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Sample records for 18o 24mg 44ca

  1. Weak transition of 44Ca

    A study of the nuclear core contribution to the excited nuclear states was done, along with its theoretical evaluation and interpretation, in the light nuclei region. The 727 KeV gamma ray transition between the 1885 KeV O+ and 1157 KeV - 2+ states was detected, putting in evidence experimentally, the possibility of the 0+ state, characterized as core excitation, and found to be by + decay or electron capture from44,44mSc. The formation of the 2850 KeV state, due to 880 KeV transition from the 3667 KeV state, is re-discussed. The 564 KeV and 1684 KeV transitions from the 2850 KeV state to the 2285 KeV and 1157 KeV states, respectively, are also discussed. A new scheme is proposed for the 44Ca excited states. (Author)

  2. Isospin mixing in 24Mg

    We have used the #betta#-#betta# circular polarization (CP) correlation technique to measure the isospin-forbidden Fermi matrix element for the #betta#+ decay of 24Al to the 4+ T=1 state in 24Mg at E/sub x/=8.437 MeV. The 24Al activity was produced by bombarding a natural Mg target with 18 MeV protons. The #betta#-#betta# CP correlation was measured using a novel apparatus which featured good energy resolution in both the #betta# and #betta# arms. The CP sensitive #betta#-ray detector utilized a transmission-mode Compton polarimeter and a 12.7 cm x 15.2 cm NaI detector. The #betta# detector was a telescope with a 700 μm surface barrier detector and a 5.1 cm x 12.7 cm plastic scintillator. The #betta#-#betta# CP asymmetry A [defined by W(theta, t tilde) = 1 + t tilde v/c A tilde cos theta where t tilde is the photon helicity] was found to be A tilde = -0.145 +- 0.030. After applying a correction for feeding of the 8.437 MeV state from the analog state this value of A tilde corresponds to a charge dependent matrix element between the 9.5 MeV 4+T=1 and 8.4 MeV T=O levels of [+;O[H/sub CD/]4+;1>] = 106 +- 40 keV which is the largest matrix element of H/sub CD/ ever observed in #betta# decay. For comparison the charge dependent matrix element between the 9.5 MeV state and the 4.1 MeV 4+ state, previously measured in 24Na decays is only 5.4 +- 2.2 keV. Our exceptionally large value occurs because the 9.5 MeV T=1 and 8.4 MeV T=O states have very similar space and spin wavefunctions. This matrix element is consistent with predictions which ascribe the entire effect to Coulomb forces

  3. Flashing coherently rotating carbon sticks in $^{24}$Mg+$^{24}$Mg collision

    Zhao, M H; Merlo, O; Huang, M R; Li, Y; Wang, J S

    2013-01-01

    We analyze quasi-periodic oscillations in the angle-averaged ($\\Delta\\theta_{cm}\\simeq 90^\\circ\\pm 25^\\circ $)excitation functions for the $^{24}Mg+^{24}Mg$ elastic-inelastic scattering and $\\alpha$-transfer channels on the energy interval $E_{cm}=44.86-47.76$ MeV.The period of the energy structures, $\\simeq$0.81 MeV, is interpreted as inverse half-period ($\\simeq 5\\times 10^{-21}$ sec.) of coherent rotation of highly excited short-lived ($\\simeq 3.6\\times 10^{-21}$ sec.) chain of a length $\\simeq 30$ fm. The rotational wave packet coherence survives (i) the energy relaxation (fully mixing ergodic dynamics) for the strongly overlapping states with fixed total spins and (ii) the strong distortion of the motion upon a change of the total spin.The present discussion leads us to the question: Is rotational coherence of large molecules necessarily destroyed in the conventionally statistical limit of structureless (non-selective) continuum under the conditions of complete intramolecular energy redistribution and vi...

  4. 16O+8Be cluster structure in 24Mg

    16O + 8Be cluster structure in 24Mg has been identified by observing the breakup into ground state 160 and 8Be fragments following inelastic scattering of 24Mg projectiles. The spectrum of states observed is compared to that previously measured in the 12C + 12C breakup channel to obtain information on the partial decay widths. (author)

  5. Alpha-cluster states populated in 24Mg + 12C

    Charged particle and γ-decays in light α-like nuclei are investigated for 24Mg +12C. Various theoretical predictions for the occurrence of superdeformed and hyperdeformed bands associated with resonance structures with low spin are presented. The inverse kinematics reaction 24Mg +12C is studied at Elab(24Mg) = 130 MeV. Exclusive data were collected with the Binary Reaction Spectrometer in coincidence with EUROBALL IV installed at the VIVITRON Tandem facility at Strasbourg. Specific structures with large deformation were selectively populated in binary reactions and their associated γ-decays studied. Coincident events from α-transfer channels were selected by choosing the excitation energy or the entry point via the two-body Q-values. The analysis of the binary reaction channels is presented with a particular emphasis on 20Ne-γ and 16O-γ coincidences. (author)

  6. Molecular resonances and the Jacobi shape transition: the case of 24Mg+24Mg and 48Cr

    A fast rotating 48Cr is predicted to be highly prolate and deformed after a Jacobi shape transition and just before fission. In this article, it is proposed that an arrow and high spin 24Mg+24Mg resonance corresponds to the formation of this exotic 48Cr. Moreover the 24Mg+24Mg reaction has been studied at the Legnaro Tandem at a CM bombarding energy of 45.7 MeV, where a narrow and high spin resonance has been reported previously. To establish the connection between the resonance and a molecular state of 48Cr, the decay of the resonance into the inelastic and fusion-evaporation channels has been investigated. The ON and OFF resonance decay yields have been measured using, for the inelastic channels, the fragment spectrometer PRISMA and the gamma array CLARA, and, for the fusion-evaporation channels, the Si array EUCLIDES and the gamma array GASP. Strong resonant effects have been observed in the inelastic channels involving the 2+ and 4+ states of the 24Mg ground state (g.s.) band. Weaker effects are also seen in certain fusion-evaporation channels. Both results will be discussed here. (authors)

  7. Neutron inelastic cross section measurements for 24Mg

    OLACEL A.; Borcea, C.; DESSAGNE Philippe; Kerveno, M.; NEGRET A.; PLOMPEN Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The gamma production cross sections from the neutron inelastic scattering on 24Mg were measured for neutron energies up to 18 MeV at GELINA (Geel Linear Accelerator), the neutron source operated by EC-JRC-IRMM, Belgium. The level cross section and the total inelastic cross section were determined. We used the GAINS (Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) spectrometer with 7 large volume HPGe detectors placed at 110◦ and 150◦ with respect to the beam direction. The neutron flux was dete...

  8. Hot fusion-evaporation cross sections of 44Ca-induced reactions with lanthanide targets

    Werke, T. A.; Mayorov, D. A.; Alfonso, M. C.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Folden, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Background: Previously reported cross sections of 45Sc-induced reactions with lanthanide targets are much smaller than 48Ca-induced reactions on the same targets. 44Ca is one proton removed from 45Sc and could be used to produce nuclei with a relative neutron content between those produced in the 45Sc- and 48Ca-induced reactions. Purpose: As part of a systematic investigation of fusion-evaporation reactions, cross sections of 44Ca-induced reactions on lanthanide targets were measured. These results are compared to available data for 48Ca- and 45Sc-induced fusion-evaporation cross sections on the same lanthanide targets. Collectively, these data provide insight into the importance of the survival against fission of excited compound nuclei produced near spherical shell closures. Methods: A beam of 6+Ca at an energy of ≈5 MeV /u was delivered by the K500 superconducting cyclotron at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The desired evaporation residues were selected by the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer and identified via their characteristic α -decay energies. Excitation functions for the 44Ca+158Gd ,159Tb, and 162Dy reactions were measured at five or more energies each. A theoretical model was employed to study the fusion-evaporation process. Results: The 44Ca-induced reactions have x n cross sections that are two orders of magnitude larger than 45Sc-induced reactions but two orders of magnitude smaller than 48Ca-induced reactions on the same targets. Proton emission competes effectively with neutron emission for the 44Ca+159Tb and 162Dy reactions. The maximum 4 n cross sections in the 44Ca+158Gd ,159Tb, and 162Dy reactions were 2100 ± 230 ,230 ± 20 , and 130 ±20 μ b , respectively. The 44Ca+158Gd and 159Tb cross sections are in good agreement with the respective cross bombardments of 48Ca+154Gd and 45Sc+158Gd once differences in capture cross sections and compound nucleus formation probabilities are corrected for. Conclusions: Excitation

  9. Evidence of intermediate structure in 12C plus 24Mg system

    Studies of backward resonance structures have been performed for the 12C, 24Mg system at 1800 c.m. Excitation functions were measured using the 24Mg beam of the Saclay F.N. Van de Graaff and by detecting at 00 the 12C recoil nuclei with a QDDD magnetic spectrometer. Havar and/or gold foils were placed in front of the focal plane gas counter in order to stop the 24Mg beam. The target was made of a 50 μg/cm2 carbon layer plus a 10 μg/cm2 gold deposit for beam intensity monitoring. The results are presented between 11- and 27 MeV c.m. for the g.s. 0+, first 2+ state of 24Mg and first 2+ state of 12C. The step in energy is 133 keV c.m. The coulomb barrier is about 12 MeV. A certain correlation can be observed between the elastic and inelastic excitation functions. The coherence width calculated is about 600 keV for a average interval of 4.1 MeV c.m. The normalized cross-correlation coefficients are respectively -0.33 and -0.37 for correlation between g.s. and first 2+ of 24Mg and first 2+ of 12C. The cross-correlation cofficient between the two 2+ states is 0.01

  10. $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction study for spectroscopy of $^{21}$Na

    Cha, S M; Kim, A; Lee, E J; Ahn, S; Bardayan, D W; Chipps, K A; Cizewski, J A; Howard, M E; Manning, B; O'Malley, P D; Ratkiewicz, A; Strauss, S; Kozub, R L; Matos, M; Pain, S D; Pittman, S T; Smith, M S; Peters, W A

    2015-01-01

    The $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain spins and parities of energy levels in $^{21}$Na for the astrophysically important $^{17}$F($\\alpha, p$)$^{20}$Ne reaction rate calculation. 31 MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched $^{24}$Mg solid targets were used. Recoiling $^{4}$He particles from the $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction were detected by a highly segmented silicon detector array which measured the yields of $^{4}$He particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A new level at 6661 $\\pm$ 5 keV was observed in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of $^{21}$Na and Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract angular momentum transfer.

  11. Fission fragment angular distribution in 24Mg induced reactions on 192Os and 197Au

    Angular distributions of fission fragments have been measured in 24Mg + 192Os and 24Mg + 197Au reactions at Elab = 128 MeV which is close to entrance channel Coulomb barrier. Experimental angular anisotropies were in reasonably good agreement with those calculated using the statistical theory. Analysis of the angular distribution data of the present study and of our earlier measurement in 19F + 197Au reaction has shown that contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in these systems is not significant. (author)

  12. Entrance channel dependence of back angle yields: orbiting in 24Mg+16O reaction

    The back-angle yields of the oxygen and carbon particles from the 24Mg+16O reaction have been measured at E/sub Lab/(24Mg) = 79.5 MeV by using reverse kinematics. Comparison with data for the 28Si+12C reaction forming the same compound nucleus at the same excitation energy and with very similar spin distribution, demonstrates a strong entrance channel effect which is favoring the break-up into the entrance channel with large excitation energy. This result qualitatively supports the picture of the formation of a long-lived orbiting complex whose structure and decay are dependent on the entrance channel. The compound nucleus contribution has been inferred to be less than 15% of the measured oxygen cross-section. 9 references

  13. Reaction mechanism for the symmetric breakup of 24Mg following an interaction with 12C

    Data on the yield of the symmetric breakup of 24Mg as a function of beam energy are presented and compared with detailed calculations of the energy dependence. The 24Mg states seen in symmetric breakup agree with previously observed breakup states having spin and parities Jπ=4+,(6+),8+. The data allow the variations of yield for indivual states to be judged, as the beam energy is varied. The variation in the yield of the 4+ states is compared in detail with calculations assuming several possible compound nuclear or direct reaction mechanisms. It is concluded that a massive (12C) transfer or a simple statistical compound process are unlikely mechanisms, but that each of several other mechanisms is consistent with the data. ((orig.))

  14. Configuration analysis of the 6.0 MeV 4+ state in 24Mg

    The configuration of the 6.0 MeV 4+ state in 24Mg has been investigated using the inelastic electron scattering form factor for this level. It is shown that 1s-0d shell cannot describe the observed form factor successfully. The amount of Og shell admixture in this transition is estimated. Saxon-Woods wavefunctions and phase-shift analysis have been used. (Auth.)

  15. Electron scattering from 20Ne and 24Mg in a microscopic boson model

    It is shown that a mean-field approximation applied to the microscopically derived boson Hamiltonian yields a reasonable description of the form factors for both elastic and inelastic electron scattering from some sd-shell nuclei (20Ne, 24Mg). The results agree well with experimental data for the 0+ → 0+ and 0+ → 2+ transitions but much less so for the 0+ → 4+ transitions. Possible sources of the observed discrepancies are suggested

  16. Study and realization of heavy ion detectors. Application to the reaction 12C+24Mg

    The present study deals with elastic and inelastic scattering of 24 to 44 MeV center of mass 24Mg ions by 12C. The Strasbourg Q3D magnetic spectrograph has been used to measure the 1800 c.m. scattering cross-sections in detecting the corresponding recoiling ions at THETAsub(Lab) = 00. Statistical fluctuations are probably present. The 1,5 m long position sensitive focal plan hybride counter is described

  17. Experimental study of the fast neutron scattering from 24Mg, 28Si and 32S

    Differential cross section measurements for neutron scattering from 24Mg, 28Si and 32S at 9.76 and 14.83 MeV incident neutron energies have been undertaken. The experimental technique is based on the time-of-flight method with a pulsed neutron beam. Scattered neutrons have been detected by a spectrometer composed of five detectors. Elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections for levels of up to 6 MeV excitation energy have been obtained for the angular range from 15 to 1600 in 50 steps. These measurements will be used in a coupled-channel analysis to extract potential and deformation parameters

  18. Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy of 24Mg 35Cl generated by laser ablation

    Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Endo, Yasuki

    1993-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of 24Mg 35Cl in its X 2Σ + (ν=0 and 1 ) state has been observed in the 14 GHz region by using a Fourier- transform microwave spectrometer combined with a laser-ablation source. The radical was produced by the reaction of atomic Mg vaporized by 532 nm laser light with Cl 2 diluted in Ar. The present observation of the lowest N transition by a high-resolving power instrument has provided accurate hyperfine coupling constants associated with the 35Cl nucleus of this molecule.

  19. Study of the 28Si(16O,20Ne)24Mg reaction

    In this work, measurements of elastic and inelastic angular distributions in the system 16O+ 20Si and in the alpha transfer reactions 20Si(16O,20Ne)24Mg were made in the angular range of 200 0 and the transfer reaction 20Si(16O,12C)32S in the angular range 160 0 at the energy of Ecm = 31.57 MeV. Optical potential parameters and β2 deformation parameters as well as spectroscopic factors were determined for the alpha transfer reactions. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. Clustering aspects in N = Z nucleus 24Mg studied by antisymmetized molecular dynamics

    Cluster structure of highly excited states of 24Mg has been investigated by the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Imposing the constraints on the expectation values of harmonic oscillator quanta, α+20Ne, 12C+12C and 6α cluster wave functions were generated without any a priori assumption. The isoscalar monopole excitation function is also calculated and reasonably agrees with the observation. It is found that α+20Ne, 12C+12C and 6α clusters appear as the prominent peaks in the strength function

  1. Study of the elastic scattering of {sup 32}S by {sup 24}Mg at low energies

    Hassanain, Mahmoud A., E-mail: mho1959@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Ibraheem, Awad A. [Department of Physics, King Khalid University Physics Department, Al-Azhar University (Egypt)

    2015-12-15

    The elastic scattering angular distribution of {sup 32}S on {sup 24}Mg at energies ranging from 65 to 110 MeV has been analyzed in the framework of the double folding (DF) model, using different effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions based on the M3Y-Reid interaction. The Pauli correlation, zero-range, and finite-range exchange parts of the NN interactions are considered in the folding procedure to treat the single nucleon knock-on exchange term (SNKE) in the optical model. Successful reproduction of the data has been obtained with all the potentials considered in the present study. It is clear that the effect of Pauli correlation increases as the energy increases. Our calculations are insensitive to the strength of the imaginary potential used in the fit of the experimental data. We find also that the threshold anomaly is less pronounced in the {sup 32}S + {sup 24}Mg system. Our reaction cross sections are compared with the data, and the consistency between the real and imaginary volume integrals are checked by the dispersion relation. (author)

  2. An interpretation of gross structures in the energy spectra of 12C (16O,α)24Mg reaction

    Recent studies of the 12C(16O,α)24Mg reaction at E(16O) = 145 Mev have revealed the existence of several broad states with E sub(X)(24Mg) = 20 to 60 MeV. The energies of these states have been taken as evidence that they are members of the 12C + 12C molecular band J sup(π) = (10+) through J sup(π) = (18+). Subsequent investigation of the properties of these states, however, has failed to reveal the expected partial width for 24Mg* → 12C + 12C. It is shown that these states can be interpreted as an extension of the 24Mg Yrast sequence which is populated by the well understood high spin selectivity of α particle evaporation from a 28Si compound nucleus. (Author)

  3. Splitting of ISGMR strength in the light-mass nucleus $^{24}$Mg due to ground-state deformation

    Gupta, Y K; Matta, J T; Patel, D; Peach, T; Hoffman, J; Yoshida, K; Itoh, M; Fujiwara, M; Hara, K; Hashimoto, H; Nakanishi, K; Yosoi, M; Sakaguchi, H; Terashima, S; Kishi, S; Murakami, T; Uchida, M; Yasuda, Y; Akimune, H; Kawabata, T; Harakeh, M N

    2015-01-01

    The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) strength distribution in $^{24}$Mg has been determined from background-free inelastic scattering of 386-MeV $\\alpha$ particles at extreme forward angles, including 0$^{\\circ}$. The ISGMR strength distribution has been observed for the first time to have a two-peak structure in a light-mass nucleus. This splitting of ISGMR strength is explained well by microscopic theory in terms of the prolate deformation of the ground state of $^{24}$Mg.

  4. An Analysis of the $^{12}$C+$^{24}$Mg Reaction Using A New Coupling Potential

    Boztosun, I

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new coupling potential to explain the experimental data for the $^{12}$C+$^{24}$Mg system at numerous energies in the laboratory system from 16.0 MeV to 24.0 MeV. This new coupled-channels based approach involves replacing the usual first derivative coupling potential by a new, second-derivative coupling potential. This paper first shows and discusses the limitation of the standard coupled-channels theory in the case where one of the nuclei in the reaction is strongly deformed. Then, this new approach is shown to improve consistently the agreement with the experimental data and has made major improvement on all the previous coupled-channels calculations for this system.

  5. Nuclear transparency and the onset of strong absorption regime in the 12C+24Mg system

    Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Hussein, M. S.

    1999-10-01

    The elastic scattering of 12C+24Mg has been studied by means of a phase-shift analysis of 21 angular distributions ranging from Elab=16 MeV up to Elab=40 MeV. A tridimensional plot of the reflection coefficient of the S matrix as a function of the angular momentum and energy shows a well-defined region of energy, which separates two regimes: strong absorption for higher energies and the so-called ``anomalous transparency regime,'' recently observed in this system at low energies. The Argand diagrams of the S matrix in angular momentum space also present very contrasting behaviors in the two regions with very rapidly varying phases in the low energy region, which we associate with a parity dependent term in the S matrix directly related to significant coupling to the elastic transfer of a 12C nucleus.

  6. Nuclear transparency and the onset of strong absorption regime in the $^{12}C + ^{24}Mg$ system

    Lichtenthäler, R; Hussein, M S

    1999-01-01

    The elastic scattering of 12C+24Mg has been studied by means of a phase-shift analysis of 21 angular distributions ranging from Elab=16MeV up to Elab=40MeV. A tri-dimensional plot of the reflection coefficient of the S-matrix as a function of the angular momentum and the energy shows a well defined region of energy which separates two regimes: strong absorption for higher energies and the so called "anomalous transparency regime", recently observed in this system at low energies. The Argand diagrams of the S-matrix in angular momentum space also present very contrasting behaviours in the two regions with very rapidly varying phases in the low energy region, which we associate with a parity dependent term in the S-matrix directly related to significant coupling to the elastic transfer of a 12C nucleus.

  7. Cyclotron production of high purity 44m,44Sc with deuterons from 44CaCO3 targets

    Introduction: Due to its longer half-life, 44Sc (T1/2 = 3.97 h) as a positron emitter can be an interesting alternative to 68Ga (T1/2 = 67.71 min). It has been already proposed as a PET radionuclide for scouting bone disease and is already available as a 44Ti/44Sc generator. 44Sc has an isomeric state, 44mSc (T1/2 = 58.6 h), which can be co-produced with 44Sc and that has been proved to be considered as an in-vivo PET generator 44mSc/44Sc. This work presents the production route of 44mSc/44Sc generator from 44Ca(d,2n), its extraction/purification process and the evaluation of its performances. Methods: Irradiation was performed in a low activity target station using a deuteron beam of 16 MeV, which favors the number of 44mSc atoms produced simultaneously to 44Sc. Typical irradiation conditions were 60 min at 0.2 μA producing 44 MBq of 44Sc with a 44Sc/44mSc activity ratio of 50 at end of irradiation. Separations of the radionuclides were performed by means of cation exchange chromatography using a DGA® resin (Triskem). Then, the developed process was applied with bigger targets, and could be used for preclinical studies. Results: The extraction/purification process leads to a radionucleidic purity higher than 99.99% (43Sc, 46Sc, 48Sc < DL). 44mSc/44Sc labeling towards DOTA moiety was performed in order to get an evaluation of the specific activities that could be reached with regard to all metallic impurities from the resulting source. Reaction parameters of radiolabeling were optimized, reaching yields over 95%, and leading to a specific activity of about 10–20 MBq/nmol for DOTA. A recycling process for the enriched 44Ca target was developed and optimized. Conclusion: The quality of the final batch with regard to radionucleidic purity, specific activity and metal impurities allowed a right away use for further radiopharmaceutical evaluation. This radionucleidic pair of 44mSc/44Sc offers a quite interesting PET radionuclide for being further evaluated as an in

  8. Two-neutron transfer analysis of the 16O(18O,16O)18O reaction

    Ermamatov, M. J.; Cappuzzello, F.; Lubian, J.; Cubero, M.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Ferreira, J. L.; Foti, A.; Garcia, V. N.; Gargano, A.; Lay, J. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Linares, R.; Santagati, G.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    Recently a quantitative description of the two-neutron transfer reaction 12C(18O,16O)14C was performed and the measured cross sections were successfully reproduced [M. Cavallaro et al., Phys. Rev. C 88, 054601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.054601]. This task was accomplished by combining nuclear structure calculations of spectroscopic amplitudes and a full quantum description of the reaction mechanism. Verification of such a theoretical approach to other heavy nuclear systems is mandatory in order to use (18O,16O ) reactions to assess pair configurations in nuclear states. In this work we apply this methodology to the 16O(18O,16O)18O reaction at 84 MeV. Experimental angular distributions for the two-neutron transfer to the ground state and 21+ state of 18O were obtained using the MAGNEX spectrometer at INFN-LNS. The roles of one- and two-step processes are analyzed under the exact finite range coupled reaction channel and the second order distorted wave Born approximation. We conclude that the one-step transfer mechanism is dominant in this system.

