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, Thoiry, Sergy, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Chevry, Gex et Mijoux, inter alia (a detailed itinerary with approximate passage times can be found on http://www.letour.fr/2004/us/index.html). This event is likely to cause numerous disruptions to local traffic, as the roads used by the race will be closed to all vehicles except those bearing the official race insignia: 90 minutes before the first rider comes through; up to 15 minutes after the police vehicle bearing the ' fin de course ' sign has driven through. Furthermore, there will be no access to the centre of Saint-Genis-Pouilly from about 12.30 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. As a result, you are strongly advised to take these difficulties into account when making any car journeys ...

  7. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  8. Radiation biology in cancer research

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium held in February and March 1979. The publication of the book in early 1980 represents a timely appearance of the 40 scientific presentations and conference summary from a rather large meeting. The papers are organized into six categories ranging from basic biophysics of radiation damage to new methods and combinations in radiation therapy of human malignancies. This organization, going from the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to new therapy applications, is a logical one, and the relatively large emphasis on papers in the first category is a refreshing change for a symposium of this sort. The quality of editing, production, and illustrations is high

  9. Radiation biology of medical imaging

    Kelsey, Charles A; Sandoval, Daniel J; Chambers, Gregory D; Adolphi, Natalie L; Paffett, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.

  10. Radiation sterilization of biological tissues

    After years of neglect, the value of sterile non-viable (allograft) tissue grafts in transplant surgery is now being recognised. Sterilization using γ-radiation is now becoming the method of choice for a wide range of tissues in a spectrum of Human Tissues banks throughout the world. The radiation treatment can initiate physical and chemical damage in the tissues. Where necessary methods of protection have been developed. Examples are given of the successful utilization of radiation for tissue sterilization and use. (author)

  11. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    This annual report contains a summary of our current research. Some highlights include: experimental microdosimetry, track structure, extension of the Dual Radiation Action model to be time dependent, experiments showing that the reverse dose-rate effect for onogenic transformation, first rated for neutrons, has also been observed for charged particles of intermediate LET, an analysis of low dose-rate, research in hyperthermia, studies in molecular cloning, low dose rate studies, experimental studies on high LET, and molecular studies on DNA. 42 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  13. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  14. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1982-07-27

    Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  15. Areas of research in radiation chemistry fundamental to radiation biology

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. The necessity of understanding the chemistry of any system, biological or not, that is to be manipulated and controlled, is so obvious as to make trivial a statement to that effect. If any natural phenomenon is to be put to our use, surely the elements of it must be studied and appreciated fully. In the preliminary statements of the various panels of this general group, the need for additional information on the basic radiation chemistry concerned in radiation-induced biological effects pervades throughout

  16. Biological responses to ionizing radiation

    Post-nuclear war local and global fall-out distribution and levels are discussed in relation to fission products and neutron activation radionuclides. Tables are presented of the sensitivities of the major ecosystems to ionising radiations, of the sensitivity of dormant seed, of small animals and birds, and of the main factors affecting plant sensitivity to radiation. Representative bioconcentration factors for Co, Cs and Sr for various species are listed, together with whole-body dose estimates to marine biota from 10,000 MT nuclear war. Internal doses, and pathways to humans are discussed. It is concluded that the direct effects of fallout on humans would far exceed the indirect effects resulting from destruction or disturbance of ecological systems. (UK)

  17. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  18. DEGRO 2009. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts

    The special volume of the journal covers the abstracts of the DEGRO 2009 meeting on radiation oncology, medical physics, and radiation biology, covering the following topics: seldom diseases, gastrointestinal tumors, radiation reactions and radiation protection, medical care and science, central nervous system, medical physics, the non-parvicellular lung carcinomas, ear-nose-and throat, target-oriented radiotherapy plus ''X'', radio-oncology - young academics, lymphomas, mammary glands, modern radiotherapy, life quality and palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of the prostate carcinoma, imaging for planning and therapy, the digital documentation in clinics and practical experiences, NMR imaging and tomography, hadrons - actual status in Germany, urinal tract oncology, radiotoxicity

  19. Biological consequences of radiation: risk factors

    This publication is a syllabus of a course on Radiation Protection. The publication offers an overview of the biological radiation effects at cellular level. For that purpose, different forms of cancers and their incidence are first discussed; structure and functioning of normal cells are considered and an introduction in genetics is given. Finally, an overview is presented of the character of tissue damage after high-dose irradiation. (G.J.P.)

  20. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology

    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation. (author)

  1. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  2. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  3. Notions of radiation chemistry in biological systems

    The present paper examines some aspects of the direct and indirect biological radiation effects: pair formation, free radicals, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, oxygen singlet together with the endogen radioprotector mechanisms of organisms and the ways in which an improved radioresistance of biochemical systems can be achieved. (author)

  4. Biological indicators for radiation dose assessment

    After an introductory report on the present level of practical experience in using biological indicator systems to identify and assess doses from radiation exposures, the state of the art in the field of biochemical, cytological and immunological indicators was presented as a basis for discussions in working groups. With reference to the type of radiation - gamma radiation, electrons, neutrons - the question was examined how and to which extent body doses could be evaluated on the basis of results from biological indicator systems. The indicator systems were examined and evaluated in working groups under the aspects of practical use, validity of results and demand of research according to uniform criteria. These were, among others, dose effect relationship, detection limit, reproducibility and specificity, interference factors, stress and reasonable inconvenience of the examined person, earliest possible availability of results and the maximum time needed to identify a biological effect after radiation exposure, as well as the possible maximum number of persons examined from a population group of radiation exposed individuals. The results of the working groups discussions were compiled and summarized in recommendations. (orig./MG)

  5. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  6. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  7. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  8. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  9. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  10. Biological effects of synchrotron radiation on crops

    唐掌雄; 董保中; 等

    1996-01-01

    The sensitivity of germinating seeds of barley,winter wheat and spring one to synchrotron ultraviolet radiation is barley>winter wheat and spring one.But when dry seeds of the three crops are irradiated by 3.5-22keV X-rays,the sequence of their sensitivity to radiation can be changed.for irradiation of 0.6-3keV ultra soft X-rays,0.40-0.90 of the seedlings of the first generation appear mutation of striped chlorophyll defect.This biological effect has never been found for irradiation of other rays.

  11. Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    André P. Schuch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products.

  12. Proceedings of the 18th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference

    This proceedings contains articles of PBNC 2012 of the Pacific Nuclear Council. It was held on March 18-23 in Busan, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 10 special sessions and 1 technical session. The main subject titles of special sessions are as follows: Human resources development, Severe accident prevention, Severe accident mitigation, Fuel cycle and pyro processing, Public communication, PHWR-1, SMR-1, Carboy security, PHWR-2, SMR-2. The main subject titles of technical session are as follows: Nuclear policy and strategy, Future reactors, Advanced water-cooled reactors, APR+ development, Fuel and fuel cycle, Safety after Fukushima accident, Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis, Radiation applications, Plant life and ageing management, Nuclear materials and chemistry, Plant operation and maintenance, Steam generator, Waste management and storage, Human resources management, Severe accident and management, Instrumentation and control, PSA technology and applications, Nuclear-IT convergence. (Yi, J. H.)

  13. Ionizing radiation effects on biological macromolecules

    Ionizing radiation is one of the main environmental factors for life, particularly for human beings. The primary effects of ionizing radiation produce the perturbation of biomacromolecules functionality (DNA and proteins). This effect occurs by direct action and by the indirect way of water molecules radiolysis. These primary effects result in a cascade of biochemical and biological consequences that may finally influence the general functions of the organism. In the last five decades the research activity in this field was focused on the detailed description of the effects on DNA molecules and their biochemical and biological consequences. The reason for this is the importance of the integrity of DNA for the cell life evolution, especially for the cell recovery processes or for the programmed cell death after irradiation. These aspects have main applications in very important fields as radioprotection and radiotherapy. In the present paper the mechanisms of ionizing radiation action at the molecular level will be reviewed, with focus on the protein level effects. Although comparatively a lower number of results was reported concerning the effects of ionizing radiation on the proteins, during the last years this field was reconsidered in the context of a new research trend in the field of genomics and proteomics. The structural changes which occur most often in the proteins are the breaks of chemical links, the chemical moieties ionization (for instance, the oxidation of the proteins) and the inter - protein new links (cross-linking). These changes result in a gradual loss of protein functionality, influencing particularly the ionic transport, the signal transduction across the membrane or intermolecular recognition processes of antibody-antigen type. Some studies on the ion artificial channels (as gramicidin and amphotericin) incorporated in model membranes (BLM-s or liposomes) describe structural and functional changes of the peptides after the exposure to

  14. Radiation biology: a century of hopes and disappointments

    In the history of science, radiation biology will rank perhaps as the most popular subject to have attracted researchers from many disciplines of basic as well as applied sciences. Apart from the excitement arising in clinics relating to radiation treatment of cancers the tragedies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought numerous scientists together to investigate the harmful biological effects of ionizing radiation. It is then radiation biology picked up a great momentum. It started developing in two different directions what may be called basic radiation biology and radiation biology applied to radiotherapy of cancer. While great strides were being made in basic radiation biology trying to understand the biological effects of radiation and mechanisms thereof, clinical aspect remained confined mainly to the medical fraternity where empiricalism became the rule

