WorldWideScience

Sample records for 18th century

  1. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  2. The academician astronomers travelling in the 18th century.

    Dumont, S.; Débarbat, S.

    1999-04-01

    In the 18th century, astronomers of the Académie des sciences of Paris made various contributions to the improvement of navigation: terrestrial determinations of longitude which improved charts for navigators, testing of marine clocks for longitude determinations at sea. In order to resolve the Cassini-Newton controversy regarding the shape of the Earth, the Académie proposed in 1735, that two expeditions should be made with a view to measuring a meridian arc. The results concluded that the Earth was flat on the sides of the poles, as predicted by Newton. By the mid-18th century, the first purely astronomical expedition (La Caille, Cap of Good Hope) led to the creation of an austral celestial map and new parallaxes. Later, Chappe d'Auteroche, Le Gentil and Pingré travelled to observe two transits of Venus over the Sun (1761, 1769) for the improvement of the solar parallax.

  3. Roads and cities of $18^{th}$ century France

    Perret, Julien; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the $18^{th}$ century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science.

  4. Droughts in the Czech Lands during 18th century

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, O.; Valášek, H.; Dobrovolný, Petr

    Brno : Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban, O.; Trnka, M.), s. 110-114 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience . Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : droughts in the Czech lands * 18th century Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  5. [The interpretation of pulmonary tuberculosis in the 18th century].

    Bernier, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis took on alarming proportions in the 18th-century Europe. This study examines the ways learned medical practitioners presented the causes of the malady in Great Britain and France, by analyzing 12 medical treatises. Four etiological models appears to have dominated medical thinking in this context: theories that emphasize contagion; those which attribute the cause to physiological disorders; those which find the origin in hereditary predispositions; and those theories which observe a link with behaviour and lifestyles. The study also shows how one of these theories - the hereditary theory - eventually triumphed over the others and became the dominant for the better part of the 19th century, and will be examined within the context of the growth of liberal and individualist ideology. PMID:15977379

  6. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. PMID:27217252

  7. 18th-Century Blues: Assembling the Melancholy Mind

    Ingram, Allan; Wetherall Dickson, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    'Before Depression' is a three-year research project by the English departments of the Universities of Northumbria and Sunderland and funded by the Leverhulme Trust. 'Before Depression' is an interdisciplinary project designed to address the question: 'what was depression like before it was depression?' It is exploring its development and persistence within British culture of the long eighteenth century. The Enlightenment period saw influential and lasting reorientations in literary, scientif...

  8. On the Social Background for the Rise of the Novel in the 18th Century Britain

    剡科斗

    2013-01-01

    England experienced a period of transition from the 16th century to the 18th century. After a series of furious social and economic reformation and revolution, England went into a time of relative stable development. New businesses sprung up and thrived in England, literary genres found their suitable fertile soil to develop. English people had a prosperous economy and tolerat⁃ed multiculturalism. Just in this kind of environment, a new literary genre, novel suddenly emerged and became the most dazzling and noticeable treasure in the 18th century.

  9. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  10. Flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries

    Babkova Nadiya Vyacheslavivna

    2015-01-01

    The present article is devoted to creation and development of flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries. Several preserved documentations show the key motives of the Cossack flags. In the process of analyzing the Cossack flags we can highlight both autochthonous and borrowed heraldic elements.

  11. Level of income and income distribution in mid-18th century France, according to Francois Quesnay

    Milanovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The paper uses the data from Francois Quesnay's writings to derive a social table for pre-revolutionary France, estimate country's mean income and income distribution. These Quesnay-based estimates are compared with more recent estimates of 18th century French incomes and inequality.

  12. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  13. Lending to Lemons: Landschafts-Credit in 18th Century Prussia

    Kirsten Wandschneider

    2013-01-01

    The following paper describes the emergence of cooperative mortgage credit associations, called "Landschaften" in 18th century Prussia, and thereby tells the history of mortgage-covered bonds. Landschaften facilitated the refinancing of loans for Prussian estates by issuing covered bonds (Pfandbriefe) that were jointly backed by their members. They relied on dual recourse, cooperative structure, joint liability, and local administration to overcome asymmetric information problems related to l...

  14. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders." PMID:19892112

  15. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  16. Zach, Gotha and the Venus transits of the 18th and 19th centuries

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Zach was a child and a secondary school boy when the Venus transits of the 18th century occurred, and we try to elucidate the somewhat garbled note given in Lalande' Bibliographie (1803). Zach - like many others - was interested in seeing a definitive result emerge from the observations. Encke, one of the first serious analysts of the observations, was supplied with information by Zach. We will briefly describe the attempts of Euler, du Séjour, Encke, Powalky and Newcomb to determine a reliable value of the solar parallax (the last one being finished only after the next pair of Venus transits had occurred!), and outline Zach's role in this field.

  17. 18th-century Al Zubarah and the genesis of the modern Gulf region

    Walmsley, Alan; Al Na'imi, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    significant than the foundation and development of the modern emirate states along the south coast. The yoke of imperial control – real or threatened – was cast off and replaced with an indigenous political, cultural and economic independence; a transforming achievement, attained through astute leadership by......, archaeology is now making a significant contribution to documenting and explaining the principle social, political and economic factors that came to shape that period of fundamental change. Of the many social transformations that occurred between the later 18th and mid-20th centuries, none was more...

  18. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-01-01

    During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany). More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from...

  19. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  20. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  1. Occupational medicine in the Idria mercury mine in the 18th century.

    Slavec, Z Z

    1998-12-01

    Of all medical sciences in Slovenia, occupational medicine has the longest tradition. It is not a mere coincidence that it had developed already at the beginning of 18th century in Idria. The Mercury mine in Idria, is the second largest European mine of its kind, next to the Spanish Almaden, and has been owned by the Habsburg dynasty for four centuries. To attain higher production, the miners in Idria received medical and social care much earlier than anywhere else; chronic intoxication caused by mercury fumes greatly hindered their working ability. The first and, at the same time, one of the most prominent doctors in Idria, J.A. Scopoli (1723-1788) perfectly described the symptoms of chronic intoxication with mercury in his work De Hydrargyro Idriensi Tentamina Physico-Chymico-Medica (Venice, 1761) and thus ranked himself among the early medical writers of occupational medicine, medical hygiene and toxicology. His predecessors were Ellenbog, Paracelsus, Mattioli and some others. The article describes the situation in the mine of Idria in the 17th and 18th century and focusses on Scopoli's mineralogical and medical discussion on mercury miners and mercurialism. PMID:11623564

  2. CUSTOMS BOOKS AS INFORMATION SOURCES ON THE ORGANISATION OF CUSTOMS SERVICE IN THE 17TH 18TH CENTURIES

    Balkovaya, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the information potential of customs books, which are accounting documents of the Russian customs houses of the 17th 18th centuries, for studying the Russian customs history of the period.

  3. Plants from Abroad: Botanical Terminology in 18th-century British Encyclopaedias

    Elisabetta Lonati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century British encyclopaedias included in their lemmata an increasing number of botanical lexis, that is the terminology pertaining to “that branch of natural history which treats of the uses, characters, classes, orders, genera, and species of plants. […] and what useful and ornamental purposes may be expected from the cultivation of it [i.e. botany]” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1768-1771, s.v. Botany. More often than not, these terms represented migrating plants coming from exotic places, new geographical areas, whether eastwards or westwards.The general aim of this survey is to investigate the representation of the botanical science in 18th-century universal and specialized encyclopaedias, starting from prefaces and going on with the micro-texts of the single entries s.v. Botany. The starting point is thus theoretical botany. A further point in the analysis focuses on applied botany and discusses those plants such as Camellia Sinensis, Coffea Arabica, Theobroma Cacao, Saccharum Officinarum and Cinchona Officinalis which were mostly exploited for commercial and/or medical reasons.The individual entries include the most tiny details on the single headwords-topics and also display an acceptable plurality of beliefs, viewpoints and perspectives, focussing on botanical descriptions, historical information, socio-cultural issues, legal, political and commercial considerations.

  4. New archaeomagnetic measurements and the geomagnetic field strength during the 18TH century

    Complete text of publication follows. The strength of the geomagnetic field is a subject of both scientific and public interest, with the decay over the past 160 years leading to speculation as to whether we are entering a geomagnetic reversal. Prior to 1840, there was no capability for direct measurements of geomagnetic field strength; to investigate the field strength at this time, palaeomagnetic and archaeomagnetic determinations must be made. Some 200 archaeointensities are available globally for the 150 year period prior to Gauss' invention of the magnetometer but they show no overall consistency. Here we consider archaeointensities derived from 18th Century British artefacts including ceramics, brick and burnt sandstone and compare them with other available data. It is shown that a hiatus in the present decline of the geomagnetic field appears to have occurred during the 18th Century but important caveats are attached: the later part of the period sees the development of iron kiln furniture and the issue of 'refraction', the distortion of the magnetic field within kiln floors, is still unresolved.

  5. The participation of the Spanish soldiers in the 18th century press

    Manuel-Reyes GARCÍA HURTADO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Spanish soldiers intervene in the 18th century, fundamentally in the second half, in a way determined in the Republic of Letters. With this study we attempt to suggest that authors from the army and the navy collaborated with 18th century publications in an assiduous or sporadic way, in particular since the last third of the century as well as to carry out an analysis of the themes that worried them and on which they wrote articles. We will obtain thus data about a direct intervention channel of the militia in a society that nothing has to do with the military phenomenon.

  6. The 18-th century glassware from Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses. Physico-chemical studies

    The purpose of this work was to characterize some of the 18-th century glassware comming from the Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses, basing on their chemical composition and selected physico-chemical properties. It was tried to find whether there exists a specific, characteristic for a given glasshouse, chemical composition and whether it is possible, basing on this composition, to identify the glass objects coming from particular, central European, 18-th century glasshouses. The studies were carried out at the National Museum Warsaw. Non-destructive procedures, i.e., without sample withdrawing and not affecting the glass surface procedures were used. Radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence, a ultraviolet excited optical fluorescence examination and visual examination were employed. For evaluation of the measurement data a multivariate analysis was used. More than 200 colourless glass tableware items, mostly engraved, manufactured in the above mentioned glassworks and a much smaller number of objects originating from other 18-th century glasshouses of central Europe were examined. Two groups of glassware, with respect to the composition, have been distinguished. One of them is characterized by an increased content of lead. However, the lead content is not a sufficient property for the differentiation. Other elements play also an important role. This composition was identified in part of the items from the glasshouses of Naliboki, Dresden and Potsdam/Zechlin where the glasses from different glasshouses are distinguishable. The PbO content in some glasses from Saxony (SPb) can be as high as 9% (by weight). Among the glasswere items belonging to the second composition group, probably not-containing an intentional addition of lead, the glassware group from Lubaczow was identified. The results of the ultraviolet fluorescence examination enabled to differentiate 2 groups of glasswares; those showing a blue fluorescence and those not-showing (mostly a green fluorescence

  7. A GIS Approach to Urban History: Rome in the 18th Century

    Keti Lelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the integration of GIS technology with urban historical studies, focusing on one case study from the 18th century, the project Historical atlas of the modern Rome. The methodology employed in this project allows for effectiveness and accuracy in historical data acquisition and integration, which enables refined analyses of socioeconomic and environmental phenomena. The approach outlined in this article allowed researchers from different disciplines—city historians, archaeologists, demographists, economists, and so on—to interpret urban phenomenologies according to different thematic keys. These interpretations were derived from archival sources that complement each other and offer diversified insights into the urban context. The techniques described in the article are based on methods of data acquisition and spatial analysis developed in a GIS environment by exploiting the effectiveness of this technology in the quantitative treatment of cartographic and documentary sources.

  8. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  9. Gilding Techniques in Religious Art Between East and West, 14th -18th Centuries

    I.C.A. Sandu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short review on gilding techniques and materials from artifacts of religious heritage between 14th and 18th centuries, mainly gilt wood and gilded panel paintings. The study underlines the main aspects related to the use of certain materials and application techniques in different countries and époques, between Eastern and Western Europe, exemplifying with case studies of real gilded objects from Romanian, Greek, Russian and Portuguese ecclesiastic heritage. The contribution of some analytical techniques, such as optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies (OM, SEM, AFM, XRF and EDX spectroscopic analysis to the study of these objects is emphasized as well as the peculiarities of the obtained information.

  10. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  11. METHODS USED FOR MUDARRIS APPOINTMENT IN THE 18th CENTURY OTTOMAN MADRASAHS

    Ülkü YANCI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methods used in the appointment of mudarris, who make up the backbone of the madrasah system in the Ottoman Empire, have been examined. For historical scope of the study, the 18th century when the Ottoman State started to westernize, was chosen. In this century, the system is different in some aspects compared to the system in the foundation and rise periods. In this study, these differences are mentioned, and determinations made with regard to appointment methods are presented. In this context, changes in the inauguration and promotion of mudarrises are discussed. When the documents in this period are examined, it is seen that with regard to the appointment of the mudarrises, the expressions of “tevcih”, or “tevcih buyuruldu” were used to mean appointed. Mudarris appointments can be classified as appointments made with offers, appointment with the recommendations of Shaykh al-Islam, appointments with kadi’asker’s decree and the Sultan’s edicts. Mudarris appointments were made with such reasons as legitimacy, escheated, novation, eternalization and grace.

  12. Training links and transmission of knowledge in 18th Century botany: a social network analysis

    René Sigrist

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution develops a social network approach to the training of European botanists in the 18th century. In a period when the study of plants increasingly became an autonomous field of research, the practice of botany and related sciences mobilized a very diverse group of actors. For many of them, initiation to the science of plants was part of their medical studies. Others were trained as collaborators with an outstanding scholar in the context of a royal garden or elsewhere, sometimes also in philosophy colleges or faculties. Still others were self-taught. To the extent that biographical data were available, we made a systematic census of the masters and disciples of a set of 928 Western botanists active between 1700 and 1830. Three subsets were thus identified, each of them showing distinct characteristics and developmental patterns. The specific features of these subsets are discussed in a historical perspective, with a particular attention to the various institutional contexts which produced them. The data analysis basically shows the growing autonomy of botany with regard to medical training, as well as the increasingly national character of the dominant schools, at least in France.

  13. The impact of pietism and Frederic the Great on German 18th century enlightenment

    Molnar Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author is dealing with two issues he perceives as main specific features of the German 18th century Enlightenment: the impact of pietism and the role of Prussian king Frederic the Great. On the one hand, as a very influential intellectual power in Germany, especially in Prussia, pietism was reluctant to let freedom of consciousness go too far. Instead, it tried to come to terms with the Enlightenment movement and save what was believed to be the original “core” of Christianity. On the other hand, Frederic played a crucial role in the development of German Enlightenment as a free-thinker, as well as an enlightened despot, who encouraged his subjects to think freely in religious matters, but never contemplated the possibility to help them overcome their political immaturity. Instead, he preferred order and discipline in persuading his “people” to accept state machinery which should be served quietly and obediently. The long-term consequences of such development were the rise of nationalism and the theory of the reason of state.

  14. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    J. Rabiega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  15. Ion beam characterisation of paint layers made according to late 18th century techniques

    External beam particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and PIGE were applied in a study of layered paint structures. A series of layered paint samples were prepared according to known late 18th century techniques. Special attention was paid to two-layer systems with lead white paint as the top layer. The effects of the opaque layer of lead white on the PIXE results were studied and a method for calculating the thickness of the lead white layer is suggested. The interpretation of PIXE results from two-layer systems is discussed in terms of detection limits. Using a 3 MeV proton beam, elements lighter than iron cannot be detected beneath an opaque layer of flake white paint. In the case of calcium the nuclear reaction 48Ca(p,nγ)48Sc can be used as an indicator for a chalk ground beneath the lead white paint. However, a higher proton energy (4.2 MeV) is needed in this case

  16. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting.

    Koch-Dandolo, Corinna L; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori; Skou-Hansen, Jacob; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-06-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurface composition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18C Danish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time, a real hidden portrait on an easel painting has been imaged by THz-TDI, with an unexpected richness of detail. THz C- and B-scans have been compared with images obtained by x-ray radiography and invasive cross-sectional imaging, leading to a deeper understanding of the strengths and limitations of this technique for art diagnostic purposes and defining its role among complementary tools for the investigation of art objects. We present a fast and effective method to separate single THz pulse reflections of interest from the entire signal across the image, adapted for uneven surfaces typically encountered in practical applications of the technique. Interfaces between layers of the painting have been successfully imaged, contributing substantially to the understanding of the structure of the painting. PMID:26192674

  17. Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American Spanish.

  18. ANALYSIS OF AN UNPUBLISHED TREATISE OF AN 18TH CENTURY ENGINEER, ANTOINE D’ALLEMAN (1679-1760)

    Fleury, François; Duprat, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Military culture has occupied a central place in the constitution of constructive knowledge amongst the French intellectual elite since the beginning of the 17th century. The royal engineers , whose trade is rapidly institutionalized and developing in the 17th and 18th centuries, are important agents and vectors of this complex of practical knowledge backed by geometry, mathematics and the new physics. Despite the recent scientific advances in structural mechanics and strength of materials, i...

  19. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

  20. Geography and the Paris Academy of Sciences: politics and patronage in early 18th-century France

    Heffernan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This essay considers the politics and patronage of geography in early-modern France. It examines how the Paris Academy of Sciences, widely acknowledged as the 18th century’s pre-eminent scientific society, came to recognise geography as an independent science in 1730, a century before the establishment of the first geographical societies. Although the Academy was centrally concerned with cartography from its inception in 1666, it initially afforded no official status to geography, which was v...

  1. FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE INSTITUTE OF THE NOBLE MAIDENS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18 th CENTURY

    Kalentsova Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of theory and practice of foreign education of pre - revolutionary Russia. The paper studies the place and meaning of foreign languages in educational process of the institute of the noble maidens in the second half of the 18 th century. As the methodological basis of the study f systems and history approach is used. The main methods of the research are the analysis of the historical sources, archival material, psychological and educational literature. As...

  2. Management accounting and rationalisation in the Army: The case of Spanish Military Hospitals in the 18th century

    Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one of the most neglected areas of research in accounting, that of the Army. In spite of the literature on industries related to the Army, not too much has been extended on the Army per se. For this reason, this paper analyses the process of rationalization developed in the 18th century in Spanish Army Hospitals, as a result of the bankruptcy of the Royal Finances. Due to this process, the Military Hospitals were the most developed in the country, and it led to the emergence of the Contralor (Controller within the hospital, and thus accounting was considered as an essential matter.