  9. Study of the interaction potential between 12 C and 24 Mg: an example of anomalous transparency

    Complete angular distributions of the 12 C + 24 Mg elastic scattering were measured at ECM = 10.67 and 11.33 MeV, and from ECM = 12.0 to 16.0 MeV, using a 12 C beam produced at Pelletron Accelerator. This energy range is close to the Coulomb barrier of tue system, which is 12.53 MeV. Surprisingly all the angular distributions show strong oscillations even at energies bellow the Coulomb barrier. The angular distributions were fitted by optical model calculations and we determined the shallowest real potential, without continuous ambiguity. The main features of this potential are: very transparent even at the nuclear interior and strong dependence with energy of the real imaginary depths Vo and Wo. At five energies the inelastic scattering data were also analysed and well fitted by coupled-channels calculations. The optical potentials of all channels present the threshold anomaly and are well reproduced by dispersion relation calculations applied to the volume integrals of the optical potentials. (author). 50 refs., 41 figs., 12 tabs

  10. The intermediate energy elastic scattering of protons by α-cluster 20Ne and 24Mg nuclei

    The multiple diffraction scattering theory and the α-cluster model with dispersion have been applied for calculations of the observables for the elastic scattering of intermediate energy protons by 20Ne and 24Mg nuclei. The target nuclei are considered as composed of the core (16O nucleus) and additional α-clusters (one α-cluster for 20Ne nucleus and a dumb-bell α-cluster configuration for 24Mg nucleus). Taking into account the α-cluster configuration of the core, it was supposed that the additional α-cluster or center of mass of the dumb-bell are arranged with the most probability inside or outside of the core. The calculated observables for the elastic p–20Ne and p–24Mg scattering are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The influence of the deformed core contribution on the behavior of the calculated observables also is tested. (author)

  11. Ion microscopic imaging of calcium transport in the intestinal tissue of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens: A 44Ca stable isotope study

    The intestinal absorption of calcium includes at least three definable steps; transfer across the microvillar membrane, movement through the cytosolic compartment, and energy-dependent extrusion into the lamina propria, Tracing the movement of calcium through the epithelium has been hampered by lack of suitable techniques and, in this study, advantage was taken of ion microscopy in conjunction with cryosectioning and use of the stable isotope 44Ca to visualize calcium in transit during the absorptive process. The effect of vitamin D, required for optimal calcium absorption, was investigated. Twenty millimolar 44Ca was injected into the duodenal lumen in situ of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens. At 2.5, 5.0, and 20.0 min after injection, duodenal tissue was obtained and processed for ion microscopic imaging. At 2.5 min. 44Ca was seen to be concentrated in the region subjacent to the microvillar membrane in tissue from both groups. At 5.0 and 20.0 min, a similar pattern of localization was evident in D-deficient tissues. In D-replete tissues, the distribution of 44Ca became more homogenous, indicating that vitamin D increased the rate of transfer of Ca2+ from the apical to the basolateral membrane, a function previously ascribed to the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (28-kDa calbindin-D). Quantitative aspects of the calcium absorptive process were determined in parallel experiments with the radionuclide 47Ca. Complementary information on the localization of the naturally occurring isotopes of calcium (40Ca) and potassium (39K) is also described

  12. Production of neutral pions below the nucleon-nucleon threshold in the reactions 24Mg(16O,π0)X and 24Mg(4He,π0)X

    In the present thesis the production of neutral pions in the reaction 24Mg(16O,π0)X at 24 and 33 MeV/u as well as in the reaction 24Mg(4He,π0)X at a projectile energy of 43 MeV/u was studied by means of a lead-glass Cherenkov detector. The measured energy spectra can be well described by a parametrization by means of 1/E e sup(- E/E0) analogously to the bremsstrahlung model. The decrease parameters extracted from this indicate a stopping time in the order of magnitude of 10-24s, which confirms the assumption that the pions are produced in the early phase of the reaction before the onset of the equilibration of the fused system. (orig./HSI)

  13. Back-angle anomaly and coupling between seven reaction channels of 12C+24Mg using algebraic scattering theory

    We measured six fairly complete angular distributions of elastic, inelastic and α-transfer reactions of the 12C+24Mg system ar Ecm = 25.2 MeV. We performed coupled channels calculations using the Algebraic Scattering Theory with nuclear algebraic potential derived from nuclear phase shifts and using available structure informations for the inelastic coupling strengths. The back angle rise in the elastic cross section is fully explained by the couplings between elastic and transfer channels. (author)

  14. A comparison of spectroscopic models of low excitation 2+ states in 24Mg and 28Si using inelastic proton scattering

    Distorted Wave approximation analyses of the inelastic scattering of 49.5 MeV protons from 24Mg and 28Si are used to compare 2+ transition densities that were obtained from a standard shell model, deformed potential models and an SU(3) model of the low excitation spectroscopy of these nuclei. Analyzing power predictions do not reproduce the data adequately; the discrepancies indicating a deficiency in the transition mechanism prescription

  15. Characteristics of charged projectile fragments from 24Mg-emulsion interactions at 4.5 A GeV/c

    A total sample of 1719 inelastic interactions of 24Mg in emulsion at 4.5 A GeV/c has been used to study the characteristics of projectile fragments. The multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments in interactions with different target components have been investigated. The projected angular distributions of fragments exhibit features of limiting fragmentation. These distributions are consistent with quantum-mechanical calculations using the Sudden approximation and shell-model functions

  16. 18O enrichment in phosphorus pools extracted from soybean leaves.

    Pfahler, Verena; Dürr-Auster, Thilo; Tamburini, Federica; Bernasconi, M Stefano; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the isotopic composition of oxygen bound to phosphate (δ(18)O-PO(4)) in different phosphorus (P) pools in plant leaves. As a model plant we used soybean (Glycine max cv Toliman) grown in the presence of ample P in hydroponic cultures. The leaf blades were extracted with 0.3 M trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and with 10 M nitric acid. These extractions allowed measurement of the TCA-soluble reactive P (TCA P) that is rapidly cycled within the cell and the total leaf P. The difference between total leaf P and TCA P yielded the structural P which includes organic P compounds not extractable by TCA. P uptake and its translocation and transformation within the soybean plants lead to an (18)O enrichment of TCA P (δ(18)O-PO(4) between 16.9 and 27.5‰) and structural P (δ(18)O-PO(4) between 42.6 and 68.0 ‰) compared with 12.4‰ in the phosphate in the nutrient solution. δ(18)O values of phosphate extracted from soybean leaves grown under optimal conditions are greater than the δ(18)O-PO(4) values of the provided P source. Furthermore, the δ(18)O-PO(4) of TCA P seems to be controlled by the δ(18)O of leaf water and the activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase or other pyrophosphatases. PMID:23106517

  17. Galactic interstellar 18O/17O ratios - a radial gradient?

    Wouterloot, J G A; Brand, J; Davis, G R

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) Our aim is to determine 18O/17O abundance ratios across the entire Galaxy. These provide a measure of the amount of enrichment by high-mass versus intermediate-mass stars. Such ratios, derived from the C18O and C17O J=1-0 lines alone, may be affected by systematic errors. Therefore, the C18O and C17O (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2), as well as the 13CO (1-0) and (2-1) lines, were observed towards 18 prominent galactic targets (a total of 25 positions). The combined dataset was analysed with an LVG model, accounting for optical depth effects. The data cover galactocentric radii R between 0.1 and 16.9 kpc (solar circle at 8.5 kpc). Near the centre of the Galaxy, 18O/17O = 2.88 +/- 0.11. For the galactic disc out to an R of ca. 10 kpc, 18O/17O = 4.16 +/- 0.09. At ca. R = 16.5 kpc, 18O/17O = 5.03 +/- 0.46. Assuming that 18O is synthesised predominantly in high-mass stars (M > 8 Msun), while C17O is mainly a product of lower-mass stars, the ratio from the inner Galaxy indicates a dominance of CNO-hydrogen burni...

  18. Spin polarization of 23Mg in 24Mg + Au, Cu and Al collisions at 91 A MeV

    Spin polarization of beta-emitting fragment 23Mg(Iπ = 3/2+, Tl/2 = 11.3 s) produced through the projectile fragmentation process in 24Mg + Au, Cu and Al collisions has been observed at 91 A MeV. General trend in the observed momentum dependence of polarization is reproduced well qualitatively by a simple fragmentation model based on the participant-spectator picture, for heavy and light targets. However the polarization behavior differs from this model in terms of zero crossing momentum, which become prominent in the case of Cu target, where the polarization is not monotone function of the fragment momentum

  19. Microscopic foundation of sdgIBM-2 and study of low-lying states of 24Mg

    A microscopic framework of sdIBM-2 is extended to the one of sdgIBM-2. Introducing hexadecupole pairing force, Hamiltonian and E2, E4 operators of the sdgIBM-2 are deduced microscopically. The nucleus 24Mg in the light-mass region is chosen as the first application of such an extended microscopic approach. Based on strong coupling picture, spectrum, reduced E2 transition rates and reduced E4 transition matrix elements are calculated. The calculated results fit experimental results quite well

  20. Study of delta18O calcite-dolomite mixtures

    Isotope ratio of oxygen in carbonate mixtures has been studied. For the purpose samples of calcite and dolomite with the known values delta18O are mixed in the ratios 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9. Then from the mixtures prepared CO2 gas is separated using the McCrea method, delta18O of the gas is measured using mass-srectrometer. It has been established that to obtain delta18O calcite in the mixtures with calcite excess CO2 gas should be collected in the interval 15-30 min of the reaction duration and for the mixtures with dolomite excess - in the interval 5-15 min. To determine delta18O of dolomite the optimum time of CO2 gas collection for all the mixtures is 4-24 h

  1. Nuclear molecules and their deexcitation channels, case of Cr48 generated by the Mg24 + Mg24 resonant reaction

    This work is dedicated to the study of the resonance (E = 45,7 MeV, Jπ = 36+, Γ = 170 keV) of the Mg24 + Mg24 composite nucleus. The PRISMA fragment spectrometer combined with the CLARA gamma detector have been used to study the deexcitation through inelastic channels of the composite system. It is showed that the resonant flux is mainly observed in the inelastic channels involving the contributions 0+, 2+ and 4+ of the band based on the fundamental state of Mg24. This is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the molecular model of Uegaki and Abe. Only 30% of the resonant flux has been observed in the inelastic channels and in the transfer channels. The missing flux has been investigated in the fusion/evaporation deexcitation channels with the GASP gamma multi-detector. A weak resonant effect has been highlighted in some residual nuclei such as Ti45, Ca42 and K39. A link between the prolate di-nucleus Ca48 generated in Mg24 + Mg24 reaction and a Cr48 nucleus that has just undergone a Jacobi transition from oblate to prolate, has been discovered. To explain a part of the missing flux it is suggested that the dipolar giant resonance might feed very deformed nuclei through particle emission

  2. Separation of reaction mechanisms at low energy. Study of the reactions: 27Al(d,p) 28Al, 24Mg(d,p) 25Mg, and 24Mg(d, α) 22Na

    The two sets of angular distributions of (d,p) reactions on Al and Mg, measured between 2 and 6 MeV, have given the possibility to test, in analysing the statistical fluctuations of cross-section, the validity of the separation of their mean values in two parts, one 'direct', another given by the statistical mechanism. With the same method of analysis we have studied excitation functions for several alpha groups of the reaction 24Mg(d, α) 22Na and given an evidence for an intermediate structure for the alpha channel leading to the 3. excited state of 22Na. The angular distribution of the wide resonance at 15.9 MeV in 26Al has been obtained. (author)

  3. Three new bands of 18O16O18O by CW-CRDS between 6340 and 6800 cm−1

    Three very weak bands of the 18O16O18O isotopologue of ozone have been detected by high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy between 6340 and 6800 cm−1. They are vibrationally assigned as 2ν1+5ν3, ν1+4ν2+3ν3 and 3ν2+5ν3 and correspond to the highest frequency bands of this isotopologue detected so far. A total of 464, 318 and 194 transitions were rovibrationally assigned, respectively. The good agreement with theoretical values achieved for the derived band centres and rotational constants confirms the accuracy of the potential energy surface recently obtained via extensive ab initio calculations. A set of line intensities was measured and fitted to derive the first transition moment parameter of the three bands. The determined sets of effective Hamiltonian parameter and transition moment operators, as well as the experimental energy levels, were used to generate a complete list of 1526 transitions, provided as Supplementary materials. The calculated line-list allows generating a synthetic spectrum which reproduces satisfactorily the experimental spectrum. - Highlights: • Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy of 18O16O18O between 6340 and 6800 cm−1. • 976 Transitions assigned to three vibrational bands. • Highest vibrational bands observed so far for the 18O16O18O isotopologue. • Effective operator modelling of the spectra. • Good agreement with ab initio values for the band centres and rotational constants

  4. Nuclear molecules and their deexcitation channels, case of Cr{sup 48} generated by the Mg{sup 24} + Mg{sup 24} resonant reaction; Molecules nucleaires et leurs modes de desexcitation: le cas du {sup 48}Cr et de la reaction resonante {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg

    Salsac, M.D

    2006-12-15

    This work is dedicated to the study of the resonance (E = 45,7 MeV, J{sup {pi}} = 36{sup +}, {gamma} = 170 keV) of the Mg{sup 24} + Mg{sup 24} composite nucleus. The PRISMA fragment spectrometer combined with the CLARA gamma detector have been used to study the deexcitation through inelastic channels of the composite system. It is showed that the resonant flux is mainly observed in the inelastic channels involving the contributions 0{sup +}, 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} of the band based on the fundamental state of Mg{sup 24}. This is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the molecular model of Uegaki and Abe. Only 30% of the resonant flux has been observed in the inelastic channels and in the transfer channels. The missing flux has been investigated in the fusion/evaporation deexcitation channels with the GASP gamma multi-detector. A weak resonant effect has been highlighted in some residual nuclei such as Ti{sup 45}, Ca{sup 42} and K{sup 39}. A link between the prolate di-nucleus Ca{sup 48} generated in Mg{sup 24} + Mg{sup 24} reaction and a Cr{sup 48} nucleus that has just undergone a Jacobi transition from oblate to prolate, has been discovered. To explain a part of the missing flux it is suggested that the dipolar giant resonance might feed very deformed nuclei through particle emission.

  5. Separation of reaction mechanisms at low energy. Study of the reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, and {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na; Sur la separation des mecanismes de reaction a basse energie. Etude des reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, et {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na

    Mermaz, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The two sets of angular distributions of (d,p) reactions on Al and Mg, measured between 2 and 6 MeV, have given the possibility to test, in analysing the statistical fluctuations of cross-section, the validity of the separation of their mean values in two parts, one 'direct', another given by the statistical mechanism. With the same method of analysis we have studied excitation functions for several alpha groups of the reaction {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na and given an evidence for an intermediate structure for the alpha channel leading to the 3. excited state of {sup 22}Na. The angular distribution of the wide resonance at 15.9 MeV in {sup 26}Al has been obtained. (author) [French] Les deux ensembles de distributions angulaires des reactions (d,p) sur Al et Mg, mesures entre 2 et 6 MeV, nous ont permis, en analysant les fluctuations statistiques de sections efficaces, de verifier la possibilite de la separation de leurs valeurs moyennes en deux composantes: l'une 'directe', l'autre due au mecanisme statistique. Avec la meme methode d'analyse nous avons etudie les fonctions d'excitation des premiers groupes alpha de la reaction {sup 24}Mg(d,{alpha}) {sup 22}Na et mis en evidence une structure intermediaire pour la voie de reaction aboutissant au 3eme niveau de {sup 22}Na. Nous avons obtenu la distribution angulaire de la resonance large situee a une energie d'excitation de 15,9 MeV dans {sup 26}Al. (auteur)

  6. Detailed microscopic calculation of stellar electron and positron capture rates on 24Mg for O+Ne+Mg core simulations

    Few white dwarfs, located in binary systems, may acquire sufficiently high mass accretion rates resulting in the burning of carbon and oxygen under nondegenerate conditions forming a O+Ne+Mg core. These O+Ne+Mg cores are gravitationally less bound than more massive progenitor stars and can release more energy due to the nuclear burning. They are also amongst the probable candidates for low entropy r-process sites. Recent observations of subluminous Type II-P supernovae (e.g., 2005cs, 2003gd, 1999br, 1997D) were able to rekindle the interest in 8 - 10 M which develop O+Ne+Mg cores. Microscopic calculations of capture rates on 24Mg, which may contribute significantly to the collapse of O+Ne+Mg cores, using shell model and proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory, were performed earlier and comparisons made. Simulators, however, may require these capture rates on a fine scale. For the first time a detailed microscopic calculation of the electron and positron capture rates on 24Mg on an extensive temperature-density scale is presented here. This type of scale is more appropriate for interpolation purposes and of greater utility for simulation codes. The calculations are done using the pn-QRPA theory using a separable interaction. The deformation parameter, believed to be a key parameter in QRPA calculations, is adopted from experimental data to further increase the reliability of the QRPA results. The resulting calculated rates are up to a factor of 14 or more enhanced as compared to shell model rates and may lead to some interesting scenario for core collapse simulators. (author)

  7. Stellar neutrino energy loss rates due to $^{24}$Mg suitable for O+Ne+Mg core simulations

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a pivotal role to decide if these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. Recent observations of subluminous Type II-P supernovae (e.g., 2005cs, 2003gd, 1999br, 1997D) were able to rejuvenate the interest in 8-10 M$_{\\odot}$ stars which develop O+Ne+Mg cores. Simulation results of O+Ne+Mg cores show varying results in converting the collapse into an explosion. The neutrino energy loss rates are important input parameters in core collapse simulations. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has been used for calculation of neutrino energy loss rates due to $^{24}$Mg in stellar matter. The rates are presented on a detailed density-temperature grid suitable for simulation purposes. The calculated neutrino energy loss rates are enhanced up to more than one order of magnitude compared to the shell model calculations and favor a lower entropy for the core of these massive stars.

  8. Decay studies of 59Cu* formed in the 35Cl + 24Mg reaction using the dynamical cluster-decay model

    Karthikraj, C.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2013-02-01

    The reformulated dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) is applied to study the decay of odd-A and non-α structured 59Cu* formed in the 35Cl+24Mg reaction at Elab=275 MeV. Here, the temperature (T)-dependent binding energies due to Krappe are used. The roles of Wigner and pairing energies in the fragmentation potential are explicitly shown in this work. For the temperature T=4.1898 MeV corresponding to Elab=275 MeV, the contribution of pairing vanishes and the resulting structure of the fragmentation potential due to Wigner term is shown. In addition to this, we have studied the role of factor α appearing in the inertia part of the equation of motion dictating the mass-transfer process. It is shown that this factor has significant effect in the structure of preformation probability values and hence in turn we see significant changes in the cross sections. We compare the cross sections of the measured charge distributions of the fission fragments for two limiting values of the parameter α with the experimental data. In order to fit the total cross-section values, a linear relation is obtained between the free parameter of the model ▵R and the factor α appearing in the hydrodynamical mass.

  9. Detailed microscopic calculation of stellar electron and positron capture rates on $^{24}$Mg for O+Ne+Mg core simulations

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2014-01-01

    Few white dwarfs, located in binary systems, may acquire sufficiently high mass accretion rates resulting in the burning of carbon and oxygen under nondegenerate conditions forming a O+Ne+Mg core. These O+Ne+Mg cores are gravitationally less bound than more massive progenitor stars and can release more energy due to the nuclear burning. They are also amongst the probable candidates for low entropy r-process sites. Recent observations of subluminous Type II-P supernovae (e.g., 2005cs, 2003gd, 1999br, 1997D) were able to rekindle the interest in 8 -- 10 M$_{\\odot}$ which develop O+Ne+Mg cores. Microscopic calculations of capture rates on $^{24}$Mg, which may contribute significantly to the collapse of O+Ne+Mg cores, using shell model and proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory, were performed earlier and comparisons made. Simulators, however, may require these capture rates on a fine scale. For the first time a detailed microscopic calculation of the electron and positron captur...

  10. Study of the angular correlations of light charged particles for the reaction 35CI (260 MeV) + 24Mg

    This work is focussed on the investigation of deformed nuclei. The asymmetric fusion-fission of light heavy-ions (A ≤60) with a high excitation energy (T ∼ 4 MeV) had lead to a large deformation of the compound nucleus at the scission point. The angular correlations between light particles (LP) and their emitting fragments has been used to probe the deformation of nucleus. Exclusive measurements were performed for the 35Cl (260 MeV) + 24Mg system leading to the 59Cu compound nucleus (CN). The comparison between the energy spectra of LP's and a statistical calculation carried out by a Monte-Carlo code CASCADE has suggested a deformation of 1.3 (for an oblate shape) of the CN within the frame work of fusion-evaporation process. The source velocity spectrum of α particles and angular correlations of LP's have showed that pre-scission and pre-equilibrium emissions are negligible in the present reaction. Finally the confrontation of the data with the statistical code GEMINI has pointed out the sequential emission character of the LP's from the fission fragments. (author)

  11. Analyses of electron and proton scattering to low excitation isoscalar states in 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si

    Intermediate energy inelastic proton scattering differential cross section and polarization data from the 21+ states in 24Mg and 28Si and from the 41+ states in 28Si have been analysed using the Distorted Wave Approximation with large basis models of nuclear structure. These structure models were tested by use in analyses of the longitudinal form factors obtained from inelastic electron scattering, so that analyses of the intermediate energy (p,p') data from the same transitions are then sensitive tests of the two-nucleon t-matrix. Data from these and other 21+ transitions in 12C and 20Ne at 49 MeV (24 MeV in the case of 20Ne), were also analysed to compare models of t-matrices at lower energies. An ancilliary study of the momentum transfer dependence of effective charges has been made as both s-d shell and large basis structure models have been used to compare with form factor data up to momentum transfers of 2.5 fm-1. The deduced momentum dependence of the effective charges is significant

  12. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 400 MeV polarised deuterons on 12C, 24Mg, 40Ca nuclei

    This research thesis is based on an experiment of scattering of polarised 400 MeV deuterons on 12C, 24Mg, 40Ca nuclei, performed on the Saturne accelerator. The measured observables are the non-polarised cross section, and the powers of vector and tensor analysis. The author describes the experiment running and the installation, presents the various devices from source to detection and acquisition by the computer system. He reports the experiment compilation: reading of magnetic tapes, assessment and taking into account of the different experimental parameters. The calculation of scattering observables (cross section and powers of analysis) is performed by using experimental data. Spectra of these observables are represented for the different excited states of nuclei, after, should the occasion arise, Gaussian decomposition or background subtraction. The author reports the analysis of the obtained results. Results obtained for the three nuclei are compared between each other, and with scattering data for protons at similar energies which have already been measured. An analysis with a microscopic model is performed and the predictions of this model are compared with the obtained results

  13. Stellar neutrino energy loss rates due to 24Mg suitable for O+Ne+Mg core simulations

    Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a pivotal role to decide if these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. Recent observations of subluminous Type II-P supernovae (e.g., 2005cs, 2003gd, 1999br, 1997D) were able to rejuvenate the interest in 8-10 M stars which develop O+Ne+Mg cores. Simulation results of O+Ne+Mg cores show varying results in converting the collapse into an explosion. The neutrino energy loss rates are important input parameters in core collapse simulations. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has been used for calculation of neutrino energy loss rates due to 24Mg in stellar matter. The rates are presented on a detailed density-temperature grid suitable for simulation purposes. The calculated neutrino energy loss rates are enhanced up to more than one order of magnitude compared to the shell model calculations and favor a lower entropy for the core of these massive stars. (author)

  14. The Importance Of Atmospheric {delta} {sup 18}O In Determining Leaf {delta} {sup 18}O In Oak And Pine

    Reynolds, C.E.; Saurer, M.; Siegwolf, R.T.W.

    2005-03-01

    Strongly {delta} {sup 18}O depleted water vapour was used to study leaf isotopic enrichment and gas exchange properties in a climate-controlled cuvette under a range of environmental conditions. Results show that water vapour strongly influences leaf isotopic composition. This technique was successfully introduced as a novel tool for studying leaf water enrichment. (author)

  15. 18O + 12C fusion-evaporation reaction

    A study of the 18O + 12C fusion evaporation reaction has been undertaken for 2 reasons: to make a systematic study of the formation cross section for each individual evaporation residue over a broad excitation energy region in the compound nucleus 30Si:30 to 62 MeV; and to compare all results to fusion-evaporation calculations done in the framework of the Hauser-Feschbach statistical model

  16. C18O Depletion in Starless Cores in Taurus

    Ford, Amanda Brady

    2011-01-01

    We present here findings for C18O depletion in eight starless cores in Taurus: TMC-2, L1498, L1512, L1489, L1517B, L1521E, L1495A-S, and L1544. We compare observations of the C18O J=2-1 transition taken with the ALMA prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope to results of radiative transfer modeling using RATRAN. We use temperature and density profiles calculated from dust continuum radiative transfer models to model the C18O emission. We present modeling of three cores, TMC-2, L1489, and L1495A-S, which have not been modeled before and compare our results for the five cores with published models. We find that all of the cores but one, L1521E, are substantially depleted. We also find that varying the temperature profiles of these model cores has a discernable effect, and varying the central density has an even larger effect. We find no trends with depletion radius or depletion fraction with the density or temperature of these cores, suggesting that the physical structure alone is insuff...