  15. Biological research for the radiation protection

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H2O2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H2O2)- induced apoptosis, we utilized α-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H2O2, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H2O2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H2O2(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  16. Biological effect of low dose radiation

    This document describes the recent findings in studies of low dose radiation effect with those by authors' group. The low dose radiation must be considered in assessment of radiation effects because it induces the biological influence unexpected hitherto; i.e., the bystander effect and genetic instability. The former is a non-targeted effect that non-irradiated cells undergo the influence of directly irradiated cells nearby, which involves cell death, chromosome aberration, micronucleus formation, mutation and carcinogenesis through cellular gap junction and/or by signal factors released. Authors' group has found the radical(s) possessing as long life time as >20 hr released from the targeted cells, a possible mediator of the effect; the generation of aneuploid cells as an early carcinogenetic change; and at dose level <10 Gy, activation of MAPK signal pathway leading to relaxation of chromatin structure. The genetic instability means the loss of stability where replication and conservation of genome are normally maintained, and is also a cause of the late radiation effect. The group has revealed that active oxygen molecules can affect the late effect like delayed cell death, giant cell formation and chromosome aberration, all of which lead to the instability, and is investigating the hypothesis that the telomere instability resulted from the abnormal post-exposure interaction with its nuclear membrane or between chromatin and nuclear matrix, is enhanced by structural distortion of nuclear genes. As well, shown is the possible suppression of carcinogenesis by p53. The group, to elucidate the mechanism underlying the low dose radiation effect, is conducting their studies in consideration of the sequential bases of physical, chemical and biological processes. (R.T.)

  17. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  18. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Full text: In the year 2000 we completed our study of the genotoxic influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on human cells, and their susceptibility to radiation in particular. Examining blood samples from four countries: Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain we found that exposure to pesticides usually resulted in an increased susceptibility to the UV-C radiation, although statistical significance could only be concluded for inhabitants of Poland. In Spain, exposure to pesticides was proved to impair the lymphocyte DNA repair capability, while for the Polish group this repair capability appeared enhanced in people exposed to pesticides (see the research reports below). The possible influence of lifestyle or particular diet on the observed national differences would probably be worth analyzing. We also investigate the biological effectiveness of therapeutic beams (neutrons and X-rays). Experimental part of such study, concerning neutrons of different mean energies, is over and the results are now being processed. Our work covers hot issues of environmental and radiation biology making us research partners to many domestic and foreign scientific institutions. Our proficiency in the field is also reflected by membership in various expert boards (e.g. evaluating research applications for the Fifth EU Framework Programme for RTD and Demonstration Activities in the field 'Environment and Health', lecturing in the 2000 NATO IOS Life Science Books). We have entered the 5th EU Programme Scheme within the EXPAH project starting January 1, 2001. (author)

  19. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  20. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  1. Biological aspects of radiation in nuclear medicine

    Radiotherapy with unsealed radionuclides differs from external radiotherapy with regard to the radiation quality and energy range, the regional dose uniformity and the time course of irradiation regimen. External radiotherapy is planned precisely and can be applied to a target volume independently from blood flow during a course of irradiation fractions. In contrary, administered radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to their pharmacokinetic properties and generate a continuous irradiation corresponding to the effective halflife. The resulting dose rates are approximately 1 Gy/min and 1 Gy/h, respectively. The bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals involves cellular accumulation and retention with highly variable affinity to specific organs that can be modulated as well. A remarkable dose gradient is found at the edge of volumes with enhanced uptake. The biological effect of an irradiation with decreasing intensity can be compared with the radiation effect caused by conventional fractionation with 2 Gy a day in external beam therapy by means of the linear-quadratic model. However, the experimental validation of this translation is still under investigation. Radionuclide therapy is usually performed in several cycles some month apart. This procedure fails to meet external radiotherapy. The vision of a combined external-internal radiotherapy requires efforts for a common dosimetry approach both in vitro and in vivo with a physical and biological verification of the results. (orig.)

  2. Decontamination of biological ferment by gamma radiation

    Biological ferment is a product obtained from pure yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture by a suitable technological process and employed to increase the size and porosity of the baker's products. Foods containing high microorganisms count indicate that Good Manufacturing Practices were not applied. The aim of this study was to observe the viability of Dry Biological Ferment after the radiation process using different doses of 60Co gamma rays and different storage times. Dry baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae samples were purchased from a local supermarket in Sao Paulo (Brazil) and irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell source at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy doses (dose-rate of 3.51 kGy/h) at room temperature (25 deg C). The fluorescent method was performed to observe the viability of yeast cells. The viability decrease with the increase of the radiation dose, as shown: the amount of the viable cell found in the non-irradiated samples (control) at 0 day was 87.2%; 30 days 67.7%; 60 days 77.4% and 90 days 60.1%. With 1.0 kGy at 0 day was 61.4%; 30 days 22.7%; 60 days 56.9% and 90 days 24.2%. With 3.0 kGy at 0 day was 57.00%; at the next periods the most of the cells become not viable. (author)

  3. Decontamination of biological ferment by gamma radiation

    Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Salum, Debora C.; Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Duarte, Renato; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Biological ferment is a product obtained from pure yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture by a suitable technological process and employed to increase the size and porosity of the baker's products. Foods containing high microorganisms count indicate that Good Manufacturing Practices were not applied. The aim of this study was to observe the viability of Dry Biological Ferment after the radiation process using different doses of {sup 60}Co gamma rays and different storage times. Dry baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae samples were purchased from a local supermarket in Sao Paulo (Brazil) and irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell source at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy doses (dose-rate of 3.51 kGy/h) at room temperature (25 deg C). The fluorescent method was performed to observe the viability of yeast cells. The viability decrease with the increase of the radiation dose, as shown: the amount of the viable cell found in the non-irradiated samples (control) at 0 day was 87.2%; 30 days 67.7%; 60 days 77.4% and 90 days 60.1%. With 1.0 kGy at 0 day was 61.4%; 30 days 22.7%; 60 days 56.9% and 90 days 24.2%. With 3.0 kGy at 0 day was 57.00%; at the next periods the most of the cells become not viable. (author)

  4. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Full text: The principal objective of the symposium was to review the current status of understanding of the late biological effects of ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. A second objective was to critically evaluate information obtained from epidemiological studies of human population groups as well as from animal experimentation in order to provide a solid scientific basis upon which problems of current concern, such as radiation protection standards and risk-benefit analysis, could be deliberated. Eighty-one papers were presented in 10 sessions which covered epidemiological studies of late effects in human populations exposed to internal and/or external ionizing radiation; quantitative and qualitative data from animal experimentation of late effects; methodological problems and modern approaches; factors influencing susceptibility or expression of late radiation injury; comparative evaluation of late effects induced by radiation and other environmental pollutants, and problems of risk assessment. In addition, there were two evening sessions for free discussion of problems of interpreting animal data, and of the epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations. Reports on atomic bomb survivors showed that these epidemiological studies are providing dependable data, such as dose-related excess infant mortality. The reports also revealed the need for consensus in the method employed in the interpretation of data. That was also the case with studies on occupationally exposed populations at Hanford plant, where disparate results were presented on radiation-induced neoplasia among radiation workers. These data are, however, considered not so significant in relative terms when compared to risks involved in other industries. It was recommended that national registry systems for the dosimetry and medical records of radiation workers be established and co-ordinated internationally in order to facilitate reliable epidemiological

  5. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Full text:The year 1999 we devoted mainly to the activities concerning our basic research, and requirements and expectations of three research projects. The environmental project from the European Community was supporting our research in the issues of human monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides. The two other radiobiology projects from the State Committee of Research were supporting our search on the biological efficiency and its enhancement of radio-therapeutic sources of various LET radiation. We succeeded fruitful co-operation with colleagues from Academy of Mining and Metallurgy that let us go faster with modernization of our laboratory by automation of our methods for screening cytogenetic damages. A lot of efforts were paid to modify our work by automatic reports of the coordinates of aberrant metaphases, and to make a smooth work of our new and own metaphase finder. We are sure that our new and unique research tool will not only enhance the accuracy and speed of measurements, but will also be useful for the purpose of the retrospective biological dosimetry of absorbed doses. We have applied fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic studies of biological effects induced by neutrons. Now, we are looking forward to apply this technique in a combination with the DNA damage measures done by SCGE assay, to our research on mechanisms of the induction and repair, or interaction of the lesions induced by genotoxic agents. Understanding of the regulation of these processes could be a good goal for the new century to come. (author)

  6. Microwave radiation: biological effects and exposure standards

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal effects of microwave radiation are well recognized and are discussed with particular reference to cataractogenesis; the possibility of an association cannot be questioned. Postulated nonthermal effects comprise an asthenic syndrome, and for the most part the disturbances lie within clinical norms and tolerances, and are reversible. World opinion on safe exposure levels for microwave radiation is varied, and this had led to national standards disparate by three to four orders of magnitude. The US and UK exposure standard of 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ was determined over two decades ago; the possibility of a change to a more restrictive level, in line with other countries, in the near future is examined. It is concluded that such a change, without scientific rationale, is not justified. Some biological implications of the microwave radiation from the solar power satellite are considered in terms of precautions to be taken by personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, effects on cardiac pacemakers, and any potential effects on birds. 14 references.