  3. Cloths and the Way of Life among Melayu People in Pattani, Thailand in the 18th Century

    Buakaew Jureerat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate Melayu people’s way of life through the ways they utilized their cloths. The data of this qualitative research were collected from related documents and research reports, ancient cloths and clothing, and in-depth interviews with cloths owners and weavers.The research found that in the 18th century Melayu people in Pattani Province used many types of clothing in their life. When women were at home, they wore plain cloths. They used checked cloths...

  4. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  5. THE COLORFUL WORLD OF PUBLIC HOUSES. OWNERSHIP, CLIENTELE AND LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES IN 18th CENTURY TIMIŞOARA

    Sandra Hirsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Timişoara became a rightful provincial capital of an Austrian domain during the 18th Century. In this period an important number of citizens chose to build and run inns or taverns as landlords or just as leaseholders. The archive documents from Timişoara put together the puzzle pieces that recreate the stories of old public houses; they also contain information regarding all sorts of activities connected to the microcosm of taverns. Therefore the aim of this paper is to discover who the owners of inns were, why did they choose this trade and what was their place in Timişoara’s society. The clientele, less highlighted in documents, also plays a role through the choices of spending their leisure time in such places, through activities they fancied: music, gambling, billiards, bowling and the products they ordered for consumption. All these aspects enable us to shed light one of the most vivid parts of 18th century urban life

  6. The problems of national history in the school literature of the 18th - beginning of the 20th centuries

    Abramkin O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of historical literature allows to consider profoundly the development of national culture and science of the 18th-first half of the 20th centuries and the formation and change of different historical concepts. With the analysis of historical periods that are highlighted in the research, general trends in the changing of paradigms about Russian historical development were concluded, which were translated to mass historical consciousness from the beginning of the 18th century up to 1917. The periods were closely connected with the specific political, historical and economic changes in Russian Empire and with the dominance of certain textbooks during this time. The books were selected because of a number of factors: their inclusion to the school curriculum, the number of publications (10 and more, the equal number of textbooks devoted to different historical periods. For the analysis were used 19 textbooks, schoolbooks for different courses of secondary schools and primary schools. All the sources of educational literature were grouped into two concepts - officially-state (patriotic and the liberal. Each publication was highlighted the dominant concept as a base for the whole textbook. There is also a characteristic of the concepts that are presented chronologically. The analysis represents school history books as an important source for the formation of state policy in the representing of Russian history, and, that is more important, for creation of the concept of the state of Russian history.

  7. Syphilis in the Russian army (in the 18 th and 20 th centuries)

    Zavyalov A.I.; Utz S.R.; Morrison A.M.; Gajdarov А.Е.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the domestic medical literature, reflecting the incidence of syphilis in the Russian army and the Russian military civilians in times of conflict in the XVII — beginning of XX century. The methods of struggle with sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention in the military in wartime and peacetime are present.

  8. Spectres of Multiplicity. 18th-Century Literature Revisited from the Outside in

    Citton, Yves

    2010-01-01

    From the age of Louis XIV to the Jacobin Revolution, the French eighteenth century is often portrayed as dreaming an enduring dream of unity. A great deal of administrative and intellectual energy was spent in attempting to unify the territory under one king, the people under one law, the beliefs under one God, the artists under one academy, the warring European nations under one scheme of perpetual peace, the branches of knowledge under one encyclopaedic tree, the erring variety of customs a...

  9. "Les maladies héréditaires:" 18th century disputes in France.

    López-Beltrán, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the discussions on the subject of hereditary disease that took place between 1748 and 1800 among French physicians. Two essay competitions which set prizes for dissertations on the hereditary transmission of disease (Dijon, 1748; Paris, 1788-1790) prompted several writers to try and specify the peculiarities of hereditary causes. The publication of a sceptical essay written for the first competition by Antoine Louis was a major cause of concern for medics wishing to preserve hereditary influence as a valid etiological category. Louis' analytical denial of even the possibility of the existence of an hereditary cause led both the judges and the best medical writers who took part in the Paris competition to force the situation towards the establishment of clear criteria for isolating the hereditary cause from other pathological influences. The transition from a humoralist to a solidist view of the human constitution (body) provided the frame within which the different criteria for heredity were discussed. The prize essays of the Paris competition shared the position that hereditary influence was characterized by a latent, predisposant kind of causation, which could produce some well known phenomena like atavism (or regression) and homochrony. The solidist causes were thought by most to be better candidates for that role. These developments turned out to be crucial for the emergence and strength of 19th century French (and European) hereditarianism, in medicine and other fields. PMID:11609190

  10. MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF THE RIVER BODROG FROM THE LATE 18TH CENTURY TO 2006

    NIKOLETTA MECSER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The river regulations of the 19th century have affected each of our rivers to a different degree. In the case of the River Bodrog it was stronger than the average. In our paper a section of the river betweenBodroghalász and Szegi was examined, the extent and intensity of river channel changes was intended to be determined. The applied series of maps and aerial photos was georeferred and the riverchannel was vectorized. The morphometric parameters of the channel were measured and the changes were evaluated using the created database. From methodological aspect we concluded that the 9 variables can be grouped into 3 factors therefore most of the indexes can be substituted. We measured the changes of length and lateral shift of the channel using GIS methods. Three development periodswere identified based on our results. In the first period the development of the river was characterized by natural processes. Then, the development of the river altered owing to the antropogenic impacts. In this transient phase the average shifting of the channel was 7.43 m/y. In the third term this value reduces to 0.2 m/y as the river is getting to reach the equilibrium stage.

  11. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    A Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  12. Geschlechtermodelle im spanischen Roman des 18. Jahrhunderts Constructions of Gender in the 18th Century Spanish Novel

    Claudia Gronemann

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Während Spanien lange Zeit als „Land ohne Aufklärung“ galt und das 18. Jahrhundert auch in der deutschen Hispanistik ein Randgebiet gegenüber der Masse an Studien etwa zum Siglo de Oro darstellte, wandelt sich diese Tendenz zunehmend. Beinahe zeitgleich erschienen jetzt zwei Dissertationen zum spanischen 18. Jahrhundert, die sich auf der Basis von Korpus und Fragestellung sehr gut vergleichen lassen. Wenn dieses Jahrhundert im Anschluss an die Brüder Goncourt (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852 wiederholt als das der Frau apostrophiert wurde, scheint es kein Zufall, dass sich beide mit „Geschlechterentwürfen“ (Kilian bzw. dem „Bild der Frau“ (Hertel-Mesenhöller im spanischen Roman befassen. Spanien hat nicht nur Anteil an der europäischen Aufklärung, auch wenn sich diese als patriotische und christliche Ilustración „von oben“ erweist, sondern ebenso an einem übergreifenden Wandel der Geschlechterkonstellation, welcher unter dem Begriff der Naturalisierung des Geschlechtsunterschieds in die Gender Studies eingegangen ist. Beide Verfasserinnen untersuchen die diskursiven Manifestationen dieses Wandels im Roman und problematisieren, ob und inwiefern die jeweiligen Weiblichkeitsentwürfe einem spezifischen Aufklärungsprogramm entsprechen. Dabei greifen sie gegenwärtige Theorieentwicklungen ganz unterschiedlich auf.For the longest time, Spain used to be considered the “country without enlightenment”, and the 18th century was only assigned a marginal position in Hispanic Studies in Germany, compared to the large number of studies on the Siglo de Oro darstellte. However, this tendency has recently changed. Two dissertations on 18th century Spain have just been published; both works are comparable in terms of their corpus and the research questions they investigate. If, following the Goncourt brothers (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852, the 18th century has repeatedly been called the century of the woman, it does not seem

  13. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  14. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  15. Analysis on the Orientation of Marriage Value in the 18th-19th Century of England through Pride and Prejudice

    WANG Qiu-ji

    2013-01-01

    “It is truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.” Almost two centuries later, the deep impression on readers left by the opening sentence of Pride and Prejudice has not decreased because of their changing literary taste. Jane Austin, the author of Pride and Prejudice, was one of the famous realistic writers in English literature in the nineteenth century. Pride and Prejudice is Austin’s representative work. There were no earthshaking events, no dreadful disasters, no sharp contradictions and no romantic legends in Authin’s novels. Time and space were small in her novels. She wrote how a marriageable woman could find a satisfactory husband. She described many kinds of love and marriage of different women. She expressed her own original views of marriage in her works.In Pride and Prejudice Austin wrote four marriage types: ideal Elizabeth and Darcy, realistic Charlotte and Collins, felicitous Jane and Bingley, unhappy Lydiard Wickham. She pointed out emphatically economic consideration is the bonds of wedlock and love. She said marriage is not determined by property and family status. It is unwise to marry without money, but it is wrong to marry for money; the marriage settled by love is happy and ideal. The thesis explicates that Austin’s view of marriage was progressive, advocated by her focus on the equality between men and women. She emphasized marriage should be of equal importance both by love and by economic consideration, but love plays the guiding role. She revealed the connotation of marriage. She also analyses the marriage value in the 18th-19th century .Her exposure is of great realistic significance to the society today.

  16. SERBS IN THE HABSBURG MONARCHY DURING THE 18TH CENTURY-BETWEEN THE COURT IN VIENNA AND THE HUNGARIAB AUTHORITIES

    Владан С. Гавриловић

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At the Viennese court Serbs were seen as a nation (Natio Rascianica, whereas Hungarianclasses saw them merely as an obliging religious group. This difference in attitude determinedrelations between the court and Hungary, and Serbs were more often than not used by the court toblackmail Hungarian classes whenever their heightened national fervour needed quietening down.Serbian people tried as much as it was possible to vacillate between these different interests anddifferent interpretations of their legal status. Depending on the situation, Serbs strove to ensure,through their Privileges, a better and fairer legal status for themselves, which would be recognizedby both Hungarian and Austrian authorities. Due to the important role Serbs had in the Monarchy,Serbian Privileges were confirmed on several occasions in the course of the 18th century, but timeand again this confirmation came along with one or more restricting provisos, until finally in the1870s the Privileges were reduced completely and narrowed from the sphere of national-ecclesiastic,down to the frame of ecclesiastic and school privileges.

  17. Cloths and the Way of Life among Melayu People in Pattani, Thailand in the 18th Century

    Buakaew Jureerat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate Melayu people’s way of life through the ways they utilized their cloths. The data of this qualitative research were collected from related documents and research reports, ancient cloths and clothing, and in-depth interviews with cloths owners and weavers.The research found that in the 18th century Melayu people in Pattani Province used many types of clothing in their life. When women were at home, they wore plain cloths. They used checked cloths to cover the upper part of their body from the breasts down to the waist. When going out, they used Lima cloth and So Kae with a piece of Pla-nging cloth as a headscarf. For men, they wore a checked sarong as a lower garment, and wore no upper garment. However, when going out, they wore Puyo Potong. In addition, Melayu people used cloths in various religious rites, namely, the rite of putting a baby in a cradle, the Masoyawi rite, the Nikah rite, and the funeral rite. These types of cloths were related to the way of life of Melayu people from birth to death. They reflected the race, gender, age, social status, values, and beliefs in traditions that have been inherited.

  18. Decorative 18th Century Blue-and-White Portuguese Tile Panels: A Type-Case of Environmental Degradation

    Teresa P. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decorated glazed ceramic tiles are used as an ornamental art, constituting an important cultural heritage whose preservation is mandatory. Environmental conditions are responsible for the degradation of exposed ancient tile panels originating various pathologies, related to the development of microorganisms. This is the case of a valuable 18th century blue-and-white Portuguese tile panel called “Cura do Cego,” belonging to the collection of the National Tile Museum (MNAz, where green stains are nowadays observable in the glaze. A prospective diagnosis of this green tarnishing was the aim of the present work. Small tile fragments were directly irradiated using nondestructive techniques: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a wavelength-dispersive system (WDXRF for chemical characterization of the tile glaze and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD to assess the phase constitution of both the glaze and the ceramic body. A destructive technique (scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive system (SEM/EDS was applied to tentatively infer the chemical changes induced in the glaze by the green staining and also to characterize the morphology of the microorganisms associated to this staining. The obtained results are reported and discussed, as a preliminary step for testing an innovative nondestructive decontamination technique applying gamma radiation, particularly suitable for overcoming such tile pathologies.

  19. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  20. The conjoined twin sisters Helen and Judith (1701-1723) and their pictorial impact in later 18th-century science.

    van der Weiden, Robin M F; Clausberg, Karl

    2015-08-01

    Given the uniqueness of the Hungarian conjoined twin sisters Helen and Judith (1701–1723) and their lasting influence as an anatomical showcase if not model for mental or social deviant states, we present here a closer scrutiny of their introduction into the scientific literature of the later 18th century by analyzing depictions of the twins from 1707 onwards. PMID:26133671

  1. The “civilization of the Indians” in Brazil in the 18th century: from the pombaline legislation to Domingos Barreto’s plan

    Fabricio Lyrio Santos

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the origin of the term “civilization” as well as their appropriation by the Portuguese in their colonial policy for indigenous people of Brazil in the second half of the 18th century. The analysis shows that the model of “civilization” applied to the Indians was opposed to the system of catechesis carried out by the Jesuits and other religious orders in Brazil since the sixteenth century.

  2. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  3. Security and cross-border political crime: the formation of transnational security regimes in 18th and 19th century Europe

    Härter, Karl

    2013-01-01

    "This contribution proposes to observe Foucault's concept of the security dispositive from the angle of transnational security and criminal law regimes. Since the late 18th century security and securitization became not only a prime category and field of national policies and discourses but were increasingly influenced by transnational issues and cross-border security threats (or narratives) such as international crime, transnational political violence and international conspiracies. This was...

  4. On the Way from Prague to Wrocław: Sacred Music by Early 18th-Century Prague Composers in Silesia

    Kapsa, Václav

    Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2013 - (Gancarczyk, P.; Hlávková-Mráčková, L.; Pośpiech, R.), s. 267-287. (Eastern European Studies in Musicology. Volume 1). ISBN 978-3-631-63414-1 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : sacred music * Prague composers * musical sources * 17th and 18th century music * Prague cathedral * Breslau cathedral Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Variations on a religious theme : Jews and Muslims from the Eastern Mediterranean converting to Christianity, 17th and 18th Centuries

    LAPPA, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Defence date: 24 April 2015 Examining Board: Emeritus Professor Anthony Molho, European University Institute; Professor Luca Molà, European University Institute; Professor Nikolaos Karapidakis, Ionian University; Associate Professor Eric Dursteler, Brigham Young University. This study explores the religious conversion of Jews and Muslims to Christianity from the mid-17th to the 18th centuries in the international city of Venice and the port-city of Corfu. It does not focu...

  6. Portraits from the second half of the 18th century in Croatia – witnesses of clothing forms and fashion influences of rococo

    Katarina Nina Simončić

    2016-01-01

    his paper will attempt to analyze the clothing from the rococo period and underline fashion as an important segment in the reconstruction of a specific style era. Based on conserved portraits from the second half of the 18th century, as well as rare artifacts of clothing from the period found in Croatia, a description of primarily women’s types of clothing, accessories and the terms used to describe them will be given. Influences had, primarily through cultural and trade routes, come from the...

  7. The Reception of Horace in the Courses of Poetics at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy: 17th-First Half of the 18th Century

    Siedina, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, the reception of the poetic legacy of the Latin poet Horace (65 B.C.-8 B.C.) in the poetics courses taught at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy (17th-first half of the 18th century) has become the subject of a wide-ranging research project presented in this dissertation. Quotations from Horace and references to his oeuvre have been divided according to the function they perform in the poetics manuals, the aim of which was to teach pupils how to compose Latin poetry. Three main aspec...

  8. Essays on the history of brazilian dipterology: III. Three remarkable notices from the 18th century, mainly related to myiasis-producing flies (Cochliomyia and Dermatobia

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper registers reports about dipterans made by three Portuguese who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Luiz Gomes Ferreira, in his book "Erário mineral" ["Mineral revenue"], wrote curious passages related with myiasis-causing flies of the genus Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registered, in Latin verses, the folklore for curing myiases caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, in the last of his twenty letters dealing with several aspects of life in Brazil, made reference to horseflies, human bot flies and mosquitos.

  9. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    Rab, Irén

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe. PMID:26170183

  10. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna. PMID:26946818

  11. A study of Neoclassical and Romantic features in the poetry of André Chénier, French poet of the 18th Century

    امینی امینی

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available André Chénier (1762-1794 is the greatest and the best known French poet of the 18th century. He is famous especially for his courageous opposition to the power of the Terror in the early years of the French Revolution which caused finally his death by guillotine. The study of his poetical works can clarify the literary transition between neoclassicism and romanticism. This paper, by describing the poetry, the ideas and the time of Chénier, tries to demonstrate why it is impossible to limit his works merely to classicism. In fact he goes beyond the limits of classicism and toward romanticism, the literary school whose great followers call him their own precursor. Keywords: André Chénier, French poetry, neoclassicism, romanticism, literary schools.

  12. Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg Monarchy by the end of the 18th century: A historical analysis

    Vasin Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadović and Stefan Stratimirović insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process.

  13. Portraits from the second half of the 18th century in Croatia – witnesses of clothing forms and fashion influences of rococo

    Katarina Nina Simončić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available his paper will attempt to analyze the clothing from the rococo period and underline fashion as an important segment in the reconstruction of a specific style era. Based on conserved portraits from the second half of the 18th century, as well as rare artifacts of clothing from the period found in Croatia, a description of primarily women’s types of clothing, accessories and the terms used to describe them will be given. Influences had, primarily through cultural and trade routes, come from the fashion capital of the period – France, and fashion innovations and the intensity of their changes were under the influence of the personal style first of Madame de Pompadour and afterwards Marie Antoinette. Croatia, which had at the time been part of the Habsburg monarchy and under the Republic of Venice, tended toward French influences in fashion, which represents a considerable move from the prior influence of Italian and German style.

  14. Algunas propuestas didácticas sobre el teatro español del siglo XVIII / Some didactic studies on the Spanish theatre of the 18th century

    Malén Álvarez Franco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las propuestas didácticas reales llevadas a cabo en distintos institutos de la comunidad extremeña y madrileña en torno al teatro del siglo XVIII. Desde este punto de partida, es nuestra intención proponer nuevas vías de trabajo que no se recogen en los manuales de aula al uso, amplificando de este modo la cultura teatral del alumnado para estos niveles.Abstract: This essay aims to analyze the actual didactic strategies carried out in different secondary schools within the Extremadura and Madrid areas concerning the 18th century theatre. Under these premises, it is our intention to propose new learning and teaching methodologies, which are not gathered in regular classroom textbooks . By so doing we aim to enhance student´s theatrical knowledge and background at those levels.

  15. [Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy by the end of the 18th century: a historical analysis].