  17. Laser-based measurements of 18O/16O stable isotope ratios (δ18O in wine samples

    Gupta M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Manish Gupta,1 J Brian Leen,1 Elena Simone Franklin Berman,1 Aldo Ciambotti2 1Los Gatos Research, Mountain View, CA, USA; 2Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Enologia, Asti, Italy Abstract: Wine counterfeiting is an international, multi-billion dollar issue, with some estimates suggesting that up to 5% of wines sold at auctions or secondary markets are fraudulent. Isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS measurements of the 18O/16O stable isotope ratio (δ18O of water-in-wine have been used for wine authentication; however, these analyses are time-consuming and costly. In this preliminary study, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS is used to quantify δ18O in wines. This laser-based method has been extensively used to study water isotopes for hydrological and medical applications. Recently, the development of a spectral contaminant identifier (SCI has extended the application of these OA-ICOS analyzers to contaminated water samples (eg, plant, soil, and leaf waters. Here, we utilize OA-ICOS with the SCI to characterize wine samples (9%–15% ethanol, and show that the laser-based instrument provides a δ18O measurement precision of ±0.07‰ (1σ and agrees with IRMS to within ±0.63‰ (1σ. Moreover, by training the SCI on isotopically-characterized wines, the agreement with IRMS improves to within ±0.30‰ (1σ. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated by measuring watered and mixed wines. The method presented here can be readily extended to address other food authentication applications. Keywords: wine isotopes, wine fraud, counterfeit wines, OA-ICOS

  18. Investigating the past and recent δ18O-accumulation relationship seen in Greenland ice cores

    Buchardt, S. L.; Clausen, H. B.; Vinther, B. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal means of δ18O and accumulation rates from 52 ice core locations in Greenland are presented. The accumulation rates are derived from annual layers determined in the δ18O curve. Investigation of the δ18O-accumulation relationship across the ice divide reveals a significant Foehn effect with anticorrelation of δ18O and accumulation rate on the lee side of the divide in Southern Greenland, while no effect is seen in Central Greenl...

  19. Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu Stable Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1806 to 1979

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Espiritu Santo Island, Vanuatu, 15S, 167E. 173 year record of d18O and d13C. Variable names: QSR Age, QSR 13C, QSR 18O, GRL Age, GRL Qtrly 13C, GRL Qtrly 18O,...

  20. An attempt of application of short lived 44K activity induced in the 44Ca(n,p)44K reaction using 14 MeV neutrons for total body calcium assessment in human subject

    The status of in vivo neutron activation analysis techniques for the measurement of total body calcium in human subject is reviewed. Relevant data on the nuclear characteristics of calcium isotopes during interaction with neutrons ranging from slow up to 14 MeV neutrons are presented. Physical aspects of the measurement of in vivo total body calcium (TBCa) using 44K activity induced in the 44Ca(n,p)44K(T1/2=22.3 min) reaction by 14 MeV neutrons are discussed. The measurement of delayed γ-ray emitted during decay of activities induced in enriched 44Ca, natCa, phantom filled with water solution of natural calcium and skeletal arm are considered. Results of measurements on the phantom and skeletal arm indicate a possibility to measure the TBCa using the 44K activity. (author)

  1. Alpha-spectroscopic factors from (d,6Li) and (3He,7Be) reactions on 12C,24Mg,40Ca and 58Ni

    An attempt has been made to compare the alpha-spectroscopic factors (Ssub(α)) resulting from (d,6Li) and (3He,7Be) reactions on 12C,24Mg,40Ca and 58Ni employing potentials characterizing the same potential family for the deuteron and for the 3He-channels and another set of potentials characterizing a particular potential family for 6Li and 7Be-channels respectively. It is found that the extracted spectroscopic factors for 12C,24Mg and 40Ca agree well, while that for the target 58Ni differs by an order of magnitude from the other two reactions. A possible reason has been discussed. (author)

  2. Mass spectra and fusion cross sections for 20Ne + 24Mg interaction at 55 MeV and 85 MeV

    Inclusive γ-spectra from the 20Ne + 24Mg interaction have been measured using 55 and 85 MeV 20Ne beams accelerated at the CYCLONE cyclotron of Louvain-la-Neuve. The identification of γ lines allows the determination of mass spectra in the region 12<=A<=43. Experimental results are compared with statistical model calculations. The total reaction and fusion cross sections are extracted. Cross sections for inelastic scattering, few nucleon transfers and deep inelastic scattering are estimated. (author)

  3. The study of nuclear structure of 76-78Kr and 24Mg nuclei in the frame work of interacting boson model

    The results of this work show that the IBM-1 provides a good description of even-even 76-78Kr and 24Mg isotopes of the nuclei. The interacting boson model can reproduce a considerable quantity of experimental data and gives useful indications where data are lacking. One observe the transitions between three limit symmetries of the model, corresponding to different nuclear shapes

  4. Semi empirical formula for electronic stopping power determination of 24Mg, 27Al and 28Si ions crossing Formvar foil in the ion energy domain of LSS theory

    We have determined continuous stopping power of heavy ions in thin Formvar foil for 28Si, 27Al and 24Mg ions over an energy range of (0.1–0.5) MeV/nucleon. Heavy Ions Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HI-ERDA) technique coupled with time of flight (ToF) spectrometer has been used to measure energy loss of charged particles in this thin absorber. Lindhard, Scharff and Schiott (LSS) theory compared with the corresponding determined stopping values in Formvar, shows significantly large deviations. However, a novel semi empirical expression has been proposed here and tested for better stopping power calculations at low velocity in the ion energy domain of LSS theory for 28Si, 27Al and 24Mg ions crossing thin Formvar foil. The results were compared to the obtained experimental stopping power data, predictions of LSS theory and also to those generated by SRIM-2010 computer code. The obtained results exhibit good agreement with experimental data. - Highlights: • Experimental stopping data has been obtained by using Heavy Ions Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis technique with Time of Flight spectrometer. • A new semi-empirical stopping formula based on LSS theory has been proposed for 28Si, 27Al and 24 Mg ions in Formvar foil. • This expression well fit the experimental stopping data at low energy in LSS domain

  5. Extreme alpha-clustering in the 18O nucleus

    Johnson, E D; Goldberg, V Z; Brown, S; Robson, D; Crisp, A M; Cottle, P D; Fu, C; Giles, J; Green, B W; Kemper, K W; Lee, K; Roeder, B T; Tribble, R E

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the 18O nucleus at excitation energies above the alpha decay threshold was studied using 14C+alpha resonance elastic scattering. A number of states with large alpha reduced widths have been observed, indicating that the alpha-cluster degree of freedom plays an important role in this N not equal Z nucleus. However, the alpha-cluster structure of this nucleus is very different from the relatively simple pattern of strong alpha-cluster quasi-rotational bands in the neighboring 16O and 20Ne nuclei. A 0+ state with an alpha reduced width exceeding the single particle limit was identified at an excitation energy of 9.9+/-0.3 MeV. We discuss evidence that states of this kind are common in light nuclei and give possible explanations of this feature.

  6. 2H and 18O Freshwater Isoscapes of Scotland

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Kemp, Helen; Frew, Danny

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwaters by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils legislative requirements with regards to water quality but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity combining these mandatory monitoring schemes with fundamental research to inform and deliver on current and nascent government policies [1] through gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and food security. For example, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to underpin research and its applications in: • Climate change - Using longitudinal changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs as proxy, isoscapes will provide a means to assess if and how changes in temperature and weather patterns might impact on precipitation patterns and amount. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish soft fruit and Scottish Whisky. During 2011 and 2012, with the support of SEPA more than 110 samples from freshwater lochs and reservoirs were collected from 127 different locations across Scotland including the Highlands and Islands. Here we present the results of this sampling and analysis exercise isotope analyses in form of 2H and 18O isoscapes with an unprecedented grid resolution of 26.5 × 26.5 km (or 16.4 × 16.4 miles). [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland

  7. Activation cross section measurements near threshold for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na and 27Al(n,α)24Na reactions

    Differential cross sections have been measured for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na and 27Al(n,α)24Na reactions in the neutron energy range from near-threshold to approx. 10 MeV using 238U fast-neutron fission as a cross section standard. The present data generally support previous work, although the cross sections tend to be somewhat larger for 27Al(n,α)24Na, particularly in the 8-9 MeV range. These data contribute significantly to reducing the uncertainty in contemporary knowledge of the cross sections for these reactions in the threshold region. (author)

  8. Quantitative fundamental SIMS studies using {sup 18}O implant standards

    Williams, Peter [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States)]. E-mail: pw@asu.edu; Sobers, Richard C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Franzreb, Klaus [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States); Loerincik, Jan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1604 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    The use of dilute 'minor-isotope'{sup 18}O implant reference standards for quantification of surface oxygen levels during steady-state SIMS depth profiling is demonstrated. Some results of two types of quantitative fundamental SIMS studies with oxygen ({sup 16}O) primary ion bombardment and/or oxygen flooding (O{sub 2} gas with natural isotopic abundance) are presented: (1) Determination of elemental useful ion yields, UY(X{sup {+-}}), and sample sputter yields, Y, as a function of the oxygen fraction c {sub O} measured in the total flux emitted from the sputtered surface. Examples include new results for positive secondary ion emission of several elements (X = B, C, O, Al, Si, Cu, Ga, Ge, Cs) from variably oxidized SiC or Ge surfaces. (2) The dependence of exponential decay lengths {lambda}(Au{sup {+-}}) in sputter depth profiles of gold overlayers on silicon on the amount of oxygen present at the sputtered silicon surface. The latter study elucidates the (element-specific) effects of oxygen-induced surface segregation artifacts for sputter depth profiling through metal overlayers into silicon substrates.

  9. Monsoon influence on planktic δ18O records from the South China Sea

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Tian, Jun; He, Juan; Jian, Zhimin; Ma, Wentao; Dang, Haowen

    2016-06-01

    While the benthic δ18O records from many South China Sea sites mimic the SPECMAP/LR04 standard, their paired planktic δ18O curves differ by comparable values at negative peaks corresponding to interstadials, especially between MIS 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.3. Similar planktic δ18O records also occur in some other low-latitude oceans under monsoon influence. Because neither temperature nor salinity effects can fully account for the variations of such δ18O records after derivation from the SPECMAP/LR04 standard, variations in the rain water δ18O affected by regional hydroclimate changes are considered to have played an important role. In contrast to the SPECMAP/LR04 standard δ18O curve prevailed by 100-kyr cycles, these regional planktic δ18O curves are distinguished by 20-kyr precession signal, showing partial similarity to the δ18O records of atmospheric oxygen in polar ice-core bubbles and in stalagmite calcite. We speculate that the common features of these three independent δ18O records are indicative of the effect of evolving hydrological cycling driven by monsoon circulation in low latitudes.

  10. A ‘hidden’ 18O-enriched reservoir in the sub-arc mantle

    Chuan-Zhou Liu; Fu-Yuan Wu; Sun-Lin Chung; Qiu-Li Li; Wei-Dong Sun; Wei-Qiang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Plate subduction continuously transports crustal materials with high-δ18O values down to the mantle wedge, where mantle peridotites are expected to achieve the high-δ18O features. Elevated δ18O values relative to the upper mantle value have been reported for magmas from some subduction zones. However, peridotites with δ18O values significantly higher than the well-defined upper mantle values have never been observed from modern subduction zones. Here we present in-situ oxygen isotope data of ...

  11. 24Mg(α,γ)28Si reaction at alpha-particle energies from 3.2 to 6.2 MeV

    The 24Mg(α,γ)28Si reaction has been used to study excited states in 28Si. Targets of enriched 24Mg on a tantalum backing were bombarded by an α-particle beam from the CN Van de Graaff accelerator of The Pennsylvania State University. A large NaI(Tl) detector was placed immediately adjacent to the target in order to increase the probability of summing of the signals from different members of a cascade; windows were set for transitions to the ground state and the first few excited states. The energy of the α-particles was increased in steps of 2 to 5 keV from 3.2 to 6.2 MeV. Thirty-two resonances were located by sharp increases in the number of events recorded. At each resonance a spectrum was taken using a 55 cm3 Ge(Li) detector placed 5 cm from the target at an angle of 550 to the beam axis, the data being recorded on a PDP-15 on-line computer. The spectra were analyzed off-line using the program SAMPO of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  12. γ-ray production by proton and α-particle induced reactions on 12C, 16O, 24Mg, and Fe

    γ-ray production cross sections for proton and α-particle interactions with 12C, 16O, 24Mg, and Fe have been measured in the energy range 5-25 MeV with proton beams and 5-40 MeV with α-particle beams. Isotopically pure foils of 24Mg and foils of natural isotopical composition of C, MgO, and Fe have been used. γ-ray angular distributions were obtained with five high-purity Ge detectors with bismuth germanate Compton shields placed at angles of 45 deg. to 157.5 deg. Cross sections for more than 50 different γ-ray transitions were extracted, and for many of them no data have been published before. Comparison of present data with data available in the literature shows mostly good to excellent agreement. In addition to the production cross sections, high-statistics, low-background line shapes of the 4.438 MeV 12C γ ray from inelastic scattering off 12C and spallation of 16O were obtained. Comparison with nuclear reaction calculations shows that these data place interesting constraints on nuclear reaction models

  13. Dirac Coupled-channel Analyses of Polarized Proton Scatterings to the 2$^+$ Gamma Vibrational Band in $^{24}$Mg and $^{26}$Mg

    Shim, Sugie

    2016-01-01

    Dirac coupled channel calculations are performed phenomenologically for the high-lying excited states that belong to the 2$^+$ gamma vibrational band at the 800-MeV polarized proton inelastic scatterings from the s-d shell nuclei, $^{24}$Mg and $^{26}$Mg. Optical potential model is used and scalar and time-like vector potentials are considered as direct potentials. First-order vibrational collective models are used to obtain the transition optical potentials in order to accommodate the high-lying excited vibrational collective states. The complicated Dirac coupled channel equations are solved phenomenologically to reproduce the differential cross section and analyzing power data by varying the optical potential and deformation parameters. It is found that the relativistic Dirac coupled channel calculation could describe the high-lying excited states of the 2$^+$ gamma vibrational band at the 800-MeV polarized proton inelastic scatterings from s-d shell nuclei $^{24}$Mg and $^{26}$Mg reasonably well, showing b...

  14. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.)

  15. $^{8}$Be, $^{12}$C, $^{16}$O, $^{20}$Ne, $^{24}$Mg, and $^{32}$S nuclei and alpha clustering within a generalized liquid drop model

    Royer, G; Eudes, P

    2015-01-01

    The potential energy governing the shape and the entrance and decay channels of the 12 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, and 32 S 4n-nuclei has been determined within a generalized liquid drop model. Different three-dimensional and planar shapes have been investigated: linear chain, triangle, square, tetrahedron, pentagon, trigonal bipyramid, square pyramid, hexagon, octahedron, octogon and cube. The rms radii of the linear chains are higher than the experimental rms radii of the ground states. The binding energies of the planar shapes at the contact point are lower than the ones of the three-dimensional configurations. The a particle plus A-4 daughter configuration leads always to the lowest potential barrier relatively to the sphere configuration.

  16. Study of two- and multi-particle correlations in 12C+24Mg and 12C+208Pb reactions at E=35 AMeV

    Quattrocchi L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two and multi particle correlations from the decay of sources produced in 12C+24Mg and 12C+208Pb collisions at E=35 AMeV have been studied by using the forward part (1° < θlab < 30° of the CHIMERA multi-detector. Correlations and invariant mass spectroscopy are used to explore simultaneous and sequential decays of resonances in light isotopes with Z∼3-6, produced in peripheral collisions via the break-up of excited quasi-projectiles. Among them we mention 5Li, 6Li, 6Be, 8Be and the astrophysically important state in 12C decaying into three alpha particles. Results and future perspectives at the INFN-LNS will be presented.

  17. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N = Z nuclei. The {sup 24}Mg and {sup 28}Si cases

    Morelli, L., E-mail: luca.morelli@bo.infn.it; D’Agostino, M.; Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Baiocco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università and INFN, Pavia (Italy); Gulminelli, F. [CNRS, LPC, Caen, France and ENSICAEN, Caen (France); Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Degerlier, M. [University of Nevsehir, Physics Department, Nevsehir (Turkey); Fabris, D. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Gelli, N.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università and INFN, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    In the recent years, cluster structures have been evidenced in many ground and excited states of light nuclei [1, 2]. Within the currently ongoing experimental campaign by the NUCL-EX collaboration we have measured the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N+{sup 10}B reactions at 95 MeV and 80 MeV respectively, and compared experimental data corresponding to complete fusion of target and projectile into an excited {sup 24}Mg nucleus to the results of a pure statistical model[3, 4]. We found clear deviations from the statstical model in the decay pattern: emission channels involving multiple α particles are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recentely measured the {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C reaction at three different beam energies, namely E{sub beam} = 90, 110 and 130 MeV.

  18. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N = Z nuclei. The 24Mg and 28Si cases

    In the recent years, cluster structures have been evidenced in many ground and excited states of light nuclei [1, 2]. Within the currently ongoing experimental campaign by the NUCL-EX collaboration we have measured the 12C+12C and 14N+10B reactions at 95 MeV and 80 MeV respectively, and compared experimental data corresponding to complete fusion of target and projectile into an excited 24Mg nucleus to the results of a pure statistical model[3, 4]. We found clear deviations from the statstical model in the decay pattern: emission channels involving multiple α particles are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recentely measured the 16O+12C reaction at three different beam energies, namely Ebeam = 90, 110 and 130 MeV

  19. The origin of high δ18O zircons: marbles, megacrysts, and metamorphism

    Cavosie, Aaron J.; Valley, John W.; Kita, Noriko T.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Wilde, Simon A.

    2011-11-01

    The oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of most igneous zircons range from 5 to 8‰, with 99% of published values from 1345 rocks below 10‰. Metamorphic zircons from quartzite, metapelite, metabasite, and eclogite record δ18O values from 5 to 17‰, with 99% below 15‰. However, zircons with anomalously high δ18O, up to 23‰, have been reported in detrital suites; source rocks for these unusual zircons have not been identified. We report data for zircons from Sri Lanka and Myanmar that constrain a metamorphic petrogenesis for anomalously high δ18O in zircon. A suite of 28 large detrital zircon megacrysts from Mogok (Myanmar) analyzed by laser fluorination yields δ18O from 9.4 to 25.5‰. The U-Pb standard, CZ3, a large detrital zircon megacryst from Sri Lanka, yields δ18O = 15.4 ± 0.1‰ (2 SE) by ion microprobe. A euhedral unzoned zircon in a thin section of Sri Lanka granulite facies calcite marble yields δ18O = 19.4‰ by ion microprobe and confirms a metamorphic petrogenesis of zircon in marble. Small oxygen isotope fractionations between zircon and most minerals require a high δ18O source for the high δ18O zircons. Predicted equilibrium values of Δ18O(calcite-zircon) = 2-3‰ from 800 to 600°C show that metamorphic zircon crystallizing in a high δ18O marble will have high δ18O. The high δ18O zircons (>15‰) from both Sri Lanka and Mogok overlap the values of primary marine carbonates, and marbles are known detrital gemstone sources in both localities. The high δ18O zircons are thus metamorphic; the 15-25‰ zircon values are consistent with a marble origin in a rock-dominated system (i.e., low fluid(external)/rock); the lower δ18O zircon values (9-15‰) are consistent with an origin in an external fluid-dominated system, such as skarn derived from marble, although many non-metasomatized marbles also fall in this range of δ18O. High δ18O (>15‰) and the absence of zoning can thus be used as a tracer to identify a marble source for high δ18O

  20. TDA's validity to study 18O collectivity in terms of collective pair model

    Conclusion proved that if the authors calculate 18O collective spectra in terms of the Collective Pair Model, the authors can get the positive low laying levels of 18O which are of the particle particle pair, independent on the excitation of hole within closed shell. 1- low laying levels are of non-collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 1- fourth level is of collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 3- low laying levels are of collective 3 particle 1 hole states. 1-, 3- low laying levels agree very well with the experiment data. Hence the TDA is sufficient for the calculations of 1-,3- collective low levels of 18O

  1. Implications of the 14C(α,γ)18O reaction for nonstandard big bang nucleosynthesis

    The thermonuclear burning rates for the 14C(α,γ)18O radiative capture reaction are calculated at temperatures (0.3- state, at approximately 9.0 MeV in 18O as would be deduced from the Yale-Michigan State University measurement of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 18N and suggested by the Notre Dame-Caltech measurement of the nonresonant 14C(α,γ)18O cross section. The gamma widths of the proposed broad state is estimated using the Alhassid, Gai, and Bertsch sum rule, and an experimental study is proposed

  2. Determination of 13C and 18O isotopic abundances of carboxyl substances; application to amino acids

    Flash pyrolysis of organic acids or of their salts gives off carbon dioxide which can be analysed by mass spectrometry for 13C and 18O abundance. This principle has been applied to Cd13C18O3 using an induction furnace, and used to determine the 13C and 18O content of the carboxylic group of some amino acids. The technique described has many advantages over the classical pyrolysis methods using sealed tubes. It is rapid and simple and especially effective in determining the isotopic composition of hygroscopic carboxyl substances. (U.K.)

  3. Ras Umm Sidd Oxygen Isotope (delta 18O) Data for 1750 to 1995

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ras Umm Sidd bimonthly coral oxygen isotope data (coral core RUS-95). Notes on the data: File (Ras Umm Sidd d18O.txt.) includes columns for Year AD (bimonthly...

  4. Secas Island Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O) for 1707 to 1984

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Secas Island Coral d18O, used to reconstruct seasonal and interannual variability in the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Site Location: Secas Island, Gulf of...

  5. Mahe, Seychelles Stable Isotope (delta 18O) Data for 1846 to 1995

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seychelles coral oxygen-18 time series, data are monthly values of d18O from July 1846 to February 1995 from a 3-m Porites lutea coral colony collected from Beau...

  6. Barbados Oxygen Isotope Data (delta 18O) for the Late Pleistocene

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral-based delta18O time-series derived from measurements made on submerged or drowned coral reef sequence. The core samples used have been described elsewhere...

  7. Malindi, Kenya Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O, delta 13C) for 1801-1994

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Malindi annual oxygen isotopic composition, 1801-1994. Notes on the data: File includes columns for Year AD, Coral d18O, and SST (degrees C). The SST data are...

  8. Evaluating the effects of evapotranspiration on the δ18O value of atmospheric moisture above vegetation

    Plants are major transducers of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. This poster presents the use of stable isotopes (δ18O) to estimate transportation flux from vegetation. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Enhancing the Accuracy of Carbonate δ18O and δ13C Measurements by SIMS

    Orland, I. J.; Kozdon, R.; Linzmeier, B.; Wycech, J.; Sliwinski, M.; Kitajima, K.; Kita, N.; Valley, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The precision and accuracy of carbonate δ18O & δ13C analysis by multicollector SIMS is well established if standards match samples in structure and major/minor element chemistry. However, low-T- and bio-carbonates used to construct paleoclimate archives can include complex internal structures and some samples analyzed at WiscSIMS (and other SIMS labs) have a consistent, sample-dependent offset between average SIMS δ18O measurements and bulk δ18O analyses by phosphoric-acid digestion. The offset is typically hydrogen peroxide), for which there is no agreed procedure in conventional bulk analyses. For SIMS analyses, pre-treatments had varied influence on the δ18O value, [16O1H], the concentration of "organic markers" like 12C14N and 31P, and mineralogy (of aragonite samples).

  10. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  11. Climatic significance of δ18O records from precipitation on the western Tibetan Plateau

    YU WuSheng; MA YaoMing; SUN WeiZhen; WANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of daily precipitation samples for stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O) collected at the Shiquanhe and Gêrzê (Gaize,Gertse) stations in the Ngari (Ali) region on the western Tibetan Plateau indicates that air temperature affects the δ18O variations in precipitation at these stations,in summer,Shiquanhe and Gêrzê show strongly similar trends in precipitation δ18O,especially in simultaneous precipitation events.Moreover,both stations experienced low δ18O values in precipitation during the active monsoon period,resulting from the southwest monsoon (the summer phase of the Indian monsoon).However,during the break monsoon period (during the summer rainy season,when the monsoon circulation is disrupted),δ18O values in summer precipitation remain relatively high and local moisture recycling generally controls the moisture sources.Air temperature correlations with δ18O strengthen during the non-monsoon period (January-June,and October-December) due to continental air masses and the westerlies.In addition,evaporation also influences the δ18O variations in precipitation.The observed temporal and spatial variations of δ18O in precipitation on the western Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions show that the late May and early June-the late August and early September time frame provides an important period for the transportation of moisture from various sources on the Tibetan Plateau,and that the region of the West Kunlun-Tanggula Ranges acts as a significant climatic divide on the Plateau,perhaps for all of western China.