  7. On the Social Background for the Rise of the Novel in the 18th Century Britain

    剡科斗

    2013-01-01

    England experienced a period of transition from the 16th century to the 18th century. After a series of furious social and economic reformation and revolution, England went into a time of relative stable development. New businesses sprung up and thrived in England, literary genres found their suitable fertile soil to develop. English people had a prosperous economy and tolerat⁃ed multiculturalism. Just in this kind of environment, a new literary genre, novel suddenly emerged and became the most dazzling and noticeable treasure in the 18th century.

  8. 2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the comtents:

  9. Proceedings of the 18th Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science

    Delany, Sarah Jane; Madden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers that were accepted for publication at AICS-2007, the 18th Annual Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, which was held in the Dublin Institute of Technology; Dublin, Ireland; on the 29th to the 31st August 2007. AICS is the annual conference of the Artificial Intelligence Association of Ireland (AIAI).

  10. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  11. A Note on the 18th Party Congress of the CCP

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    The 18th Party Congress was more dramatic than anticipated due to the completely non-transparent process of selecting new leaders as well as a number of scandals involving leaders competing for the top posts. This contrasts with 2002 when Hu Jintao became secretary general in a comprehensive change...

  12. Flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries

    Babkova Nadiya Vyacheslavivna

    2015-01-01

    The present article is devoted to creation and development of flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries. Several preserved documentations show the key motives of the Cossack flags. In the process of analyzing the Cossack flags we can highlight both autochthonous and borrowed heraldic elements.

  13. Level of income and income distribution in mid-18th century France, according to Francois Quesnay

    Milanovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The paper uses the data from Francois Quesnay's writings to derive a social table for pre-revolutionary France, estimate country's mean income and income distribution. These Quesnay-based estimates are compared with more recent estimates of 18th century French incomes and inequality.

  14. 18th National Economics Symposium: Savings, Sustainable Growth and Technological Development

    DEMİREL, Selim Koray

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the evaluation of the 18th National Economics Symposium: Savings, Sustainable Growth and Technological Development held in Konya will be mentioned.Keywords. Sustainable growth, Technological development, Economic confidence, National Economics Symposium, Konya.JEL. E21, O30, O40.

  15. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  16. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  17. European Society for Radiation Biology 21. annual meeting

    The volume contains about 100 abstracts of lectures presented to the conference covering a large variety of topics like: Radiobiology as a base for radiotherapy, radiation carcinogenesis and cellular effects, late and secondary effects of radiotherapy, radioprotection and radiosensitization, heavy ions in radiobiology and space research, microdosimetry and biological dosimetry, radiation effects on the mature and the developing central nervous system, DNA damage and repair and cellular mutations, the imact of radiation on the environment, free radicals in radiation biology

  18. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG)

  19. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  20. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  1. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  2. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products. (S.K.K.)

  3. Lending to Lemons: Landschafts-Credit in 18th Century Prussia

    Kirsten Wandschneider

    2013-01-01

    The following paper describes the emergence of cooperative mortgage credit associations, called "Landschaften" in 18th century Prussia, and thereby tells the history of mortgage-covered bonds. Landschaften facilitated the refinancing of loans for Prussian estates by issuing covered bonds (Pfandbriefe) that were jointly backed by their members. They relied on dual recourse, cooperative structure, joint liability, and local administration to overcome asymmetric information problems related to l...

  4. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Full text: The year 2001 started for us with new demanding tasks connected with participation in a new research project performed in collaboration with a excellent teams from six countries under the 5th EU the Quality of Life Programme. The aim of the project EXPAH is to propose methods of molecular epidemiology for the risk assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the air. The exploration of cause-effect relationships for carcinogenic agents will be based on the study of exogenous and endogenous influence on DNA damage in exposed population, and will determine the relationship between biomarkers of exposure, effects and susceptibility in the exposed populations. Analysis of this damage is carried out using highly specialising multidisciplinary techniques brought together by seven laboratories specialised in chemical, biochemical and biological techniques for analysing DNA damage and repair, together with access to populations exposed to environmental pollution and experience in collecting samples. In the year 2001 all the members of the department put much effort in co-organizing 12. Meeting of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. The Meeting was held in the September in Cracow and rewarded hard work of everybody with many applauding comments for the high scientific and organization level. Our parallel activities were concentrated on arrangement and preparation of the forthcoming Course on Human Monitoring for Genetic Effects proposed to us by the Alexander Hollaender Committee of the International Environmental Mutagenesis Society. The Alexander Hollaender ''HUMOGEF'' Course will concentrate on the commonly measured biomarkers (chromosome aberrations; micronuclei; DNA damage), but others (p53 protein levels; metabolic genotypes) will also be addressed. Scientists of international standing from the fields of toxicology, molecular biology, cytogenetics, mutation, and epidemiology, will present and discuss the state

  5. A Paradigm Shift in Low Dose Radiation Biology

    Z. Alatas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When ionizing radiation traverses biological material, some energy depositions occur and ionize directly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA molecules, the critical target. A classical paradigm in radiobiology is that the deposition of energy in the cell nucleus and the resulting damage to DNA are responsible for the detrimental biological effects of radiation. It is presumed that no radiation effect would be expected in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure through nucleus. The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation. However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose radiation than they do to high dose radiation. Moreover, recent experimental evidences from many laboratories reveal the fact that radiation effects also occur in cells that were not exposed to radiation and in the progeny of irradiated cells at delayed times after radiation exposure where cells do not encounter direct DNA damage. Recently, the classical paradigm in radiobiology has been shifted from the nucleus, specifically the DNA, as the principal target for the biological effects of radiation to cells. The universality of target theory has been challenged by phenomena of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response. The new radiation biology paradigm would cover both targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms underlying these responses involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. These results brought in understanding that the biological response to low dose radiation at tissue or organism level is a complex process of integrated response of cellular targets as well as extra-cellular factors. Biological understanding of

  6. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics

  7. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  8. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  9. Human · mouse genome analysis and radiation biology. Proceedings

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 25th NIRS symposium on Human, Mouse Genome Analysis and Radiation Biology. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  11. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  12. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade Oracle HR application won't be available from Wednesday 16th May evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ...and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  13. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    AIS Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade the Oracle HR application will not be available from Wednesday 16th May in the evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users' Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ... and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  14. Zach, Gotha and the Venus transits of the 18th and 19th centuries

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Zach was a child and a secondary school boy when the Venus transits of the 18th century occurred, and we try to elucidate the somewhat garbled note given in Lalande' Bibliographie (1803). Zach - like many others - was interested in seeing a definitive result emerge from the observations. Encke, one of the first serious analysts of the observations, was supplied with information by Zach. We will briefly describe the attempts of Euler, du Séjour, Encke, Powalky and Newcomb to determine a reliable value of the solar parallax (the last one being finished only after the next pair of Venus transits had occurred!), and outline Zach's role in this field.

  15. 18th-century Al Zubarah and the genesis of the modern Gulf region

    Walmsley, Alan; Al Na'imi, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    significant than the foundation and development of the modern emirate states along the south coast. The yoke of imperial control – real or threatened – was cast off and replaced with an indigenous political, cultural and economic independence; a transforming achievement, attained through astute leadership by......, archaeology is now making a significant contribution to documenting and explaining the principle social, political and economic factors that came to shape that period of fundamental change. Of the many social transformations that occurred between the later 18th and mid-20th centuries, none was more...

  16. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-01-01

    During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany). More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from...

  17. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  18. Biological effect of radiation on human

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved

  19. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  20. Radiation, chemical and biological protection. Mass destruction weapons

    In this text-book mass destruction weapons and radiation, chemical and biological protection are reviewed. The text-book contains the following chapter: (1) Mass destruction weapons; (2) Matter and material; (3) Radioactive materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Biological resources; (6) Nuclear energetic equipment; Appendices; References.

  1. Biological effects of high energy radiations

    The author present the first results obtained by the determination of the survival of germ cells of mice exposed to X- and γ-radiation, to 400-600 MeV neutron beams, and irradiation by negative pions. (HSI)

  2. Biophysical interpretation on the biological actions of radiations

    It is known that nuclear radiations such as alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays and neutron, proton and other heavy ion beams have many different actions on living cells; as killing, delaying growth, abnormal cell divisions and various genetical mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This document describes the mechanisms and kinetics of biological effects of ionizing radiation

  3. Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, T. P.; Turco, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to estimate the changes in biologically effective radiation (UV-BE) at the earth's surface produced by the El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991) eruptions. It is found that in both cases surface intensity can increase because the effect of ozone depletion outweighs the increased scattering.