    Vasin, Goran; Božanić, Snežana; Božić, Milica Kisić

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadović and Stefan Stratimirović insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process. PMID:25731012

  16. The Ballet-Pantomime Technique of Passions: Constructing Knowledge of Dance during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Juan Ignacio VALLEJOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the fundamentals of the pantomime-ballet dance technique, which was characteristic of the eighteenth century. In particular, it explores how knowledge developed with regard to the representation of passions and expressive gestures. Our hypothesis proposes the existence of a correlation between the regulation of the theatrical practice of dance in the seventeenth century, during the reign of Louis XIV, and the discourses on the dancing-body that accompanied the zenith of the pantomime-ballet project between 1760 and 1776. In this way, we show that the passage from baroque ballet to pantomimeballet represents a breakthrough in body encoding as well as a development of the aesthetic framework for the theatrical expression of the dancer.

  17. Figurative lights: Images of Techno-Scientific slides and Secularization in Spain during the 18th Century

    Germán LABRADOR MÉNDEZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper asembles and studies a set of iconological representations linked to technical and scientific transformations during the eighteenth Century in Spain, reading them in a dialectic between modern science, Enlightenment policies and popular culture. After analyzing the emergence of representations both of science and scientists according to the process of institutionalizing science as a socio-professional language, two specific eighteenth century technologies are studied: magic lanterns and aerostats. By interpreting their first images and their infiltration into popular and official speeches and the imagination of the moment, it is argued that in those images a tale of demo-Enlightenment is expressed, a tale about secularization and progress as a collective aesthetic experience.

  18. Variation in common lime (Tilia x europaea L.) in Swedish gardens of the 17th and 18th centuries

    Bengtsson, Rune

    2005-01-01

    Trees of common lime (Tilia x europaea L.) have been planted in Swedish gardens and urban landscapes since at least the beginning of the 17th century. This is in accordance with the situation in most other European countries. The trees were initially imported from the Netherlands but later domestic production was started. The domestic material was collectively known as ‘Dutch lime’ even when propagated in Sweden. To understand the variation in common lime in Swedish gardens, the methods of pr...

  19. South-Eastern Policy of Russia in the Middle of the 18th Century in the Light of Orientalist Discourse

    Aznabaev B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correctness of application of orientalist discourse of E. Said to the colonial policy of the Russian Empire is analyzed in the article on the example of P. I. Rychkov research. By studying integration of Bashkirs in the structure of the Russian state, the author came to the conclusion that Russia's policy in the East was based on the experience of the management of non-Russian peoples, which was developed in the 16-17th centuries. The establishment of “cultural distance” is typical only for a small group of educated administrators of past-Petrine era. Most of the officials of the region, as in the preceding period, and during the time of Rychkov and Tatishchev preferred to rely on traditional methods of Bashkir management, which was developed in the period of their voluntary accession. Managerial stereotypes of 16-17th centuries, had significant influence on policy towards South-Eastern peoples of Russia even in the 19th century. The Russian administration inherent in the desire to integrate the non-Russian peoples in the General class structure of the state on the basis of analogies or correspondences, the objective of which was social and cultural rapprochement of the two societies.

  20. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

  1. CHANGES IN CHANNEL PATTERN OF RIVER GANGA BETWEEN MUSTAFABAD AND RAJMAHAL, GANGETIC PLAINS SINCE 18TH CENTURY

    Prabhata K. SWAMEE; Barham PARKASH; Jayaprakash V. THOMAS; Satvindar SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Morphological analyses require quantitative description of river course by providing its equation. Such an equation is not possible as the river plan-form contains loops that cannot be described by it. To circumvent this difficulty a system of parametric equations is devised for describing the river plan-form.The system of equations was used to obtain morphological attributes like sinuosity and curvature. Using the plan-form data for the River Ganga for years 1780, 1828, 1853, 1935 and 1978 the parametric equations were setup for these years. The plan-forms were to study the changes in channel pattern,sinuosities and mode of movement of meander loops with time in the last two centuries and in the downstream direction in the Ganga River between Mustafabad and Rajmahal over about 900 km long course.

  2. Laura Bassi and science in 18th century Europe the extraordinary life and role of Italy's pioneering female professor

    Frize, Monique

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the extraordinary story of a Bolognese woman of the settecento. Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (1711-1778) defended 49 Theses at the University of Bologna on April 17, 1732 and was awarded a doctoral degree on May 12 of the same year. Three weeks before her defense, she was made a member of the Academy of Sciences in Bologna. On June 27 she defended 12 additional Theses. Several of the 61 Theses were on physics and other science topics. Laura was drawn by the philosophy of Newton at a time when most scientists in Europe were still focused on Descartes and Galen. This last set of Theses was to encourage the University of Bologna to provide a lectureship to Laura, which they did on October 29, 1732. Although quite famous in her day, Laura Bassi is unfortunately not remembered much today. This book presents Bassi within the context of the century when she lived and worked, an era where no women could attend university anywhere in the world, and even less become a professor or a member of an academ...

  3. Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Geneviève; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-12-15

    This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle à Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frères". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 μg). PMID:22014085

  4. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  5. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  6. 18世纪巴黎的咖啡馆文化特点%The cultural characteristics of Paris cafés in the 18th century

    林煜堃

    2014-01-01

    The café played an important role in the Parisian daily life during the 18th century. Historical, geographic and cultural sectors contributed to the social culture with unique features. In the initial stage, being from lower class to upper class, cafés became the representation of elite culture with luxurious feature. The recreation of cafés, providing a basis for popular political activities, partly provoked the French Revolution.%18世纪巴黎人的日常生活中,咖啡馆扮演了重要角色。历史地理因素和文化环境造就其独特的风格,同时也孕育了颇具特色的社交文化。巴黎咖啡馆逐渐从下层走向上层,成为奢华的法国式精英文化的特点。同时咖啡馆的娱乐性,为大众化的政治活动提供人员基础和社交模式,一定程度上推动了法国大革命的诞生。

  7. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data. PMID:12159002

  8. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality. PMID:25022623

  9. Lutheran Clergy in an Orthodox Empire. The Apppointment of Pastors in the Russo-Swedish Borderland in the 18th Century

    Räihä Antti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of the parishioners’ right to participate in and influence the choice of local clergy in Sweden and Finland can be taken back as far as the late Medieval Times. The procedures for electing clergymen are described in historiography as a specifically Nordic feature and as creating the basis of local self-government. In this article the features of local self-government are studied in a context where the scope for action was being modified. The focus is on the parishioners’ possibilities and willingness to influence the appointment of pastors in the Lutheran parishes of the Russo-Swedish borderlands in the 18th century. At the same time, this article will offer the first comprehensive presentation of the procedures for electing pastors in the Consistory District of Fredrikshamn. The Treaty of Åbo, concluded between Sweden and Russia in 1743, ensured that the existing Swedish law, including the canon law of 1686, together with the old Swedish privileges and statutes, as well as the freedom to practise the Lutheran religion, remained in force in the area annexed into Russia. By analysing the actual process of appointing pastors, it is possible to discuss both the development of the local political culture and the interaction between the central power and the local society in the late Early Modern era.

  10. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  11. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  12. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

    Matija Ogrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper gives a thorough examination of the Register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries from different points of view: it is presented as a digital repository in humanities disciplines available for searching (digital library and as a methodological framework of further scholarly research and discoveries in the field. Manuscripts, especially the manuscripts of Slovenian literature, have not been sufficiently taken into consideration so far. They have always been given but a sketchy treatment serving merely to illustrate the general outlines of the nation’s literary and cultural development. They have rarely been dealt with in specialised studies or scientific publications. This is the reason why they have not been registered and recorded in archival and library collections. Different guides to manuscripts offer only basic and limited information from which it is often impossible to identify the language, the content, and the history of a manuscript. With regard to the state-of-the- art of Slovenian manuscript research in the field of Slavic studies, archival studies and codicology, it was indispensable to thoroughly record and research the preserved manuscripts by the use of a uniform, rational and consistent method. In reference to these premises a new research project has been started resulting in accurate, thorough and rigorously structured descriptions of manuscripts. The idea of Slovenian manuscript register was developed comprising manuscript descriptions complemented by digital images or facsimiles thus visually presenting the manuscripts and facilitating further research in the field.The 3-year work resulted in the portal: Unknown Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18 th centuries. The main project result was the register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. To date, it contains detailed descriptions of the first 100 manuscripts and over 7

  13. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  14. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  15. The popular religiosity of the Valladolid people in the 18th Century: The 1773 report on the religious guilds of the Valladolid province

    Fernando MANZANO LEDESMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stvdia histórica: Historia Moderna, 2007, vol. 29, pp.279-305 José Ignacio RUIZ-RODRÍGUEZ confesionalización; historiografía; edad moderna=Confessionalization; Historiography; Modern Age 14.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In 1773 the Intendant of Valladolid, Mr Angel de Bustamante, sent to the Castilian Council a Report about the different guilds and brotherhoods operating in the capital and in other towns of the province. By so doing, he was meeting the requirements of the President of the Council of Castile, who in September 1769 had demanded «a list of all the brotherhoods, guilds, congregations, and similar societies which celebrate one or more festivities a year» In this article I intend to make a qualitative and quantitative approach to the «guild geography» of the province in the second half of the 18th century, making use of the 1773 Report. As it is known, the gestation, processing, and results of the so-called «Expediente General de Cofradías» have been thoroughly studied by scholars, who have also paid attention to the religious and political context of the period. The 1773 Report, however, has not been fully analysed, in spite of being one of the longest and most detailed existing documents. The historical picture provided by the Report will

  16. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  17. The baroque in the ornamentation of the 18th Century brotherhood compromises in Brazil ///// O barroco na ornamentação dos compromissos de irmandade no Brasil do Século XVIII

    Antônio Wilson Silva de Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O estilo Barroco se manifestou em variadas expressões da arte brasileira durante o século XVIII e princípios do XIX, exibindo aspectos estéticos hoje melhor compreendidos como variantes regionais que muito contribuiram para o entendimento, tanto das particularidades do estilo, quanto do eixo fundante que o estabeleceu como expressão artística peculiar no Brasil setecentista. Todavia, pesquisas recentes têm favorecido a compreensão da extensão dos domínios do Barroco, pondo o Desenho no seu raio de abrangência. A ornamentação dos documentos do Brasil do século XVIII apresenta características de projeto gráfico centrado numa concepção estética preponderantemente barroca, sustentada, ademais, por um requintado traço que, na maioria dos casos, não fica a dever a nenhum dos mais habilidosos desenhistas reconhecidos pela História Geral da Arte. Destacando de modo especial o elevado nível de elaboração conceptiva e técnica dos ornatos dos Compromissos, sob uma ótica descritiva e analítica, no presente texto, põem-se em relevo as características do Desenho ornamentativo setecentista, bem como seu entendimento enquanto tradutor da estética e da mentalidade barroca luso-brasileiras. ///// The Baroque style manifested itself in diverse expressions of Brazilian art during the 18th century and beginning of 19th century, showing aesthetic aspects that are understood better nowadays as regional variances which contributed a lot to understand the distinctions of the style and the founding axis that set it up as a peculiar artistic expression of Brazil in the 18th century. However, recent researches have favored the comprehension of the full length of the Baroque domination placing the Design in its proper scope. The adornment of the 18th century Brazilian documents shows features of graphical design centered in an aesthetic conception that is predominantly Baroque supported by a refined trait that in most of the cases owes nothing

  18. Magias de cozinha: escravas e feitiços em Portugal - Séculos XVII e XVIII Kitchen spells: female slaves and magic spells in Portugal - 17th and 18th Centuries

    Daniela Buono Calainho

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas considerações acerca das manifestações mágico-religiosas da população feminina de origem africana em Portugal entre os séculos XVII e XVIII, relacionadas ao uso de ervas, alimentos e outros ingredientes que compunham os feitiços.With this work I intend to present some considerations on the religious-magical practices of African female populations in Portugal during the 17th and 18th centuries, related to the use of herbs, food and other ingred...

  19. Magias de cozinha: escravas e feitiços em Portugal - Séculos XVII e XVIII Kitchen spells: female slaves and magic spells in Portugal - 17th and 18th Centuries

    Daniela Buono Calainho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas considerações acerca das manifestações mágico-religiosas da população feminina de origem africana em Portugal entre os séculos XVII e XVIII, relacionadas ao uso de ervas, alimentos e outros ingredientes que compunham os feitiços.With this work I intend to present some considerations on the religious-magical practices of African female populations in Portugal during the 17th and 18th centuries, related to the use of herbs, food and other ingredients which were used in magic spells.

  20. "German scholars in the Russian Academy of Sciences in the first half of the 18th century and their share in the creation of the scientific image of this institution"

    Bahenský, František

    Prag : SET OUT - Roman Míšek, 2007 - (Stellner, F.; Bahenský, F.; Soběhart, R.), s. 71-81 ISBN 978-80-86277-59-2. ["Deutsch-Russische beziehungen. Politische, wirtschaftliche und kulturelle Aspekte von der frühen Neuzeit bis zum 20. Jahrhundert". Prag (CZ), 24.11.2005-25.11.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Russian Academy of Sciences * 18th century * German scholars Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Preliminary Anthropological Research on the Medieval Population of the Iasi City (Necropolis of the ”Sf. Nicolae” Church – Ciurchi Street, the 16th – 18th Centuries

    Vasilica-Monica Groza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The osteological material discovered in the medieval necropolis (16th – 18th centuries of the “Sf. Nicolae Church” situated in Ciurchi Street in Iaşi consists of over 500 human skeletons exhumed of about 300 inhumation graves. The preliminary anthropological analysis performed on only 28 skeletons (12 male and 16 female adult skeletons having belonged to persons over older than 20 years shows a hypsicranic and metriocranic population with high waist, metriometopic (medium or eurimetopic (broad forehead and medium-sized occipital bone. Male skeletons are characterized by dolicochranian (long heads and female skeletons by brachicranian. The face is mesene, the eye sockets are mesoconch or hypsiconch and the nose leptorin or mesorine. The skeletons discovered belong to the Mediterranean – Dynaric type, but several elements of the Nordoid, Alpine and East-Europoid types were evidenced, as well.

  2. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  3. Process of Expropriation of Buildings for the Construction of the New Dock of the Port of Cartagena (Spain) in the 18th Century

    Ramírez Pacheco, Gema María; Peñalver Martinez, Maria Jesús; García Erviti, Federico; Maciá Sánchez, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The need of the Bourbon monarchy to build a Naval Base in the Bay of Cartagena (Spain) during the eighteenth century, implied performing various actions on the environment which allowed the construction of the new dock. One of the priority actions was the transformation of the watershed of the streams that flowed into Mandaraches´s sea. For this reason, a dike was designed and constructed in the northern part of the city. The design of this great work, which was designed as a fortification of...

  4. Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits

    Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

    2013-05-01

    The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

  5. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  6. Situación económica y financiera del Monasterio de Oseira en el siglo XVIII = Financial and economic situation of the Monastery of Oseira in the 18th century

    Elena Gallego Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la actividad económica y financiera de uno de los cenobios más representativos de la orden cisterciense en Galicia: El Monasterio de Oseira(Ourense. El periodo temporal analizado ha sido seleccionado en base a la documentación conocida de este monasterio, siendo la relativa al S.XVIII la más abundante y completa. Losresultados del trabajo ponen de manifiesto la época de gran esplendor económico que vive elmonasterio y que se manifiesta en las substanciales cantidades de productos y dinero recaudadas, que le permiten abordar importantes obras y realizar una gran labor social.The objective of this paper is to analyse the economic and financial activity of one of the most representative monasteries of the Cistercian Order in Galicia: the Monastery of Oseira(Ourense. The period analysed has been selected based on the documents which mention this monastery, being the 18th century the most bountiful and complete period. The results obtained in this paper state the great economic splendour the monastery lives during thiscentury as is shown in the substantial amount of products and money collected, which allowthem to confront important works and execute a great social labour.

  7. Territorialidad y reproducción social: Los tinogasta en Belén, Catamarca, durante el siglo XVIII Territoriality and social reproduction: The tinogasta in Belen, Catamarca. 18th century

    Federico Ignacio Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las prácticas de territorialización desplegadas por los Tinogasta en Belén durante el siglo XVIII. Se analizaran los mecanismos jurídicos coloniales a partir de los cuales los Tinogasta buscaron "reterritorializar" su espacio, para recomponer sus condiciones de reproducción social. En este sentido, se observará cómo, frente a diversas prácticas de dominación, algunas poblaciones indígenas implementaron estrategias de resistencia, negociación y/o alianza para reinterpretar la realidad colonial y operar sobre ella. Así, lejos de ser meros espectadores pasivos de su dominio se transformaron en agentes de su reproducción social en un contexto de asimetría.This paper analyzes the practices of territorialization deployed by the Tinogasta in Belen through the 18th century. It will analyze how, through colonial legal mechanisms, the Tinogasta looked for "re-territorialize" their space in order to rebuild their conditions of social reproduction. We intend to observe how some Indian populations implemented multiple resistance, negotiation and/or alliance strategies against diverse domination practices in order to reinterpret -and operate on- the colonial reality. Then, far from being mere passive spectators of their dominance they became agents of their own social reproduction in an asymmetrical context.

  8. “[…] Non urbs, tamen urbibus ipsa major.” The Image of The Hague in the Dutch Literature and Art of the 17th and 18th Century

    Polkowski Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although in the early-modern period The Hague was not officially a city, its identity was based on specifically urban features. During the 17th and 18th century, its ambiguous status was explored by the authors of verse urban encomia and prose descriptiones urbium. In this article, the presentation of The Hague will be first discussed on the example of Caspar Barlaeus’ Latin poem “Haga”, and Constantijn Huygens’ Dutch encomium “’s Gravenhage” from the Dorpen [Villages] cycle of epigrams. Then, the image of The Hague will be examined in the context of an allegorical representation by Jan Caspar Philips in Jacob de Riemer’s Beschryving van ‘s Graven-hage [Description of The Hague, 1730]. The concluding remarks address the question of how the transformation of the status of The Hague undertaken by these writers and artists may be understood in the context of the literary-historical geography of the Northern Renaissance which has been a special subject of research by Professor Andrzej Borowski.