  12. Microscopic multichannel calculation of the molecular dipole degree of freedom in the /sup 18/O nucleus

    Funck, C.; Grund, B.; Langanke, K.

    1989-09-01

    Strong B(E1) transitions have been recently observed between states in the /sup 18/O nucleus which follow roughly the energy sequence of a dimolecular /alpha/+/sup 14/C rotator. These findings have been interpreted by Gai et al. as evidence for a molecular dipole degree of freedom being present in the /sup 18/O nucleus. However, this idea was contradicted by the results of a microscopic multichannel calculation performed by Descouvemont and Baye which was based on elastic /alpha/+/sup 14/C and inelastic /alpha/+/sup 14/C(2/sup +/) many-body cluster wave functions. We have improved this study by performing a microscopic multichannel calculation including additionally a n+/sup 17/O many-body fragmentation in order to enlarge our model space by those shell model components which dominate the structure of the (positive parity) /sup 18/O ground state band. Like Descouvemont and Baye we find a positive parity /alpha/+/sup 14/C molecular band in /sup 18/O and, additionally, a rather strong collectivity in the lowest 1/sup -/, 3/sup -/, and 5/sup -/ states in /sup 18/O. However, since the internal structure is different within these states, the calculated states should not be interpreted as a negative parity /alpha/+/sup 14/C molecular band. In this perspective, the microscopic multichannel calculations do not support the hypothesis of a molecular dipole degree of freedom being present in the /sup 18/O nucleus. (orig.).

  13. Microscopic multichannel calculation of the molecular dipole degree of freedom in the 18O nucleus

    Strong B(E1) transitions have been recently observed between states in the 18O nucleus which follow roughly the energy sequence of a dimolecular α+14C rotator. These findings have been interpreted by Gai et al. as evidence for a molecular dipole degree of freedom being present in the 18O nucleus. However, this idea was contradicted by the results of a microscopic multichannel calculation performed by Descouvemont and Baye which was based on elastic α+14C and inelastic α+14C(2+) many-body cluster wave functions. We have improved this study by performing a microscopic multichannel calculation including additionally a n+17O many-body fragmentation in order to enlarge our model space by those shell model components which dominate the structure of the (positive parity) 18O ground state band. Like Descouvemont and Baye we find a positive parity α+14C molecular band in 18O and, additionally, a rather strong collectivity in the lowest 1-, 3-, and 5- states in 18O. However, since the internal structure is different within these states, the calculated states should not be interpreted as a negative parity α+14C molecular band. In this perspective, the microscopic multichannel calculations do not support the hypothesis of a molecular dipole degree of freedom being present in the 18O nucleus. (orig.)

  14. Simulation and optimization of stable isotope 18O separation by water vacuum distillation

    In the research, a stable isotope 18O separation column was set up by water vacuum distillation with 20 m packing height and 0.1 m diameter of the column. The self-developed special packing named PAC-18O was packed inside the column. Firstly, a model was created by using the Aspen Plus software, and then the simulation results were validated by test results. Secondly, a group of simulation results were created by Aspen Plus, and the optimal operation conditions were gotten by using the artificial neural network (ANN) and Statistica software. Considering comprehensive factors drawn from column pressure and from withdrawing velocity, conclusions were reached on the study of the impact on the abundance of the isotope 18O. The final results show that the abundance of the isotope 18O increases as column pressure dropping and withdrawing velocity decreasing. Besides, the optimal column pressure and the incidence formula between the abundance of the isotope 18O and withdrawing velocity were gotten. The conclusion is that the method of simulation and optimization can be applied to 18O industrial design and will be popular in traditional distillation process to realize optimization design. (authors)

  15. Synthesis of tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanosheets utilizing EDTA salt by microwave irradiation method

    Research highlights: → We have synthesized tungsten oxide (WO3-δ) nanoparticles by microwave irradiation method for the first time using EDTA as surface modulator. The variation in stoichiometric oxygen content of the annealed samples clearly indicates the role of EDTA in reaction medium. The variation in oxygen content also modified the transparency of the end product confirming the change in optical conductivity. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of crystalline W18O49 with nanosheet like morphology by low cost microwave irradiation method without employing hydrothermal process for the first time. Initially, WO3.H2O was synthesized using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as surface modulator. The product was annealed at 600 oC for 6 h in ambient atmosphere in order to obtain anhydrous tungsten oxide W18O49. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirmed the as prepared WO3.H2O to be orthorhombic and W18O49 to be monoclinic phase, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that the W18O49 nanosheets have the average dimensions of the order of 250 nm in length and around 150 nm in width. UV-visible diffusion reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) studies revealed the band gap energies to be 3.28 and 3.47 eV for WO3.H2O and W18O49 samples, respectively. The growth mechanism of two dimensional W18O49 nanosheets is discussed.

  16. Routine quality control of recycled target [18O]water by capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography

    Recycling of [18O]water for [18F]fluoride production can be accomplished with reliable results. We have developed sensitive, robust, and rapid analyses of impurities in [18O]water. Anions were quantitated by capillary electrophoresis and organic residuals were quantitated by gas chromatography using methods with excellent reproducibility and linearity. Kryptofix 222 (K-222) was quantitated by a sensitive LC-MS-MS technique. Isotopic composition was determined by GC-MS with satisfactory accuracy and precision. These methods were employed to evaluate recovered [18O]water purified by a novel electrolysis method. 2-[18F]FDG yields using purified [18O]water with very low levels of impurities are indistinguishable from newly purchased [18O]water. High (> 300 ppm) carbonate concentration reduces the fluoride trapping efficiency of QMA. The analyses of anions, organics, and isotopic enrichment were applied routinely for quality control of [18O]water to predict a satisfactory outcome of 2-[18F]FDG production

  17. Clustering effects in fusion evaporation reactions with light even-even N=Z nuclei. The 24Mg and 28Si cases

    Morelli, L.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Baiocco, G.; Gulminelli, F.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Gelli, N.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Valdrè, S.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent years, cluster structures have been evidenced in many ground and excited states of light nuclei [1, 2]. The decay of highly excited states of 24Mg is studied in fusion evaporation events completely detected in charge in the reactions 12C+12C and 14N+10B at 95 and 80 MeV incident energy, respectively, and compared to the results of a pure statistical model [3, 4]. Inclusive variables are in general well reproduced by the model. We found clear deviations from the statistical model if we select emission channels involving multiple α particles which are more probable than expected from a purely statistical behavior. Data from 12C+12C reaction have been analyzed in order to study the decay of the Hoyle state of 12C* with two different selections: peripheral binary collisions and 6α decay channel in central events. To continue the investigation on light systems, we have recently measured the 16O+12C reaction at three different beam energies, namely Ebeam = 90, 110 and 130 MeV. Preliminary results are presented.

  18. Additional evidence for fusion-fission in 32S+24Mg reactions: Division of excitation energy and spin in the fission fragments

    We have measured γ rays in coincidence with 12C fragments from the fission of 56Ni produced with the 32S+24Mg reaction at Elab=140 MeV. These data provide insight into the fission process in this light system by giving information about the energy and spin sharing between the 12C and 44Ti fragments, and the spin alignment of the lighter, 12C fragment. The spin transfer and the nuclear ''temperature'' at scission deduced from this measurement can be related to the compound-nucleus spin and potential energy at scission. The results indicate a statistical decay process consistent with the predictions of the transition-state model employing newer estimates of the spin- and mass-asymmetry-dependent saddle-point energies and corresponding shapes. No evidence is found for the spin alignment of the 12C fragments, contrary to what might be expected for a deep-inelastic scattering origin of the fully energy damped yields

  19. (d, t) and (d, 3He) reactions on 12C, 16O, 24Mg, and 40Ca at 29 MeV

    The (d,t) and (d,3He) reactions on targets of 12C, 16O, 24Mg,and 40Ca leading to prominent low-lying analog states in the residual nuclei have been studies by measuring differential cross sections and vector analyzing powers. The cross section angular distributions at best exhibit only a weak sensitivity to the transferred angular momentum while the vector analyzing powers are strongly sensitive to the transferred angular momentum and provide a useful signature of the j transfer. Zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation predictions describe the sigma (theta) angular distributions quite well for the lighter targets while they only partially succeed in describing the A/sub y/(theta) for the lighter targets. An improved distorted-wave Born approximation description was obtained for the 40Ca target. Some sensitivity to the choice of optical parameters in the distorted-wave Born approximation analysis, particularly obvious in the A/sub y/(theta) predictions was seen. Values of extracted spectroscopic factors were generally consistent with those reported in other work

  20. Calibration of speleothem δ18O records against hydroclimate instrumental records in Central Brazil

    Moquet, J. S.; Cruz, F. W.; Novello, V. F.; Stríkis, N. M.; Deininger, M.; Karmann, I.; Santos, R. Ventura; Millo, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Guyot, J.-L.; Siffedine, A.; Vuille, M.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Santini, W.

    2016-04-01

    δ18O in speleothems is a powerful proxy for reconstruction of precipitation patterns in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The aim of this study is to calibrate the δ18O record of speleothems against historical precipitation and river discharge data in central Brazil, a region directly influenced by the Southern Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), a major feature of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The present work is based on a sub-annual resolution speleothem record covering the last 141 years (the period between the years 1870 and 2011) from a cave in central Brazil. The comparison of this record with instrumental hydroclimate records since 1921 allows defining a strong relationship between precipitation variability and stable oxygen isotope ratios from speleothems. The results from a monitoring program of climatic parameters and isotopic composition of rainfall and cave seepage waters performed in the same cave, show that the rain δ18O variability is dominated by the amount effect in this region, while δ18O drip water remains almost constant over the monitored period (1.5 years). The δ18O of modern calcite, on the other hand, shows clear seasonal variations, with more negative values observed during the rainy season, which implies that other factors also influence the isotopic composition of carbonate. However, the relationship between δ18O of carbonate deposits and rainwater is supported by the results from the comparison between speleothem δ18O records and historical hydroclimate records. A significant correlation between speleothem δ18O and monsoon rainfall variability is observed on sub-decadal time scales, especially for the monsoon period (DJFM and NDJFM), once the rainfall record have been smoothed with a 7-9 years running mean. This study confirms that speleothem δ18O is directly associated with monsoon rainfall variability in central Brazil. The relationship between speleothem δ18O records and hydroclimatic historical records allows

  1. The "Flood of the Century" as Isotopic Fingerprint in Canopy d18O Signatures

    Seibt, U.; Wingate, L.; Berry, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The d18O composition of water and CO2 exchange at smaller scales (leaf and ecosystem) can be affected by changes in environmental conditions at larger (regional) scales. During a sampling campaign in a beech forest in Germany in August 2002, we encountered such a large scale change when dry sunny weather was followed by a large storm system with heavy rains leading to floods across Europe. During the first, sunny period, bulk leaf water d18O was -1 permil at night and 7 permil at mid-day. Foliage CO2 exchange had positive values of 18O discrimination during photosynthesis (10-30 permil) and nocturnal respiration (11 permil). The second period had frequent rains and mostly diffuse light, with reduced foliage water fluxes but similar carbon fluxes. Canopy vapour d18O decreased at least 2 permil, and leaf water then reflected isotopic exchange with this depleted vapour due to the high humidity. Hence, bulk leaf water was substantially more depleted at night (-8 permil) and showed virtually no evaporative enrichment during the day (-5 permil). Values of 18O discrimination during CO2 exchange were small or even negative for photosynthesis (-2 to 6 permil) but larger for nocturnal respiration (23-39 permil). Model simulations indicated that the small positive foliage isoflux during the day was offset by the negative isoflux at night. As a consequence, the d18O of CO2 in canopy air decreased from -0.3 permil during the sunny period to -3 permil during the wet period. The d18O signatures of canopy water and CO2 thus reflected the transition from local water to the regional regime of depleted water deposited across the area by the storm.

  2. A forward model of cave dripwater δ18O and application to speleothem records

    Speleothem oxygen isotope records in arid regions are typically interpreted as indicators of the total precipitation amount and/or its seasonal balance. Such studies rarely address the potential influence of groundwater mixing processes on δ18O variability of cave dripwater. Here, we develop a model of oxygen isotopes in dripwater, which we compare to water and stalagmite measurements from Cave of the Bells, Arizona. We simulate moisture flux from surface to cave as a two-layer 'leaky-bucket' model. In observations and the model, fed with modern climate data, dripwater δ18O is most comparable to that of winter precipitation. We show that seasonality and duration of the regional summer monsoon affect how much summer precipitation reaches the cave. We employ a Monte Carlo method to specify statistically realistic ranges for input climate variables and produce time series and variance spectra of cave drips. The spectra of our synthetic δ18O series exhibit a high degree of variance at decadal to multidecadal frequencies, despite being driven by synthetic data that includes only a seasonal cycle. This suggests that some background level of variance in speleothem δ18O records could be due to nonclimatic processes, such as subsurface water storage and mixing. Interpreting climatic vs. nonclimatic controls on speleothem δ18O variance could be achieved by replicating records from different caves.

  3. Experimental study of the 18O(d, p)19O reaction and the ANC Method

    The neutron capture rate 18O(n, γ)19O is important for analysis of nucleosynthesis in inhomogeneous Big Bang models and also for models of helium burning in massive red giant stars and AGB stars. Angular distributions of the 18O(d, p)19O reaction were measured at a deuteron energy of 16.3 MeV in NPI in Rez, Czech Republic, with the aim to determine Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients which can then be used for indirect determination of the direct contribution to the 18O(n, γ)19O process. In the experiment, the gas target with 18O isotope of high purity 99.9% was used thus eliminating any contaminating reactions. Reaction products were measured by the set of 8 ΔE-E telescopes consisting of thin and thick silicon surface-barrier detectors. Angular distributions of proton transfers corresponding to 6 levels of 19O up to the 4.1093 MeV excitation energy were determined. The analysis of angular distributions in the angular range from 6 to 64 degree including also the angular distribution of elastically scattered deuterons was carried out by means of ECIS and DWUCK codes. From the determined ANCs the direct contribution to the radiative capture 18O(n, γ)19O was deduced.

  4. Electrochemical zinc insertion into W18O49: Synthesis and characterization of new bronzes

    Divalent zinc ions have been electrochemically inserted into W18O49, producing zinc bronzes. Under our experimental conditions, W18O49 accepts zinc reversibly as a guest up to 0.9 ions per formula. The reaction seems to proceed through the formation of a solid solution in which the W-O framework of the parent oxide is maintained. The location of the Zn2+ ions in the framework of W18O49 has been determined by neutron diffraction on a chemically prepared sample having the composition Zn0.34W18O49. As a main result, we found that Zn prefers to insert in one of the four types of quadrangular tunnels. More precisely, it is displaced from the center to occupy a low coordination site. This result indicates that a significant covalent character exists in the Zn-O bond. - Graphical Abstract: The structure of Zn0.36W18O49 projected along the b-axis

  5. Leaching studies of soda-lime-silica glass using deuterium- and 18O-enriched solutions

    With a glass of composition (in mol%) 74 SiO2,16 NaO, 10 CaO, various leaching experiments were conducted, in which besides solutions of normal isotopic composition deuterium- and 18O-enriched solutions were used. The concentration profiles of deuterium, hydrogen, and 18O in the sample were measured with nuclear analyzing techniques. A distinct H/D isotope effect was observed, showing that hydrogen takes part in the rate-determining step of leaching. The measured ratio of 18O uptake to hydrogen uptake during leaching gives evidence for exchange of oxygen between the glas network and water molecules contained in the leached layer. From measurements on the exchange of hydrogen and oxygen between solution and leached layer, a high mobility of water molecules in the leached layer and evidence for condensation of silanol groups was found. (orig.)

  6. Variations of δ18O in Precipitation along Vapor Transport Paths

    章新平; 刘晶淼; 田立德; 何元庆; 姚檀栋

    2004-01-01

    Three sampling cross sections along the south path starting from the Tropics through the vapor passage in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the middle-low reaches of the Yangtze River, the north path from West China, via North China, to Japan under the westerlies, and the plateau path from South Asia over the Himalayas to the northern Tibetan Plateau, are set up, based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)/WMO global survey network and sampling sites on the Tibetan Plateau. The variations, and the relationship with precipitation and temperature, of the δ18O in precipitation along the three cross sections are analyzed and compared. Along the south path, the seasonal differences of mean δ18O in precipitation are small at the stations located in the Tropics, but increase markedly from Bangkok towards the north, with the δ18O in the rainy season smaller than inthe dry season. The δ18O values in precipitation fluctuate on the whole, which shows that there are different vapor sources. Along the north path, the seasonal differences of the mean δ18O in precipitation for the stations in the west of Zhengzhou are all greater than in the east of Zhengzhou. During the cold half of the year, the mean δ18O in precipitation reaches its minimum at Urumqi with the lowest temperature due to the wide, cold high pressure over Mongolia, then increases gradually with longitude, and remains at roughly the same level at the stations eastward from Zhengzhou. During the warm half of the year, the δ18O values in precipitation are lower in the east than in the west, markedly influenced by the summer monsoon over East Asia. Along the plateau path, the mean δ18O values in precipitation in the rainy season are correspondingly high in the southern parts of the Indian subcontinent, and then decrease gradually with latitude. A sharp depletion of the stable isotopic compositions in precipitation takes place due to the very strong rainout of the stable isotopic compositions in vapor in

  7. French summer droughts since 1326 AD: a reconstruction based on tree ring cellulose δ18O

    Labuhn, I.; Daux, V.; Girardclos, O.; Stievenard, M.; Pierre, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

    2015-11-01

    The reconstruction of droughts is essential for the understanding of past drought dynamics, and can help evaluate future drought scenarios in a changing climate. This article presents a reconstruction of summer droughts in France based on annually resolved, absolutely dated chronologies of oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) in tree ring cellulose from Quercus spp. Samples were taken from living trees and timber wood from historic buildings at two sites: Fontainebleau (48° 23' N, 2° 40' E; 1326-2000 AD) and Angoulême (45° 44' N, 0° 18' E; 1360-2004 AD). Cellulose δ18O from these sites proved to be a good proxy of summer climate, as the trees were sensitive to temperature and moisture availability. However, offsets in average δ18O values between tree cohorts necessitated a correction before joining them to the final chronologies. Using the corrected δ18O chronologies, we developed models based on linear regression to reconstruct drought, expressed by the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The significant correlations between the SPEI and cellulose δ18O (r ≈ -0.70), as well as the verification of the models by independent data support the validity of these reconstructions. At both sites, recent decades are characterized by increasing drought. Fontainebleau displays dominantly wetter conditions during earlier centuries, whereas the current drought intensity is not unprecedented in the Angoulême record. While the δ18O chronologies at the two studied sites are highly correlated during the 19th and 20th century, there is a significant decrease in the correlation coefficient between 1550 and 1800 AD, which indicates either a weaker climate sensitivity of the tree ring proxies during this period, or a more heterogeneous climate in the north and the south of France. Future studies of tree ring isotope networks might reveal if the seasonality and spatial patterns of past droughts can explain this decoupling.

  8. French summer droughts since 1326 AD: a reconstruction based on tree ring cellulose δ18O

    I. Labuhn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of droughts is essential for the understanding of past drought dynamics, and can help evaluate future drought scenarios in a changing climate. This article presents a reconstruction of summer droughts in France based on annually resolved, absolutely dated chronologies of oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O in tree ring cellulose from Quercus spp. Samples were taken from living trees and timber wood from historic buildings at two sites: Fontainebleau (48° 23' N, 2° 40' E; 1326–2000 AD and Angoulême (45° 44' N, 0° 18' E; 1360–2004 AD. Cellulose δ18O from these sites proved to be a good proxy of summer climate, as the trees were sensitive to temperature and moisture availability. However, offsets in average δ18O values between tree cohorts necessitated a correction before joining them to the final chronologies. Using the corrected δ18O chronologies, we developed models based on linear regression to reconstruct drought, expressed by the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI. The significant correlations between the SPEI and cellulose δ18O (r ≈ −0.70, as well as the verification of the models by independent data support the validity of these reconstructions. At both sites, recent decades are characterized by increasing drought. Fontainebleau displays dominantly wetter conditions during earlier centuries, whereas the current drought intensity is not unprecedented in the Angoulême record. While the δ18O chronologies at the two studied sites are highly correlated during the 19th and 20th century, there is a significant decrease in the correlation coefficient between 1550 and 1800 AD, which indicates either a weaker climate sensitivity of the tree ring proxies during this period, or a more heterogeneous climate in the north and the south of France. Future studies of tree ring isotope networks might reveal if the seasonality and spatial patterns of past droughts can explain this decoupling.

  9. Millennial-length forward models and pseudoproxies of stalagmite δ18O: an example from NW Scotland

    C. Spötl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The stable oxygen isotope parameter δ18O remains the most widely utilised speleothem proxy for past climate reconstructions. Uncertainty can be introduced into stalagmite δ18O from a number of factors, one of which is the heterogeneity of groundwater flow in karstified aquifers. Here, we present a lumped parameter hydrological model, KarstFor, which is capable of generating monthly simulations of surface water – ground water – stalagmite δ18O for more than thousand-year time periods. Using a variety of climate input series, we use this model for the first time to compare observational with modelled (pseudoproxy stalagmite δ18O series for a site at Assynt, NW Scotland, where our knowledge of δ18O systematics is relatively well understood. The use of forward modelling allows us to quantify the relative contributions of climate, peat and karst hydrology, and disequilibrium effects in stalagmite δ18O, from which we can identify potential stalagmite δ18O responses to climate variability. Comparison of the modelled and actual stalagmite δ18O for two stalagmites from the site demonstrates that, for the period of overlapping growth, the two series do not correlate with one another, but forward modelling demonstrates that this falls within the range explicable by differences in flow routing to the stalagmites. Pseudoproxy δ18O stalagmite series highlight the potential significance of peat hydrology in controlling stalagmite δ18O over the last 1000 yr at this site.

  10. Millennial-length forward models and pseudoproxies of stalagmite δ18O: an example from NW Scotland

    C. Spötl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The stable oxygen isotope parameter δ18O remains the most widely utilised speleothem proxy for past climate reconstructions. Uncertainty can be introduced into stalagmite δ18O from a number of factors, one of which is the heterogeneity of groundwater flow in karstified aquifers. Here, we present a lumped parameter hydrological model, KarstFor, which is capable of generating monthly simulations of surface water – ground water – stalagmite δ18O for more than thousand year time periods. Using a variety of climate input series, we use this model for the first time to compare observational with modelled (pseudoproxy stalagmite δ18O series for a site at Assynt, NW Scotland, where our knowledge of δ18O systematics is relatively well understood. The use of forward modelling allows us to quantify the relative contributions of climate, peat and karst hydrology, and disequilibrium effects in stalagmite δ18O, from which we can identify potential stalagmite δ18O responses to climate variability. Comparison of the modelled and actual stalagmite δ18O for two stalagmites from the site demonstrates that for the period of overlapping growth, the two series do not correlate with one another, but forward modelling demonstrates that this falls within the range explicable by differences in flow routing to the stalagmites. Pseudoproxy δ18O stalagmite series highlight the potential significance of peat hydrology in controlling stalagmite δ18O over the last 1000 years at this site.

  11. Evidence of Suess solar-cycle bursts in Holocene speleothem d18O records

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Jacobsen, B. H.; Riisager, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    subtropical speleothem δ18O records, which allows a strong test of the link between solar activity, monsoon activity (or intensity), and the hydrological cycle. This is possible because the speleothem δ18O records mainly reflect changes in local rainfall composition, which is controlled by changes in total...... driving centennial-scale changes in the hydrological cycle in the subtropics during the Holocene.......Several studies indicate that changes in solar activity may have driven Holocene subtropical monsoon variability on decadal and centennial timescales, but the strength and nature of this link remains debated. In this study, we combine a recent mapping of the Holocene solar-cycle activity with four...