  4. Early mechanisms in radiation-induced biological damage

    An introduction to the mechanisms of radiation action in biological systems is presented. Several questions about the nature of the radiation damage process are discussed, including recognition of the oxygen effects, dose-response relationships, and the importance of the hydroxyl radical

  5. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    Horneck, G. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  6. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 106 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10-6 PYR-1 WLM-1). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  7. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the γ irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain

  8. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    Hill, D.J. T.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the {gamma} irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain.

  9. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  10. CUSTOMS BOOKS AS INFORMATION SOURCES ON THE ORGANISATION OF CUSTOMS SERVICE IN THE 17TH 18TH CENTURIES

    Balkovaya, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the information potential of customs books, which are accounting documents of the Russian customs houses of the 17th 18th centuries, for studying the Russian customs history of the period.

  11. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    Few weeks ago, when the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) submitted to the U.N. General Assembly the UNSCEAR 1994 report, the international community had at its disposal a broad view of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. The 1994 report (272 pages) specifically addressed the epidemiological studies of radiation carcinogenesis and the adaptive responses to radiation in cells and organisms. The report was aimed to supplement the UNSCEAR 1993 report to the U.N. General Assembly- an extensive document of 928 pages-which addressed the global levels of radiation exposing the world population, as well as some issues on the effects of ionizing radiation, including: mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis due to radiation exposure, influence of the level of dose and dose rate on stochastic effects of radiation, hereditary effects of radiation effects on the developing human brain, and the late deterministic effects in children. Those two UNSCEAR reports taken together provide an impressive overview of current knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the essential issues of both reports, although it cannot cover all available information. (Author)

  12. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders." PMID:19892112

  13. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany. More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from exotic places, new geographical areas, whether eastwards or westwards.The general aim of this survey is to investigate the representation of the botanical science in 18th-century universal and specialized encyclopaedias, starting from prefaces and going on with the micro-texts of the single entries s.v. Botany. The starting point is thus theoretical botany. A further point in the analysis focuses on applied botany and discusses those plants such as Camellia Sinensis, Coffea Arabica, Theobroma Cacao, Saccharum Officinarum and Cinchona Officinalis which were mostly exploited for commercial and/or medical reasons.The individual entries include the most tiny details on the single headwords-topics and also display an acceptable plurality of beliefs, viewpoints and perspectives, focussing on botanical descriptions, historical information, socio-cultural issues, legal, political and commercial considerations.

  14. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  15. New archaeomagnetic measurements and the geomagnetic field strength during the 18TH century

    Complete text of publication follows. The strength of the geomagnetic field is a subject of both scientific and public interest, with the decay over the past 160 years leading to speculation as to whether we are entering a geomagnetic reversal. Prior to 1840, there was no capability for direct measurements of geomagnetic field strength; to investigate the field strength at this time, palaeomagnetic and archaeomagnetic determinations must be made. Some 200 archaeointensities are available globally for the 150 year period prior to Gauss' invention of the magnetometer but they show no overall consistency. Here we consider archaeointensities derived from 18th Century British artefacts including ceramics, brick and burnt sandstone and compare them with other available data. It is shown that a hiatus in the present decline of the geomagnetic field appears to have occurred during the 18th Century but important caveats are attached: the later part of the period sees the development of iron kiln furniture and the issue of 'refraction', the distortion of the magnetic field within kiln floors, is still unresolved.

  16. Occupational medicine in the Idria mercury mine in the 18th century.

    Slavec, Z Z

    1998-12-01

    Of all medical sciences in Slovenia, occupational medicine has the longest tradition. It is not a mere coincidence that it had developed already at the beginning of 18th century in Idria. The Mercury mine in Idria, is the second largest European mine of its kind, next to the Spanish Almaden, and has been owned by the Habsburg dynasty for four centuries. To attain higher production, the miners in Idria received medical and social care much earlier than anywhere else; chronic intoxication caused by mercury fumes greatly hindered their working ability. The first and, at the same time, one of the most prominent doctors in Idria, J.A. Scopoli (1723-1788) perfectly described the symptoms of chronic intoxication with mercury in his work De Hydrargyro Idriensi Tentamina Physico-Chymico-Medica (Venice, 1761) and thus ranked himself among the early medical writers of occupational medicine, medical hygiene and toxicology. His predecessors were Ellenbog, Paracelsus, Mattioli and some others. The article describes the situation in the mine of Idria in the 17th and 18th century and focusses on Scopoli's mineralogical and medical discussion on mercury miners and mercurialism. PMID:11623564

  17. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [NYU School of Medicine

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.

  18. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on response of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs

  19. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described.

  20. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described

  1. Decorative 18th Century Blue-and-White Portuguese Tile Panels: A Type-Case of Environmental Degradation

    Teresa P. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decorated glazed ceramic tiles are used as an ornamental art, constituting an important cultural heritage whose preservation is mandatory. Environmental conditions are responsible for the degradation of exposed ancient tile panels originating various pathologies, related to the development of microorganisms. This is the case of a valuable 18th century blue-and-white Portuguese tile panel called “Cura do Cego,” belonging to the collection of the National Tile Museum (MNAz, where green stains are nowadays observable in the glaze. A prospective diagnosis of this green tarnishing was the aim of the present work. Small tile fragments were directly irradiated using nondestructive techniques: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a wavelength-dispersive system (WDXRF for chemical characterization of the tile glaze and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD to assess the phase constitution of both the glaze and the ceramic body. A destructive technique (scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive system (SEM/EDS was applied to tentatively infer the chemical changes induced in the glaze by the green staining and also to characterize the morphology of the microorganisms associated to this staining. The obtained results are reported and discussed, as a preliminary step for testing an innovative nondestructive decontamination technique applying gamma radiation, particularly suitable for overcoming such tile pathologies.

  2. The biological bases of radiation protection

    Radiation protection is based on a large number of human data collected during the past 80 years. For dose levels of a few hundred rads, risks can be evaluated very accurately. Yet it is difficult to derive from them the risks due to low doses because of the uncertainty on the dose-effect relationship. In the practice, pessimistic assumptions are used, which involves an over-estimation of risks. However, even in these unfavorable conditions, risks associated to occupational activities implying radiation exposure seem to be less important than in most industries. Radiation protection has played a historical and essential part in the quantitative assessment of risks and opened a new era of occupational medicine and environmental health investigations. Many substances, such as radiations, are mutagenic and/or carcinogenic at very low doses, and in many cases human exposure cannot be avoided. Therefore, a policy advocating refusal of any risk whatsoever and absolute safety will lure with unattainable and misleading prospects. The only method is to assess the quantitative importance of the various risks in order to decide how far a damage may be tolerable in the various cases when exposure cannot be avoided

  3. Radiation biology: Major advances and perspectives for radiotherapy

    At the beginning of the 21. century, radiation biology is at a major turning point in its history. It must meet the expectations of the radiation oncologists, radiologists and the general public, but its purpose remains the same: to understand the molecular, cellular and tissue levels of lethal and carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in order to better protect healthy tissues and to develop treatments more effective against tumours. Four major aspects of radiobiology that marked this decade will be discussed: technological developments, the importance of signalling and repair of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, the impact of individual factor in the response to radiation and the contribution of radiobiology to better choose innovative therapies such as proton-therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A translational radiobiology should emerge with the help of radiotherapists and radiation physicists and by facilitating access to the new radio and/or chemotherapy modalities. (authors)

  4. Radiation biology of human tumour xenografts

    The radiation response of human tumour xenografts can be measured with sufficient accuracy using cell survival in vitro and tumour growth delay in vivo as endpoints. There is evidence that radiation response of xenografts mirrors clinical radioresponsiveness of corresponding tumours in patients. Thus xenografts may have a significant potential in experimental radiotherapeutic research, e.g. in development of in vitro and in vivo predictive assays of clinical radioresponsiveness. There are at least three main disadvantages with xenografts as models for human cancer. Firstly, volume doubling time is usually shorter for xenografts than for tumours in patients. Secondly, the haematological system and vascular network of xenografts originate from the host. Thirdly, host defence mechanisms may be active against xenografts. These disadvantages may limit the usefulness of xenografts as models for human cancer in some types of radiobiological studies. (author)

  5. Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    André P. Schuch; Teiti Yagura; Kazuo Makita; Hiromasa Yamamoto; Carlos F.M. Menck

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage...