  9. 圜丘坛和韵琴斋——18世纪中国建筑的音乐化设计%Altar and Studio: Archi-Musical Design in the 18th Century Chinese Architecture

    张宇; 王其亨

    2012-01-01

    关注于18世纪中国建筑的音乐化设计,并剖析了北京现存的两例皇家建筑:天坛圜丘和北海韵琴斋.两处实例均由乾隆皇帝督造,现场调研及历史文档显示,国丘平面依照“黄钟”律尺设计,韵琴斋则意在营造比拟“琴乐”的水声.通过探讨这些设计如何表达社会、文化内涵,并由此涉入中国古代思想中的“圣王”理念得出,上述建筑-音乐—体的杰作可看做乾隆皇帝“圣王”抱负的物化体现.%This study concerns about the archi-musical design in the 18th-century Chinese architecture. Two surviving examples of imperial buildings in Beijing are examined: the Altar of Heaven and the Zither Rhythm Studio, both of which were constructed at Emperor Gianlong' s direction. By field surveys and literature review of historical documents, it is found that (1) the terrace plan of the Altar was deliberately designed under the "huangzhong" tonal measurement, and (2) the Studio and its surrounding landscape were encircled by water-sound produced "music" . To explore how the design expressed its inherent socio-cultural meanings, the influence from the ancient Chinese idea of "sage-king" notion are discussed. This study concludes that the above two archi-music masterpieces could be regarded as a material representation of Emperor Qianlong' s sage-king ambition,

  10. The trip as formation: examples from the European literature of the 18th century El viaje como formación: ejemplos de la literatura europea del siglo XVIII

    Nicolás BAS MARTÍN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance that the literature of trips acquired in the 18th century is one of the reasons that they have led us to investigating in the instructive facet that these works had in the society of the moment. Adopting the premise of «travelling to know», the trip turned not only into an exercise of individual formation but into an instrument of formation and information of the first magnitude. Governments, institutions and individuals did of the trips some of his more important sources of information. Expeditions that were taken soon to the press, completing the pedagogic and didactic character of the same ones, on never having been accompanied of engravings places, men and customs till now known. This end, of learning to instruct, we cross some of the emblematic works of the literature of trips of the Enlightenment.La importancia que la literatura de viajes adquirió en el siglo XVIII es una de las razones que nos han llevado a indagar en la faceta instructiva que estas obras tuvieron en la sociedad del momento. Adoptando la premisa de «viajar para saber», el viaje se convirtió no sólo en un ejercicio de formación individual, sino en un instrumento de formación e información de primera magnitud. Gobiernos, instituciones e individuos hicieron de los viajes unas de sus fuentes de información más importantes. Expediciones que fueron llevadas pronto a la imprenta, completando el carácter pedagógico y didáctico de las mismas, al ir acompañadas de grabados de lugares, hombres y costumbres nunca hasta ahora conocidas. Con ese fin, de instruirse para instruir, recorremos algunas de las obras emblemáticas de la literatura de viajes de la Ilustración.

  11. Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral δ18O time-series

    Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

    2012-12-01

    interannual and D/I coral δ18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral δ18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

  12. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  13. Origem da vida e origem das espécies no século XVIII: as concepções de Maupertuis Origin of life and origin of species in 18th century: the viewpoints of Maupertius

    Maurício de Carvalho Ramos

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A obra de Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis abrange os domínios da geometria, da física e da astronomia, mas também explora um tema biológico central da agenda científica e filosófica do século XVIII: o problema da geração dos organismos. No Sistema da natureza (1752, o autor apresenta uma ampla teoria que pretende explicar, a partir de um princípio gerativo universal, como os organismos atuais são gerados, como as espécies podem conservar-se ao longo do tempo e como ocorre a formação de novas espécies a partir de uma dada linhagem de organismos. Com base em tais explicações, Maupertuis apresenta certas conjecturas sobre a origem dos primeiros organismos e das primeiras espécies que serão o objeto central deste artigo. Segundo nossa interpretação, Maupertuis explorou o problema das origens da vida e das espécies a partir de dois quadros teóricos distintos, que designaremos como quadros metafísico e físico das origens. No primeiro, a ação de Deus é decisiva para a produção dos primeiros organismos e das primeiras espécies, mas no segundo essa mesma produção é explicada conjecturalmente a partir de uma concepção natural e atomista.The work of Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis encompasses the fields of geometry, physics and astronomy, and it also inquires into a subject that is central to the 18th-century scientific agenda, namely, the problem of the generation of organisms. In his Système de la Nature (1752, Maupertuis presents a comprehensive theory that purports to explain, on the basis of a universal generative principle, how the currently existing organisms are generated, how the permanence of species in the course of time is possible, and how the formation of new species from a given lineage of organisms takes place. Based on these explanations, he advances some conjectures about the origin of the first organisms and the first species that shall constitute the main subject of this paper. According to our

  14. La vente des biens nationaux à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, nouvelle donne pour la ville The sale of national assets at the end of the 18th century – a gift to the city

    François Antoine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available À la fin de l’Ancien Régime, les villes des Pays-Bas gardaient les traits de villes médiévales sans ordre et faites d’entrelacs de rues et de ruelles. Le caractère corporatif de la production limitait la présence de grands ensembles industriels et les couvents et leurs jardins occupaient une grande partie de la superficie intra et extra muros des cités. Par ailleurs, l’Église était propriétaire d’un important parc immobilier de petites demeures adossées à des églises jusqu’aux importants refuges d’abbayes dominant dans les campagnes de vastes espaces fonciers. Durant la deuxième moitié du xviiie, les autorités habsbourgeoises menèrent une politique tendant à moderniser les villes en faisant, en autres, tomber les enceintes et en donnant une nouvelle affectation aux couvents contemplatifs supprimés. La Révolution française bouleversa ces ensembles urbains en libérant d’un coup une masse très importante de biens immobiliers qui appartenait à l’Église et en modifiant radicalement les modes de production par la suppression des corporations de métiers. La bourgeoisie principalement négociante réussi habilement tirer tous les profits de cette nouvelle donne. Cet effet d’aubaine contribua grandement à faire passer nos régions dans un nouveau stade de leur démarrage industriel.At the end of the Ancien Régime, the towns of the Netherlands retained the characteristics of medieval towns, without any order and consisting of warrens of streets and alleys. The corporative nature of production limited the presence of major industrial complexes and the monasteries and convents, together with their gardens, covered a large part of the urban areas both within and outside city walls. In addition, the church had important property holdings, ranging from small residential properties attached to churches to major abbey residences dominating vast countryside estates. During the second half of the 18th century, the

  15. Alteraçoes das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa no século XVIII = Changes in accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint in the 18th century

    Rita Martins De Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explica el cambio de prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa encuadrándolas en la política de difusión de la contabilidad por partida doble en el ámbito público en Portugal durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.La necesidad del Estado de ejercer un mayor control sobre sus fuentes de ingresos justificó la transformación ocurrida demostrando la adaptación de las prácticas contables a las características de cada organización. En la Casa da Moeda, lo específico de su misión acuñación de monedas originó una legislación propia fechada en 1773. La periodización de estas prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa se organizó en tres fases: la primera entre 1686 y 1761, la segunda entre 1761 y 1773 y por último desde 1773 a 1797, período final de este estudio.This article explains the changes made to accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint within the context of the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping into the public sphere in Portugal during the second half of the 18th century.The State’s requirement to exercise greater control over its sources of income justified the changes that took place, with accounting practices being adapted to the features of each organisation. The Mint's specific function –the minting of metallic money– gave rise to the creation of its own particular legislation, in 1773. The study of these accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint will be divided into three separate periods: firstly from 1686 to 1761, secondly from 1761 to 1773, and finally from 1773 to 1797. Neste artigo explica-se a alteração das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa enquadrando-as na política de difusão da contabilidade por partidas dobradas na esfera pública, em Portugal, na segunda metade do século XVIII.A necessidade de um maior controlo exercido pelo Estado sobre as suas fontes de receita justificarão as transformações ocorridas, demonstrando estas a

  16. ACCORDING TO THE RECORDS OF NICOSIA CADI’S COURT, THE MONEY FOUNDATIONS FOUNDED IN CYPRUS IN THE FIRST PERIOD OF 18th CENTURY KIBRIS ŞER’İYE SİCİLLERİNE GÖRE XVIII. YÜZYILIN İLK YARISINDA KIBRIS’TA KURULAN PARA VAKIFLARI (VAKF-I NÜKÛD

    Mehmet DEMİRYÜREK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vakf-ı Nükûd (money foundations were established in the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. But these foundations were legalised by Şeyhülislam Ebüssuud Efendi in the 16th century.These foundations were founded in Cyprus in the 18th century but we have not seen any detailed researches concerning these foundations. There are not any researches or knowledge about these foundations.Acccording to the records of the Nicosia Cadi’s Court, these foundations were founded in the early of 18th century, too. These foundations were set up by men or women. These persons determined the conditions of working of the vaqf and they were registered in the records of the Nicosia Cadi’s Court. The aim of this study is to reveal the money foundations founded in the earyl of 18th century, their legal statutes, the conditions of foundations, the goals of foundations and their methods of working. We will, also compare these foundations with the other money foundations founded in the Ottoman Empire and avaluate our findings. In this present study it will be used the records of the Nicosia Cadi’s Court. İslâm medeniyetinin vakıf kurumu dâhilinde mütalaa edilen ve Osmanlı öncesi dönemde kurulmaya başlanan nakit para vakıfları (vakf-ı nükûd Osmanlı Devleti’nin farklı coğrafyalarında tatbik edilmiş uygulamalardan biridir. Kıbrıs’ın Osmanlı toprakları arasına katılmasının üzerinden yarım asır geçmeden, XVII. yüzyıl başlarında Kıbrıs’ta da para vakıflarının kurulmuş olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Kıbrıs’taki ilk örnekleri XVII. yüzyıl başlarında görülen para vakıfları XVIII. ve XIX. yüzyıllarda da kurum olarak varlığını sürdürmüş ve birçok para vakfı kurulmuştur. Hem kadınlar hem de erkekler tarafından kurulan nakit para vakıfları genel olarak “muamele-i şer‘iyye” yoluyla işletilmişlerdir. Çalışmamızın amacı, XVIII. yüzyılın ilk yarısında Kıbrıs’ta kurulmuş olan

  17. Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe

    Nevskaya, N. I.

    "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

  18. 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Rist, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.  .

  19. 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing

    Dobreva, Milena

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which research data is used and handled continue to capture public attention and are the focus of increasing interest. Electronic publishing is intrinsic to digital data management, and relevant to the fields of data mining, digital publishing and social networks, with their implications for scholarly communication, information services, e-learning, e-business and the cultural heritage sector. This book presents the proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing (ELPUB), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in June 2014. The conference brings together researchers and practitioners to discuss the many aspects of electronic publishing, and the theme this year is 'Let's put data to use: digital scholarship for the next generation'. As well as examining the role of cultural heritage and service organisations in the creation, accessibility, duration and long-term preservation of data, it provides a discussion forum for the appraisal, citation and licensing of research data and the n...

  20. XVIII-XIX. Y��zyılın İlk Yarısında Gebze Menzilhanesi Gebze Range Area (Menzilhane During First Half Of The 18th-19th Centuries

    Yaşar BAŞ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To meet communication and accommodation needs, variousfacilities and organizations were created in the past times. One of themis range organizations and range areas. This organization played animportant role in such matters as communication, transportation,lodging, recreation and pet supplies. During the Ottoman Period,especially the vizier of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, Lutfi Pasha,developed the organization and ascribed it to certain principles.Towards the end of 17th century, the structure of the sameorganization, administration and operation were harmonized withconditions of the day. Accordingly, besides the existing range areas ofAnatolia and Rumelia side, new range areas were periodically opened.Among the centers concerned, those united the intersection of the mainroads and centrally located at the intersections and close to the bigcities gained importance. In this regard, Gebze Range Area had been themost important institution of its kind in Anatolia. Due to its centrallocation, it served as a messenger, pilgrimage and excursion range. Butits feature of being a range area of messenger came to the fore. It is alsofeatured to be a place used by civilians. In this capacity, besides servingas a range service, its foundation is supposedly estimated to be at theend of the 17th century. Taking into consideration the need of the newsystem and period of Tanzimat Reforms of Administration, it began tobe administered in the form of post office given in trust or lease fromthis period of time. However, it partly maintained its old system and thegovernment shape. From its establishment till its closure, it welcomed alarge group of charge and visitors. Plenty of registration documents andfiles about it were reached so far. Because of the importance ofmessenger, pilgrimage and excursion, they were worth being checkedout. It was abolished on 27 October 1862 and was transferred to thetreasury income by inventory stock sale. Haberleşme ve konaklama

  1. A Brief History of Linguistics before 18th Century

    李亦松

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction Linguistics can be simply defined as the scientific study of language.Therefore,a history of linguistics is closely related to the origin of human language.This paper,in a rough way,classifies history of linguistics into three periods:Linguistics in Ancient Times;Linguistics in the Middle Ages;and Linguistics in the

  2. Dance music of the 16th-18th Centuries

    Freemanová, Michaela

    Praha: Národní galerie v Praze, 2008 - (Rousová, A.), s. 91-99 ISBN 978-80-7035-395-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : dance * festivities * music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  3. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...

  4. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel...

  5. 17-18世纪的荷兰-印尼-中国贸易与多元文化交流%The Triangle Trade and the Pluralistic Cultural Exchange Among Holland, Indonesia and China in the 17-18th Centuries

    贺圣达

    2015-01-01

    欧亚新航线在16世纪开辟以后,传统的海上丝绸之路延伸到了西欧,给东西方贸易与多元文化交流带来了新的活力和内容.在17—18世纪的东西方贸易与多元文化交流中,欧洲新兴的资本主义国家荷兰发挥了重要作用,其中一个重要的方面是荷兰东印度公司立足印尼的爪哇尤其是巴达维亚(雅加达)与中国开展贸易,巴达维亚(雅加达)在17—18世纪的荷兰—印尼—中国贸易与多元文化交流中具有重要地位.在当时的历史条件下,这种贸易承载了文化交流的内容,开启了荷兰—印尼—中国贸易与多元文化交流尤其是荷兰与中国之间文化交流的进程.17世纪到18世纪上半叶,荷兰人在促进中国与西欧的物质文化交流、把大量茶叶和瓷器输入西欧、影响西欧人的社会生活以及介绍当时的中国国情方面,都发挥了重要的作用.另一方面,由于交往性质和方式的局限以及制度、文化、语言等方面的差异与隔阂,当时荷兰与中国的文化交流受到多种因素制约,精神文化的交流相当有限,尽管荷兰人对中国已有比较多的了解,荷兰在文化上对于中国人来说还是一个陌生的国度.%Since the Europe-Asia Sea Route had been opened up,the traditional Maritime Silk Road extended to Western Europe, which brought new energy and contents to the East-West trade and pluralistic cultural exchange.In the communication of business and pluralistic cultural exchange between the East and West from 17th to 18th century,Holland,an emerging capitalist country,played a special and important role,one important aspect of which was that Holland took the Dutch East India Company as a base located in Java,Indonesia,and conducted trade with China,especially Batavia,which played an important part in promoting the multicultural exchange among Holland,Java (Indonesia)and China.The Dutch played important roles in exporting a

  6. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...... development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...

  7. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  8. Weekly Report for June 18th-22nd

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the week June 18th-22nd,the Mainland stock markets showed a flat while the Hong Kong Hang Seng Index hit its new historical high. The index of Shanghai Stock decreased 1% weekly and that of Shenzhen Stock enjoyed a weekly increase of 0.2%.

  9. Translation of, Introduction to and Studies on The Book of Odes and Hymns by the French Missionary Sinologists in the 18th Century, with such Examples as Joseph Marie de Prémare, Joachim Bouvet and Pierre-Martial Cibot%18世纪法国传教士汉学家对《诗经》的译介与研究--以马若瑟、白晋、韩国英为例

    钱林森

    2015-01-01

    The transmission westward of Chinese classical poetry into France and Europe benefited from the translation and introduction by the missionary sinologists in the 18th century who were knowledgeable about and versed in both the Chinese language and literature. This article, with the translated version of The Book of Odes and Hymns, by Jesuit missionaries who came to China such as Joseph Marie de Prémare(1666-1735), Joachim Bouvet(1656-1730)and Pierre-Martial Cibot (1727-1780), conducts an analysis of and reading into the translated version and finds how the success of the translation was affected by the evangelical tenets of the translators in the initial period in which The Book of Odes and Hymns found its way westward to France(Europe)as well as the characteristics of how Chinese poetry(and literature)developed along with the generative development of the missionary sinologists in the 18 th century as it spread westward to France and Europe.%中国古典诗歌西传法国和欧洲,得益于18世纪知识渊博、汉学水平、文学造诣俱佳的传教士汉学家率先译介与引进。本文仅以来华耶稣会士马若瑟(Joseph Marie de Prémare,1666-1735)、白晋(Joachim Bouvet,1656-1730)、韩国英(Pierre-Martial Cibot,1727-1780)神父译介《诗经》为例,对其诗译文本进行举证考析、解读,便可见出,《诗经》西渐法国(欧洲)初期,如何受制于译介者的传教布道的宗旨而形成其诗译的成败得失,以及中国诗歌(文学)西传法国和欧洲旅程中如何伴随18世纪传教士汉学的生成、发展而发展的某些特点。

  10. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of...... development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers on...

  11. Le roman anglais du XVIIIe siècle à l’opéra : la sentimentalité, Pamela et The Maid of the Mill The 18th-century Novel as Opera: Sentimentality, Pamela and The Maid of the Mill

    Michael Burden

    2011-12-01

    late 18th-century culture that it has been used as a means to define it as an ‘age’. Among the most important formative work in this ‘sentimental’ style is Richardson’s novel, Pamela, that came to the attention of the writer Isaac Bickerstaffe (1733?-1808 who re-worked it as an English opera, remarking that the piece ‘however trifling in other circumstances, was the first sentimental drama that had appeared on the English stage for forty years’. The work set to music by Samuel Arnold (1740-1802, was representative of a new musical genre, the pastiche opera that incorporated the music of others. From a musical point of view, the opera is not hugely important; in modern day terms, the lack of a single identifiable composer or compositional aesthetic makes it a problematical artistic object to assess today. And yet the very simplicity of the music was the defining attribute that allowed the ‘sentimentality’ of the story to shine through, and did herald a new genre in English opera, the pastiche. This article will argue that the very particular circumstances of an English performance played a vital role in the development of sentimental opera in London.