  12. Generalized hyperspheric function method and the pion scattering by nucleus of 18O

    In the framework of the known multiple scattering theory the differential cross section of the 18Q(PI, PI) reaction for the energies 29, 164, 180 and 230 MeV is calculated. The wave functions of the ground state and excited states of the nucleus 18O are found in the minimum approach of generalized hyperspheric function method. The pion-nucleus t sub(PIA) matrix is constructed by solving the Lippman-Schwinger equation on-energy-shell and taken into account the phases of PIN - scattering. Theoretical values of oifferential cross section of the (PI+- - 18O)-reaction under consideration adequately describe experimental data

  13. Coral δ18O stratigraphy from the West Pacific Warm Pool, Palau

    Osborne, M. C.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution paleoenvironmental records obtained from coral cores are powerful tools for assessing pre-instrumental ENSO behavior on interannual to centennial time scales, but the scarcity of such records limits the robust assessment of natural ENSO variability prior to the start of widespread instrumental monitoring. Here we present new δ18O stratigraphies from four cores sampled from two Porites lutea corals collected in the Republic of Palau during December 2008. Palau lies in the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), a region characterized by warm annual sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and intense atmospheric convection. Variations in the expanse of the WPWP are tightly linked to ENSO dynamics. The δ18O composition of coral skeletal material is determined by the δ18O of seawater as well as SST, and the strong positive correlation between SSTs and precipitation in the WPWP region generally exerts an additive effect on coral δ18O. During strong El Niño events, positive δ18O anomalies in coral aragonite should result from increased salinity and decreased SSTs in Palau, whereas negative δ18O anomalies are expected during La Niña conditions. Overall the δ18O variability in our stratigraphies is consistent between all four cores, though we note small discrepancies attributed to uncertainties in cross-correlation, local environmental variation, and potential vital effects. We compare our analyses with available instrumental data and argue that seasonal climate variations in Palau are evident in our coral stratigraphies. Based on this assertion, these data can be used for age model constructions as well as for climate analyses in the time and frequency domains. Our estimates of coral growth rates are ~1.5 cm/yr, yielding ~70 years of record from coral U-1/U-2 and ~25 years from coral U-3/U-4. With continued analyses we expect to provide coral-based climate time series of ~180 yrs in length from core U-2. We also provide evidence that periods of strong ENSO

  14. Separating Long-Lived Metal Ions from 18F During H2 18O Recovery

    Cyclotron targets for the production of [18F]fluoride usually use a thin metal window to contain the 18O enriched water during irradiation. This window is activated by the proton beam, and undesired radioisotopes can enter the target water. A pre-packaged strong anion exchange resin is commonly used for [18O]-water recovery. A two-column method has been developed which delivers >95% of the [18F]fluoride for radiosynthesis while rejecting >99.9% of the contaminants. (author)

  15. Nuclear microanalysis of 16O and 18O in near-surface regions of solids. Applications

    The best suited nuclear technique for 18O analysis is the direct observation of nuclear reactions. Here, instead of measuring an induced radioactivity, one observes the particles emitted as a result of the O18(p,α)N15 reaction. The α particles which are produced may be detected with surface barrier semiconductor detectors; they present unit detection efficiency and allow one to realize large solid angles of detection, while their energy resolution is excellent. For getting O18/O16 ratios, 16O must also be measured. This is achieved in a similar way, using the O16(d,p)17O reaction

  16. ({sup 18}O,{sup 18}Ne) double charge-exchange with MAGNEX

    Bondí, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astrofisica, Universitá degli studi di Catania, Catania, 95100, Italy and Istituto di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, 95100 (Italy); Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A. [Istituto di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, 95100 (Italy); De Napoli, M.; Foti, A. [Istituto di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Catania, Catania, 95100 (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    An experimental study concerning Double Gamow-Teller (DGT) modes in ({sup 18}O,{sup 18}Ne) Double Charge-Exchange reactions has been very recently performed at INFN-LNS laboratory in Catania. The experiment was performed using a {sup 40}Ca solid target and a {sup 18}O Cyclotron beam at 270 MeV incident energy. Charged ejectiles produced in the reaction were momentum analyzed and identified by MAGNEX spectrometer at very forward angles. Preliminary results are presented in the present paper.

  17. Excitation Function for the 74Se(18O,p3n) Reaction

    Gates, Jacklyn

    2009-01-01

    The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured and a maximum cross section of 495+-5 mb was observed at and 18O energy of 74.0 MeV. Experimental cross sections were compared to theoretical calculations using the computer code ALICE-91 and the values were found to be in good agreement. The half life of 88gNb was determined to be around 14.56+-0.11 min.

  18. High sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy of 18O enriched carbon dioxide between 5850 and 7000 cm−1: Part II—Analysis and theoretical modeling of the 12C18O2, 13C18O2 and 16O13C18O spectra

    More than 19000 transitions belonging to 11 isotopologues of carbon dioxide have been assigned in the room temperature absorption spectrum of highly 18O enriched carbon dioxide recorded by very high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy between 5851 and 6990 cm−1 (1.71–1.43 μm). The line positions were determined with accuracy better than 1×10−3 cm−1 while the absolute line intensities are reported with an uncertainty better than 10%. This second report is devoted to the analysis of the bands of three multiply substituted isotopologues: 12C18O2, 13C18O2 and 16O13C18O (828, 838 and 638 in short hand notation). On the basis of the predictions of effective Hamiltonian models, a total of 2870, 538 and 1375 transitions belonging to 59, 11 and 15 bands were rovibrationnally assigned for 828, 838 and 638, respectively. For comparison, only 11 bands were previously measured by Fourier Transform spectroscopy in the region, for the 828 species. All the identified bands correspond to a ΔP=9 variation of the polyad number (P=2V1+V2+3V3, where Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The band-by-band analysis has allowed deriving accurate spectroscopic parameters of 81 bands from a fit of the measured line positions. A few resonance perturbations were identified. In particular, the 31113 and 51106 states of 638 belonging to different polyads (P=10 and P=11, respectively) are anharmonically coupled. Using the large set of newly measured line positions and those collected from the literature, the global modeling of the line positions within the effective Hamiltonian approach was performed and a new set of Hamiltonian parameters was obtained for each of the three considered isopotologues. Using a similar approach, the global fits of the obtained intensity values of the ΔP=9 series of transitions were used to derive the corresponding ΔP=9 effective dipole moment parameters of the three considered isotopologues. The obtained results will help to improve the quality

  19. Thermonuclear reaction rate of 18O(p,gamma)19F

    Buckner, M Q; Cesaratto, J M; Howard, C; Clegg, T B; Champagne, A E; Daigle, S

    2012-01-01

    For stars between 0.8-8.0 solar masses, nucleosynthesis enters its final phase during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage. During this evolutionary period, grain condensation occurs in the stellar atmosphere, and the star experiences significant mass loss. The production of presolar grains can often be attributed to this unique stellar environment. A subset of presolar oxide grains features dramatic 18O depletion that cannot be explained by the standard AGB star burning stages and dredge-up models. An extra mixing process, referred to as "cool bottom processing" (CBP), was proposed for low-mass AGB stars. The 18O depletion observed within certain stellar environments and within presolar grain samples may result from the 18O+p processes during CBP. We report here on a study of the 18O(p,gamma)19F reaction at low energies. Based on our new results, we found that the resonance at Er = 95 keV (lab) has a negligible affect on the reaction rate at the temperatures associated with CBP. We also determined that th...

  20. Fission fragment angular distribution measurements in 18O+194Pt reaction

    Fission fragment angular distributions were measured for 18O + 194Pt in energy range 78.2 - 87.3 MeV. The normal nature of angular anisotropy suggests that the reaction proceeded through true CN formation. The present results are consistent with result obtained from fission fragment mass distribution measurements carried out for reaction using other isotopes of platinum

  1. 18O and 226Ra in the Minjiang River estuary, China and their hydrological implications

    Liu, Huatai; Guo, Zhanrong; Gao, Aiguo; Yuan, Xiaojie; Zhang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the 2H, 18O and 226Ra values in groundwater and surface water in the Minjiang River estuary were investigated in the dry and wet seasons. The δ18O values in the dry season were always higher than those in the wet season in both groundwater and surface water because of the presence of evaporation in the water cycle process. During the dry season, the δ18O values in groundwater on the southern bank of the Minjiang River are much higher than those on the northern bank because evaporation is more intense in the farmland of the southern bank than in the urbanized northern bank. The δ18O values in the estuarine water exhibit a good positive correlation with salinity, with a coefficient of 0.96 (p = 0.05) in both seasons. The 226Ra activities in the estuarine water increase with increasing salinity because of desorption from riverine suspended particles. The 226Ra activity reaches a peak value at a salinity of 20.5. Based on a three-endmember model, the average proportions of the estuarine water are calculated to be 0.02 for groundwater, 0.39 for river water and 0.59 for seawater. From this mixing ratio, the groundwater discharge into the estuary is estimated to be 9.31 × 106 m3 d-1 in the wet season.

  2. Investigating the past and recent δ18O-accumulation relationship seen in Greenland ice cores

    D. Dahl-Jensen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Decadal means of δ18O and accumulation rates from 52 ice core locations in Greenland are presented. The accumulation rates are derived from annual layers determined in the δ18O curve. Investigation of the δ18O-accumulation relationship across the ice divide reveals a significant Foehn effect with anticorrelation of δ18O and accumulation rate on the lee side of the divide in Southern Greenland, while no effect is seen in Central Greenland. Furthermore, the sensitivity of accumulation rate to changes in temperature is found to be smaller in Northern Greenland than in the central and southern parts. Four records in the data set contain sufficient recent data that the period of observed temperature rise from the 1990s and onwards can be investigated. All four records are from locations close to the ice divide in Northern Greenland and while three of them show increased temperatures, no conclusive statement can be made about the accumulation rate from these data.

  3. A foraminiferal δ(18)O record covering the last 2,200 years.

    Taricco, Carla; Alessio, Silvia; Rubinetti, Sara; Vivaldo, Gianna; Mancuso, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the precise core dating and the high sedimentation rate of the drilling site (Gallipoli Terrace, Ionian Sea) we were able to measure a foraminiferal δ(18)O series covering the last 2,200 years with a time resolution shorter than 4 years. In order to support the quality of this data-set we link the δ(18)O values measured in the foraminifera shells to temperature and salinity measurements available for the last thirty years covered by the core. Moreover, we describe in detail the dating procedures based on the presence of volcanic markers along the core and on the measurement of (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity in the most recent sediment layers. The high time resolution allows for detecting a δ(18)O decennial-scale oscillation, together with centennial and multicentennial components. Due to the dependence of foraminiferal δ(18)O on environmental conditions, these oscillations can provide information about temperature and salinity variations in past millennia. The strategic location of the drilling area makes this record a unique tool for climate and oceanographic studies of the Central Mediterranean. PMID:27328303

  4. Fusion Reactions of ~(16)O+~(76)Ge and ~(18)O+~(74)Ge Near Coulomb Barrier

    2011-01-01

    The fusion excitation functions of 16O+76Ge and 18O+74Ge at near-barrier region are measured, to research the positive Q-2n effect on the fusion reaction. The properties of the lower excited states are similar for the two targets. For neutron transfer channels,

  5. Reef coral δ18O thermometer in Hainan island waters, south China sea

    An 18-year-long (1981-1998) study was conducted in Hainan Island waters (22 degree 22'N, 110 degree 39'E) to determine the relationship between δ18O in skeletal aragonite carbonate and sea surface temperature (SST) in porites lutea of reef-building corals. δ18O values in skeletal aragonite carbonate were measured by means of mass spectrometry. Coral samples grew at 5 m depth at Longwan Bay. Monthly measurements of the SST from 1960 to 1998 were taken at Qinglan Bay adjacent to the place of the collected samples. The thermometer shows that SST = -4.16 δ18OPDB + 4.9 (r = 0.80) and dδ18O/dT = -0.24 per mil/degree C. The δ18O thermometer is strongly influenced by the rainfall and runoff. Using the thermometer, the SST in the past hundred years with monthly resolution will be reconstructed and the climatic change in the northern area of South China Sea will be hind cast

  6. Permo-Pennsylvanian palaeotemperatures from Fe-Oxide and phyllosilicate δ18O values

    Tabor, Neil J.

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of fossil roots that have been permineralized by hematite are presented from eight different stratigraphic levels spanning the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas. Hematite δ18O values range from - 0.4% to 3.7%. The most negative δ18O values occur in the upper Pennsylvanian strata, and there is a progressive trend toward more positive δ18O values upward through the lower Permian strata. This stratigraphic pattern is similar in magnitude and style to δ18O values reported for penecontemporaneous authigenic palaeosol phyllosilicates and calcites, suggesting that all three minerals record similar paragenetic histories that are probably attributed to temporal palaeoenvironmental changes across the Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian landscapes. Palaeotemperature estimates based on paired δ18O values between penecontemporaneous hematite and phyllosilicate samples suggest these minerals co-precipitated at relatively low temperatures that are consistent with a supergene origin in a low-latitude soil-forming environment. Hematite-phyllosilicate δ18O pairs indicate (1) relatively low soil temperatures (˜ 24 ± 3 °C) during deposition of the upper Pennsylvanian strata followed by (2) a considerable rise in soil temperatures (˜ 35-37 ± 3 °C) during deposition of the lowermost Permian strata. Significantly, δD and δ18O values of contemporaneous phyllosilicates provide single mineral palaeotemperature estimates that are analytically indistinguishable from temperature estimates based on hematite-phyllosilicate oxygen isotope pairs. The results between the two temperature-proxy methods suggest that the inferred large temperature change across the Upper Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian boundary might be taken seriously. If real, such a significant climate change would have undoubtedly had far-reaching ecological effects within this region of Pangaea. Notably, there are important lithological and palaeobotanical

  7. Evidence for a universal pathway of abscisic acid biosynthesis in higher plants from 18O incorporation patterns

    Previous labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) with 18O2 have been mainly conducted with water-stressed leaves. In this study, 18O incorporation into ABA of stressed leaves of various species was compared with 18O labeling of ABA of turgid leaves and of fruit tissue in different stages of ripening. In stressed leaves of all six species investigated, avocado (Persea americana), barley (Hordeum vulgare), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), 18O was most abundant in the carboxyl group, whereas incorporation of a second and third 18O in the oxygen atoms on the ring of ABA was much less prominent after 24 h in 18O2. ABA from turgid bean leaves showed significant 18O incorporation, again with highest 18O enrichment in the carboxyl group. On the basis of 18O-labeling patterns observed in ABA from different tissues it is concluded that, despite variations in precusor pool sizes and intermediate turnover rates, there is a universal pathway of ABA biosynthesis in higher plants which involves cleavage of a larger precursor molecule, presumably an oxygenated carotenoid

  8. Evidence for a universal pathway of abscisic acid biosynthesis in higher plants from sup 18 O incorporation patterns

    Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Heath, T.G.; Gage, D.A. (Michigan State University, East Lansing (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Previous labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) with {sup 18}O{sub 2} have been mainly conducted with water-stressed leaves. In this study, {sup 18}O incorporation into ABA of stressed leaves of various species was compared with {sup 18}O labeling of ABA of turgid leaves and of fruit tissue in different stages of ripening. In stressed leaves of all six species investigated, avocado (Persea americana), barley (Hordeum vulgare), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), {sup 18}O was most abundant in the carboxyl group, whereas incorporation of a second and third {sup 18}O in the oxygen atoms on the ring of ABA was much less prominent after 24 h in {sup 18}O{sub 2}. ABA from turgid bean leaves showed significant {sup 18}O incorporation, again with highest {sup 18}O enrichment in the carboxyl group. On the basis of {sup 18}O-labeling patterns observed in ABA from different tissues it is concluded that, despite variations in precusor pool sizes and intermediate turnover rates, there is a universal pathway of ABA biosynthesis in higher plants which involves cleavage of a larger precursor molecule, presumably an oxygenated carotenoid.

  9. Late Holocene hydroclimate change inferred from δ18O of lake sediments, Lost River Range, Idaho

    Krueger, C. R.; Finney, B. P.; Shapley, M.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution paleohydrological records are needed to assess the frequency and magnitude of past droughts in Idaho and the northern Rocky Mountain region, but are scarce in this semi-arid region. Sediments from Lost Keys Pond (LKP) can be used to reconstruct hydroclimate. LKP is closed to surface outflow and is therefore sensitive to precipitation minus evaporation; surface water is enriched in δ18O compared to the local meteoric waters. In summer 2011 several sediment cores were collected from LKP using a square rod piston corer; the focus of this analysis is an 82-cm Bolivia core. This core contains thinly banded to laminated, authigenic carbonate mud, a recorder of lake δ18O at the time of deposition. This core was sampled for δ18O and /δ13C at 0.5 cm intervals, and the <20 um fraction was isolated to avoid any detrital carbonate. Based on the current age model, sampling at this interval records sub-decadal (5-10 year) hydroclimate variability. The δ18O signal recovered has 5‰ variability over the length of the record, including several major fluctuations in last 1,000 years. During this period, several major dry and wet periods have been recorded occurring over multidecadal timescales, with a trend toward increasing aridity. The δ18O and δ13C records in the lowest decimeter are divergent and mirror each other, above this interval isotopic records have strong covariance. This pattern may be indicative of a change from surface outflow to no surface outflow conditions. The age model is being refined to better assess how this record correlates with other regional records, and ultimately improve our understanding of past atmospheric circulation.

  10. 13C-18O bonding (Δ47) in deep-sea corals: a calibration study

    Kimball, J. B.; Tripati, A.; Dunbar, R. B.; Eagle, R.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea corals are a potentially valuable archive of temperature in intermediate and deep waters, regions for which a paucity of temperature data exists. These archives could give valuable insight into the natural variability of areas of the ocean that play an active role in large-scale climate dynamics. Due to significant 'vital effects' (i.e., non-equilibrium mineral compositions) in δ18O, however, deep-sea coral have been challenging to develop as a paleotemperature proxy. Clumped-isotope paleothermometry is a new method that may circumvent some of the known complications with δ18O paleotemperature analysis in deep-sea coral. This geothermometer is based on the ordering of heavy 13C-18O ';clumps' in carbonate minerals. Initial calibration studies have shown that the method is independent from the solution chemistry of the precipitating fluids as well as 'vital effects' in deep-sea corals and other types of carbonates. Some kinetic effects have been observed in tropical corals and speleothems. Here we report new data in order to further develop clumped isotopes as a paleothermometer in deep-sea corals as well as to investigate taxon-specific effects. 13C-18O bond ordering was analyzed in live-collected scleractinian (Enallopsammia sp.) and gorgonian (Isididae and Coralliidae) deep-sea corals. We determined mass 47 anomalies in samples (Δ47), which refers to the parts per thousand excess of 13C-18O-16O in CO2 produced on acid digestion of a sample, relative to the amount predicted to be present if isotopes were randomly distributed amongst all CO2 isotopologues. Measured Δ47 values were compared to in situ temperatures and the relationship between Δ47 and temperature was determined for each group to investigate taxon-specific effects.

  11. Modeling the climatic implications of the Guliya δ18O record during the past 130 ka

    X. Zhou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using an intermediate-complexity UVic Earth System Climate Model (UVic Model, the geographical and seasonal implications and an indicative sense of the historical climate found in the δ18O record of the Guliya ice core (hereinafter, the Guliya δ18O are investigated under time-dependent orbital forcing with an acceleration factor of 100 over the past 130 ka. The results reveal that the simulated late-summer (August–September Guliya surface air temperature (SAT reproduces the 23-ka precession and 43-ka obliquity cycles in the Guliya δ18O. Furthermore, the Guliya δ18O is significantly correlated with the SAT over the Northern Hemisphere (NH, which suggests the Guliya δ18O is an indicator of the late-summer SAT in the NH. Corresponding to the warm and cold phases of the precession cycle in the Guliya temperature, there are two anomalous patterns in the SAT and sea surface temperature (SST fields. The first anomalous pattern shows an increase in the SAT (SST toward the Arctic, possibly associated with the joint effect of the precession and obliquity cycles, and the second anomalous pattern shows an increase in the SAT (SST toward the equator, possibly due to the influence of the precession cycle. Additionally, the summer (winter Guliya and NH temperatures are higher (lower in the warm phases of Guliya late-summer SAT than in the cold phases. Furthermore, the Guliya SAT is closely related to the North Atlantic SST, in which the Guliya precipitation may act as a "bridge" linking the Guliya SAT and the North Atlantic SST.

  12. Study of the angular correlations of light charged particles for the reaction {sup 35}CI (260 MeV) + {sup 24}Mg; Etude des correlations angulaires de particules legeres chargees dans la reaction {sup 35}CI (260 MeV) + {sup 24}Mg

    Mahboub, D.

    1996-10-30

    This work is focussed on the investigation of deformed nuclei. The asymmetric fusion-fission of light heavy-ions (A {<=}60) with a high excitation energy (T {approx} 4 MeV) had lead to a large deformation of the compound nucleus at the scission point. The angular correlations between light particles (LP) and their emitting fragments has been used to probe the deformation of nucleus. Exclusive measurements were performed for the {sup 35}Cl (260 MeV) + {sup 24}Mg system leading to the {sup 59}Cu compound nucleus (CN). The comparison between the energy spectra of LP`s and a statistical calculation carried out by a Monte-Carlo code CASCADE has suggested a deformation of 1.3 (for an oblate shape) of the CN within the frame work of fusion-evaporation process. The source velocity spectrum of {alpha} particles and angular correlations of LP`s have showed that pre-scission and pre-equilibrium emissions are negligible in the present reaction. Finally the confrontation of the data with the statistical code GEMINI has pointed out the sequential emission character of the LP`s from the fission fragments. (author). 175 refs.

  13. The multiPrep - a new on line system for combined isotopic analysis of deuterium and 18O of water as well as 13C and 18O in individual carbonate samples

    Classical dual inlet IRMS techniques for the measurement of 18O in water, deuterium in water and 13C and 18O in carbonates have, until now involved the use of analysis dedicated on-line preparation systems or a mix of offline preparation followed by automated analysis

  14. Coherency of European speleothem δ18O records linked to North Atlantic ocean circulation

    Deininger, Michael; McDermott, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Speleothem δ18O records can provide valuable information about past continental environmental and climatic conditions. In recent decades a European speleothem network has been assembled that allows us to reconstruct past climate variability in both space and time. In particular climate variability during the Holocene was investigated by these studies. The Holocene is thus an ideal period to apply sophisticated statistical methods to derive spatio-temporal pattern of common climate variability in the European speleothem record. Here we evaluate a compilation of 10 speleothem δ18O records covering the last 4.5 ka for their shared variability. The selected speleothem δ18O records must satisfy certain quality criteria to be included: (i) a robust age model; (ii) a temporal intra-sampling resolution of smaller than 30 years; and (iii) the record should be published. A Monte Carlo based Principal Component Analysis (MC-PCA) that accounts for uncertainties in individual speleothem age models and for the different and varying temporal resolutions of each speleothem δ18O record was used for this purpose. Our MC-PCA approach allows not only the identification of temporally coherent changes in δ18O records, but it also facilitates their depiction and evaluation spatially. The compiled speleothem δ18O records span almost the entire European continent (with the exception of the circum-Mediterranean region) ranging from the western Margin of the European continent (stalagmite CC-3, Ireland) to Northern Turkey (SO-1) and from Northern Italy (CC-26) to Norway (FM-3). For the MC-PCA analysis, the 4.5 ka period was sub-divided into eight 1 ka long time windows that overlap the subsequent time window by 500 years to allow a comparison of the temporal evolution of the common signal. In this study we only interpreted the 1st principal component (PC) that depict the spatio-temporal pattern with the highest explained variability of all speleothem δ18O records. Our MC-PCA results

  15. French summer droughts since 1326 CE: a reconstruction based on tree ring cellulose δ18O

    Labuhn, Inga; Daux, Valérie; Girardclos, Olivier; Stievenard, Michel; Pierre, Monique; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2016-05-01

    The reconstruction of droughts is essential for the understanding of past drought dynamics and can help evaluate future drought scenarios in a changing climate. This article presents a reconstruction of summer droughts in France based on annually resolved, absolutely dated chronologies of oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) in tree ring cellulose from Quercus spp. Samples were taken from living trees and timber wood from historic buildings at two sites: Fontainebleau (48°23' N, 2°40' E; 1326-2000 CE) and Angoulême (45°44' N, 0°18' E; 1360-2004 CE). Cellulose δ18O from these sites proved to be a good proxy of summer climate, as the trees were sensitive to temperature and moisture availability. However, offsets in average δ18O values between tree cohorts necessitated a correction before joining them to the final chronologies. Using the corrected δ18O chronologies, we developed models based on linear regression to reconstruct drought, expressed by the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The significant correlations between the SPEI and cellulose δ18O (r ≈ -0.70), as well as the verification of the models by independent data support the validity of these reconstructions. At both sites, recent decades are characterized by increasing drought. Fontainebleau displays dominantly wetter conditions during earlier centuries, whereas the current drought intensity is not unprecedented in the Angoulême record. While the δ18O chronologies at the two studied sites are highly correlated during the 19th and 20th centuries, there is a significant decrease in the correlation coefficient between 1600 and 1800 CE, which indicates either a weaker climate sensitivity of the tree ring proxies during this period, or a more heterogeneous climate in the north and the south of France. Future studies of tree ring isotope networks might reveal if the seasonality and spatial patterns of past droughts can explain this decoupling. A regional drought reconstruction

  16. δ18O comparisons of coral cores in the western tropical Pacific, Palau

    Johnston, E.; Osborne, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    Certain corals secrete calcium carbonate exoskeletons that can record changes in ocean water temperature and salinity when tested for δ18O by mass spectrometry. Records from these corals provide insight into the chemistry of the seas for times when instrumental records were not available. The composition of δ18O in coral calcium carbonate reflects both the temperature of the water and the δ18O composition of the water the corals were growing in. Calcium carbonate that is relatively high in 18O indicates that the corals were growing in ocean water with cooler temperatures and/ or higher salinity due to decreased precipitation or increased evaporation. On the other hand, a decrease in 18O indicates warmer and/ or less saline waters. Broadly speaking, changes in evaporation and precipitation are linked to El Niño/La Niña and Southern Oscillation cycles (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific. Palau, an archipelago in the western tropical Pacific, is greatly affected during El Niño years by abnormally cool waters and decreased rainfall. The opposite conditions are common during La Niña. In 2000, two coral cores were collected in a lagoon in Ngaragebal, Palau by Japanese researchers (7°24.30.3” N, 134°26’53.1”E; Iijima et. Al, 2003). Later, in 2008, two different cores of the same species were collected in the same lagoon in Ngaragebal, Palau by a separate group of scientists (7°24.386”N, 134°26.115”E). Here I compare overlapping δ18O data from the two research groups to create a correlation coefficient which will reveal how closely related the data sets are. Due to it’s location inside a lagoon, unlike other coral collection sites which may be more exposed to open ocean conditions, data from Ngaragebal could be capturing a local signal. However, if data from multiple sites around Palau are similar, this gives us confidence in our interpretations of long term trends. Also, by comparing Ngaragebel data from two different research groups, we can test for

  17. Neutron distribution and yield produced by 50 MeV/u 18O-ion on thick targets

    1999-01-01

    Neutron energy, fluence rate, angular distributions anddose equivalent rate distributions around the thick Be, Cu,Au targets bombarded by 50 MeV/u 18O-ion were measured usinga threshold detector activation method. At the same time, theneutron yields of 18O-ion and the neutron emission rates inthe forward direction were obtained approximately.