  6. Radiation carcinogenesis: Epidemiology and biological significance

    Epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to radiation have led to the identification of a preventable cause of cancer, but in the long run perhaps the most important contribution of radiation studies will be to provide insights into the basic processes of human carcinogenesis. In this volume, key investigators of major epidemiologic projects summarize their observations to date, including information to help assess the effects of low-level exposures. Experimentalists and theorists emphasize the relevance of laboratory and epidemiologic data in elucidating carcinogenic risks and mechanisms in man. This volume was prepared with several objectives in mind: (a) organize and synthesize knowledge on radiation carcinogenesis through epidemiologic and experimental approaches; (b) illustrate and explore ways of utilizing this information to gain insights into the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development; (c) stimulate the formation of hypotheses suited to experimental or epidemiologic testing, theoretical modeling, and multidisciplinary approaches; and (d) identify recent advances that clarify dose-response relationships and the influence of low-dose exposures, provide leads to carcinogenic mechanisms and host-environmental interactions, and suggest strategies for future research and preventive action

  7. The 18-th century glassware from Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses. Physico-chemical studies

    The purpose of this work was to characterize some of the 18-th century glassware comming from the Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses, basing on their chemical composition and selected physico-chemical properties. It was tried to find whether there exists a specific, characteristic for a given glasshouse, chemical composition and whether it is possible, basing on this composition, to identify the glass objects coming from particular, central European, 18-th century glasshouses. The studies were carried out at the National Museum Warsaw. Non-destructive procedures, i.e., without sample withdrawing and not affecting the glass surface procedures were used. Radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence, a ultraviolet excited optical fluorescence examination and visual examination were employed. For evaluation of the measurement data a multivariate analysis was used. More than 200 colourless glass tableware items, mostly engraved, manufactured in the above mentioned glassworks and a much smaller number of objects originating from other 18-th century glasshouses of central Europe were examined. Two groups of glassware, with respect to the composition, have been distinguished. One of them is characterized by an increased content of lead. However, the lead content is not a sufficient property for the differentiation. Other elements play also an important role. This composition was identified in part of the items from the glasshouses of Naliboki, Dresden and Potsdam/Zechlin where the glasses from different glasshouses are distinguishable. The PbO content in some glasses from Saxony (SPb) can be as high as 9% (by weight). Among the glasswere items belonging to the second composition group, probably not-containing an intentional addition of lead, the glassware group from Lubaczow was identified. The results of the ultraviolet fluorescence examination enabled to differentiate 2 groups of glasswares; those showing a blue fluorescence and those not-showing (mostly a green fluorescence

  8. Systems biology perspectives on the carcinogenic potential of radiation

    This review focuses on recent experimental and modeling studies that attempt to define the physiological context in which high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation increases epithelial cancer risk and the efficiency with which it does so. Radiation carcinogenesis is a two-compartment problem: ionizing radiation can alter genomic sequence as a result of damage due to targeted effects (TE) from the interaction of energy and DNA; it can also alter phenotype and multicellular interactions that contribute to cancer by poorly understood non-targeted effects (NTE). Rather than being secondary to DNA damage and mutations that can initiate cancer, radiation NTE create the critical context in which to promote cancer. Systems biology modeling using comprehensive experimental data that integrates different levels of biological organization and time-scales is a means of identifying the key processes underlying the carcinogenic potential of high-LET radiation. We hypothesize that inflammation is a key process, and thus cancer susceptibility will depend on specific genetic predisposition to the type and duration of this response. Systems genetics using novel mouse models can be used to identify such determinants of susceptibility to cancer in radiation sensitive tissues following high-LET radiation. Improved understanding of radiation carcinogenesis achieved by defining the relative contribution of NTE carcinogenic effects and identifying the genetic determinants of the high-LET cancer susceptibility will help reduce uncertainties in radiation risk assessment

  9. Prototype Biology-Based Radiation Risk Module Project

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Patel, Zarana; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of space radiation and risk mitigation are strategic knowledge gaps for the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The current epidemiology-based NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model contains large uncertainties (HAT #6.5a) due to lack of information on the radiobiology of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and lack of human data. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. Our proposed study will compare DNA damage, histological, and cell kinetic parameters after irradiation in normal 2D human cells versus 3D tissue models, and it will use a multi-scale computational model (CHASTE) to investigate various biological processes that may contribute to carcinogenesis, including radiation-induced cellular signaling pathways. This cross-disciplinary work, with biological validation of an evolvable mathematical computational model, will help reduce uncertainties within NSCR and aid risk mitigation for radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  10. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  11. A GIS Approach to Urban History: Rome in the 18th Century

    Keti Lelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the integration of GIS technology with urban historical studies, focusing on one case study from the 18th century, the project Historical atlas of the modern Rome. The methodology employed in this project allows for effectiveness and accuracy in historical data acquisition and integration, which enables refined analyses of socioeconomic and environmental phenomena. The approach outlined in this article allowed researchers from different disciplines—city historians, archaeologists, demographists, economists, and so on—to interpret urban phenomenologies according to different thematic keys. These interpretations were derived from archival sources that complement each other and offer diversified insights into the urban context. The techniques described in the article are based on methods of data acquisition and spatial analysis developed in a GIS environment by exploiting the effectiveness of this technology in the quantitative treatment of cartographic and documentary sources.

  12. The results of investigation in connection with the 18th Chinese nuclear test

    Concerning the 18th nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China, the results of measurements of radioactivity, etc. in Japan are presented. (1) As for gross beta-radioactivity in upper air, the same level as normal was measured in middle and northern Japan. (2) At monitoring posts, the same level as normal was measured across the country. (3) As for gross beta-radioactivity in rain and dry fallout, 56 pCi/ml was detected in Hachijo Island. (4) As for gross beta-radioactivity in airborne dust, 6.0 pCi/m3 was detected in Fukuoka. (5) As for gross beta-radioactivity in dry fallout the same level as normal was measured. (6) As for the Iodine-131 concentration in fresh milk, 113 pCi/l was detected in Ishikawa Prefecture. (7) Analysis of radionuclides. (8) Data concerning the radioactivity surveillance. (J.P.N.)

  13. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  14. The 18th Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine.

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nichols, Steven C

    2011-09-01

    The 18th biennial Congress of ISAM was held for 4 days at the De Doelen Congress Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands, at which approximately 350 delegates, including 60 session chairs and speakers, attended. The abstracts of the 49 podium talks and the 126 posters that were presented have been published in the society's technical journal (journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Delivery), and the detailed program can be found on the ISAM website (www.isam.org). Postgraduate courses on the topics: 'Inhalation Therapy at the Intensive Care Unit'; 'Walking the Standards Maze: Standards for Device Development, Device Performance and Regulatory Approval'; and 'Nuts and Bolts of Aerosol Delivery: Theory, Guidelines and Practice', were offered to participants prior to the Congress itself. PMID:22833908

  15. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  16. Gilding Techniques in Religious Art Between East and West, 14th -18th Centuries

    I.C.A. Sandu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short review on gilding techniques and materials from artifacts of religious heritage between 14th and 18th centuries, mainly gilt wood and gilded panel paintings. The study underlines the main aspects related to the use of certain materials and application techniques in different countries and époques, between Eastern and Western Europe, exemplifying with case studies of real gilded objects from Romanian, Greek, Russian and Portuguese ecclesiastic heritage. The contribution of some analytical techniques, such as optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies (OM, SEM, AFM, XRF and EDX spectroscopic analysis to the study of these objects is emphasized as well as the peculiarities of the obtained information.

  17. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  18. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Orton, C [Wayne State University, Grosse Pointe, MI (United States); Borras, C [Radiological Physics and Health Services, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  19. The participation of the Spanish soldiers in the 18th century press

    Manuel-Reyes GARCÍA HURTADO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Spanish soldiers intervene in the 18th century, fundamentally in the second half, in a way determined in the Republic of Letters. With this study we attempt to suggest that authors from the army and the navy collaborated with 18th century publications in an assiduous or sporadic way, in particular since the last third of the century as well as to carry out an analysis of the themes that worried them and on which they wrote articles. We will obtain thus data about a direct intervention channel of the militia in a society that nothing has to do with the military phenomenon.

  20. BGRT: Biologically guided radiation therapy - The future is fast approaching!

    Rapid advances in functional and biological imaging, predictive assays, and our understanding of the molecular and cellular responses underpinning treatment outcomes herald the coming of the long-sought goal of implementing patient-specific biologically guided radiation therapy (BGRT) in the clinic. Biological imaging and predictive assays have the potential to provide patient-specific, three-dimensional information to characterize the radiation response characteristics of tumor and normal structures. Within the next decade, it will be possible to combine such information with advanced delivery technologies to design and deliver biologically conformed, individualized therapies in the clinic. The full implementation of BGRT in the clinic will require new technologies and additional research. However, even the partial implementation of BGRT treatment planning may have the potential to substantially impact clinical outcomes

  1. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed. PMID:25722878

  2. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation

    Li Zhao; Yan-Hui Hao; Rui-Yun Peng

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  3. Oxygen effect in radiation biology: caffeine and serendipity

    The 'hit theory' developed in 1920s to explain the actions of ionizing radiation on cells and organisms was purely physical, and its limitation was its inadequacy to address the contemporary findings such as the oxygen enhancement of radiobiological damage, and the increased radio- sensitivity of dividing compared to non-dividing cells. The textbooks written prior to 1970s did not either refer at all to oxygen as a radiosensitizer, or had mentioned it only in a passing manner; yet 'oxygen effect' was emerging as the central dogma in radiation biology. The oxygen effect in radiation biology is highly interdisciplinary encompassing atomic physics (i.e. interaction of photon with matter), radiation chemistry (formation of reactive oxygen species), molecular signalling, gene expression and genetic alterations in cells (mutation, cancer) or the cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic catastrophe, etc.). Cell death in higher organisms is now recognized as the precursor of possible error-free cell replacement repair. (author)

  4. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers in this progress report which deal with radiobiological physics, the biological effects of ionizing radiations, and the modification of these effects by chemical and pharmacological agents