  12. Essays on the history of brazilian dipterology: III. Three remarkable notices from the 18th century, mainly related to myiasis-producing flies (Cochliomyia and Dermatobia Ensaios sobre a história da dipterologia brasileira: III. Três notáveis notícias do século XVIII, principalmente relacionadas a moscas produtoras de miíases (Cochliomyia e Dermatobia

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper registers reports about dipterans made by three Portuguese who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Luiz Gomes Ferreira, in his book "Erário mineral" ["Mineral revenue"], wrote curious passages related with myiasis-causing flies of the genus Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registered, in Latin verses, the folklore for curing myiases caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, in the last of his twenty letters dealing with several aspects of life in Brazil, made reference to horseflies, human bot flies and mosquitos.Este trabalho registra notícias sobre dípteros feitas por três portugueses que moraram no Brasil durante o século XVIII. Luiz Gomes Ferreyra, em seu livro "Erário mineral", escreveu curiosas passagens principalmente relacionadas com moscas causadoras de miíases do gênero Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registrou, em versos em Latim, o folclore para curar bicheiras causadas por Cochliomyia hominivorax no gado. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, na última de suas vinte cartas sobre vários aspectos da vida no Brasil, fez referência a mutucas, bernes e mosquitos.

  13. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  14. 18th and 19th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Patel, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures in particular. The application-related contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research; innovative fields such as coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations are highlighted. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 18th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in October 2013 and subsequent Workshop of the same name held at Tohoku University in March 2014.  

  15. 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    This volume features papers from the 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, held by the University of Zaragoza in collaboration with the Spanish Association of Project Management and Engineering (AEIPRO). It illustrates the state of the art in this emerging area. Readers will discover ways to increase the effectiveness of project engineering as well as the efficiency of project management. The papers, written by international researchers and professionals, cover civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, safety, labor risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Overall, this book contributes to the improvement of project engineering research and enhances the transfer of results to the job of project engineers and project managers around the world. It will appeal to all professionals in the field as well as researchers and teachers involved in the traini...

  16. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  17. An approach to the foreign officer profile in the Spanish army of the 18th Century: the early training of Lieutenant General Alejandro O’reilly (1723-1794 Una aproximación al modelo del oficial extranjero en el ejército borbónico: la etapa de formación del teniente general Alejandro O’reilly (1723-1794

    Óscar RECIO MORALES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Irish-born Lieutenant General Alejandro O’Reilly (1723-1794 is one of the most controversial figures of Eighteenth-Century Spain. Already at the time he was branded as a mercenary, a parvenu and the king’s favourite. Historiography added to his name adjectives like Bloody O’Reilly or General Desastre. Over the years this reputation has not been accompanied by a better understanding of his figure. This contribution examines his early years of training, starting with his departure from Ireland in the early 1730s to enter the royal army with two of his brothers, until his return to Madrid in 1760 after participating as a military observer in Central Europe. These are unknown years, but they are essential to explain the different instruments that allowed O’Reilly to become the «king’s agent», such as his own merits, kinship, friendship, patronage, fellowship and professional endogamy. O’Reilly’s career allows us to approach a characteristic professional profile of Bourbon Spain, that is, the senior officers of foreign origin who occupied the highest military ranks and political positions in the 18th Century Spanish Empire.Alejandro O’Reilly (1723-1794 es una de las figuras más controvertidas del XVIII español. En su época fue tachado de mercenario, advenedizo y favorito del rey, y la historiografía unió su apellido a sonoros adjetivos como bloody O’Reilly o General Desastre. Con el paso de los años esta notoriedad no ha venido acompañada de un mejor conocimiento de su figura. Esta contribución examina sus primeros años de formación, desde su salida de Irlanda a principios de la década de 1730 para ingresar en los ejércitos reales, hasta su regreso a Madrid en 1760 tras su participación como observador militar en Centroeuropa. Esta etapa resulta fundamental para explicar los distintos instrumentos que permitieron a O’Reilly convertirse en «agente del rey», como sus méritos propios, el parentesco, la amistad, el

  18. 18th Stage of the 2004 Tour de France

    Relations with the Hosts States Service

    2004-01-01

    Haute-Savoie / Pays de Gex 23 July 2004 On Friday 23 July 2004, the 18th stage of the Tour de France cycle race will be departing from Annemasse (Haute-Savoie) and heading for Lons-le-Saunier (Jura), passing through Archamps, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Collonges, Farges, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, Thoiry, Sergy, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Chevry, Gex et Mijoux, inter alia (a detailed itinerary with approximate passage times can be found on http://www.letour.fr/2004/us/index.html). This event is likely to cause numerous disruptions to local traffic, as the roads used by the race will be closed to all vehicles except those bearing the official race insignia: 90 minutes before the first rider comes through; up to 15 minutes after the police vehicle bearing the ' fin de course ' sign has driven through. Furthermore, there will be no access to the centre of Saint-Genis-Pouilly from about 12.30 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. As a result, you are strongly advised to take these difficulties into account when making any car journeys ...

  19. P.P. Shcherbinin, Voennyi factor v povsednevnoi zhizni russkoi zhenshcheny v XVIII—nachale XX v. [The Military Factor in the Daily Life of Russian Women from the 18th to the 20th Centuries],Tambov, Izdatel’stvo Iulis, 2004, 507 pages.

    Steinberg, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of war and military service on the daily lives of women from the eighteenth century to the end of the Imperial period is the topic that Shcherbinin brings to light in this path breaking study. This topic has not been studied in historiography hence the author takes on an enormously significant task, considering the role of the military in Imperial society, with firm authority through his extensive yet judicious use of sources. Because of his comprehensive bibliography, readers can ...

  20. P.P. Shcherbinin, Voennyi factor v povsednevnoi zhizni russkoi zhenshcheny v XVIII—nachale XX v. [The Military Factor in the Daily Life of Russian Women from the 18th to the 20th Centuries],Tambov, Izdatel’stvo Iulis, 2004, 507 pages.

    John W. Steinberg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of war and military service on the daily lives of women from the eighteenth century to the end of the Imperial period is the topic that Shcherbinin brings to light in this path breaking study. This topic has not been studied in historiography hence the author takes on an enormously significant task, considering the role of the military in Imperial society, with firm authority through his extensive yet judicious use of sources. Because of his comprehensive bibliography, readers can ...

  1. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  2. Art history: formation of the academic discipline in Europe, and related developments in Greece (18th-19th c. Rethymnon (3-4 October, 2014

    Annie Malama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Academic Forum with the title Art history: formation of the academic discipline in Europe and related developments in Greece (18th-19th centuries, co-organised by the Association of Greek Art Historians and the Institute for Mediterranean Studies – FORTH, took place at the Institute’s premises in Rethymnon, Crete on Friday, 3rd and Saturday, 4th October 2014. Its central aim was to explore the ways in which the academic and research fields of art history had been formed from the late 18th century and continued to develop up to the beginning of the 20th century; the meeting actually functioned as a workshop charting the current status of art historiography research in Greece and the rest of Europe.

  3. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  4. Estratégia e adaptabilidade alimentares na América Portuguesa do século XVIII: alguns casos monçoeiros - 10.4025/dialogos.v14i2.463 Alimentary strategy and adaptability in 18th century Luso-America: some expedition cases - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v14i2.463 Estrategia y adaptabilidad alimenticias em la América Portuguesa del siglo xviii: algunos casos “monzónicos”

    Christian Fausto Moraes dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Várias foram as intempéries e adversidades enfrentadas pelos primeiros colonizadores da América Portuguesa que se aventuraram pelas regiões inexploradas desta colônia de Portugal. Além do clima, geografia, fauna e flora completamente novos, o colonizador tinha ainda de adaptar-se a uma nova dieta, que não somente pudesse suprir os gastos calóricos resultantes de um desgaste físico constante, mas que também se adaptasse, enquanto gênero alimentício cultivável, ao solo e clima da Colônia e ainda se conservasse o maior tempo possível, servindo de alimento durante expedições e viagens que podiam durar meses. A partir de tal enfoque pretende-se aqui, através da análise de relatos e diários de viagem, discutir as estratégias referentes à alimentação dos colonizadores durante tais empreitadas, sobretudo daqueles que se aventuraram nas expedições que, durante o século XVIII, saiam da Capitania de São Paulo com destino às recém-descobertas minas de ouro na região de Cuiabá.The first settlers underwent several adversities while venturing into the unexplored regions of this colony of Portugal. In addition to a completely new climate, geography, fauna and flora, settlers had to adapt to a new diet that could not only supply their caloric needs resulting from constant physical strain, but which could also adjust to the soil and climate of the colony and withstand expeditions and journeys that could last months. From that viewpoint, this work aims to discuss – through reports and travel diaries – the strategies regarding the diet of settlers during these journeys, particularly those who ventured in the expeditions departing from the capitaincy of São Paulo for the recently discovered golf mines in the Cuiabá region during the 18th century.Varias fueron las intemperies y adversidades enfrentadas por los primeros colonizadores de la América Portuguesa que se aventuraron por las regiones inexploradas de esta colonia. Adem

  5. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  6. La transformation des Landes de Gascogne (18e-19e, de la mise en valeur comme colonisation intérieure ? The transformation of the Moors of Gascony (18th-19th centuries, development as interior colonization? A transformação da Landas da Gasconha (séculos 18 e 19, o desenvolvimento pela colonização interna?

    Julien Aldhuy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’on évoque la mise en valeur des Landes de Gascogne, on pense à la transformation de cette région au 19e siècle par l’extension d’un boisement de pins maritimes suite à un drainage systématique. Cette simplification héritée de l’histoire de l’affirmation de l’Etat-Nation français soulève deux problèmes. Premièrement, elle réduit la transformation des Landes de Gascogne à une histoire locale décontextualisée par rapport aux idées et aux enjeux de l’époque. Deuxièmement, une telle réduction favorise une lecture désocialisée de la production de cet espace car, de la transformation des Landes de Gascogne, on ne retient que les moyens de l’action (le drainage et son résultat (la forêt de pin. Une telle posture implique une vision dénuée d’acteurs et de rapports de domination entre ceux qui disqualifient l’espace et justifient l’action compensatrice et ceux qui l’habitent. Nous montrerons dans cet article qu’une fois mis en contexte dans le concert des idées de l’époque et une fois la place de ses acteurs restituée, la mise en valeur des Landes de Gascogne peut être envisagée comme une forme de colonisation intérieure.When one evokes the development of the Moors of Gascony, one thinks of the transformation of this area at the 19th century by a forestation with maritime pines thanks to a systematic drainage. This simplification inherited of the history of the French Nation-State raises two problems. Firstly, it reduces the transformation of the Moors of Gascony to a decontextualized local history, without links with the ideas and the stakes of the time. Secondly, such a reduction supports a dissocialized reading of the production of this space because, one only retains the means of the action (the drainage and its result (the forest of pine. Such a posture implies a vision devoid of actors and of relationship of domination between those which disqualify space and justify the compensation

  7. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  8. Translation Studies and the History of Science: The Greek Textbooks of the 18th Century

    Petrou, Georgia

    2006-01-01

    The process of translation has been studied extensively from a philological point of view, and has been lately regarded as a creative activity, during which the translated text is not treated in isolation from the circumstances of its reception. Current research has related communicational and functional approaches with concepts such as…

  9. The birth of the most important 18th century dental text: Pierre Fauchard's Le Chirurgien Dentiste.

    Spielman, Andrew I

    2007-10-01

    Pierre Fauchard (1678-1761) is considered the father of modern dentistry. His seminal book, Le Chirurgien Dentiste, ou Traité des Dents (1728), is the discipline's first complete work. During the five years preceding its publication (1723-1728), Pierre Fauchard sought the opinions, contributions, and "approbation" (approval) of 19 of his colleagues: six physicians, 12 surgeons, and one dentist. The first and most important contributor to the manuscript was Jean Devaux, surgeon and mentor to Fauchard. The next six reviewers were illustrious physicians and scientists of the time: Philippe Hecquet, Jean-Claude Adrien Helvetius, Jean Baptiste Silva, Antoine DeJussieu, Raymond Jacob Finot, and Antoine Benignus Winslow. The subsequent 12 reviewers were all sworn-surgeons (certified by St. Côme), including a lone dentist, Laudumiey, surgeon-dentist to His Majesty, Philip V, King of Spain. Fauchard knew that for dentistry to be regarded as a learned profession, and perhaps for Fauchard to be recognized as its leader, he needed the support and approval of the establishment before publishing his book. This is an account of how he attained this endorsement. PMID:17890667

  10. Analysis of lead ingots from an 18th century shipwreck near Poompuhar

    Nair, R.R; Parthiban, G.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_2_114.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_2_114.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Sport Education at Russian High Schools (from 18th to 21st century)

    Elena KOMOVA; Litvinov, Sergey; Anna SKOTNIKOVA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the origin of Sport Education in Russian secondary educational establishments from its beginning to the present day. Sport Education in Russia was closely connected with the state demands in the various fields, especially in health protection, military and naval. It developed in accordance with the mainstream of education in Russia attracting the European achievements in this sphere. In modern Russia a great attention is paid to school sport on the gover...

  12. PIXE Analysis for the pigment identification in the Nizet manucript (18th century)

    Machowski, Mélanie; Calvo del Castillo, Helena; Oger, Cécile; Chene, Grégoire; Strivay, David

    2013-01-01

    Written in 1740, the Nizet Manuscript is a heraldry book compiling the genealogy of the Nizet family (Verviers, Belgium). It presents a large number of hand-painted heraldries in traditional heraldic colours; the gold- and silver-like colours have undergone alteration and induced the degradation of the paper. The first inspection of the book with a binocular lens and UV-visible spectroscopy has led to the selection of representative points to be studied by PIXE analysis for the different g...

  13. [Exploration of salt in Poland in the second half of the 18th century].

    Danowska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Following the First Partition in 1772, Poland lost the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in the territory of Ruthenia to Austria. This was a serious blow to the economy, because since then, it became necessary to import salt, which was primarily taken advantage of by the Royal Prussian Maritime Trading Company (Pruska Kompania Morska) importing it from Austria. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski tried to initiate the exploration and exploitation of salt in the areas where it could be profitable. To this end, he ordered the exploration to Filip Carosi and Stanislaw Okraszewski, among other. The salt-works of the Castellan of Leukow, Jacek Jezierski in the town of Solca, in the Lqczyckie Region, active since 1780, was a private investment. Leopold von Beust's Kompania akcyjna obtained salt from a brine near the town of Busko, and Kompania z Osob Krajowych--from a brine in the town of Raczki nad Pilica. In 1782, the King appointed The Ore Commission (Komisja Kruszcowa), consisted of twelve commissioners, in order to conduct the exploration for minerals, including salt, their extraction and further administration. The Crown Treasury Commission (Komisja Skarbu Koronnego), a magistracy dealing with, among others, the economy of the country in a broad sense, was also involved in the exploration and exploatation of salt. At its command, in the summer of 1788, Tadeusz Czacki made a tour of the Kielce region in search of traces of salt. In view of the important events of the Four-Year Sejm (Sejm Czteroletni) and the subsequent loss of independence, the subject of salt exploration had to be abandoned. PMID:25675732

  14. Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of an 18th Century Steel Arch Bridge

    Within the 'Oran-Tlemcen' railway line realization project (159 km), several bridges were built by the Railroads Algerian West Company. 7 km from the east of Tlemcen city, this railway line must cross a very broken mountainous collar, that's why the French engineer 'Gustave Eiffel' was solicited to construct a 68 m length bridge. In 1890, an arch steel truss bridge was realized. The bridge presents 300 m of apron curvature radius and, currently, is considered as one of the most important monuments of the Algerian historical heritage. Considering the age of the bridge and the evolution of the railway loads in time, it was essential to check the good behavior of the studied structure. For that, analyses to verify the physical and mechanical properties of the growth iron members are made. A finite element model of the bridge was built and numerical simulations were drawn. The structural vibration conducted analysis permit to understand the behavior of this particular structure, then to evaluate (in detail) the rate of the structure fatigue

  15. Women, Families and Social Welfare in Spain from the 18th Century to the Present

    Juan Gracia Cárcamo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a contribution to the debate on the development of Social Welfare in Southern Europe. Emphasis is placed on factors such as educational formation of women for their task of responsibility for welfare and care within the families; this made possible improvements in Public Health. We note the relevance of women in the charitable activities of the public sphere grew paradoxically through reactionary movements. Emphasis is placed on the importance of women in Social Welfare during the Catholic Revival as receivers of charity (in Christian trade unions, in catholic mutual aid societies…, as intermediaries for poor families (facing priests, nuns and charitable ladies, as assistants (teachers in religious schools and nurses in hospitals and as leaders (Catholic ladies. There was an increase during the Francoist dictatorship in the participation of women in the reception, intermediation and offer of charity (in groups closer to fascism and in Catholic organisations.

  16. Preliminary observations on an 18th-century wreck at Poompuhar (east coast of India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Saxena, M.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    equipment and the second comprised visual inspection by diving. The study shows that the wreck is 200 years old and appears to be of moderate size and 50 m long. Its locating suggests Danish nationality and it possibles belongs to East India Company....

  17. Brazilian landscape perception through literary sources (16th-18th centuries)

    Rodrigues, Ana Duarte

    2015-01-01

    This study is focused on the visual perceptions of Brazilian landscapes since Pêro Vaz de Caminha first described it until 1800, based on some texts and manuscripts held at the National Library of Portugal. A comparative methodology was used: descriptions of natural and cultivated landscapes found in these texts were compared with the descriptions of some of the most famous and studied texts and with iconographic sources of the same period. The different travellers evaluated and described the...

  18. Traditional diet and its transformation from the 18th century till the present

    Otčenášek, Jaroslav

    Prague : Institute of Ethnology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2013, s. 8-15. ISBN 978-80-87112-80-9 Grant ostatní: Central Europe-ERDF(XE) 3CE296P4 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. A Swedish female folk healer from the beginning of the 18th century

    Carl-Martin Edsman

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharina Fagerberg was a tailor's daughter from Marbäck in Småland, South-Sweden, where she was born in 1700. For a period of seven years she was afflicted with severe vexations of spirit, and was visited by blasphemous and murderous thoughts. In January, 1727, physical weakness set in; she had a stitch in her side and other troubles that kept her sleepless for eleven weeks. For a while they stopped, but on Easter Monday while in church Catharina experienced great difficulty in breathing and mental agony. On the 5th of August, 1727, as Catharina was sitting at her loom she had an attack of yawning and convulsions felt in an unusual state, and then was addressed by a 'good spirit', but from inside her and without her perceiving any voice: "You are puzzled by this yawning. I want now to tell you what is the matter with you, namely, that several unclean spirits dwell in your body and cause your illness and your pains”. She devoted herself to steady prayer and Bible-reading.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

  1. The Potash Industry in Bohemia and Moravia in the 18th and 19th Centuries

    Woitsch, Jiří

    Helsinki : IEHA, 2006 - (McInnis, M.), s. 1-31 [International Economic History Congress /14./. Helsinki (FI), 21.08.2006-25.08.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : potash industry * economic history * Bohemia and Moravia * chemical industry * forest exploitation * early modern period Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.helsinki.fi/iehc2006/papers1/Woitsch.pdf

  2. Thomas Taylor’s dissent from some 18th-century views on Platonic philosophy

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    that Neoplatonic readings of Plato are erroneous by definition. In particular, it argues that the reviewer relied on, and tacitly accepted, ethical and theological premises going back to the historiography of philosophy developed by Jacob Brucker in his Historia critica philosophiae (1742-44). These...... premises were an integral part of Brucker’s Lutheran religiosity and thus theologically and ethically biased. If these premises are identified, articulated and discussed critically — which they have not been so far in connection with Taylor’s reception — it becomes less obvious that the reviewer was...... justified in his assumption that the Neoplatonic reading was erroneous by definition. This, in turn, leaves Taylor’s Plato interpretation in a more respectable position...