  18. Cross sections of barium isotopes in the interaction of 60 MeV/nucleon 18O with 238U

    Barium isotopes were produced by 60 MeV/u 18O ion bombardment of natural uranium via 238U (18O, X) reactions. Ba sources were prepared by radiochemical separation, and measured by a HPGe detector. The cumulative cross sections were obtained by analysis of measured time sequence γ-ray spectra. A double peak phenomenon in Ba isotope distribution was observed. (author)

  19. Application of stable isotopes (18O, D) to study the provenience of mineral waters from some locations of Romania

    The isotopic study (18O, D) of mineral waters from some locations (Bucovina, Covasna, Tusnad and Someseni) in Romania was carried out in a tentative to identify their origin. The investigations of waters from Bucovina, Covasna and Someseni (Springs No.1, 2, and 15) indicates the meteoric provenience, having the deuterium content of meteoric water, but shifted to higher 18O content. This 18O shift is the result of isotopic exchange of the water oxi gen with the rocks oxygen in its trajectory to discharge. The Spring No. 8 waters from Someseni Spa and Tusnad waters present the water isotopic content of mixed deep water with shallower meteoric water having heavier isotopic (D, 18O) content. The Spring No.3 waters from Someseni Spa present the springtime isotopic pulse, like a Becas brook, with water depletion in D and 18O isotopes proving pollution with surrounding snow water. (authors)

  20. Influence of Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Terrestrial Vegetation on the 18O Content of Atmospheric CO2

    Gillon, Jim; Yakir, Dan

    2001-03-01

    The oxygen-18 (18O) content of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important indicator of CO2 uptake on land. It has generally been assumed that during photosynthesis, oxygen in CO2 reaches isotopic equilibrium with oxygen in 18O-enriched water in leaves. We show, however, large differences in the activity of carbonic anhydrase (which catalyzes CO2 hydration and 18O exchange in leaves) among major plant groups that cause variations in the extent of 18O equilibrium (θeq). A clear distinction in θeq between C3 trees and shrubs, and C4 grasses makes atmospheric C18OO a potentially sensitive indicator to changes in C3 and C4 productivity. We estimate a global mean θeq value of ~0.8, which reasonably reconciles inconsistencies between 18O budgets of atmospheric O2 (Dole effect) and CO2.

  1. ENSO flavors in a tree-ring δ18O record of Tectona grandis from Indonesia

    Schollaen, K.; Karamperidou, C.; Krusic, P.; Cook, E.; Helle, G.

    2015-10-01

    Indonesia's climate is dominated by the equatorial monsoon system, and has been linked to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events that often result in extensive droughts and floods over the Indonesian archipelago. In this study we investigate ENSO-related signals in a tree-ring δ18O record (1900-2007) of Javanese teak. Our results reveal a clear influence of Warm Pool (central Pacific) El Niño events on Javanese tree-ring δ18O, and no clear signal of Cold Tongue (eastern Pacific) El Niño events. These results are consistent with the distinct impacts of the two ENSO flavors on Javanese precipitation, and illustrate the importance of considering ENSO flavors when interpreting palaeoclimate proxy records in the tropics, as well as the potential of palaeoclimate proxy records from appropriately selected tropical regions for reconstructing past variability of. ENSO flavors.

  2. ENSO flavors in a tree-ring δ18O record of Tectona grandis from Indonesia

    K. Schollaen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's climate is dominated by the equatorial monsoon system, and has been linked to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO events that often result in extensive droughts and floods over the Indonesian archipelago. In this study we investigate ENSO-related signals in a tree-ring δ18O record (1900–2007 of Javanese teak. Our results reveal a clear influence of Warm Pool (central Pacific El Niño events on Javanese tree-ring δ18O, and no clear signal of Cold Tongue (eastern Pacific El Niño events. These results are consistent with the distinct impacts of the two ENSO flavors on Javanese precipitation, and illustrate the importance of considering ENSO flavors when interpreting palaeoclimate proxy records in the tropics.

  3. Analysis of a run-off hydrograph by means of natural 18O

    A deviation of the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation from the average 18O/l6O in groundwater can be considered to indicate the presence of some 18O tracer. In this way the precipitation component in the discharge of a catchment area can be established. In a small drainage basin (650 ha) the direct peak run-off in the stream channels from a rain storm is shown to consist of rainwater above a slowly increasing base flow. The fast run-off contains two components: (1) overland flow with a time constant of 1 h; (2) a moderately declining component (time constant of 12 h) probably caused by the release of bank storage. From a complex storm it is shown that 87% infiltrates into the soil and the remaining 13% is drained within a few days. (author)

  4. Synthesis and applications of 18O standards for nuclear reaction analysis

    A new method to synthesize 18O standard samples to be used in nuclear reaction analyses is proposed and investigated. This method consists of obtaining a Si18O2 film on a Si substrate using a natural abundance SiO2 film as a passivation layer to prevent the isotopically enriched film to be exposed to the atmosphere and possibly degraded by it. For that, sequential oxidation steps are performed followed by a controlled etching in aqueous hydrofluoric acid. Details of these steps are discussed as well as the stability of the synthesized samples. Applications using these standard samples in the field of alternative semiconductors to Si (SiC and Ge), used in micro and nanoelectronics are also presented

  5. Validation of alpha-Q-value systematics: response of 18O + 159Tb system

    In order to look for the projectile structure effect on ICF reactions in the present experiments the excitation functions of radio-nuclides populated during the interactions of 18O+159Tb at energies ≈ 4-7 MeV/A have been measured. The present data will be compared with 16O+159Tb data, to draw some conclusion about alpha-Q-value systematics, as 18O has more negative Qα-value than 16O. In these experiments the activation technique has been used. The targets of 159Tb of thickness ≈ 1.5 - 2.0 mg/cm2 and Al-catchers (≈1.5-2.5 mg/cm2) were prepared by rolling method

  6. Interference effects between direct and sequential processes in the (18O, 16O) reaction

    Cavallaro M.; Cappuzzello F.; Bondì M.; Carbone D.; Garcia V. N.; Gargano A.; Lenzi S.M.; Lubian J.; Agodi C.; Azaiez F.; De Napoli M.; Foti A.; Franchoo S.; Linares R.; Nicolosi D.

    2014-01-01

    The 12C(18O, 16O)14C reaction at 84 MeV has been studied at INFN-LNS laboratory using the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. High resolution energy spectra and cross-section angular distributions have been measured. DWBA calculations of both direct and sequential transfer to the 14C ground state show the important role of the interference between the two processes to describe the experimental data.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Variations of δ18O along the Main Stem of Yangtze River, China

    The Yangtze River is the largest river in China, and the third longest in the world. Data on δ2H and δ18O isotopes in the river water provide a very useful tool for interpretation of hydrological processes and hydrological cycles related to climate change and anthropogenic activities in a large scale river basin. Since 2003, 170 water samples have been recovered from the first water campaign and regular samples over one year from four stations have been analyzed for δ2H and δ18O composition. From upstream to downstream, the isotopic composition of 2H and 18O gradually increase. The trendline of the first campaign is situated in the middle of the LMWL and the trendline of isotopic δ2H and δ18O for one year sampling at four regular stations is in good accordance with the LMWL. Water inflow from tributaries joining the main stem of Yangtze River are one of the main reasons for spatial isotopic variations in the river's water. Results revealed that temporal and spatial variations in oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of water samples along the main stem of the Yangtze River are strongly driven by the isotope patterns in regional precipitation. Secondary signals deriving from the influx of evaporatively enriched waters from several major lakes or reservoirs along the system are also apparent. The peak of river water isotopic temporal variations corresponds well to the boundary marking the beginning or end of annual flooding periods at- site. The peaks and valleys of river water temporal isotopic variations may be a good indicator to mark the split in river water between surface and groundwater water influences at a given location for a water year. (author)

  8. Degradation of DNA by iron-bleomycin: mechanistic implications of product 18O incorporation

    Interaction of d(CGCGCG) with Bleomycin (BLM), activated either with Fe(III) and H2O2 or Fe(II), O2 and one electron, results in production of cytosine and a modified oligonucleotide strand (1). Reduction of 1 with NaBD4 followed by enzymatic digestion, derivatization, and GC-MS permits the identification of 2-deoxypentitols-1,4-d2 as their tetra-trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. Similar products have also been isolated from calf thymus DNA and poly(dG-dC). These results provide unequivocal evidence for the intermediacy of a 4' ketone, 1' aldehyde modified carbohydrate. An alternate mode of DNA degradation requires additional O2 and leads to formation of 3' phosphoglycolate termini and base propenals. Glycolate (GA), released from calf thymus DNA, poly(dA-dT) or d(CGCGCG) by enzymatic digestion, can be isolated by chromatography on DEAE Sephadex, silylated and analyzed by GC-MS. This analysis, after incubation with Fe(II) x 18O2 x BLM or Fe(III) x H216O2 x BLM plus 18O2, reveals the incorporation of a single atom of 18O at the C-1 position. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that it is the excess molecular oxygen and not the O2 required for drug activation that is incorporated into the carboxylate group of 3' phosphoglycolate and provide evidence for the proposed addition of O2 to a C4' carbon radical. Isotopic enrichments of the other products of DNA oxidation, formed in the presence of 18O2 are also being determined

  9. Clustering in non-self-conjugate nuclei 10Be and 18O

    Clustering phenomena in 10Be and 18O were studied by means of resonance elastic scattering of α-particles on 6He and 14C. Excitation functions for α+6He and α+14C were measured and detailed R-matrix analyses of the excitation functions was performed. We compare the experimental results with the predictions of modern theoretical approaches and discuss properties of cluster rotational bands

  10. Temporal and spatial distributions of δ18O and δ2H in precipitation in Romania

    Nagavciuc, Viorica; Bădăluță, Carmen-Andreea; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope ratios of meteoric water have an important role in climatic, paleoclimatic, hydrological and meteorological studies. While such data are available from most of Europe, so far, in Romania (East Central Europe), no systematic study of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation exists. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyze the isotopic composition of rainwater, its temporal and spatial distribution, the identification of the main factors influencing these variations and the creation of the first map of spatial distribution of stable isotopes in precipitation in Romania. Between March 2012 and March 2014 we have collected monthly samples from 22 stations in Romania, which were subsequently analyzed for their δ18O and δ2H at the Stable Isotopes Laboratory, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava, Romania. Precipitation in W and NW Romania plot along the GMWL, while those in the East are slightly below it, on an evaporative trend. The LMWL for Romania is defined as δ2H=7,27*δ18O + 6,92. The W-E gradient in the distribution of δ18O and δ2H are less marked than the N-S ones, with local influences dominating in areas of strong evaporation (intramountain basins, rain-shadow areas etc). In SW, and especially in autumn and winter, Meditteranean cyclones carry moisture from the Eastern Mediterranean, the δ18O and δ2H values in precipitation in the area plotting between the GMWL and the Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line. The isotopic composition of rainwater in Romania correlates well with air temperature, and is influenced to a lesser extent by other factors such as the amount of precipitation, topography configuration, the effect of continentalism and season of the year.

  11. Regional groundwater flow in the Atikokan Research Area : simulation of 18O and 3H distributions

    AECL is investigating a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. As part of this investigation, we have performed a model simulation of regional groundwater flow in the Atikokan Research Area, a fractured plutonic rock environment of the Canadian Shield, and used the distribution of oxygen-18 (18O) and tritium (3H) in groundwater to test the model. At the first stage of model calibration, groundwater flow was simulated using a three-dimensional finite-element code, MOTIF, in conjunction with a conceptual framework model derived from field geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data. Hydraulic parameters (permeability and porosity) were systematically varied until simulated recharge rates to the water table compared favourably with estimated recharge rates based on stream flow analysis. At the second stage, vertical average linear groundwater velocities from the first stage of the calibration process were combined with conceptualized one-dimensional models of the system to generate depth concentration profiles of 18O and 3H. Recharge-, midline-and discharge area models of both the fracture zones and the rock mass were employed. The simulated profiles formed 'envelopes' around all field 18O and 3H data, indicating that the calibrated velocities used in the model are reasonable. The models demonstrate that the scatter of δ18O and 3H field data from the Atikokan Research Area is consistent with the groundwater flow model predictions and can be explained by the complexity arising from different hydraulic regimes (recharge, midline, discharge) and hydrogeologic environments (fracture zones, rock mass) of the regional flow system. 50 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Interference effects between direct and sequential processes in the (18O, 16O reaction

    Cavallaro M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 12C(18O, 16O14C reaction at 84 MeV has been studied at INFN-LNS laboratory using the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. High resolution energy spectra and cross-section angular distributions have been measured. DWBA calculations of both direct and sequential transfer to the 14C ground state show the important role of the interference between the two processes to describe the experimental data.

  13. Determination of the delta(18O/16O)of Water: RSIL Lab Code 489

    Revesz, Kinga; Coplen, Tyler

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the technique described by the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 489 is to present a method to determine the delta(180/160), abbreviated as delta-180, of water. This delta-18O measurement of water also is a component of National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL in USGS) schedules 1142 and 1172. Water samples are loaded into glass sample containers on a vacuum manifold to equilibrate gaseous CO2 at constant temperature (25 deg C) with water samples. After loading water samples on the vacuum manifold, air is evacuated through capillary to avoid evaporation, and CO2 is added. The samples are shaken to increase the equilibration rate of water and CO2. When isotopic equilibrium has been attained, an aliquot of CO2 is extracted sequentially from each sample container, separated from water vapor by means of a dry ice trap, and introduced into a dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DI-IRMS) for determination of the delta-18O value. There is oxygen isotopic fractionation between water and CO2, but it is constant at constant temperature. The DI-IRMS is a DuPont double-focusing mass spectrometer. It has a double collector. One ion beam passes through a slit in a forward collector and is collected in the rear collector. The other ion beams are collected in the front collector. The instrument is capable of measuring mass/charge (m/z) 44 and 45 or 44 and 46 by changing the ion-accelerating voltage under computer control. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z 44=CO2=12C16O16O, m/z 45=CO2=13C16O16O primarily, and m/z 46 = CO2=12C16O18O primarily. The data acquisition and control software calculates delta-18O values.

  14. Factors determining δ13C and δ18O fractionation in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.

    1997-07-01

    Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining δ 13C and δ 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the δ 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between δ 13C- carbonate-δ 13C water (δ 13C) and temperature: δ 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between δ 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (α) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln α = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the δ 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the δ 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.

  15. Finding of Neoproterozoic low-18O igneous rocks in the northern margin of the Dabie orogen

    ZHENG Yongfei; WU Yuanbao; ZHAO Zifu; GONG Bing

    2004-01-01

    @@ It has been one of the most intriguing questions in the earth sciences whether the snowball Earth event is genetically associated with mantle superwelling, supercontinent assemblage and breakup, and rift magmatism during the Neoproterozoic[1-4]. In order to demonstrate the occurrence of significant interaction in energy and matter between the earth's interior and exterior in this period, it is critical to find coeval igneous rocks that contain the signature of surface water and thus form low-18O magma.Several investigations of U-Pb dating and O isotope analysis were carried out for zircons from ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogen,east-central China[5-8]. The results indicate that low δ18O zircons have U-Pb ages of 700-800 Ma as dated by either TIMS discordia upper-intercept or SIMS in-situ magmatic core, and the origin of low δ18O water is related to cold paleoclimate during the Sturtian ice age.

  16. The 1996 thaw as a 18O tracer experiment at the lysimeter plant in Wagna

    In the year 1991 a research site was set up in Wagna in the western Leibnitz Field (Styria) which permits an examination of seepage water movement and of material transport as a function of the permeability of the uppermost soil layers and the underlying more coarsly clastic sediments under locale-specific natural management systems. Research at this site is largely based on hydrochemical and isotope-hydrological analysis. The 18O isotope is an ideal natural tracer of water movement. Infiltration water from the thaw following a snowy winter was displaced downward into the unsaturated zone as a result of a major precipitation event of 85.5 mm from April 2 to 5, 1996. This displacement is evident in the 18O concentrations of the seepage water at various measuring depths. The displacement is associated with recharge events, thaw processes tending to produce dispersive flows and precipitation events leading to ''piston flow effects. Winter precipitation water reaches a depth of 60 to 70 cm by mid-April. The attenuated 18O concentration reveals the predominant flow characteristics in the different compartments of the unsaturated zone (finely clastic soils, gravels, and sands)

  17. Delta(18)O characteristics of lichens and their effects on evaporative processes of the subjacent soil.

    Hartard, Britta; Máguas, C; Lakatos, M

    2008-03-01

    The study presents first data on the delta(18)O performance of poikilohydrous lichen ground cover, and its potential impact on the isotopic composition of water fluxes arising from subjacent soil layers. As a model organism, the globally distributed lichen Cladina arbuscula was studied under laboratory conditions as well as in the field. During a desiccation experiment, delta(18)O of the lichen's thallus water and of its respired CO(2) became enriched by approximately 7 per thousand and followed a similar enrichment pattern to that expected from homoiohydrous, vascular plants. However, the observed degree of enrichment was lower in comparison to vascular plants due to (i) the lichen's inherent lower evaporative resistances; and (ii) a stronger effect of the more depleted surrounding water vapour. In lichens growing in their natural habitat, this specific pattern may show substantial variations depending on prevailing microclimatic conditions. Within a field study, thallus water delta(18)O of lichens principally proved to become more depleted when close to equilibration with the surroundings. It thereby strongly depended on the absorption of surrounding water vapour. Moreover, the results indicate that lichen mats substantially reduce evaporation rates arising from subjacent soil layers, and may alter the isotopic signal of vapour diffusing away from these layers into more depleted values. PMID:18320432

  18. NanoSIMS50 analyses of Ar/18O2 plasma-treated Escherichia coli bacteria

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by electrical discharges and can be transported in uncharged regions by gas flows, in the so-called afterglows. These species are well known to have bactericidal effects but interaction mechanisms that occur with living micro-organisms remain misunderstood. In order to better understand these interactions, new analysis approaches are necessary. High-lateral-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is one of the most promising ways of retrieving additional information on bacteria plasma inactivation mechanisms by combining isotopic imaging of plasma-treated bacteria and the use of 18O2 as process gas. Indeed, this technology combines a lateral resolution of a few tens of nanometres that is sufficient to image the interior of bacteria, and a high mass resolution allowing detection of isotopes present in low quantities (a few ppm or lower) within the bacteria. The present paper deals with Ar-18O2 (2%) plasma treatment, through low-pressure microwave late afterglows, of Escherichia coli bacteria and their elemental and isotopic imaging by NanoSIMS. E. coli bacteria have been exposed to this reactive medium for varying treatment duration while keeping all other parameters unchanged. Our main goal is to determine whether the quantity of 18O fixed in treated bacteria and the NanoSIMS50 lateral resolution are sufficient to give additional information on E. coli bacteria-plasma interaction. (paper)

  19. The oxygen isotope composition of Karoo and Etendeka picrites: High δ18O mantle or crustal contamination?

    Harris, Chris; le Roux, Petrus; Cochrane, Ryan; Martin, Laure; Duncan, Andrew R.; Marsh, Julian S.; le Roex, Anton P.; Class, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of Karoo and Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) picrites and picrite basalts are presented to constrain the effects of crustal contamination versus mantle source variation. Olivine and orthopyroxene phenocrysts from lavas and dykes (Mg# 64-80) from the Tuli and Mwenezi (Nuanetsi) regions of the ca 180 Ma Karoo LIP have δ18O values that range from 6.0 to 6.7 ‰. They appear to have crystallized from magmas having δ18O values about 1-1.5 ‰ higher than expected in an entirely mantle-derived magma. Olivines from picrite and picrite basalt dykes from the ca 135 Ma Etendeka LIP of Namibia and Karoo-age picrite dykes from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, do not have such elevated δ18O values. A range of δ18O values from 4.9 to 6.0 ‰, and good correlations between δ18O value and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios for the Etendeka picrites are consistent with previously proposed models of crustal contamination. Explanations for the high δ18O values in Tuli/Mwenezi picrites are limited to (1) alteration, (2) crustal contamination, and (3) derivation from mantle with an abnormally high δ18O. Previously, a variety of models that range from crustal contamination to derivation from the `enriched' mantle lithosphere have been suggested to explain high concentrations of incompatible elements such as K, and average ɛNd and ɛSr values of -8 and +16 in Mwenezi (Nuanetsi) picrites. However, the primitive character of the magmas (Mg# 73), combined with the lack of correlation between δ18O values and radiogenic isotopic compositions, MgO content, or Mg# is inconsistent with crustal contamination. Thus, an 18O-enriched mantle source having high incompatible trace element concentration and enriched radiogenic isotope composition is indicated. High δ18O values are accompanied by negative Nb and Ta anomalies, consistent with the involvement of the mantle lithosphere, whereas the high δ18O themselves are consistent with an eclogitic source. Magma δ18

  20. ({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O) Two-neutron transfer reactions for spectroscopic studies

    Cavallaro, Manuela; Agodi, Clementina; Bondi, Mariangela; Cappuzzello, Francesco; Carbone, Diana; Cunsolo, Angelo; Foti, Antonino; Napoli, Marzio de; Nicolosi, Dario; Tropea, Stefania [University of Catania, INFN-LNS and INFN-Sez., Catania (Italy); Lubian, Jesus; Garcia, Vantelfo; Paes, Barbara [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The {sup 12}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 14}C and {sup 13}C({sup 18}O,{sup 17}O){sup 14}C transfer reactions have been studied at 84 MeV incident energy at the INFN-LNS laboratory in Catania (Italy). The {sup 16}O and {sup 17}O ejectiles were detected at forward angles by the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer. Q-value spectra up to about 20 MeV and angular distributions were obtained with resolution of about 150 keV in energy and 0.2 deg in angle. In particular, excited states with relevant 1p-3h configuration with respect to the {sup 16}O core are mainly populated by the ({sup 18}O,{sup 17}O) reaction while states with known 2p-4h configuration are excited by the ({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O). This demonstrates the clear selectivity of such reactions. The shape of the measured angular distributions is found to be sensibly dependent on the transferred angular momentum. A theoretical description based on exact finite range coupled reaction channel calculations using the double folding Sao Paulo potential is used for the first time to analyze the data. The good agreement with the experimental cross section demonstrates that, despite the heavy ions involved, the one-step transfer of a two-neutron pair is dominant in the ({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O) reaction. A comparison with Distorted Wave Born Approximation calculations using the same potential shows that effects of channel couplings is visible but small. Supplementary two-neutron sequential transfer calculation are performed within the two-step DWBA formalism, introducing the intermediate partition {sup 13}C + {sup 17}O. This accounts only for a negligible contribution to the absolute cross section. As a consequence, the possibility to extract two-particle spectroscopic factor and, more in general, information on nuclear structure is demonstrated. (author)

  1. The use of 3H and 18O tracers to characterize water inflows in Alpine tunnels

    Water inflows in 9 tunnels and galleries through the Alpine crystalline massifs have been analysed for their 3H activities and δ18O contents. Tritium provides information on water transit times and the dynamics of deep water circulation, whereas δ18O contributes to understanding the origin and flow paths of water in such mountainous regions. Owing to ambiguities arising from the irregularity of the historical 3H input function since 1945, a unequivocal and straightforward interpretation of water transit times in Alpine tunnels is not possible. Nevertheless, the ambiguity can be resolved by considering the 3H data in combination with (a) the generalized hydraulic conductivity of the massif obtained from discharge data, and (b) the Na and silica content of the water as an indication of the extent of rock-water interaction. When the data are resolved in this way, the waters that were sampled in the tunnels/galleries can be divided into 3 age groups, i.e. 40 a. In general, water beneath a rock-cover thickness of 3H content of a water inflow in the Gothard gallery. Oxygen-18 data primarily reflect the recharge altitude, which can be predicted a priori by considering the large-scale geological structures of each massif and the extent to which they control the subvertical paths followed by the groundwater. Anomalous δ18O data may reflect local or general departures from this interpretation. A general pattern is that downslope flow in the better jointed 'decompressed zone', which parallels the topography, may divert recharge from a higher to lower altitude before it follows the structural pathways into the tunnel. This results in a somewhat lower δ18O value than would be predicted from structure alone, but tends to confirm the existence and role of the 'decompressed zone' indicated by the 3H. More local δ18O anomalies reflect recharge from rivers or lakes entering the tunnels, and are illustrated by examples in this paper. Results show that environmental isotopes

  2. Relationships between δ18O in summer precipitation and temperature and moisture trajectories at Muztagata, western China

    2006-01-01

    Based on summer observations of stable isotope of precipitation at Muztagata, western China, during 2002―2003, this paper presents the relationship between δ18O in precipitation and air temperature, and discusses the effect of moisture transport on δ18O in precipitation. Results show that air temperature correlates positively with δ18O in precipitation, and the temperature effect controls the δ18O of precipitation in this area. The Muztagata region exhibits high δ18O values in summer precipitation, similar to those shown at stations in adjacent regions. According to the results of our model set up to trace the moisture trajectories, the westerlies and local moisture circulation contribute to variations of oxygen isotopes in precipitation. In addition, the impacts of the moisture transport distance, the moisture transport level, and the incursion of the polar air mass also influence the variations of δ18O in precipitation. The moisture origins and transport mechanisms also contribute to the variation of δ18O in precipitation at Muztagata.