  5. Biological radiation effects of Radon in Drosophila

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the effects of radon and its decay products, the aim of this investigation is to study the biological effects of radon using Drosophila melanogaster throught the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the analysis of some adaptative factors exposing larvaes to controlled radon atmosphers, considering that this insect could be used as biological monitor. Using the somatic mutation test a mutagenic effect was observed proportional to radon concentration, into an interval of 1 ± 0.3 to 111 ± 7.4 KBq/m3 equivalent to doses under 0.0106 Gy. The correlation analysis gives a linear (r=0.80) relationship with a positive slope of 0.2217. The same happens when gamma rays are used in the interval of 1 to 20 Gy, given a linear dose-dependent effect (r=0.878) is obtained; nevetheless the slop is smaller (m=0.003) than for radon. Analysing the results of adaptative factors of the nine exposed generations, it was found that probably radon exposition induced dominant lethals during gametogenesis or/and a selection of the more component gamets of the treated individuals in larval state. It was reflected in the significant decrease on fecundity of the generation exposed. Nevertheless the laying eggs had an increase in egg-to-adult viability and the develop velocity was higher than in control for 3 KBq/m3, this suggest that radon concentrations used were able to induce repair mechanisms. These data agree with the Hormesis hypothesis that says: low doses have positive effects on health. It was not possible to obtain a dose-effect relationship except with the develop velocity where it was found a dose-effect inverse proportion. In conclusion, Drosophila melanogaster could be a good system to obtain in vivo damaged induction concentration dependent of radon and its decay products, as well as to study the effects in an exposed population by the analysis of adaptative factors. (Author)

  6. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  7. Biological indicators for radiation absorbed dose: a review

    Biological dosimetry has an important role to play in assessing the cumulative radiation exposure of persons working with radiation and also in estimating the true dose received during accidents involving external and internal exposure. Various biodosimetric methods have been tried to estimate radiation dose for the above purposes. Biodosimetric methods include cytogenetic, immunological and mutational assays. Each technique has certain advantages and disadvantages. We present here a review of each technique, the actual method used for detection of dose, the sensitivity of detection and its use in long term studies. (author)

  8. Flow-cytometry techniques in radiation biology

    McCarthy, K.F.; Hale, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence exists that all blood cells are derived from HSC. These cells are of interest to radiobiologists because they are highly sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are present in the marrow at a concentration of approximately 2-3 HSC per 1000 nucleated marrow cells. In the past, only clonogenic assays requiring 8-13 days and ten irradiated recipient rodents were available for assaying HSC. Because of the importance of HSC in the post-irradiation syndrome, the authors developed a new rapid method based on flow cytometry not only to assay but also to purify and characterize HSC. This new method makes extensive use of non-clonal antibodies conjugated to fluorescent phycobiliproteins through the sulfhydryls of the hinge region of the IgG molecule. An optical bench arrangement with a dye laser and an argon laser was used for dual excitation of the phycobiliprotein-monoclonal antibody conjugates and various cellular and DNA probes. Using 4', 6-diamidino 2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAP) exclusion to identify viable cells, it was possible to follow regeneration of post-irradiated rat marrow HSC.

  9. Spatial interpolation of biologically effective UV radiation over Poland

    Walawender, J.; Ustrnul, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The ultraviolet(UV) radiation plays an important role in the Earth-Atmosphere System. It has a positive influence on both human health and natural environment but it may also be very harmful if UV exposure exceeds "safe" limits. For that reason knowledge about spatial distribution of biologically effective UV doses seems to be crucial in minimization or complete elimination of the negative UV effects. The main purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate interpolation method in order to create reliable maps of the biologically effective UV radiation over Poland. As the broadband UV measurement network in Poland is very sparse, erythemaly weighted UV radiation data reconstructed from homogeneous global solar radiation records were used. UV reconstruction model was developed in Centre of Aerology (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management) within COST Action 726 - ‘Long term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe'. The model made it possible to reconstruct daily erythemal UV doses for 21 solar radiation measurement stations in the period 1985 - 2008. Mapping methodology included the following processing steps: exploratory spatial data analysis, verification of additional variables, selection and parameterization of interpolation model, accuracy assessment and cartographic visualization. Several different stochastic and deterministic interpolation methods along with various empirical semivariogram models were tested. Multiple regression analysis was performed in order to examine statistical relationship between UV radiation and additional environmental variables such as: elevation, latitude, stratospheric ozone content and cloud cover. The data were integrated, processed and visualized within GIS environment.

  10. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Full text: The year 1998 might again be called as the ''Comet Year''. The rain of bolides expected in the sky resembles pictures of DNA damages in shapes, numbers, mysterious processes and sometimes challenges to detect them. It was in this year that we detected, in a fluorescent light under the microscope, another ''shinning star'' a long time expected translocation induced by neutrons and then transferred to its glitter through fluorescence in situ hybridization technic. The year was filled in with measurements and brought plenty of scientific events that are partly reflected in the following pages; strong will and hard work to maintain research standards equal to technologically advanced partners in Europe and in other parts of the World; the USA, Sth Korea. We mainly devoted the year 1998 to the activities concerning our basic research, and requirements and expectations of various Committees in the issues of three research projects. We gather results on genotoxicity of pesticides, occupational exposures, and also the importance of life styles as factors affecting the levels of damage induced in human cells. We have also succeeded to go faster with modernization of our methodology by transferring the single cell ''Comet Assay'' to the routine work for the analysis of DNA damage induced by UV and X-rays radiation and for the studies on individual variability in the damage repair capacity. On January 13th we installed a new powerful RTG machine. Polish Atomic Energy supported this investment. And this was really the meaningful celebration of 100 anniversary of the discovery of POLONIUM and RADIUM. So, now, before a new therapeutic tool will be used in routine applications for radiotherapy, we with our new beautiful and powerful roentgen machine are deeply involved in the exploration of the strength of radiotherapeutic efficiency of sources and schedules. With the use of gene mutations in TSH-assay, we have finally established good dose response curves for

  11. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  12. Further approaches to biological indicators of radiation injury

    Despite of the decades-long investigations, the search for proper biological indicator of radiation injuries did not result in techniques fulfilling all the requirements. So far, the most reliable assay is the dicentric chromosome aberration analysis. New developments have been made recently on a cytogenetic technique, the micronucleus assay, and for local injuries on the application of thermography

  13. Thermal effects of laser radiation in biological tissue.

    Cummins, L; Nauenberg, M.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented that simulates the thermal effects of laser radiation incident on biological tissue. The multiple scattering and absorption of the laser beam and the thermal diffusion process in the tissue are evaluated by a numerical technique that is well suited for microcomputers. Results are compared with recent empirical observations.

  14. The interaction between Terahertz radiation and biological tissue

    Terahertz (THz) radiation occupies that region of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum between approximately 0.3 and 20 THz. Recent advances in methods of producing THz radiation have stimulated interest in studying the interaction between radiation and biological molecules and tissue. Given that the photon energies associated with this region of the spectrum are 2.0x10-22 to 1.3x10-20 J, an analysis of the interactions requires an understanding of the permittivity and conductivity of the medium (which describe the bulk motions of the molecules) and the possible transitions between the molecular energy levels. This paper reviews current understanding of the interactions between THz radiation and biological molecules, cells and tissues. At frequencies below approximately 6 THz, the interaction may be understood as a classical EM wave interaction (using the parameters of permittivity and conductivity), whereas at higher frequencies, transitions between different molecular vibrational and rotational energy levels become increasingly important and are more readily understood using a quantum-mechanical framework. The latter is of particular interest in using THz to probe transitions between different vibrational modes of deoxyribonucleic acid. Much additional experimental work is required in order to fully understand the interactions between THz radiation and biological molecules and tissue. (author)

  15. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1984-November 30, 1985

    This is the annual progress report for the Radiological Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Columbia University. The report consists of 17 individual reports plus an overall summary. Reports survey research results in neutron dosimetry, microdosimetry of electron beams and x-radiation, development of theoretical models for biological radiation effects and induction of oncogenic transformations. Individual abstracts were also prepared for each paper

  16. Biological dosimetry in case of combined radiation injuries

    The state of biological dosimetry methods and prospects for their development are considered. Attention is paid to biological indicators of radiation injuries caused by nuclear weapons. It is noted, that determination of the number of lymphocytes in the blood in case of combined radiation injuries should be concerned with great care and in each case the analysis results should reffered to critically and supported by the data from other investigations. Promissing are the methods related to dermination of reticulocyte number in the peripheral blood within the irradiation dose range, causing bone marrow form of radiation syndrome, method of leukocyte adhesion and some other methods based on the change of biophysical caracteristics of cell membranes. To increase the information efficiency it is necessary to combine these methods with the methods, based on genetic change registration, and to develop a combined method

  17. Countermeasures for space radiation induced adverse biologic effects

    Kennedy, A. R.; Wan, X. S.