  3. Franciscan missions to China and the Czech Crown lands (from the 16th century to the 18th century)

    Liščák, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2014), s. 529-541. ISSN 0044-8699 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Catholic missionaries * Franciscan missions * the Czech Crown lands * Bohemian Franciscan Province * China Subject RIV: AB - History

  4. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  5. Proceedings of the 18th Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science

    Delany, Sarah Jane; Madden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers that were accepted for publication at AICS-2007, the 18th Annual Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, which was held in the Dublin Institute of Technology; Dublin, Ireland; on the 29th to the 31st August 2007. AICS is the annual conference of the Artificial Intelligence Association of Ireland (AIAI).

  6. A Note on the 18th Party Congress of the CCP

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    The 18th Party Congress was more dramatic than anticipated due to the completely non-transparent process of selecting new leaders as well as a number of scandals involving leaders competing for the top posts. This contrasts with 2002 when Hu Jintao became secretary general in a comprehensive change...

  7. 18th National Economics Symposium: Savings, Sustainable Growth and Technological Development

    DEMİREL, Selim Koray

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the evaluation of the 18th National Economics Symposium: Savings, Sustainable Growth and Technological Development held in Konya will be mentioned.Keywords. Sustainable growth, Technological development, Economic confidence, National Economics Symposium, Konya.JEL. E21, O30, O40.

  8. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  9. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade Oracle HR application won't be available from Wednesday 16th May evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ...and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  10. Various administrative services and AIS applications unavailable on Friday 18th May 2007

    AIS Administrative Information Services

    2007-01-01

    Due to a major upgrade the Oracle HR application will not be available from Wednesday 16th May in the evening until Sunday 20th May. For that reason, various administrative services won't offer full service or will even be closed on Friday 18th May 2007. These services include: Users' Office Registration Office (building 55) Records Office (HR) ... and others (full list available on http://ais.cern.ch website) We thank you for your understanding. AIS Administrative Information Services ais.support@cern.ch

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN EUROPE IN THE 18TH CENTURY: ECOLE DES ENFANTS DE LANGUE D’ISTANBUL IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1669-1873 XVIII. YÜZYIL AVRUPA’SINDA YABANCI DİL OLARAK TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNİN ÖNEMİ: OSMANLI İMPARATORLUĞU’NDA İSTANBUL FRANSIZ DİL OĞLANLARI OKULU (1669-1873

    Suna TİMUR AĞILDERE

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Söz konusu çalışmamızda, Fransız Hükümeti’nin Doğu dilleri tercümanları yetiştirmek amacıyla 1669’da İstanbul’da kurduğu Doğu Dilleri Oğlanları okulunun yaklaşık olarak bir yüzyıla kadar yayılan tarihi, Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesinde kullanılan yöntemler ve okulun amaç ve hedefleri incelenmiştir. Hiç kuşkusuz adı geçen okul Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesi tarihinin en önemli yapı taşını oluşturmaktadır. Doğu dilleri okulunun en önemli özelliği Fransız uyruklu öğrencilerine küçük yaşlardan itibaren İstanbul’da Türk dili ve kültürünü öğretmektir. Söz konusu öğrenciler ilerleyen yıllarda uluslararası ilişkilerde diplomat ve çevirmen olarak önemli görevler almış ve Osmanlı kültürü ile Avrupa kültürü arasında bir köprü oluşturmuşlardır. This study is intended to analyze the nearly one-century history of the School of Infants of Eastern Languages, which was founded by the French government in Istanbul in 1669 with the aim of training interpreters of eastern languages, and the methods employed to teach Turkish as a foreign language as well as the purposes and targets of the school. Doubtless, the school in question forms the most important cornerstone of the history of teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The most significant quality of the school of eastern languages is that it teaches its students, who are citizens of France, the Turkish culture and language in Istanbul from their early ages onwards. These students have undertaken important tasks and positions in the forthcoming years as diplomats and interpreters in field of international affairs, thus bridging the Ottoman culture and European culture.

  12. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  13. The results of investigation in connection with the 18th Chinese nuclear test

    Concerning the 18th nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China, the results of measurements of radioactivity, etc. in Japan are presented. (1) As for gross beta-radioactivity in upper air, the same level as normal was measured in middle and northern Japan. (2) At monitoring posts, the same level as normal was measured across the country. (3) As for gross beta-radioactivity in rain and dry fallout, 56 pCi/ml was detected in Hachijo Island. (4) As for gross beta-radioactivity in airborne dust, 6.0 pCi/m3 was detected in Fukuoka. (5) As for gross beta-radioactivity in dry fallout the same level as normal was measured. (6) As for the Iodine-131 concentration in fresh milk, 113 pCi/l was detected in Ishikawa Prefecture. (7) Analysis of radionuclides. (8) Data concerning the radioactivity surveillance. (J.P.N.)

  14. The 18th Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine.

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nichols, Steven C

    2011-09-01

    The 18th biennial Congress of ISAM was held for 4 days at the De Doelen Congress Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands, at which approximately 350 delegates, including 60 session chairs and speakers, attended. The abstracts of the 49 podium talks and the 126 posters that were presented have been published in the society's technical journal (journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Delivery), and the detailed program can be found on the ISAM website (www.isam.org). Postgraduate courses on the topics: 'Inhalation Therapy at the Intensive Care Unit'; 'Walking the Standards Maze: Standards for Device Development, Device Performance and Regulatory Approval'; and 'Nuts and Bolts of Aerosol Delivery: Theory, Guidelines and Practice', were offered to participants prior to the Congress itself. PMID:22833908

  15. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  16. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  17. New Words in Americon Feminist Movement (From 18th century to 1920)%New Words in Americon Feminist Movement (From 18th century to 1920)

    孟斐

    2011-01-01

    1. Introduction As we all know, in a broad sense, sex discrimination is a kind of sexual prejudice, which mainly refers to the discrimination against women. This phenomenon exists all over the world and in all aspects of social life, so there is no doubt that there exists bias in English language.

  18. American Education Policy Towards Indian Tribes (the End of the 18th – Beginning of 19th Century

    Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.

  19. Preliminary Report of the AMS analysis of tsunami deposits in Tohoku -- Japan -- 18th to the 21st Century

    Wassmer, P; Hart, D E; Hiraishi, T; Azuma, R; Koenig, B; Trautmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentary records of tsunamis are a precious tool to assess the occurrence of past events, as attested by an abundant literature, which has seen a particular 'boom' in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Despite an extensive literature, there is very little to no understanding of the role that the changing coastal environment is playing on the record of a tsunami, and for a given location, it is still unclear whether the largest tsunamis leave the largest amount of deposits. To research this question, the present study took place in Japan, in the Tohoku Region at Agawa-pond, because the pond act as a sediment trap. Using a sediment-slicer, a 1 m thick deposit was retrieved, from which 4 tsunami sequences were identified, including the latest 2011 tsunami. Using a series of sedimentary proxies: the AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility), grain size analysis, quartz morphoscopy (morphology and surface characteristics) and the analysis of microfossils, disparities b...

  20. The costs and benefits of microfinance. The market for Dutch East India Company transportbriefen in 18th century Amsterdam

    Malinowski, Mikołaj

    2012-01-01

    Transport-letters became a popular financial instrument without a use of a physical collateral and financial journalism. How was it possible for a system of salary loans obtained with the trade in the VOC transport-letters based on the intermediation of a secondary market to work sustainably?’. In order to address this issue, several problems need to be investigated. The first sub-question is: ’how was there a primary market for these instruments possible, i.e. how could they create a credibl...

  1. The hidden and lost Treasury: the 18th Century opera Arias in the Collections ofd ther brothers Hospitallers

    Freemanová, Michaela

    Praha : KLP, 2013 - (Macek, P.; Perutková, J.), s. 223-231 ISBN 978-80-87773-04-8. [Mezinárodní hudebněvědné kolokvium (42.). Brno (CZ), 24.09.2007-26.09.2007] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : opera * Italy * Brothers Hospitallers Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. BOGATYR’S IMAGE IN THE 18TH-CENTURY RUSSIAN LITERATURE: GAVRILA DERZHAVIN’S "OPERA" "DOBRYNYA"

    Zakharova O. V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literary transformation of an epic text. The author glorifies conversion of the Rus’ from paganism to Christianity, humbling the Serpent and the sacrificers.

  3. Tracing a middle class: an inquiry on the Ottoman city of Kayseri 17th and 18th centuries

    Ceylan, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a definition of an early modern ''Ottoman middle class'' in the context of Kayseri through an examination of the changing consumption patterns. Whether the ''middling sort'' constituted a distinctive social group in regards to their consumption habits and material well-being, and whether class boundaries can be defined in the basis of the amount of personal consumption goods possessed, are the main questions dealt with. The data examined in this study...

  4. Introducing borrowings in the late 18th century : the Estonian translation of a Swedish cookbook by Cajsa Warg / Raimo Raag

    Raag, Raimo, 1953-

    2002-01-01

    Rootsi kokaraamatu tõlkest eesti keelde ja selle osast eesti keele arengus: Warg, Christina. Köki ja Kokka Ramat, mis Rootsi kelest Eesti-ma Kele üllespandud on / [tlk. Johann Luthander]. Tallinn : [s.n.], 1781

  5. The power of laughter: humor, violence and consensus in New Spain. 17th and 18th centuries

    Sonya Lipsett-Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Joking and teasing permeated all aspects of life in New Spain. Using court records from Mexico City and its surrounding communities, this article explores the ways that laughter was deployed within New Spain’s culture of masculinity. Humor was both a means for to relate to each other but also to mark differences. It was a normal part of the day to day interactions of men in New Spain between friends who joked and teased but it could also fall flat when one person did not have the right tone. ...

  6. The power of laughter: humor, violence and consensus in New Spain. 17th and 18th centuries

    Sonya Lipsett-Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joking and teasing permeated all aspects of life in New Spain. Using court records from Mexico City and its surrounding communities, this article explores the ways that laughter was deployed within New Spain’s culture of masculinity. Humor was both a means for to relate to each other but also to mark differences. It was a normal part of the day to day interactions of men in New Spain between friends who joked and teased but it could also fall flat when one person did not have the right tone. Yet the border between joking and insulting comments was imprecise and thus often led to conflicts. Laughter brought people together when they were of the same social class but when it was used in an offensive manner, it was transformed into a weapon to assert social distance. Such humor was also part of seductions and similarly had political overtones when it was used in satirical songs. Humor brought people together and created groups of insiders and outsiders. Laughter was a powerful tool within social interactions and provides an alternate way to understand the culture of masculinity in colonial Mexico.

  7. An Overview of Surveys of Paris Meridian Arc Section Lengths in the 17th and 18th Century

    Miljenko Solarić; Nikola Solarić

    2013-01-01

    A brief introduction is followed by description of the spread of the Paris meridian in France. Following is description of the survey of Paris meridian arc section lengths and production of contemporary maps of France: by Jean Picard, Philippe de la Hire, Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I), Cassini II, Cassini III and Cassini IV.

  8. An Overview of Surveys of Paris Meridian Arc Section Lengths in the 17th and 18th Century

    Miljenko Solarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief introduction is followed by description of the spread of the Paris meridian in France. Following is description of the survey of Paris meridian arc section lengths and production of contemporary maps of France: by Jean Picard, Philippe de la Hire, Jean-Dominique Cassini (Cassini I, Cassini II, Cassini III and Cassini IV.

  9. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold-warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.

  10. Popular beliefs and superstitions in 17th and 18th century Bohemia: common religious practice as reflected in material culture

    Blažková, Gabriela; Omelka, M.; Řebounová, O.

    Istanbul: Archaeology & Art Publications, 2014 - (Yilmaz, Ö.). s. 461 ISBN 978-605-396-287-8. [Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists /20./. 10.09.2014-14.09.2014, Istanbul] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : burial * Post-medieval * Czech Republic * Prague Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology https://www.eaa2014istanbul.org/assets/indirilecekler/2014%20EAA%20abstracts.pdf

  11. The Rationality of «Fanaticism»: Independence, secularisation and education in Colombia,18th to 20th centuries

    Óscar SALDARRIAGA VÉLEZ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the process of secularisation in Colombia from a case study of the liberal educational reform of 1870. It discusses theoretically the versatility of the concept of secularisation and the teleologies of modernity that postulated it as a future destiny. It concludes by arguing a general hypothesis on the structural role of «conciliation» that modern school plays against the demands of the State and the Church in the attempt to control it. Finally, it argues that pedagogical knowledge constitutes a third source of credibility and truth against the two traditional sovereign powers.

  12. Selected drought impacts in South Moravia in the 18th and 20th centuries based on documentary evidence

    Dolák, L.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, H.

    Brno: Global Change Research Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., 2015 - (Urban, O.; Šprtová, M.; Klem, K.), s. 30-33 ISBN 978-80-87902-10-3. [Global Change: A Complex Challenge /4th/. Brno (CZ), 23.03.2015-24.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : South Moravia * human society * water-resources Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. The distribution of silver specimens from the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Norway, 17th and 18th centuries

    Berg, B.I.; Nordrum, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of native silver from the Kongsberg mines in Norway are world famous and have been distributed through sales and gifts during the whole period of mining from 1623 to 1958. Names of customers, the number of sold specimens and their silver content are documented in accounts which are preserv

  14. THE IMAGE OF THE CROSS IN THE HOMILIES OF TRYPHON PETROV, THE OLD BELIEVERS WRITER OF THE 18TH CENTURY

    Ekaterina Dmitrievna Grishkevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the peculiar properties of the style of writing of Tryphon Petrov, the Old Believer writer of the Vyg literary school. The analysis is based on two homilies which are dedicated to the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. The article examines the structure of the homilies, their genre features, meanings and interpretations of the image ofthe cross as well as the form and sources of the texts. The work containscomments on the infl uence of Baroque esthetics and rhetoric on the author’s style of writing. The analysis of the fi rst text is focused on its structure which is inscribed in the symbol of the cross. Listening to the preacher hearers go through the space-time coordinates determined by the cross. The most important in the second homily are the canticles which are a part of the text. They create rhythm and convert the homily into reminiscence of a hymn. The narration of both texts is based on amplifi cation. Th e article resumes the thought that Tryphon Petrov assimilated new trends of his time but he also was continuer of the tradition of patristic eloquence.

  15. Establishment of an absolute chronology for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty

    The establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt is an ambition which has concentrated efforts of many scholars since the beginning of Egyptology. Thanks to historical and archaeological documents, a relative chronology of the kings has been built. Only some astrophysical points and synchronisms listed in texts (Greek and Egyptian sources) have given some ankle points which have led to some propositions of absolute chronology. At first, we will see how we can re-calculate some ankle points by using Sothic dating and modelling lunar dates with a Bayesian approach. Then, radiocarbon measurements have been done at Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (CEA Saclay) on Egyptian short life materials like plants or twigs. These objects come from the Louvre Museum and are attributed to a particular reign and a precise period. With a Bayesian approach, these analyses have been combined with the known succession and length of the reign. Besides, Sothic and lunar dates have been incorporated as a prior in the model. It has led to propose an absolute chronology for the 18th dynasty. Finally, we will discuss the agreement between our results and archaeological evidence and will see if this chronology can highlight points where Egyptologists disagree. (author)

  16. Party’s Control over the State: An Interpretation of the Keynote Political Report to the 18th Party Congress

    JIANTAO; REN

    2013-01-01

    Hu Jintao’s political report to the 18thNational Congress of the Communist Party of China(CPC)shows that China,a particular type of party-state different from any kind of Western political system,is undergoing a tremendous and difficult transition.On one hand,the 18thNational Congress of the CPC reinforced the party-state morphology,and,on the other,we notice that the Party’s state-building has actually developed to an unprecedented level.However,it is believed that the CPC is facing fateful challenges in governing the country.It is therefore extremely important to make adjustments in the political ideas,institutional arrangements and practical measures if the CPC wants to ensure a long-term success.In contrast to the overall political arrangements,specific procedures need to be implemented to achieve the goal of good governance of the CPC.

  17. Regional Differences and Temporal Development of the Nutritional Status in Europe from the 8th century B.C. until the 18th century A.D.

    Köpke, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Doktorarbeit ist die Untersuchung der Nettoernährung der Europäer vom 8. Jh. v.Chr. bis zum 18. Jh. n.Chr., und somit der Versuch erstmals das Desiderat anzugehen, eine Langzeitstudie zum (biologischen) Lebensstandard der Europäer in der Vor- und Frühgeschichte zu erbringen. Die Doktorarbeit basiert auf dem anthropometrischen Ansatz, die Durchschnittskörpergröße als Indikator für die Nettoernährung einer Population zu verwenden. Im Laufe der vergangenen drei Jahrzehnte w...