  3. An investigation of the controls on Irish precipitation {delta}{sup 18}O values on monthly and event timescales

    Baldini, Lisa M.; Baldini, James U.L. [Durham University, Department of Earth Sciences, Durham (United Kingdom); McDermott, Frank; Moellhoff, Martin [University College Dublin, UCD School of Geological Sciences, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Fischer, Matthew J. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    This two-year study investigates the relative influence of meteorological variables (precipitation amount and temperature), atmospheric circulation, air mass history, and moisture source region on Irish precipitation oxygen isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub p}) on event and monthly timescales. Single predictor correlations reveal that on the event scale, 20% of {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} variability is attributable to the amount effect and 7% to the temperature effect while on the monthly timescale the North Atlantic Oscillation accounts for up to 20% of {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} variability and the amount and temperature effects are not significant. In comparison, multivariate linear regression reveals that the interaction of temperature and precipitation amount explains up to 40% of {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} variance at event and monthly timescales. Five-day kinematic back trajectories suggest that the amount-weighted mean {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} value of southerly- and northerly-derived events are lower by 2 permille relative to events derived from the west. Because air mass history and atmospheric circulation appear to influence {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} in Ireland, Irish paleo-{delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} proxy records are best interpreted as reflecting a combination of parameters, not just paleotemperature or paleorainfall. (orig.)

  4. The use of micro-Raman imaging to measure 18O tracer distribution in thermally grown zirconia scales

    Highlights: • High temperature oxidation of Zircaloy-4 was studied by coupling 18O diffusion and Raman imaging. • Shifts of the monoclinic ZrO2 Raman lines versus the 18O content were calibrated. • 18O diffusion profiles were obtained through micro-Raman scanning. • Protective influence of a pre-transient corrosion scale has been investigated. - Abstract: High temperature Zircaloy-4 oxidation has been studied through two-stage oxidation experiments using 18O isotope. 18O distribution in the oxidation scales was investigated by micro-Raman imaging. First, zirconia standards with known 18O content were prepared and analyzed for calibration purposes. Then, to assess the method on a simple case, 18O tracer penetration patterns were recorded after a 800 °C two-stage oxidation. Finally, oxidation at 850 °C of a Zircaloy4 cladding tube pre-corroded at 425 °C to simulate corrosion during normal reactor operation was studied. These preliminary results give insights on the protective nature of the first formed zirconia scale in case of an accident

  5. In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Supported Transition Metal Oxide Catalysts: 18O2-16O2 Isotopic Labeling Studies

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Jehng, J.M.; Wachs, I.E.

    2000-01-01

    The isothermal isotopic exchange reaction of 18O2 with 16O of CrO3, MoO3, Nb2O5, WO3, V2O5, and Re2O7 supported on ZrO2 has been investigated with in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. Isotopic exchange of the oxygen atoms of the supported transition metal oxides with 18O2 is difficult and requires several successive reduction-18O2 reoxidation cycles at relatively high temperatures. The Raman spectroscopy data reveal that all the supported transition metal oxides are present as a monooxo species ...

  6. Past break-monsoon conditions detectable by high resolution intra-annual δ18O analysis of teak rings

    Managave, S. R.; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Borgaonkar, H. P.; Ramesh, R.

    2010-03-01

    Intra-annual variations in the cellulose oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of several annual growth rings of three teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) trees from central India show a clear seasonal cycle with higher values in the early and late growing seasons and lower values in the middle. This cycle is useful to identify growth occurring during different phases of the growing season. Relative humidity (RH) appears to control the intra-annual δ18O variations rather than rainfall, and therefore past break-monsoon conditions associated with lower RH, could be detected by high resolution sub-sampling of annual rings for δ18O analysis.

  7. delta 18O variations in snow on the Devon Island ice cap, Northwest Territories, Canada

    A study of delta18O variations of snow samples taken on traverses across the Devon Island ice cap in June 1971, 1972, and 1973 has shown a difference between the accumulation conditions on the souteast and nortwest sides of the ice cap. On the souteast side there is an increasing depletion of 18O in the snow with increasing elevation. This pattern is attibuted to the effect of orographic uplift of air masses moving over the ice cap from the southeast, which promotes condensation and precipitation due to adiabatic cooling. On the northwest side of the ice cap there is no evidence of any further depletion of 18O in snow, neither with increasing distance from the possible moisture source in Baffin Bay to the southeast nor with increasing elevation if the air mass comes from the northwest. In this case condensation is due to isobaric cooling so that precipitation is generally from level cloud bases. The changes inferred for the isotopic composition of the water vapour as it rises up the southeast slope are found to be consistent with its depletion through precipitation under near-equilibrium conditions. It is calculated that approximately 30% of the moisture at sea level on the southeast side of the ice cap and 8% at the top of the ice cap are of local origin. Lower temporal and aerial variability of the delta values on the southeast side of the ice cap is attributed to dominance of the Baffin Bay low on that side Effecting consistency of storm conditions there. The delta values of ice in the ablation zone on the Sverdrup Glacier show the combined effect of ice movement from the accumulation to the ablation zone and climatic change during the period of movement from cold to warm and back to cold conditions again. (auth)

  8. Thermal neutron capture cross sections for 16,171,18O and 2H

    Firestone, R. B.; Revay, Zs.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal neutron capture γ -ray spectra for 16,17,18O and 2H have been measured with guided cold neutron beams from the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) reactor and the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) on natural and O,1817 enriched D2O targets. Complete neutron capture γ -ray decay schemes for the 16,17,18O(n ,γ ) reactions were measured. Absolute transition probabilities were determined for each reaction by a least-squares fit of the γ -ray intensities to the decay schemes after accounting for the contribution from internal conversion. The transition probability for the 870.76-keV γ ray from 16O(n ,γ ) was measured as Pγ(871 )=96.6 ±0.5 % and the thermal neutron cross section for this γ ray was determined as 0.164 ±0.003 mb by internal standardization with multiple targets containing oxygen and stoichiometric quantities of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon whose γ -ray cross sections were previously standardized. The γ -ray cross sections for the O,1817(n ,γ ) and 2H(n ,γ ) reactions were then determined relative to the 870.76-keV γ -ray cross section after accounting for the isotopic abundances in the targets. We determined the following total radiative thermal neutron cross sections for each isotope from the γ -ray cross sections and transition probabilities; σ0(16O )=0.170 ±0.003 mb; σ0(17O )=0.67 ±0.07 mb; σ0(18O )=0.141 ±0.006 mb; and σ0(2H )=0.489 ±0.006 mb.

  9. Nuclear and astrophysical aspects of 18O(p,γ)19F

    The capture reaction 18O(p,γ)19F has been investigated in the energy range Esub(p) = 80-2200 keV. The seven known resonances have been studied in detail and twelve new resonances have been found. The resonances at Esub(R) = 680, 977 and 1670 keV correspond to new states in 19F. The known resonance at Esub(R) = 631 keV is observed to consist of a doublet (ΔEsub(p) = 7 keV). Information on resonance energies, total and partial widths, branching and mixing ratios and ωγ values is reported. Transition strength arguments as well as analyses of γ-ray angular distribution data combined with results from previous work resulted in Jsup(π) assignments for some of the resonances and low-lying states in 19F. The assignment of several states in 19F as T = 3/2 analogue states of 19O is discussed. A direct capture process to several final states in 19F up to Esub(x) = 8.8 MeV has been observed revealing information on the orbital momenta of the captured protons in the final states, their spectroscopic factors and Jsup(π) assignments for interfering resonances. Special efforts were made to detect this process to states near the proton threshold, which are of importance to stellar hydrogen burning of 18O. The results are compared with corresponding information from other reactions. The investigated energy range of the 18O(p,γ)19F reaction corresponds to the important stellar temperature range of T = 0.01 to 5 X 109 K. The energy-averaged astrophysical reaction rates determined from the present data are compared with previous estimates for this reaction. The data permit reliable conclusions to be drawn concerning the final termination of the CNO tri-cycle. (orig.)

  10. {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O determination in organic matter

    Saurer, M.; Siegwolf, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The oxygen isotope ratio in plant material can be used to deduce information about the climate and the environment. We present a simple and fast continuous-flow technique for the determination of the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio in organic matter. In this method the samples are thermally decomposed in the presence of glassy carbon and the evolving monoxide is used to determine the oxygen ratio. Not only cellulose but also nitrogen-containing materials can be processed when interfering gases (mainly N{sub 2}) are separated from CO by gas chromatography. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  11. Temperature variations in the past 6000 years inferred from δ18O of peat cellulose from Hongyuan, China

    2002-01-01

    Trends of the temperature variations recorded in δ18O in Hongyuan peat cellulose are similar to those recorded in δ 18O of Jinchuan peat cellulose and inδ18O of Dunde ice core. Climate events have been identified to be globallyhomogeneous. Two notable climate transition periods have been detected in the past 6000 years, namely 4000 aBP with climate shifting from cold to warm and 1500aBP with climate shifting from warm to relatively cold. Power spectrum analysiswas performed to investigate the periodical signals in the δ18O time series. Typical periodicities of 1200-1087 a, 752 a, 444 a, 325 a, 213 a, 127-123 a, 88a, 79 a were discovered, indicating an integrated influence on Hongyuan climatefrom solar, monsoon and ocean activities. Solar forcing has been addressed to be the main driving forcing of Hongyuan climate.

  12. A culture-based calibration of benthic foraminiferal paleotemperature proxies: δ18O and Mg/Ca results

    D. C. McCorkle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Benthic foraminifera were cultured for five months at four temperatures (4, 7, 14 and 21 °C to establish the temperature dependence of foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca. Two Bulimina species (B. aculeata and B. marginata were most successful, adding chambers at all four temperatures and reproducing at 7 and 14 °C. Foraminiferal δ18O values displayed ontogenetic variations, with lower values in younger individuals. The δ18O values of adult specimens decreased with increasing temperature in all but the 4 °C treatment, exhibiting a relationship consistent with previous δ18O paleotemperature calibration studies. Foraminiferal Mg/Ca values, determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were broadly consistent with previous Mg/Ca calibration studies, but extremely high values in the 4 °C treatment and higher than expected values at two of the other three temperatures make it challenging to interpret these results.

  13. Validation of δ18O as a proxy for past monsoon rain by multi-GCM simulations

    Midhun, M.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-03-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of tree cellulose and speleothem carbonate are useful proxies for past monsoon rain in many tropical regions, as a decrease in rain δ18O is observed with increase in rainfall on a monthly time scale. This amount effect varies spatially; therefore a local calibration, with actual measurements of rain amount and its δ18O is required. Such observations, however, are quite limited in space and time. To circumvent this difficulty, many isotope enabled general circulation models (GCMs) are used to aid the interpretation of 18O proxies; nevertheless, all such simulations taken together are yet to be evaluated against observations over the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region. Here we examine ten such GCM simulations archived by the stable water isotope INtercomparison Group, phase 2. The spatial patterns of simulated ISM rainfall and its δ18O are in good agreement with the limited observations available. Simulations nudged with observed wind fields show better skill in reproducing the observed spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall and its δ18O. A large discrepancy is observed in the magnitude of the simulated amount effect over the Indian subcontinent between the models and observation, probably because models simulate the spatial distribution of monsoon precipitation differently. Nudged simulations show that interannual variability of rainfall δ18O at proxy sites are controlled by either regional (rather than local) rainfall or upstream rain out. Interannual variability of rainfall δ18O over the East Asian region is well correlated with ENSO, while it is only weakly correlated over the Indian sub-continent.

  14. Establishing a grassland signature in veins: 18O in the leaf water of C3 and C4 grasses

    Helliker, Brent R.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2000-01-01

    We show that 18O evaporative enrichment of bulk leaf water in grass species can be significantly more enriched than predicted by the Craig–Gordon model, with C4 grasses considerably more enriched than C3 grasses. Our results suggest that the unanticipated 18O leaf water enrichment of grasses is attributable to the progressive evaporative enrichment along parallel veins (a function of both leaf length and interveinal distance), a pattern that does not occur in Dicotyledonous species. We propos...

  15. Intramolecular (18O) isotopic exchange in the gas phase observed during the tandem mass spectrometric analysis of peptides

    Fast atom bombardment/tandem mass spectrometry of protonated and metal cationized peptides has revealed evidence for novel intramolecular rearrangements in the gas phase. Second generation product ion scanning (MS/MS/MS) analyses of the protonated (18O2) analogues established that both isotope labels are located at the new C-terminus formed via the rearrangement. The kinetic energies released during the formation of the (18O1)-and (18O2)-labeled rearrangement products are indistinguishable, consistent with the involvement of a common intermediate. First generation product ion spectra (MS/MS) of protonated (18O2)-peptides include fragments arising from simple peptide bond cleavage which show isotope enrichments consistent with immediate precursor ions which incorporate (18O) at the peptide bond between the penultimate and C-terminal amino acid residues. Several lines of evidence eliminate the possibility of such incorporation of label during solution-phase preparation of the (18O2)-labeled analogues. Thus, the combined data are in accord with an isotope exchange process occurring in the gas phase, most likely through a mechanism involving the reversible formation of a cyclic intermediate. These studies, combined with previous data, emphasize the importance of the conformations adopted by gas-phase peptide ions in influencing fragmentation pathways. 30 refs., 8 figs

  16. An isotope mass balance model for the correlation of freshwater bivalve shell (Unio pictorum carbonate δ18O to climatic conditions and water δ18O in Lake Balaton (Hungary

    Gabriella SCHÖLL-BARNA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen isotope composition of bivalve shells (δ18Oshell can potentially record environmental variability of shallow lakes and therefore it has been extensively used as a proxy in the reconstruction of past climate and environmental conditions. As δ18Oshell reflects - besides the water temperature - the oxygen isotope composition of lake water (δ18OL, it is required to interpret the quality and impact of parameters influencing the δ18OL. Using the isotope mass balance model, I tested the hypothesis that Balaton lake water δ18O variability can be described as a result of the combined effects of three main climatic parameters such as river runoff, precipitation and evaporation. I calculated δ18OL time series for the period 1999-2008 for the whole water body at Siófok (eastern part of Lake Balaton, Hungary based on measured precipitation, inflow and evaporation amount and measured inflow, precipitation δ18O and calculated vapour δ18O data. The comparison of the modelled δ18OL time series to measured surface δ18OL data revealed that δ18O of Balaton water is sensitive for variation of climatic parameters. This variability is most striking at the surface, while according to the results of the model, the whole water body itself is less sensitive. Monthly differences suggest that generally during summer the whole water body is mixed up, while moderate isotope stratification (0.3-0.7‰ difference between surface and whole water body can be assumed in early spring and autumn. Predictions of shell δ18O values were made using the measured surface water δ18O data and the modelled δ18O values for the whole water body. High-resolution sampling was conducted on two Unio pictorum shells covering the period of 2001-2008, and both predictions were compared to measured shell δ18O records. The results showed that the prediction for the whole water body gives a better fit to the measured shell δ18O, suggesting that the whole water body better

  17. Validating methods for measuring delta18O and delta13C in otoliths from freshwater fish.

    Guiguer, K R R A; Drimmie, R; Power, M

    2003-01-01

    The ability of the phosphoric acid digestion technique to extract carbon dioxide from biogenic carbonates and reliably reproduce delta(18)O and delta(13)C signatures from standard reference materials (NBS-18, NBS-19) was tested and shown to produce accurate, unbiased measurements of non-biologic materials. The effects of roasting preparation methods commonly reported when analyzing biogenic carbonates were also tested in a series of experiments using reference standards and otoliths obtained from aquacultured Arctic charr and rainbow trout. Roasting had no effect on the isotope measurement of reference standards. No significant differences between mean oxygen isotope signatures from paired experiments with roasted and non-roasted fish otoliths were found. However, otolith oxygen isotope measurements were significantly enriched in comparison to rearing water-based measurements for both species. Agreement between expected isotopic equilibrium and measured otolith delta(18)O values varied as a function of roasting temperature and between species. Criteria for the selection of appropriate roasting temperatures are suggested and favour 350 degrees C in freshwater fish where unbiased estimates of average rearing water temperatures and known differences in rearing temperatures were obtained. Carbon isotopic disequilibria were observed for both species. A mixing model analysis established differences in the percentage of metabolically derived carbon in studied otoliths, with Arctic charr deriving a greater proportion of otolith delta(13)C from metabolism as a result of higher metabolic rates. PMID:12590395

  18. ENSO flavors in a tree-ring δ18O record from Indonesia

    Schollaen, Karina; Karamperidou, Christina; Helle, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    The existence of so-called ENSO flavors (Cold Tongue and Warm Pool El Nino), their underlying mechanisms and potential changes in their frequency of occurrence is an active field of research in the climate science community. Previous work has shown the distinct teleconnection patterns of ENSO flavors and SST, precipitation and salinity in the tropics, which should be taken into account when interpreting palaeo-climate proxies. At the same time, proxies from key locations with distinct ENSO-flavors signals can provide long continuous records, essential for identifying possible trends and (multi)decadal variability of ENSO flavor occurrence. Here, we show that one such key region is Java (Indonesia), where the ENSO influence on precipitation is significant for Warm Pool ENSO, and non-significant for Cold Tongue ENSO. We do so by investigating the ENSO signal in a 108-year long (1900-2007) tree-ring δ18O record of teak (Tectona grandis) trees growing in a lowland rain forest in Central Java. Climate response analysis with regional monthly rainfall data reveals that the tree-ring δ18O record is significantly correlated to rainfall, and is sensitive to the occurrence of Warm Pool ENSO events, as well as La Nina events. The results presented here demonstrate the ability of tree-ring stable isotope records to provide palaeo-climate records able to distinguish between the two ENSO flavors, with broad applicability to studies on past ENSO variability.

  19. 18O/16O ratio in groundwater of the Federal Republic of Germany

    More than 900 groundwater samples of 480 municipal water factories were collected at the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. The 18O/16O-ratio decreases from the north (-7per mill) to south (below -11per mill) due to an increasing distance from the south ('continental effect') and an increasing altitude above sealevel ('altitude effect'). The decrease of the 18O/16O-ratio per 1000 m altitude above sea level is 2.8per mill, per 1000 km distance from the sea 2.4per mill. At the coast an initial value of -7.2per mill results from the multicorrelation analysis. Except of two cases, some samples near to the coast and alongside river Rhine, the groundwater samples represent the mean oxygen isotope ratio of the local precipitation. This oxygen isotope ratio will be found in the conductive tissues of the plants (trees), too. Therefore the knowledge of the natural variation of the oxygen isotope ratio can serve as a tool in studies of plant physiology, water ecology, palaeclimatology and food analysis. (orig.)

  20. Inferring heterogeneity in aquitards using high-resolution deltaD and delta18O profiles.

    Hendry, M Jim; Wassenaar, L I

    2009-01-01

    Vertical depth profiles of pore water isotopes (deltaD and delta18O) in clay-rich aquitards have been used to show that solute transport is dominated by molecular diffusion, to define the timing of geologic events, and to estimate vertical hydraulic conductivity. The interpretation of the isotopic profiles in these studies was based on pore water samples collected from piezometers installed in nests (typically 4 to 15 piezometers) over depths of 10 to 80 m. Data from piezometer nests generally have poor vertical resolution (meters), raising questions about their capacity to reveal the impact of finer scale heterogeneities such as permeable sand bodies or fractured till zones on solute transport. Here, we used high-resolution (30-cm) depth profiles of deltaD and delta18O from two continuously cored boreholes in a till aquitard to provide new insights into the effects of sand bodies on solute transport. High-resolution core-derived profiles indicate that such heterogeneities can cause major deviations from one-dimensional diffusion profiles. Further, comparison of piezometer-measured values with best-fit diffusion trends shows subtle deviations, suggesting the presence of heterogeneities that should not be ignored. High-resolution profiles also more clearly defined the contact between the highly fractured oxidized zone and the underlying unoxidized zone than the piezometers. PMID:19735307

  1. A high-resolution δ18O record and Mediterranean climate variability

    C. Taricco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A~high-resolution, well-dated foraminiferal δ18O record from a shallow-water core drilled from the Gallipoli Terrace in the Gulf of Taranto (Ionian Sea, previously measured over the last two millennia, has been extended to cover 707 BC–1979 AD. Spectral analysis of this series, performed by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and other classical and advanced methods, strengthens the results obtained analysing the shorter δ18O profile, detecting the same highly significant oscillations of about 600 yr, 380 yr, 170 yr, 130 yr, and 11 yr, respectively explaining about 12%, 7%, 5%, 2% and 2% of the time series total variance, plus a millennial trend (18% of the variance. The comparison with the results of Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (MSSA applied to a data set of 26 Northern Hemisphere (NH temperature-proxy records shows that NH temperature anomalies share with our local record a long-term trend and a bicentennial cycle. These two variability modes, previously identified as temperature-driven, are the most powerful modes in the NH temperature data set. Both the long-term trends and the bicentennial oscillations, when reconstructed locally and hemispherically, show coherent phases. Also the corresponding local and hemispheric amplitudes are comparable, if changes in the precipitation-evaporation balance of the Ionian sea, presumably associated with temperature changes, are taken into account.