    2011-11-01

    Radiation exposure in space is expected to increase the risk of cancer and other adverse biological effects in astronauts. The types of space radiation of particular concern for astronaut health are protons and heavy ions known as high atomic number and high energy (HZE) particles. Recent studies have indicated that carcinogenesis induced by protons and HZE particles may be modifiable. We have been evaluating the effects of proton and HZE particle radiation in cultured human cells and animals for nearly a decade. Our results indicate that exposure to proton and HZE particle radiation increases oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, cataract development and malignant transformation in in vivo and/or in vitro experimental systems. We have also shown that these adverse biological effects can be prevented, at least partially, by treatment with antioxidants and some dietary supplements that are readily available and have favorable safety profiles. Some of the antioxidants and dietary supplements are effective in preventing radiation induced malignant transformation in vitro even when applied several days after the radiation exposure. Our recent progress is reviewed and discussed in the context of the relevant literature.

  18. Ultrashort relativistic electron bunches and spatio-temporal radiation biology

    Gauduel, Y. A.; Faure, J.; Malka, V.

    2008-08-01

    The intensive developments of terawatt Ti:Sa lasers permit to extend laser-plasma interactions into the relativistic regime, providing very-short electron or proton bunches. Experimental researches developed at the interface of laser physics and radiation biology, using the combination of sub-picosecond electron beams in the energy range 2-15 MeV with femtosecond near-IR optical pulses might conjecture the real-time investigation of penetrating radiation effects. A perfect synchronization between the particle beam (pump) and optical beam at 820 nm (probe) allows subpicosecond time resolution. This emerging domain involves high-energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF) for which the early spatial energy deposition is decisive for the prediction of cellular and tissular radiation damages. With vacuum-focused intensities of 2.7 x 1019 W cm-2 and a high energy electron total charge of 2.5 nC, radiation events have been investigated in the temporal range 10-13 - 10-10s. The early radiation effects of secondary electron on biomolecular sensors may be investigated inside sub-micrometric ionisation, considering the radial direction of Gaussian electron bunches. It is shown that short range electron-biosensor interactions lower than 10 A take place in nascent track structures triggered by penetrating radiation bunches. The very high dose delivery 1013 Gy s-1 performed with laser plasma accelerator may challenge our understanding of nanodosimetry on the time scale of molecular target motions. High-quality ultrashort penetrating radiation beams open promising opportunities for the development of spatio-temporal radiation biology, a crucial domain of cancer therapy, and would favor novating applications in nanomedicine such as highly-selective shortrange pro-drug activation.

  19. 5. Conference cycle. The radiations and the Biological Sciences

    Nuclear technologies and their development have influenced many aspects of modern life. Besides used for electricity production nuclear technologies are applied in many other fields, especially in biological sciences. In genetics and molecular biology they enable research resulting in increased food production and better food preservation. Usage in material sciences lead to new varieties of plastics or improved characteristics. Nuclear applications are used in pe troleum industries and in forecasting geothermic power. Radiobiology and radiotherapy enable diagnosis and therapy of several diseases, e.g. cancer. Nuclear technologies also contribute to preserve the environment. They offer methods to analyse as well as decrease the environmental impacts. The 5. conference cyle entitled 'The Radiations and the Biological Sciences' aims to inform students of biological sciences about new nuclear technologies applied in their field of interest

  20. Training links and transmission of knowledge in 18th Century botany: a social network analysis

    René Sigrist

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution develops a social network approach to the training of European botanists in the 18th century. In a period when the study of plants increasingly became an autonomous field of research, the practice of botany and related sciences mobilized a very diverse group of actors. For many of them, initiation to the science of plants was part of their medical studies. Others were trained as collaborators with an outstanding scholar in the context of a royal garden or elsewhere, sometimes also in philosophy colleges or faculties. Still others were self-taught. To the extent that biographical data were available, we made a systematic census of the masters and disciples of a set of 928 Western botanists active between 1700 and 1830. Three subsets were thus identified, each of them showing distinct characteristics and developmental patterns. The specific features of these subsets are discussed in a historical perspective, with a particular attention to the various institutional contexts which produced them. The data analysis basically shows the growing autonomy of botany with regard to medical training, as well as the increasingly national character of the dominant schools, at least in France.

  1. Establishment of an absolute chronology for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty

    The establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt is an ambition which has concentrated efforts of many scholars since the beginning of Egyptology. Thanks to historical and archaeological documents, a relative chronology of the kings has been built. Only some astrophysical points and synchronisms listed in texts (Greek and Egyptian sources) have given some ankle points which have led to some propositions of absolute chronology. At first, we will see how we can re-calculate some ankle points by using Sothic dating and modelling lunar dates with a Bayesian approach. Then, radiocarbon measurements have been done at Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (CEA Saclay) on Egyptian short life materials like plants or twigs. These objects come from the Louvre Museum and are attributed to a particular reign and a precise period. With a Bayesian approach, these analyses have been combined with the known succession and length of the reign. Besides, Sothic and lunar dates have been incorporated as a prior in the model. It has led to propose an absolute chronology for the 18th dynasty. Finally, we will discuss the agreement between our results and archaeological evidence and will see if this chronology can highlight points where Egyptologists disagree. (author)

  2. The impact of pietism and Frederic the Great on German 18th century enlightenment

    Molnar Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author is dealing with two issues he perceives as main specific features of the German 18th century Enlightenment: the impact of pietism and the role of Prussian king Frederic the Great. On the one hand, as a very influential intellectual power in Germany, especially in Prussia, pietism was reluctant to let freedom of consciousness go too far. Instead, it tried to come to terms with the Enlightenment movement and save what was believed to be the original “core” of Christianity. On the other hand, Frederic played a crucial role in the development of German Enlightenment as a free-thinker, as well as an enlightened despot, who encouraged his subjects to think freely in religious matters, but never contemplated the possibility to help them overcome their political immaturity. Instead, he preferred order and discipline in persuading his “people” to accept state machinery which should be served quietly and obediently. The long-term consequences of such development were the rise of nationalism and the theory of the reason of state.

  3. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    J. Rabiega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  4. Ion beam characterisation of paint layers made according to late 18th century techniques

    External beam particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and PIGE were applied in a study of layered paint structures. A series of layered paint samples were prepared according to known late 18th century techniques. Special attention was paid to two-layer systems with lead white paint as the top layer. The effects of the opaque layer of lead white on the PIXE results were studied and a method for calculating the thickness of the lead white layer is suggested. The interpretation of PIXE results from two-layer systems is discussed in terms of detection limits. Using a 3 MeV proton beam, elements lighter than iron cannot be detected beneath an opaque layer of flake white paint. In the case of calcium the nuclear reaction 48Ca(p,nγ)48Sc can be used as an indicator for a chalk ground beneath the lead white paint. However, a higher proton energy (4.2 MeV) is needed in this case

  5. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting.

    Koch-Dandolo, Corinna L; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori; Skou-Hansen, Jacob; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-06-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurface composition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18C Danish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time, a real hidden portrait on an easel painting has been imaged by THz-TDI, with an unexpected richness of detail. THz C- and B-scans have been compared with images obtained by x-ray radiography and invasive cross-sectional imaging, leading to a deeper understanding of the strengths and limitations of this technique for art diagnostic purposes and defining its role among complementary tools for the investigation of art objects. We present a fast and effective method to separate single THz pulse reflections of interest from the entire signal across the image, adapted for uneven surfaces typically encountered in practical applications of the technique. Interfaces between layers of the painting have been successfully imaged, contributing substantially to the understanding of the structure of the painting. PMID:26192674

  6. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  7. Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American Spanish.

  8. METHODS USED FOR MUDARRIS APPOINTMENT IN THE 18th CENTURY OTTOMAN MADRASAHS

    Ülkü YANCI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methods used in the appointment of mudarris, who make up the backbone of the madrasah system in the Ottoman Empire, have been examined. For historical scope of the study, the 18th century when the Ottoman State started to westernize, was chosen. In this century, the system is different in some aspects compared to the system in the foundation and rise periods. In this study, these differences are mentioned, and determinations made with regard to appointment methods are presented. In this context, changes in the inauguration and promotion of mudarrises are discussed. When the documents in this period are examined, it is seen that with regard to the appointment of the mudarrises, the expressions of “tevcih”, or “tevcih buyuruldu” were used to mean appointed. Mudarris appointments can be classified as appointments made with offers, appointment with the recommendations of Shaykh al-Islam, appointments with kadi’asker’s decree and the Sultan’s edicts. Mudarris appointments were made with such reasons as legitimacy, escheated, novation, eternalization and grace.