  18. Review on 18th Revision of 'Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items'

    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) has established a guideline and continued to revise it in accordance with ever-changing international situation and developing technology. The Part 1 of guideline, 'Guidelines of Nuclear Transfers' covers the Trigger List items which triggers safeguards as a condition of supply. Currently NSG has published the 12th revised guideline (INFCIRC/254/Rev.12/Part1) in November 2013. Korean government fully reflected the guideline to its national legislation to implement in accordance with internationally agreed standard. The export control of nuclear strategic items in Korea is responsibility of Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which entrusted the technical review of the work to Korea Institute of Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). The specific guidelines for the technical review are stipulated in Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items with other strategic items usable to other Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy approved the 18th revision of Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items on 31 January 2014 as Notice no. 2014-15, which strictly follows the NSG guideline. The 18th revision of the notice reflects the final proposals agreed from the last Dedicated Meeting of Technical Experts (DMTE) of NSG's Consultative Group (CG) in April 2013. The 3-year-DMTE offered the 'fundamental, holistic approach to the technical review' within the international framework of NSG, rather than sporadic endeavors by individual states in the past. The 18th version itself has meaning in that the final products of the international technical review were reflected in the Korean national legislation of nuclear export control. It addressed various changes in control text in technical, contextual, and editorial aspects. The revision is analyzed herein concentrating only on technical and semantic changes in control text

  19. Savor the old flavor at CHICHAHAI and recall the sincere cordial of SCITECH Tower CELEBRATE THE 18TH ANNIVERSARY!

    2005-01-01

      It came to the 18th anniversary of the opening of SCITECH TOWER on September 1,2005,and 18 years ago, during the early years of the reform, the SCITECH TOWER opened its business for foreign companies. The building was the first joint-venture office building of international standard. From that time, the SCITECH TOWER became well known for her first-class service and facilities. 18 years passed, though there is a sharp competition in the office building field, the SCITECH TOWER is still very popular and keeps a very low vacant rate.……

  20. Savor the old flavor at CHICHAHAI and recall the sincere cordial of SCITECH Tower CELEBRATE THE 18TH ANNIVERSARY!

    2005-01-01

    @@ It came to the 18th anniversary of the opening of SCITECH TOWER on September 1,2005,and 18 years ago, during the early years of the reform, the SCITECH TOWER opened its business for foreign companies. The building was the first joint-venture office building of international standard. From that time, the SCITECH TOWER became well known for her first-class service and facilities. 18 years passed, though there is a sharp competition in the office building field, the SCITECH TOWER is still very popular and keeps a very low vacant rate.

  1. Foreword to the Special Issue: Selected papers from the 18th Nuclear Physics Workshop "Marie and Pierre Curie"

    The 18th edition of the Nuclear Physics Workshop "Marie and Pierre Curie" was organized by the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS), Lublin, in collaboration with the Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Strasbourg. The general theme of the workshop was: Nuclear Collective Phenomena, are the most fascinating and most difficult problems of Nuclear Physics. A list of topics which were discussed at the conference included: nuclear vibrations and rotations, large amplitude collective motions, symmetries in nuclear collective models, algebraic description of collective motions, microscopic approaches to collective motion, collective phenomena in nuclear reactions, and collective states and nuclear deformations

  2. For the relief of man’s state or the advancement of national interests? The perception of brazilian nature at the service of nations and humanity in the writings of 18th century travelers - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v14i2.465 For the relief of man’s state or the advancement of national interests? La percepción de la naturaleza brasileña alservicio de las naciones y de la humanidad en los escritos de los viajeros del siglo XVIII For the relief of Man’s state or the advancement of national interests? A percepção da natureza brasileira ao serviço das nações e da humanidade nos escritos dos viajantes do século XVIII - 10.4025/dialogos.v14i2.465

    Ângela Domingues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The text presented herein aims to expand the traditional frontiers of Portuguese and Brazilian historiographies, by proposing a rethinking of Brazil in a realm that goes beyond Atlantic history or studies. Thus, my predominant object of analysis as a source of information are the documents produced by foreign travelers in the Atlantic, whose testimonies I regard as an essential and precious documental repository. I emphasize my approach viewpoint in the descriptions of Brazil throughout 18th century Europe, disseminated through printed copies. This information circulated thanks to a complex structure, consisting of travelers, sailors, businessmen in transit, who became authors of reports and storytellers; by editors, booksellers, engravers, draftsmen, all of whom contributed efficiently to spread the ideals associated with the Century of Lights and to open the Old World to other lands, different seas, new peoples and products.El texto que presento pretende expandir las tradicionales fronteras de las historiografías portuguesa y brasileña, en la medida en que se propone repensar a Brasil en un ámbito que va más allá de la historia atlántica o de los estudios atlánticos. Por lo tanto, mi objeto de análisis predominante son los documentos producidos por viajeros extranjeros que circularon por el Atlántico, fuente documental única y preciosa. Enfatizo mi universo de abordaje en las descripciones de Brasil que llegaban a la Europa del setecientos, diseminadas a través de impresos. Esta información circulaba gracias a una compleja estructura, constituida por viajeros, marineros, hombres de negocios en tránsito, convertidos en autores de relatos y contadores de historias; por editores, libreros, grabadores, impresores y dibujantes que contribuían eficazmente en la difusión de los ideales asociados al Siglo de las Luces y para la apertura del Viejo Mundo a otras tierras, a diferentes mares, a nuevas gentes y productos.O texto que

  3. Preface to the 18th workshop "What comes beyond the standard models", Bled July 11--19, 2015, and links to the talks in the proceedings

    Borstnik, N S Mankoc; Khlopov, M Y; Lukman, D

    2016-01-01

    The contribution contains the preface to the Proceedings to the 18th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, July 11 - 19, 2015, published in Bled workshops in physics, Vol.16, No. 2, DMFA-Zaloznistvo, Ljubljana, Dec. 2015, links to (most of) the published contributions and section (by M.Yu. Khlopov) on VIA at Bled 2015.

  4. NIELS KLIM’S UNDERGROUND JOURNEY. ON REASON AND EQUALITY BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN IN THE LITERARY DISCOURSE OF 18TH CENTURY SCANDINAVIA

    Maria Sibinska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the utopian novel, Niels Klim’s underground journey, written by Ludvig Holberg, an 18thcentury Norwegian-Danish scholar and writer. The Holbergian text deals with several topics typical of the literary discourse of that period: religious tolerance, egalitarianism, the desire for power, and also the encounter between naturalness and non-naturalness, familiarity and foreignness, reality and fantasy. Our attention is drawn to the views on social equality between men and women as they are expressed in the novel. Although Holberg has a dualistic vision of the world, and the opposition between the masculine element and the feminine element is very clear in his texts, his ideas seem to be progressive in contrast with the main-stream ideology of the period. According to him, possessing masculine characteristics – meaning socially desirable ones – (e.g. being reasonable, brave or self-controlled or possessing the opposite, feminine characteristics is not biologically determined. Rather, it is the result of several not always proper social processes such as upbringing and education. It has nothing to do with nature.

  5. The Concept of Virtue in Ukrainian Neo-Latin Еncomiastic Literature (End of the 17th-Beginning of the 18th century

    Giovanna Siedina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article illustrates the ways in which Latin literature is used to express the concept of virtue in Ukrainian Neo-Latin eulogistic poetry and prose devoted, respectively, to a representative of military-political power (hetman I. Mazepa and of religious-ecclesiastical authority ( J. Krokovs’kyj. From the textual analysis, it emerges that moral virtues are given preeminence over military power and its victories. The texts analysed also stress the need for moral virtues (among which wisdom, sincere religious feeling, prudence, magnanimity for all achievements, in the fields of religion, education and culture, as well as for conquering and exercising power. The author stresses quotations from Latin and Neo-Latin authors that poets and orators adduce to demonstrate the above-mentioned thesis. She also throws light on how literary reminiscences are used, on the one hand, to ‘validate’ what is being asserted, on the other, to demonstrate that the ‘truths’ expressed by the Classical authors cited have found living ‘incarnation’, as it were, in one’s own time and one’s own culture. Although the issue requires further in-depth analysis, the concept of virtue that emerges from the texts analysed seems to reflect a marked consonance, on the one hand, with that tendency of Renaissance philosophy that associated speculative wisdom with moral virtue and civic action, on the other with the Erasmian definition of virtue as virtus cum eruditione liberali coniuncta, which Rice defines as the “one idea of wisdom peculiarly characteristic of the Renaissance”.

  6. “Liberty, a Priceless Gift”: On the Formation of the Republican Concept of Liberty in Late 18th Century Russia

    Bugrov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the elements of classical republicanism in the key texts of the late period of Catherine the Great’s Russia: A Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow by Alexander Radishchev and Vadim of Novgorod by Yakov Knyazhnin. The major elements of the republican style in both texts are the figures of Cato and Brutus, the recognition of the military power of republics, the apology of struggle against tyranny and of heroic suicide. This style of political reasoning contributes to the ...

  7. The heliospheric Hale cycle over the last 300 years and its implications for a "lost" late 18th century solar cycle

    Owens, Mathew J.; McCracken, Ken G.; Lockwood, Mike; Barnard, Luke

    2015-09-01

    A Hale cycle, one complete magnetic cycle of the Sun, spans two complete Schwabe cycles (also referred to as sunspot and, more generally, solar cycles). The approximately 22-year Hale cycle is seen in magnetic polarities of both sunspots and polar fields, as well as in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth, with odd- and even-numbered solar cycles displaying qualitatively different waveforms. Correct numbering of solar cycles also underpins empirical cycle-to-cycle relations which are used as first-order tests of stellar dynamo models. There has been much debate about whether the unusually long solar cycle 4 (SC4), spanning 1784-1799, was actually two shorter solar cycles combined as a result of poor data coverage in the original Wolf sunspot number record. Indeed, the group sunspot number does show a small increase around 1794-1799 and there is evidence of an increase in the mean latitude of sunspots at this time, suggesting the existence of a cycle "4b". In this study, we use cosmogenic radionuclide data and associated reconstructions of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) to show that the Hale cycle has persisted over the last 300 years and that data prior to 1800 are more consistent with cycle 4 being a single long cycle (the "no SC4b" scenario). We also investigate the effect of cycle 4b on the HMF using an open solar flux (OSF) continuity model, in which the OSF source term is related to sunspot number and the OSF loss term is determined by the heliospheric current sheet tilt, assumed to be a simple function of solar cycle phase. The results are surprising; Without SC4b, the HMF shows two distinct peaks in the 1784-1799 interval, while the addition of SC4b removes the secondary peak, as the OSF loss term acts in opposition to the later rise in sunspot number. The timing and magnitude of the main SC4 HMF peak is also significantly changed by the addition of SC4b. These results are compared with the cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of HMF and historical aurora records. These data marginally favour the existence of SC4b (the "SC4b" scenario), though the result is less certain than that based on the persistence of the Hale cycle. Thus while the current uncertainties in the observations preclude any definitive conclusions, the data favour the "no SC4b" scenario. Future improvements to cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of the HMF, through either improved modelling or additional ice cores from well-separated geographic locations, may enable questions of the existence of SC4b and the phase of Hale cycle prior to the Maunder minimum to be settled conclusively.

  8. Furniture and paintings in the houses of the marqueses de Santa Cruz de Marcenado (Asturias between the 17th and 18th centuries

    Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis Ramón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using unpublished archival documents, the author studies and analyses in detail the collections of furniture and paintings left at the time of their deaths by Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa and his daughter Jacinta in their houses in the town of Pola de Siero and the capital, Oviedo (Asturias. Both furniture and paintings were destroyed —or perhaps dispersed— during the Napoleonic Wars, when la Rúa’s house in Oviedo was repeatedly sacked. Nevertheless, the inventories here transcribed perfectly demonstrate the wealth displayed by the Asturian nobility of the period, which can be verified by comparing these inventories with those of other families related to the Vigil de Quiñones, for example the Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

    A través de documentos inéditos de archivo, se analizan y estudian en detalle los conjuntos de muebles y la colección de pintura que quedaron a la muerte de don Sebastián Vigil de Quiñones y la Rúa y de su hija Jacinta, en sus casas de la villa de Pola de Siero y Oviedo (Asturias. Tanto los muebles como los cuadros se destruyeron o quizá dispersaron durante la Guerra de Independencia, cuando la Casa de la Rúa de Oviedo fue saqueada en reiteradas ocasiones. No obstante, los inventarios transcritos en este artículo ilustran perfectamente la riqueza de la que hacía gala en Asturias la nobleza de la época, como se comprueba comparando los inventarios estudiados con los de otras familias emparentadas con los Vigil de Quiñones, por ejemplo los Miranda, marqueses de Valdecarzana.

  9. The School of Praque or Old German Masters. Rudolfine Painting in the Literary and Visual Discourse of the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Vácha, Štěpán

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2014), s. 361-384. ISSN 0044-2992 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13174S Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Rudolfine painting * receptive aesthetic * collecting Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. The naked and the differently clothed : Spanish encounters with native Americans in 18th century explorations of the Pacific Northwest and Southwest

    Herrera Sobek, María

    2010-01-01

    My analysis focuses on the journals of Alejandro Malaspina titled, Alejandro Malaspina: En busca del paso del Pacífico (1990 edition), written during his expeditions to the Pacific Coast of California and the Northwest (Alaska) in 1791, and the diary of Fray Pedro Font edited and translated by Herbert Eugene Bolton as Font’s Complete Diary of the Second Anza Expedition. The edited and translated volume was first published in 1930 and reissued in 1966. The Font diaries record th...

  11. Cannons of the late 18th - early 19th century from he Fortress of Kuressaare and Their Conservation / Jüri Peets

    Peets, Jüri, 1952-

    2013-01-01

    1980. aastatel leiti Kuressaare vallikraavi puhastustöödel 6 malmsuurtükki. Oli selge, et metalli korrosioon ei ole ainult pindmine. Suurtükkide konserveerimine algas 2011. aasta sügisel ja tööd lõpetati 2013. aasta kevadel

  12. Being an Ottoman Vlach: On Vlach identity (Ies), role and status in western parts of the Ottoman Balkans (15th-18th centuries)

    Kursar, Vjeran

    2013-01-01

    Following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, the Vlachs, still a largely nomadic and semi-nomadic population, made special arrangements with the conquerors. They served as a colonising force in newly conquered areas, manning auxiliary military units such as voynuks and martoloses, etc. In exchange, the Ottomans granted the Vlachs wide exemptions and autonomies that made them significantly different from the ordinary subject population – re‘âyâ. During the course of time, with centralisation...

  13. Algunas propuestas didácticas sobre el teatro español del siglo XVIII / Some didactic studies on the Spanish theatre of the 18th century

    Malén Álvarez Franco

    2009-01-01

    Resumen: Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las propuestas didácticas reales llevadas a cabo en distintos institutos de la comunidad extremeña y madrileña en torno al teatro del siglo XVIII. Desde este punto de partida, es nuestra intención proponer nuevas vías de trabajo que no se recogen en los manuales de aula al uso, amplificando de este modo la cultura teatral del alumnado para estos niveles.Abstract: This essay aims to analyze the actual didactic strategies carried out in different se...

  14. The heliospheric Hale cycle over the last 300 years and its implications for a “lost” late 18th century solar cycle

    Owens Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hale cycle, one complete magnetic cycle of the Sun, spans two complete Schwabe cycles (also referred to as sunspot and, more generally, solar cycles. The approximately 22-year Hale cycle is seen in magnetic polarities of both sunspots and polar fields, as well as in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth, with odd- and even-numbered solar cycles displaying qualitatively different waveforms. Correct numbering of solar cycles also underpins empirical cycle-to-cycle relations which are used as first-order tests of stellar dynamo models. There has been much debate about whether the unusually long solar cycle 4 (SC4, spanning 1784–1799, was actually two shorter solar cycles combined as a result of poor data coverage in the original Wolf sunspot number record. Indeed, the group sunspot number does show a small increase around 1794–1799 and there is evidence of an increase in the mean latitude of sunspots at this time, suggesting the existence of a cycle “4b”. In this study, we use cosmogenic radionuclide data and associated reconstructions of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF to show that the Hale cycle has persisted over the last 300 years and that data prior to 1800 are more consistent with cycle 4 being a single long cycle (the “no SC4b” scenario. We also investigate the effect of cycle 4b on the HMF using an open solar flux (OSF continuity model, in which the OSF source term is related to sunspot number and the OSF loss term is determined by the heliospheric current sheet tilt, assumed to be a simple function of solar cycle phase. The results are surprising; Without SC4b, the HMF shows two distinct peaks in the 1784–1799 interval, while the addition of SC4b removes the secondary peak, as the OSF loss term acts in opposition to the later rise in sunspot number. The timing and magnitude of the main SC4 HMF peak is also significantly changed by the addition of SC4b. These results are compared with the cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of HMF and historical aurora records. These data marginally favour the existence of SC4b (the “SC4b” scenario, though the result is less certain than that based on the persistence of the Hale cycle. Thus while the current uncertainties in the observations preclude any definitive conclusions, the data favour the “no SC4b” scenario. Future improvements to cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of the HMF, through either improved modelling or additional ice cores from well-separated geographic locations, may enable questions of the existence of SC4b and the phase of Hale cycle prior to the Maunder minimum to be settled conclusively.

  15. Sacred History for a Central Asian TownSaints, Shrines, and Legends of Origin inHistories of Sayrām, 18th-19th Centuries

    Devin DeWeese

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie les mythes historiques concernant Sayrām, une petite ville du sud de l'actuel Kazakhstan, cas exemplaire de concepts indigènes d'identité communautaire en Asie centrale pré-soviétique. Ces traditions sont conservées dans un ensemble de travaux en turc, sous le titre générique de « Histoire de Sayrām », qui combine une « histoire sacrée » de la ville avec une « géographie sacrée » sous la forme d'un catalogue de mausolées locaux ; ces deux composantes situent ainsi Sayrām à la fois dans le temps et dans l'espace, à l'intérieur d'un univers sacré défini en tant qu'islamique. Elles offrent une vision de la participation de cette ville à un cadre historique déterminé par l'hommage sanctificateur du Prophète Muhammad à Sayrām, et une affirmation de la présence continue et de la protection, à travers leurs mausolées, d'une multitude de saints musulmans (comprenant aussi bien des personnages purement locaux que d'autres bien connus dans le folklore islamique. Ces ouvrages, compilés vraisemblablement au XVIIIe siècle et répandus très largement dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, reflètent souvent d'anciennes traditions narratives évocatrices du rôle de Sayrām au début de l'islamisation de l'Asie centrale. Mais elles montrent également l'importance capitale de la définition par la religion des identités locales et régionales, au sein de la population sédentaire d'Asie centrale, avant les changements induits par la conquête russe, l'établissement du pouvoir soviétique et la formulation des nouvelles identités « nationales » qui perdurent aujourd'hui.

  16. Differentiation between anonymous paintings of the 17th and the early 18th century by composition of clay-based grounds

    Hradil, David; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Švarcová, Silvie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, DEC (2015), s. 8-20. ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-22984S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : paintings * clay-based grounds * X-ray powder micro-diffraction * historical technology Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2014

  17. Private property Rights, legal Enforcement and Economic Prosperity: the fall of early civilized China and the rise of United Kingdom in 18th -19th century

    Rita Yi Man Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Having a glance at the historical sites such as Bing Ma Yung, Great Wall, Forbidden City, watching movies of history about China, flipping pages of stories about ancient China, we can never deny that China was once the most powerful nations. Nevertheless, by the time we are soaking ourselves in these fairy tales, industrial revolutions in countries miles away awoke us: we are no longer the most affluence countries. Well developed private property rights and legal system has provided a superb environment for inventors. Industrial revolutions in UK have broken the dreams of many Chinese.