  9. Advances in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors. Proceedings of a Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors

    Radiation dosimetry is a fundamental part of all radiation protection work. The measurements are made with a variety of instruments, and health physicists, after professional interpretation of the data, can assess the levels of exposure which might be encountered in a given area or the individual doses received by workers, visitors and others at places where the possibility of radiation exposure exists. The types of radiation concerned here are photon radiations, ranging from soft X-rays to gamma rays, and particulate radiations such as β-rays, α-particles, protons, neutrons and fission fragments. The type of technique used depends not only on the type of radiation but also on such factors as whether the radiation is from a source internal or external to the body. Radiation dosimetry is not only used at nuclear facilities; it has diverse applications, for example in determining doses when radiation sources are employed for medical diagnostics and therapy, in safeguarding workers in any industry where isotopes are used, and in assessing the effect of both naturally occurring and man-made radiations on the general public and the environment. The advances of modern technology have increased the variety of sources; an example can be given from colour television, where the high potential necessary in certain colour cathode-ray tubes generates a non-negligible amount of X-rays. The Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors was one of a continuing series of meetings in which the International Atomic Energy Agency furthers the exchange of information on all aspects of personnel and area dosimetry. The Symposium was devoted in particular to a study of the dose meters themselves - their radiation-sensitive elements (both physical and biological),their instrumentation, and calibration and standardization. Several speakers suggested that the situation in the standardization and calibration of measuring equipment and sources was

  10. Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required. (topical review)

  11. DEGRO 2009. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts; DEGRO 2009. Radioonkologie - Medizinische Physik - Strahlenbiologie. Abstracts

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The special volume of the journal covers the abstracts of the DEGRO 2009 meeting on radiation oncology, medical physics, and radiation biology, covering the following topics: seldom diseases, gastrointestinal tumors, radiation reactions and radiation protection, medical care and science, central nervous system, medical physics, the non-parvicellular lung carcinomas, ear-nose-and throat, target-oriented radiotherapy plus ''X'', radio-oncology - young academics, lymphomas, mammary glands, modern radiotherapy, life quality and palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of the prostate carcinoma, imaging for planning and therapy, the digital documentation in clinics and practical experiences, NMR imaging and tomography, hadrons - actual status in Germany, urinal tract oncology, radiotoxicity.

  12. Effects of UV and microwave radiation on biological material

    For the present study, ten publications on the effect of UV radiation were analyzed. In vitro tests were carried out with one biological substance and seven different human or animal organs and biocytocultures. In vivo, three bacterial strains were irradiated and four irradiation experiments were carried out on mice. As to the effect of microwave radiation, eleven publications were analyzed. In vitro tests were carried out with one biological substance and three animal organs. In vivo, one bacterial strain was irradiated and eight irradiation experiments were carried out on different types of animals. The study's aim was to obtain a survey on biochemical changes of the organisms. Phenomenological changes were given only when the corresponding articles contained further investigation results. Behavioral changes were not taken into account. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary. All relevant data are listed in a defined order. (orig.)

  13. Biological effects of low-intensity millimetric radiation

    Betskiy, O.V.; Putvinskiy, A.V.

    1986-10-01

    The authors discuss a possible role of strong absorption of millimetric (MM) waves by water molecules in the primary mechanism of the reaction of biological systems to MM irradiation. Data are given on the interaction of MM radiation with simple aqueous systems. Primary attention is given to the phenomenon of convective mixing of aqueous solutions under the effect of low-intensity MM waves (1 ... 10 mW/cm/sup 2/). 12 references, 6 figures.

  14. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

  15. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  16. Advances in radiation biology: Radiosensitization in DNA and living cells

    Lacombe, S.; Sech, C. Le

    2009-06-01

    One fundamental goal of radiation biology is the evolution of concepts and methods for the elaboration of new approaches and protocols for the treatment of cancers. In this context, the use of fast ions as ionizing particles offers the advantage of optimizing cell killing inside the tumor whilst preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. One extremely promising strategy investigated recently is the addition of radiosensitizers in the targeted tissue. The optimization of radiotherapy with fast ions implies a multidisciplinary approach to ionizing radiation effects on complex living systems, ranging from studies on single molecules to investigations of entire organisms. In this article we review recent studies on ion induced damages in simple and complex biological systems, from DNA to living cells. The specific aspect of radiosensitization induced by metallic atoms is described. As a fundamental result, the addition of sensitizing compounds with ion irradiation may improve therapeutic index in cancer therapy. In conclusion, new perspectives are proposed based on the experience and contribution of different communities including Surface Sciences, to improve the development of radiation biology.

  17. Radiation Biology: A Handbook for Teachers and Students

    Knowledge of the radiobiology of normal tissues and tumours is a core prerequisite for the practice of radiation oncology. As such the study of radiobiology is mandatory for gaining qualification as a radiation oncologist in most countries. Teaching is done partly by qualified radiobiologists in some countries, and this is supplemented by teaching from knowledgeable radiation oncologists. In low and middle income (LMI) countries the teachers are often radiation oncologists and/or medical physicists. In Europe, a master's course on radiobiology is taught jointly by a consortium of five European Universities. This is aimed at young scientists from both Western and Eastern Europe, training in this discipline. Recently the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) initiated the launch of a radiobiology teaching course outside Europe (Beijing, 2007; Shanghai, 2009). Radiation protection activities are governed by many regulations and recommendations. These are based on knowledge gained from epidemiological studies of health effects from low as well as from high dose radiation exposures. Organizations like the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have put a lot of effort into reviewing and evaluating the biological basis to radiological protection practices. Personnel being trained as future radiation protection personnel should have a basic understanding of the biological and clinical basis to the exposure limitations that they are subject to and that they implement for industrial workers and the public at large. It is for these reasons that aspects of Radiobiology related to protection issues are included in this teaching syllabus. In LMI countries, many more teachers are needed in radiobiology, and the establishment of regional training centres or special regional training courses in radiobiology, are really the only options to solve the obvious deficit in knowledge of radiobiology in such countries. Radiobiology teaching

  18. New Scientific Pearl about Biologic Effect of Ionizing Radiation

    S. A. Alamdaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen in 1895, it became evident that radiation can cause some somatic damage to tissues. The hazards of X-ray exposure were clearly known when many large hospitals had radiology departments. The greatest increased in knowledge about X-ray risks had accrued from the dropping of the two atomic bombs in Japan in 1945 and some other atomic accident. For example, among the Japanese bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there have been about 400 extra cancer deaths. These were the origin of radiology personnel and people fear from radiation exposure and resistant in against simple X-ray exam (radiophobia. However, new scientific data on the effects radiation on survivors, especially about biologic effect of ionizing rays, background radiation exposure, amount of endogenous radiation, hormosis phenomenon and comparison radiation risk with other risk over lifetime are still being continuously revised and risk estimates updated. Fundamentally, this risk is much"nlower than whatever already estimated and it is insignificant in diagnostic domain. Better perception of physician from these instances help to prevent of false radiophobia and to make proper use of diagnostic and therapeutic advantages of ionizing beam.

  19. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  20. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  1. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states. (note)

  2. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  3. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author)

  4. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  5. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders

  6. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on 'Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as 'Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies

  7. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  8. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation in the high dose range

    The report reviews briefly methods of dose evaluation after exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Validation of two methods also is described: micronucleus (Mn) frequency estimation according Muller and Rode and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) combined with painting of 3 pairs of chromosomes in human lymphocytes. According to Muller and Rode, micronucleus frequency per binucleated cells with at least one Mn linearly increases with dose up to 15 Gy and is suitable end-point for biological dosimetry. These authors, however, examined cells from only one donor. The data reported below were obtained for 5 donors; they point to a considerable individual variation of thus measured response to irradiation. Due to the high degree of inter-donor variability, there is no possibility to apply this approach in biological dosimetry in the dose range 5 - 20 Gy gamma 60Co radiation. A linear response up to 10 Gy was observed only in the case of certain donors. In contrast, determination of the dose-effect relationship with the PCC method gave good results (small inter-individual variation, no plateau effect up to dose 10 Gy), so that with a calibration curve it could be used for dose estimation after exposure to doses up to 10 Gy of X or gamma 60Co radiation. (author)

  9. Advances in microbeam technologies and applications to radiation biology.

    Barberet, P; Seznec, H

    2015-09-01

    Charged-particle microbeams (CPMs) allow the targeting of sub-cellular compartments with a counted number of energetic ions. While initially developed in the late 1990s to overcome the statistical fluctuation on the number of traversals per cell inevitably associated with broad beam irradiations, CPMs have generated a growing interest and are now used in a wide range of radiation biology studies. Besides the study of the low-dose cellular response that has prevailed in the applications of these facilities for many years, several new topics have appeared recently. By combining their ability to generate highly clustered damages in a micrometric volume with immunostaining or live-cell GFP labelling, a huge potential for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage and repair has been introduced. This type of studies has pushed end-stations towards advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, and several microbeam lines are currently equipped with the state-of-the-art time-lapse fluorescence imaging microscopes. In addition, CPMs are nowadays also used to irradiate multicellular models in a highly controlled way. This review presents the latest developments and applications of charged-particle microbeams to radiation biology. PMID:25911406

  10. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology: Progress report, December 1, 1987-November 30, 1988

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiation therapy. At the current level of funding, approximately one quarter of the research of the Laboratory could be regarded as in support of radiotherapy, with the remainder addressing more basic issues. The new initiatives have been in two directions. First, there has been an increased emphasis on research in radiation chemistry, inasmuch as this subject which involves the study of free radicals and fast radiation chemistry processes starts to bridge the gap between physics and biology, between the initial deposition of radiant energy and its final expression in terms of biological consequences. Second, the emphasis in the biological research has moved towards studies at the molecular level, with the appointment of new members of staff with expertise in this area. Individual chapters were processed separately for the data base