  18. Private property Rights, legal Enforcement and Economic Prosperity: the fall of early civilized China and the rise of United Kingdom in 18th -19th century

    Rita Yi Man Li

    2009-01-01

    Having a glance at the historical sites such as Bing Ma Yung, Great Wall, Forbidden City, watching movies of history about China, flipping pages of stories about ancient China, we can never deny that China was once the most powerful nations. Nevertheless, by the time we are soaking ourselves in these fairy tales, industrial revolutions in countries miles away awoke us: we are no longer the most affluence countries. Well developed private property rights and legal system has provided a superb ...

  19. Métamorphoses de l’intrigue musicale (XIXe-XXe siècles Metamorphoses of Musical Plot (18th-20th Centuries

    Márta Grabócz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur définit d’abord le cadre narratologique, celui de la narratologie classique, dans le but d’explorer la narrativité en musique. Elle fournit six types de définition en fonction de leur pertinence dans l’analyse musicale. Dans le but de créer une possible correspondance entre la séquence narrative et les sections d’une œuvre musicale, l’auteur introduit la notion de « signification musicale » et ses termes utilisés en musicologie (« topiques » ou « intonations ». Concernant leur mode d’organisation dans une forme musicale, quelques modèles sémiotiques ou narratologiques sont évoqués. Le IIIe chapitre offre les définitions « classiques » de l’intrigue, suivies de deux exemples musicaux : une sonate de Kuhnau (1700 et un mouvement lent d’une symphonie de Mozart (Andante de K. 504 dite de « Prague ». La IVe partie de l’article introduit les définitions « post-classiques » de l’intrigue, en les illustrant avec un exemple de Beethoven (Ouverture Leonore N° 3, op.72A, pour illustrer le suspense et la Vallée d’Obermann de Liszt (pour illustrer le cas d’intrigue appelé « curiosité »..The author defines at first the narratological frame, that of classical narratology, in the aim to explore musical narrativity. She provides six types of definition according to their pertinence in musical analysis. In order to create a possible correspondence between the narrative sequence and the sections of a musical piece, the author introduces the notion of “musical signification” and their terms used in musicology : the category of “topic” and that of “intonation”. As to their modes of organization within a musical form, some semiotic and narrative models are mentioned, those used by different musicologists. The part III provides “classical” definitions of the plot, followed by two musical examples (a “Biblical sonata” by Kuhnau from 1700 and the Andante of the symphony K.504 of Mozart. The part IV of the article presents the ”post-classical” definitions of the plot which will be illustrated by the Overture N° 3 “Leonor” of Beethoven as an example of “suspense”, and by the Vallée d’Obermann of Liszt as an example of “curiosity”.

  20. Chemical characterization of majolica from 14th-18th century production centers on the Iberian Peninsula: a preliminary neutron activation study

    Garcia Iñañez, Javier; Speakman, Robert J.; Buxeda i Garrigós, Jaume; Glascock, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Majolica pottery is one of the most characteristic tableware produced during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Majolica technology was introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by Islamic artisans during Medieval times, and its production and popularity rapidly spread throughout Spain and eventually to other locations in Europe and the Americas. The prestige and importance of Spanish majolica was very high. Consequently, this ware was imported profusely to the Americas during the Spanish Coloni...

  1. Book of Abstracts of 18th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Quo Vadis- Energy in Time of Climate Change

    The 18th Forum of the Croatian Energy Society, titled Quo Vadis Energy in Times of Climate Change, is focused on analysis and thinking about energy sector development in the conditions of dramatically reducing the CO2 and greenhouse gases emissions and in the eve of the Copenhagen Climate Summit. The commitments to radically down size CO2 emissions will change the approach to planning and development of the energy sector. There is high probability that in the time frame of 20 to 30 years a new technology platform will have been introduced through the whole technological cycle, from generation to consumption of energy. It is expected that breakthroughs will be made towards clean and more efficient technologies, but with significantly higher price levels. The changes in the energy sector will affect everyone, from general public to energy buying companies, and most of all it will affect the companies in the energy sector. The changes in the energy sector, which are to contribute to climate preservation, are a realistic and achievable goal, but they come with a price. We can expect to see the doubling of the prices, not in the near future of course, but undoubtedly in the times of great changes in the energy sector. The realisation of these changes requires a great deal of political determination in the international context, as well as fair solutions which will enable the advancement of the underdeveloped and less developed nations. Also, a strong support to the technological development is needed. The climate preservation can be a powerful generator of the international cooperation, especially as a synergy in the technological development. Technological development can be the most important asset in solving the problems of climate preservation, with the condition, of course, that the resources for research are increased and that the developed countries join efforts in using the knowledge they have, and that a non-discriminatory transfer of knowledge to the

  2. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  3. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-01-01

    On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first...

  4. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV

  5. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    Nagano, M.; Honda, M.; Mori, M.; Teshima, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Ohoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV.

  6. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    Inaya eHajj Hussein; Nour eChams; Sana eChams; Skye eEl Sayegh; Reina eBadran; Mohamad eRaad; Alice eGerges-Geagea; Angelo eLeone; Abdo eJurjus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response.The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the 18th century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Je...

  7. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  8. 18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

  9. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies. PMID:25329920

  10. 18th Meeting of the IFRC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting

    The 18th meeting of the Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) was held on 26-27 April 2012 at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Activities of the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit for the period 2010-2012 were reviewed and recommendations were made for continuig activitiees in 2012-2013 and for new projects in the 2014-2015 budget cycle. The proceedings, conclusions and recommendations of the Subcommittee meeting are briefly described in this report. Specific recommendations of the Subcommittee from this meeting, as well as the report on the activities of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit for the period May 2010 - April 2012, are also included. (author)

  11. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine

  12. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  13. Book advertisements in Osijek’s 19th century newspapers

    Maja Krtalić

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the promotion of books through advertising in the newspapers published in Osijek in the second half of the 19th century. From late 18th century and in the course of the 19th century’s intense developments in the publishing of newspapers and journals, advertising in this medium was one of the ways to promote books. Booksellers and publishers advertised books in newspaper ads, relying on the fact that newspapers had become a common and omnipresent medium for disseminating...

  14. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  15. Scrubbing the Whitewash from New England History: Citizenship, Race and Gender in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Nantucket

    Bulger, Teresa Dujnic

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines how racial ideologies have historically been entangled with discourses on citizenship and gender difference in the United States. In looking at the case study of the 18th- and 19th-century African American community on Nantucket, I ask how these ideologies of difference and inequality were experienced, reinterpreted, and defied by women and men in the past. Whereas New England has maintained a liberal and moralistic regional narrative since the early-19th century, t...

  16. Proceedings of the 18th technical meeting on nuclear reactor and radiation for KURRI engineers and the 9th technical official group section 5 meeting in Kyoto University

    This report is a summary of 18th Technical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor and Radiation for KURRI Engineers in Kyoto University. This was also the 9th meeting for technical official group section 5 (nuclear and radiation) in Kyoto University. In the workshop, three special lectures held were: (1) 'On Border Between Subcritical and Supercritical', (2) 'Memories of Nuclear Power Plant Management for 40 Years', and (3) 'Introduction of Technical Office in Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University'. The technical presentations held were: (1) 'Radiation Background Study of Specialty Products in Senshu Region', (2) 'Introduction of Radioactivation Analysis at KUR', (3) 'Consideration of Critical Approach Method for KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC', (4) 'Evaluation of Temperature Coefficient of KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC'. As training for technical staffs in Technical Office, we visited the facility in Ashiu Research Forest. An introduction of this facility and the comments from the participants were included in this report. (S.K.)

  17. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. V. Scientific achievements and medical publications of 2 centuries].

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-05-01

    A medico-scientific journalism of Jewish origin which became increasedly recognizable on the German territory in the second half of the 17th century was at first based on the activities of Spanish-Portuguese exiles. Beginning with the 18th century at first the inaugural papers, but then also the publications of renowned Jewish physicians determined the profile of this literary group. The access to academic teaching professions becoming possible in the 19th century developed concentration points of research engagement, which in this place shall be indicated at the instance of the Medical Faculty of Halle University. PMID:2662660

  18. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first to embark on an advanced academic career in political science and gender studies. It is therefore highly appropriate that Anna Guðrún should be awarded the first honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science, where these disciplines are located. Her research covers a broad spectrum, including political science, sociology, economic history, psychology and gender studies. She was among the first to deal in a theoretical manner with gender, power and politics, which was considered rather provocative at the start of her academic career in the early 1970s. She is a pioneer in intertwining political research and gender studies and her most important research is in the field of power and personal gender relations. Anna Guðrún moved to Sweden at an early age but has kept in touch with the Icelandic research community. Below we publish her acceptance speech on the occasion when the honorary doctorate was awarded. It reflects clearly how her ideas have developed and her intimate sense for how personal and political factors bring politics and gender studies closer at the same time as she deepens and broadens both of their subjects.

  19. Oceanic evidence of climate change in southern Australia over the last three centuries

    Thresher, Ronald; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Koslow, J. Anthony; Weidman, Chris; Adkins, Jess; Proctor, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Chemical analysis of deepwater octocorals collected at 1000 m depth off southern Australia indicates long-term cooling, beginning in the mid-18th century. This cooling appears to reflect shoaling of isotherms along the continental shelf, that can be related statistically, observationally and by modeling to increasing coastal sea-surface temperatures, that in turn reflect a poleward extension of the SW Pacific boundary current (the East Australian Current). The oceanographic changes implied by...

  20. Settlement history and sustainability in the Carpathians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

    Turnock, David

    2005-01-01

    As part of a historical study of the Carpathian ecoregion, to identify salient features of the changing human geography, this paper deals with the 18th and 19th centuries when there was a large measure political unity arising from the expansion of the Habsburg Empire. In addition to a growth of population, economic expansion - particularly in the railway age - greatly increased pressure on resources: evident through peasant colonisation of high mountain surfaces (as in the Apuseni Mountains) ...

  1. ITC18: 18th international Toki conference. Development of physics and technology of stellarators/heliotrons 'en route to DEMO'. Proceedings

    18th International Toki Conference (ITC18) was held in Toki (Japan) December 9-12 2008 organized by the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). More than 150 experts in fusion research, especially in stellarator/heliotron research from Australia, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America gathered at the conference. The International Organizing Committee (IOC) chaired by O. Motojima, the International Program Committee (IPC) chaired by Y. Ogawa and the Local Organizing Committee (LOC) chaired by T. Mutoh have played the leading role in the elaboration of the scientific program of the conference. NIFS has organized the ITC as an annual meeting for fusion related sciences since its establishment in 1989. The IPC arranged 2 plenary talks, 1 review talk, 34 invited talks in addition to 109 contributed presentations including 6 oral talks. Recent developments in the experimental, theoretical and technical research show the clear route to the realization of a stellarator/heliotron type demo fusion reactor. ITC18 was devoted to review the recent developments and to discuss the next steps forward to the demo reactor realization of stellarator/heliotron type. In the conference, recent experimental results from both tokamak and stellarator/heliotron devices are reviewed and the experimental and theoretical physics of plasma confinement in toroidal devices are also discussed and confirmed that the physical base of the fusion reactor is well developed. The development of steady state operation, heating, fueling, divertors, plasma wall interaction and wall materials, advanced diagnostics for reactor relevant plasma, blanket materials as well as super conducting magnets are discussed as inevitable key physics and technologies for the DEMO reactor. Slides of all oral presentations as well as the proceedings are available at http://itc.nifs.ac.jp/. Extended papers of major

  2. Summary report of IAEA technical meeting on technical aspects of atomic and molecular data processing and exchange - 18th meeting of the A+M Data Centres and ALADDIN Network

    The IAEA Technical Meeting on 'Technical Aspects of Atomic and Molecular Data Processing and Exchange - 18th Meeting of A+M Data Centres and ALADDIN Network' was held on 10-11 October 2005, in Vienna, Austria. The discussions and presentations focused on the priorities in A+M data compilation and evaluation, and are summarized in this report. Conclusions and recommendations on the technical aspects of data processing, exchange and distribution are also presented. (author)

  3. Einstein's Century

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  4. Trapitos al sol: Análisis de textiles de la colonia española de Floridablanca (Patagonia, siglo XVIII Textile analysis from the Spanish colony of Floridablanca (Patagonia, 18th century

    Marcia Bianchi Villelli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto indagar sobre las características y la función de los textiles recuperados en el sitio arqueológico de Floridablanca (Puerto San Julián, provincia de Santa Cruz, cuyo rango de ocupación se extendió de 1780 a 1784. La muestra analizada proviene de la excavación de una de las unidades domésticas que componen el poblado. Se presentan los lineamientos metodológicos, los procedimientos técnicos puestos en práctica para la identificación de una muestra y los resultados obtenidos. La estrategia metodológica elegida nos permitió determinar la funcionalidad de los restos de textiles analizados en el espacio doméstico; principalmente contenedores relacionados con el almacenamiento de semillas y en menor medida posibles restos de vestimenta. Dicha información resulta de utilidad para discutir en otros niveles de análisis el significado y el rol de estos materiales en la vida cotidiana de los pobladores de la Colonia.This paper presents research into the function and characteristics of textiles recovered at the archaeological site of Floridablanca (Puerto San Julián, Santa Cruz, which was occupied between AD 1780 and 1784. The provenience of the sample analyzed is an excavated domestic unit in the village. Here the results, technical procedures and methods used for the identification of the material are presented. The chosen methodological strategy allowed determining the function of the textiles within the domestic space. They consisted mainly of containers for seed storage, with the addition of a few pieces of clothing. On higher analytical levels this information becomes particularly useful to discussing the meaning and role played by this type of material in the everyday life of the Colony's settlers.

  5. 18世纪末19世纪初的英、美浪漫主义文学探源%On the Origin of British and American Literary Romanticism in the Late 18 th and Early 19 th Century

    彭家海

    2015-01-01

    为了进一步探索浪漫主义文学的奥秘,运用比较文学平行研究中的类型学、主题学、文类学以及影响研究中的流传学等方法对18世纪末19世纪初的英、美两国浪漫主义文学进行溯源,发现两者产生的时间有先后之别,作品形式也有所不同,但导致它们产生的根源是一样的,两者所表现的主题也相似,而且在本质上是相同的。浪漫主义文学是一定社会发展阶段的产物,英国浪漫主义对美国浪漫主义的影响有限。%With the aim to further explore the magic power of literary romanticism , this paper , by using the approa-ches in comparative literature , offers some analyses of the similarity and difference between British Romantic literature and American Romantic literature .The paper finds that the former appears earlier than the latter , with the former tak-ing the form of poetry while the later the form of fiction .But they are similar in terms of root and theme and they are the same in essence .Romantic literature is a product of social development , and the influence of British romanticism on American romanticism is limited .

  6. The Iron Age and 13th-18th century Cemetery and Chapel Site of Niklusmägi : Grave Looting and Archaeology / Heiki Valk, Pikne Kama, Riina Rammo ... [jt.

    2013-01-01

    2011. aastal anti arheoloogilidele vihje Niklusmäe kalme lõhkumisest. 2012. aasta suvel leidsid projekti "Arheoloogia, võim ja ühiskond" raames aset arheoloogilised päästeuuringud. Ilmnes, et kalmet oli rüüstatud 4-5 aasta jooksul. Leitud luustikest, hauapanustest. Niklusmäest Läti Henriku kroonika andmetel. Tänini räägib pärimus Lätist tulnud, Niklusmäe metsa läbivast ja Sangaste poole suunduvast sõjateest. Leiud on tõstatanud küsimusi Eesti lõunaserva matmiskommete ja etnokultuuriliste olude kohta. Kuna kalmesüdamik on rüüstatud, jäävad küsimused vastuseta

  7. On the reasons why the rumours of the famine plot were so prevalent in 18th century France%18世纪法国"饥荒阴谋"谣言的盛行及原因

    周立红

    2011-01-01

    "饥荒阴谋"谣言的盛行是18世纪法国的一个独特现象.究其原因可从以下三个方面认知,即官商结合的谷物供给模式是造成"饥荒阴谋"谣言泛滥的制度因素;民众对生计的担忧以及对"道德经济"观的捍卫是"饥荒阴谋"谣言滋生的温床;地方官员和文人对"谷物丰裕说"的信奉,对绝对王权的批判促进了"饥荒阴谋"谣言在更大范围内传播.

  8. Bibliotecas y libros en la cultura universitaria de Córdoba durante los siglos XVII y XVIII Libraries and Books in the University Culture of Córdoba during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Silvano G. A. Benito Moya

    2012-01-01

    Se estudia el proceso de conformación del sistema de bibliotecas universitario colonial en Córdoba (Argentina), aproximadamente entre 1609 fecha en que se estableció el Colegio Máximo jesuita y la primera década revolucionaria de 1810. Dos etapas quedan bien definidas, el período de administración jesuítica (1609-1767), caracterizado por el lento proceso de construcción de las bibliotecas y, luego de la expulsión, el período franciscano (1767-1807) en que las mismas quedaron bajo la administr...

  9. Bibliotecas y libros en la cultura universitaria de Córdoba durante los siglos XVII y XVIII Libraries and Books in the University Culture of Córdoba during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Silvano G. A. Benito Moya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el proceso de conformación del sistema de bibliotecas universitario colonial en Córdoba (Argentina, aproximadamente entre 1609 fecha en que se estableció el Colegio Máximo jesuita y la primera década revolucionaria de 1810. Dos etapas quedan bien definidas, el período de administración jesuítica (1609-1767, caracterizado por el lento proceso de construcción de las bibliotecas y, luego de la expulsión, el período franciscano (1767-1807 en que las mismas quedaron bajo la administración de la Junta de Temporalidades. La organización física; la concepción mental de clasificar el conocimiento; los servicios que prestaban; y el rol de los bibliotecarios, son algunos de las temáticas relacionadas que se abordan.This is a study of the process of the development of library systems in colonial Córdoba (Argentina from around 1609, the date in which the Jesuit Collegium Maximum was founded, to 1810 (the first decade of the Revolutionary period. Two stages of development are clearly defined, the period of Jesuit administration (1609-1767 characterized by the slow process of constructing the libraries, and later the expulsion, the Franciscan period (1797-1807 in which these orders came under the administration of the Junta de Temporalidades. The physical organization; the mental conception of the categorization of knowledge, the services that they provided and the role of librarians are some of the topics that are addressed.

  10. Reorganising the Local Government at the End of the 18th and the Beginning of the 19th Centuries: Comparative Analysis of the Policies of Paul I and Alexander I

    Jurij V. Tot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the reorganisation of the local government undertaken by Paul I and Alexander I at the beginning of their reigns. In utilising legal acts, minutes of sessions of the State Council as well the historiography of the problem, the author comes to a conclusion regarding the identity of the policies of Paul I and Alexander I.