  2. Runoff modeling of the Amazon basin using 18 O as a conservative tracer

    Using the δO18 O content of natural waters as a conservative tracer, a runoff modelling of the Amazon river basin was carried out in order to study the hydrological characteristics of the precipitation-runoff relationship. Measurements of the δ18 O in rainfall waters made in the high Solimoes region at Benjamin Constant, in the central part of basin at Manaus, and at the mouth near the Marajo Island, while the river waters were measured at Obidos only, as a proxy for the mouth, during the 1973-1974 hydrological years. The hydrography separation of the Amazon river was performed using the isotopic method to estimate the contributions of the surface runoff (event water) and baseflow (pre-event water) components to the total river flow. At peak discharge, the average contribution of the baseflow was 57% of the total river flow. The annual average contributions for surface runoff and baseflow were 30.3 and 69.7%, respectively. The residence time of the subsurface water in the basin was estimated as being 7 months, by fitting a sinusoidal function to the isotopic values of rainfall and river waters. The low values of the amplitude damping in the basin suggest high mixing waters during the runoff process. (author). 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Millennial-scale features in ?18O from a stalagmite in the eastern United States

    Hardt, B. F.; Doctor, D. H.; Gao, Y.; Rowe, H. D.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen isotope record of calcite from a stalagmite collected from Grand Caverns in Virginia, USA shows evidence of millennial-scale variability that appears to be coherent with Dansgaard/Oeschger events observed in Greenland ice. Sample GC-S02 grew from 82 - 13 ka BP and ranges in δ18O composition from -8 to -4 ‰ (VPDB) with multiple instances of millennial-scale changes in excess of 1‰. As δ18O in GC-S02 is more positive during MIS 2 than MIS 3, change in mean annual temperature is not a likely explanation for the observed variability. The carbon and oxygen isotopic records of calcite are independent and show no evidence of covaration (r = -0.1). Changes in the seasonal timing of precipitation provides an alternate explanation for the data, particularly given the potential for warm- and cool-season precipitation to come from different sources (Gulf of Mexico versus the Atlantic ocean). Grand Caverns is located in the Shenandoah River watershed within the Appalachian Great Valley, suggesting a meaningful role for Atlantic moisture. The age model is based on high-precision U-Th ages, making this record a potential benchmark for the region.

  4. Relative discharge of the Amazon River and its main tributaries as measured using 18O values

    Discharge measurement of large rivers such as the Amazon and its tributaries is far from easy. On the other hand, the river discharge is an essential parameter for assessing the chemical and sediment load of a river. Under certain conditions the water oxygen isotope composition is a useful tool for estimating the relative contribution of a tributary to the main channel of a basin. In addition, if the final discharge is known, it will be possible to quantify the tributary discharge and the main channel discharge before their confluence. The required condition for the use of this technique is that the difference between the δ18O values of the main channel and those of its tributaries is large enough to allow measurement by mass spectrometry. This condition was found in five reaches of the Amazon River. The relative contributions of the tributaries Ica, Jutai, Purus, Negro and Madeira were estimated during different stages of the Amazon hydrograph. Finally, the results were compared with the discharge value measured by Richey et al. at the same time as sampling water for the determination of isotope composition. In general, the relative discharges estimated by using the δ18O values were in accordance with the values measured by a depth-integrated sampler

  5. Isolating relative humidity: dual isotopes d18O and dD as deuterium deviations from the global meteoric water line

    Cellulose d18O and dD can provide insights on climates and hydrological cycling in the distant past and how these factors differ spatially. However, most studies of plant cellulose have used only one isotope, most commonly d18O, resulting in difficulties partitioning variation in d18O of precipitati...

  6. First results from a novel methodological approach for δ18O analyses of sugars using GC-Py-IRMS

    Zech, Michael; Saurer, Matthias; Tuthorn, Mario; Rinne, Katja; Werner, Roland; Juchelka, Dieter; Siegwolf, Rolf; Glaser, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Although the instrumental coupling of gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-IRMS) for compound-specific δ18O analyses is commercially available for more than 10 years, this method is hardly applied by isotope researchers so far. Using GC-Py-IRMS, Zech and Glaser (2009) and Zech et al. (2013; 2012) developed and applied a method, which allows determining δ18O of hemicellulose-derived sugar biomarkers extracted from soils and sediments. However, the used methylboronic acid (MBA) derivatization is suitable only for pentoses and deoxyhexoses, not for hexoses. Here we present first GC-Py-IRMS results for TMS-(trimethylsilyl)-derivatives of plant sap-relevant sugars (glucose, fucose, sucrose, raffinose) and a polyalkohol (pinitol) produced using BSTFA (N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide) as the derivatization reagent. Particularly, we focus on sucrose, which is the most important transport sugar in plants and hence of utmost relevance in plant physiology and in tree-ring studies. Replicate analyses of sucrose standards with known δ18O values suggest that the δ18O measurements are not stable over several days. A calibration (including a drift correction) against an external sucrose standard is hence essential when measuring sample batches. Furthermore, we observed a large dependence of the δ18O values on the analyte amount (area), which needs to be considered by a respective correction procedure. Tests with 18O-enriched water do not provide any evidence for oxygen exchange reactions between water and sucrose, glucose and raffinose. Finally we present the first application of compound-specific δ18O analyses from natural samples, namely from seven needle extracts (soluble carbohydrates) from a Siberian study area. Both the δ18O amplitude and values of sucrose are considerably higher (32.1‰ to 40.1‰) compared to the δ18O amplitude and values of bulk needle extract (24.6‰ to 27.2‰). We found positive correlation (although

  7. /sup 12/C(/sup 16/O,. cap alpha. )/sup 24/Mg( reaction in the energy region E/sub c. m. / = 26. 6 to 42. 9 MeV

    Bechara, M.J.; Lazzarini, A.J.; Ledoux, R.J.; Cosman, A.E.R.

    1983-04-01

    The /sup 12/C+ /sup 16/O resonance structure in the /sup 28/Si nucleus is examined by means of the /sup 12/C(/sup 16/O,..cap alpha..)/sup 2r/Mg reaction excitation functions in the energy range E/sub c.m./ = 26.6 to 42.9 MeV in 430 keV steps at theta/sub lab/ = 7.5/sup 0/. We could identify 64 discrete states in /sup 24/Mg up to 31.7 MeV of excitation energy. The excitation functions show abundant structure over the entire energy range. The summed excitation functions, which tend to average out statistical fluctuations, show pronounced intermediate structure enhancement in the cross section at E/sub c.m./approx. =29.5, 32.2, and 35 MeV and indicate the presence of a smaller peak at 37.3 MeV. The widths of these structures are about 1 MeV, which is intermediate between the value expected from ion-ion potential resonances and statistical fluctuations. The nonstatistical character of these structures is reinforced by some statistical tests and by the correlations in energy and width found in several exit channels. Our data also suggest a possible structural relationship between the /sup 28/Si resonances and certain /sup 24/Mg final states.

  8. Tracking Cats: Problems with Placing Feline Carnivores on δ18O, δD Isoscapes

    Pietsch, Stephanie J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Tütken, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. Establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. As shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (δDh, δ18Oh) can be used as a tool for provenance determination. However, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of δDh and δ18Oh requires confirmation from animal tissues of known origin and a detailed understanding of the isotopic routing of dietary nutrients into felid hair. Methodology/Findings We used coupled δDh and δ18Oh measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo-location of felidae. Hairs of felid and rabbit museum specimens from 75 sites across the United States and Canada were analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters, and also exhibited an isotopic decoupling of δ18Oh and δDh. Conversely, strong δD and δ18O coupling was found for key prey, eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus; hair) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; collagen, bone phosphate). Conclusions/Significance Puma and bobcat hairs do not adhere to expected pattern of H and O isotopic variation predicted by precipitation isoscapes for North America. Thus, using bulk hair, felids cannot be placed on δ18O and δD isoscapes for use in forensic investigations. The effective application of isotopes to trace the provenance of feline carnivores is likely compromised by major controls of their diet, physiology and metabolism on hair δ18O and δD related to body water budgets. Controlled feeding experiments, combined with single amino acid isotope analysis of diets and hair, are needed to reveal mechanisms and physiological traits explaining why felid hair does

  9. Hydrochemistry and 18O/16O and 2H/1H Ratios of Ugandan Waters

    Gebremichael, M. G.; Jasechko, S.

    2013-12-01

    Today, 70% of the 35 million people living in Uganda have access to an improved water source, ranking Uganda 148 out of 179 nations reporting in 2010 (Millennium Development Goals Indicators). 80% of Ugandans rely on groundwater as their primary drinking water source, collecting at springs or from shallow wells. Similarly, 80% of Ugandans rely upon agriculture - usually rain fed - as their primary income source. Despite lack of access to protected water sources faced by 10 million Ugandans, and the importance of the blue economy to Uganda's continued development, a country-wide investigation of the chemistry and the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of waters has yet to be completed. Here we present 250 analyses of 18O/16O, 2H/1H and dissolved ion concentrations of Ugandan lakes, rivers, groundwaters and springs collected during July, 2013. We use the new data to characterize regional scale groundwater recharge sources, advection pathways and interactions with surface waters. Large lakes - Albert, Edward and Victoria - show increases in 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios consistent with open water evaporation, and are shown to be distinct from nearby groundwaters, suggesting minimal recharge from large lakes to the subsurface. Salinities of eastern Ugandan groundwaters are elevated relative to samples collected from the central and western regions, suggesting that longer groundwater residence times and enhanced water-rock interactions characterize these waters. Springs from western Uganda show a shift in 18O/16O to higher values as a result of hydrothermal water-rock exchanges. Dissolved ion and noble gas concentrations show potential for use in assessing geothermal energy resources, perhaps aiding the Ugandan Ministry for Energy, Minerals and Development to meet their goal of increasing renewable energy from 4% (current) to 61% of total use by 2017 (Nyakabwa-Atwoki, 2013). Millennium Development Goals Indicators. mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/data.aspx Nyakabwa

  10. Cold air incursions, δ18O variability, and monsoon dynamics associated with snow days at Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    Hurley, John V.; Vuille, Mathias; Hardy, Douglas R.; Burns, Stephen J.; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2015-08-01

    Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Andes of Peru contains an annually resolved δ18O record covering the past 1800 years; yet atmospheric dynamics associated with snow deposition and δ18O variability at this site are poorly understood. Here we make use of 10 years of snow pit and short core δ18O data and hourly snow-height measurements obtained by an automated weather station deployed at the ice cap's summit to analyze linkages between snowfall, δ18O, and the South American summer monsoon (SASM). Snow accumulation peaks in December and is negative May-September. Snow δ18O values decrease gradually through austral summer from about -17 to -24‰. Surface snow δ18O is altered after deposition during austral winter from about -24 to -15‰. More than 70% of the total snow accumulation is tied to convection along the leading edge of cold air incursions of midlatitude air advected equatorward from southern South America. Snowfall amplitude at Quelccaya Ice Cap varies systematically with regional precipitation, atmospheric dynamics, midtroposphere humidity, and water vapor δD. Strongest snowfall gains correspond with positive precipitation anomalies over the western Amazon Basin, increased humidity, and lowered water vapor δD values, consistent with the "amount effect." We discuss ventilation of the monsoon, modulated by midlatitude cold air advection, as potentially diagnostic of the relationship between SASM dynamics and Quelccaya snowfall. Results will serve as a basis for development of a comprehensive isotopic forward model to reconstruct past monsoon dynamics using the ice core δ18O record.

  11. Influence of Interstellar FUV Radiation on the Abundance Ratio of 13CO to C18O in L 1551

    Lin, Sheng-Jun; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Hara, Chihomi; Lai, Shih-Ping; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Sugitani, Koji; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Tatei, Hidefumi; Akashi, Toshiya; Tsukagushi, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation and the abundance ratios between 13CO and C18O, we observed L 1551 in 12CO (J=1-0), 13CO (J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0) using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope with an angular resolution of ~22" (corresponding to 0.017 pc at a distance of 160 pc). L 1551 is chosen because it is relatively isolated in Taurus-Auriga complex, providing an ideal environment for studying the variation of abundance ratio due to the penetration of the FUV photons. L 1551 is a young star-forming region containing at least 6 young protostars between Class I and Class III stages and a quiescent elongated starless core. The distribution of 12CO emission shows the outflows coming from 2 youngest protostars IRS5 and NE. The 13CO and C18O are detected throughout the whole region with enhancement around the outflows and depletion in the outflow cavities. To avoid the influence of outflows, we exclude the outflow regions for X(13CO)/X(C18O) abundance ratio calculation. X(13CO)/X(C18O) is found in the range of 3.2 -- 36.2 with a mean value of 7.6. Comparing to the extinction map derived from Herschel observations, we found that the abundance ratio reaches its maximum at low AV and decreases to typical solar system value of 5.5 within the starless core. The high X(13CO)/X(C18O) value at the low AV value in L 1551 is most likely due to the selective FUV photodissociation of C18O. This is in contrast with Orion-A region where its internal OB stars keep the abundance ratio at a high level greater than ~10.

  12. LED-based Fourier transform spectroscopy of 16O12C18O and 12C18O2 in the 11,260-11,430 cm-1 range

    Serdyukov, V. I.; Sinitsa, L. N.; Lugovskoi, A. A.; Borkov, Yu. G.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The absorption spectrum of the 16O12C18O and 12C18O2 carbon dioxide isotopologues has been recorded in the 11,260- 11,430 cm-1 spectral range using Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer with resolution 0.05 cm-1 at temperature 297 K and path length 24 m. The 18O enriched sample of carbon dioxide at total pressure 96.5 mbar was used for these purposes. The spectrometer used LED emitter as a light source. This gave possibility to reach the minimal detectable absorption coefficient αmin~1.4×10-7 cm-1 using 23,328 scans. In the recorded spectrum we have assigned the 00051-00001 band for both 16O12C18O and 12C18O2 isotopologues using the predictions performed within the framework of the method of effective operators. The line positions and intensities of the observed bands are found. The comparison of the observed and predicted line positions and intensities is performed confirming good accuracy of the predictions. The spectroscopic parameters for the observed bands are determined.

  13. Origin of summer monsoon rainfall identified by δ18O in precipitation

    PANG Hongxi; HE Yuanqing; ZHANG Zhonglin; LU Aigang; GU Juan; ZHAO Jingdong

    2005-01-01

    A negative correlation between δ18O in monsoon precipitation and f, the ratio of precipitable water in monsoon region to that in water source area, is hypothesized.Using the Rayleigh model, a new method for identifying origin of summer monsoon rainfall is developed based on the hypothesis. In order to validate the method, the isotopic data at New Delhi, a typical station in the southwest monsoon region, and Hong Kong, a typical station in the southeast monsoon region, were collected and analyzed for case studies.The case studies indicate that the water source areas of the monsoon rainfall at the two stations identified by the method are accordant with the general atmosphere circulation patterns. The method developed in this paper is significantly important for tracing the origin of summer monsoon precipitation.

  14. Mean field boson treatment of the electron scattering form factors in 18O

    An extended mean field boson approach to proton-neutron systems with nπ ≠ nν is proposed an applied to calculating the energy spectra as well as the electron scattering form factors for the 0+ → 0+ and 0+ → 2+ transitions in 18O. Provided the single-particle orbitals are taken from the lowest three major oscillator shells and all nucleons are allowed to be active, the agreement with experimental data is very good. The results are also compared with those obtained in the restricted sd-shell subspace, which enables one to estimate the effects of possible excitations of the 16O core. It is found that such effects are non-negligible

  15. Evidence for solar forcing of climate variation from δ18O of peat cellulose

    洪业汤; 刘东生; 姜洪波; 周立平; 洪冰; 朱泳煊; 李汉鼎; 冷雪天; 秦小光; 王羽; 林庆华; 曾毅强

    2000-01-01

    There have been a number of investigations for examining the possible link between long-term climate variability and solar activity. A continuous δ18O record of peat cellulose covering the past 6 000 years and the response of climate variation inferred from the proxy record to solar forcing are reported. Results show that during the past 5 000 years the abrupt climate variations, including 17 warming and 17 cooling, and a serious of periodicities, such as 86, 101, 110,127, 132, 140, 155, 207, 245, 311, 820 and 1 050 years, are strikingly correlative to the changes of solar irradiation and periodicity. These observations are considered as further evidence for a close relationship between solar activity and climate variations on time scales of decades to centuries.

  16. δ18O isotope map-generation of European mineral waters, applications and limits

    There is an increasing demand for independent analytical methods which can control the geographical origin of food. The EU project TRACE was started with the aim to develop a general understanding of the relation of the geo-bio-climatic environment and the isotope and elemental signature in food commodities. Besides mineral water, the agricultural products wheat, honey, olive oil and lamb meat are investigated. As one part of the study a detailed δ18O map for groundwater will be generated by the isotope results of 600 samples of European mineral waters. These groundwater isotope maps provide a multitude of applications not only for authenticity of food, but for groundwater recharge and climate studies, criminal forensics as well as archaeology too. (author)

  17. Differential membrane proteomics using 18O-labeling to identify biomarkers for cholangiocarcinoma

    Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias; Harsha, H C; Grønborg, Mads; Maitra, Anirban; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2008-01-01

    enrichment of cellular subproteomes prior to mass spectrometric analysis can provide increased coverage of certain classes of molecules. We used a membrane protein enrichment strategy coupled with 18O labeling based quantitative proteomics to identify proteins that are highly expressed in cholangiocarcinomas....... In addition to identifying several proteins previously known to be overexpressed in cholangiocarcinoma, we discovered a number of molecules that were previously not associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical labeling of tissue microarrays, we validated Golgi...... membrane protein 1, Annexin IV and Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8) as candidate biomarkers for cholangiocarcinomas. Golgi membrane protein 1 was observed to be overexpressed in 89% of cholangiocarcinoma cases analyzed by staining tissue microarrays. In light of recent reports...

  18. Two-neutron stripping in ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) and (t,p) reactions

    Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, A.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Borello-Lewin, T.; Rodrigues, M. R. D. [Instituto de Física - Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão Travessa R Nr.187 CEP 05508-090 Cidade Universitária, São Paulo (Brazil); De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Garcia, V. N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Linares, R.; Lubian, J.; Paes, B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata , 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania, Italy and INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-11-11

    The {sup 12}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 14}C reactions has been investigated at 84 MeV incident energy. The charged ejectiles produced in the reaction have been momentum analyzed and identified by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. Q-value spectra have been extracted with an energy resolution of 160 keV (Full Width at Half Maximum) and several known bound and resonant states of {sup 14}C have been identified up to 15 MeV. In particular, excited states with dominant 2p - 4h configuration are the most populated. The absolute values of the cross sections have been extracted showing a striking similarity with those measured for the same transitions by (t,p) reactions. This indicates that the effect of the {sup 16}O core is negligible in the reaction mechanism.

  19. Evidence for solar forcing of climate variation from δ18O of peat cellulose

    2000-01-01

    There have been a number of investigations for examining the possible link between long-term climate variability and solar activity.A continuous δ18O record of peat cellulose covering the past 6000 years and the response of climate variation inferred from the proxy record to solar forcing are reported.Results show that during the past 5000 years the abrupt climate variations,including 17 warming and 17 cooling,and a serious of periodicities,such as 86,101,110,127,132,140,155,207,245,311,820 and 1050 years,are strikingly correlative to the changes of solar irradiation and periodicity.These observations are considered as further evidence for a close relationship between solar activity and climate variations on time scales of decades to centuries.

  20. Optimised conditions for the synthesis of (17)O and (18)O labelled cholesterol.

    de la Calle Arregui, Celia; Purdie, Jonathan A; Haslam, Catherine A; Law, Robert V; Sanderson, John M

    2016-02-01

    Conditions are described for the preparation of cholesterol with (17)O and (18)O labels from i-cholesteryl methyl ether using minimal amounts of isotopically enriched water. Optimum yields employed trifluoromethanesulfonic acid as catalyst in 1,4-dioxane at room temperature with 5 equivalents of water. An isotopic enrichment >90% of that of the water used for the reaction could be attained. Tetrafluoroboric acid could also be used as catalyst, at the expense of a lower overall reaction yield. Byproducts from the reaction included dicholesteryl ether, methyl cholesteryl ether, compounds formed by ether hydrolysis, and olefins arising from elimination reactions. Reactions in tetrahydrofuran yielded significant amounts of cholesteryl ethers formed by reaction with alcohols arising from hydrolysis of the solvent. PMID:26724708

  1. An explanation for the 18O excess in Noelaerhabdaceae coccolith calcite

    Hermoso, M.; Minoletti, F.; Aloisi, G.; Bonifacie, M.; McClelland, H. L. O.; Labourdette, N.; Renforth, P.; Chaduteau, C.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2016-09-01

    Coccoliths have dominated the sedimentary archive in the pelagic environment since the Jurassic. The biominerals produced by the coccolithophores are ideally placed to infer sea surface temperatures from their oxygen isotopic composition, as calcification in this photosynthetic algal group only occurs in the sunlit surface waters. In the present study, we dissect the isotopic mechanisms contributing to the "vital effect", which overprints the oceanic temperatures recorded in coccolith calcite. Applying the passive diffusion model of carbon acquisition by the marine phytoplankton widely used in biogeochemical and palaeoceanographic studies, our results suggest that the oxygen isotope offsets from inorganic calcite in fast dividing species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica originates from the legacy of assimilated 18O-rich CO2 that induces transient isotopic disequilibrium to the internal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool. The extent to which this intracellular isotopic disequilibrium is recorded in coccolith calcite (1.5 to +3‰ over a 10 to 25 °C temperature range) is set by the degree of isotopic re-equilibration between CO2 and water molecules before intracellular mineralisation. We show that the extent of re-equilibration is, in turn, set by temperature through both physiological (dynamics of the utilisation of the DIC pool) and thermodynamic (completeness of the re-equilibration of the relative 18O-rich CO2 influx) processes. At the highest temperature, less ambient aqueous CO2 is present for algal growth, and the consequence of carbon limitation is exacerbation of the oxygen isotope vital effect, obliterating the temperature signal. This culture dataset further demonstrates that the vital effect is variable for a given species/morphotype, and depends on the intricate relationship between the environment and the physiology of biomineralising algae.

  2. The First Detailed 2H and 18O Isoscapes of Freshwater in Scotland

    Meier-Augenstein, W.; Hoogewerff, J.; Kemp, H. F.; Frew, D.

    2012-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwater quality by the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils the legislative requirements but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity for delivering on current and nascent government policies [1] and gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and the aforementioned functions. In brief, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to support fundamental and applied research in: • Climate change - These first ever isoscapes will provide a baseline against which future environmental impact can be assessed due to changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish berries and Scottish Whisky. During 2011, freshwater samples were collected with the support of SEPA from more than 80 freshwater lochs and reservoirs across Scotland. Here we present the result of the 2H and 18O stable isotope analyses of these water samples together with the first isoscapes generated based on these data. [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland's National Food and Drink Policy (2009); Scottish Planning Policy Environmental Report (2009); Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 15 Planning for Rural Development (2005); National Planning Policy Guideline (NPPG) 14: Natural Heritage (1999).

  3. Preferential formation of 13C- 18O bonds in carbonate minerals, estimated using first-principles lattice dynamics

    Schauble, Edwin A.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Eiler, John M.

    2006-05-01

    Equilibrium constants for internal isotopic exchange reactions of the type: Ca12C18O16O2+Ca13C16O3↔Ca13C18O16O2+Ca12C16O3 for individual CO 32- groups in the carbonate minerals calcite (CaCO 3), aragonite (CaCO 3), dolomite (CaMg(CO 3) 2), magnesite (MgCO 3), witherite (BaCO 3), and nahcolite (NaHCO 3) are calculated using first-principles lattice dynamics. Calculations rely on density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) with norm-conserving planewave pseudopotentials to determine the vibrational frequencies of isotopically substituted crystals. Our results predict an ˜0.4‰ excess of 13C18O16O22- groups in all studied carbonate minerals at room-temperature equilibrium, relative to what would be expected in a stochastic mixture of carbonate isotopologues with the same bulk 13C/ 12C, 18O/ 16O, and 17O/ 16O ratios. The amount of excess 13C18O16O22- decreases with increasing temperature of equilibration, from 0.5‰ at 0 °C to <0.1‰ at 300 °C, suggesting that measurements of multiply substituted isotopologues of carbonate could be used to infer temperatures of ancient carbonate mineral precipitation and alteration events, even where the δ 18O of coexisting fluids is uncertain. The predicted temperature sensitivity of the equilibrium constant is ˜0.003‰/°C at 25 °C. Estimated equilibrium constants for the formation of 13C18O16O22- are remarkably uniform for the variety of minerals studied, suggesting that temperature calibrations will also be applicable to carbonate minerals not studied here without greatly compromising accuracy. A related equilibrium constant for the reaction: Ca12C18O16O2+Ca12C17O16O2↔Ca12C18O17O16O+Ca12C16O3 in calcite indicates formation of 0.1‰ excess 12C 18O 17O 16O 2- at 25 °C. In a conventional phosphoric acid reaction of carbonate to form CO 2 for mass-spectrometric analysis, molecules derived from 13C18O16O22- dominate (˜96%) the mass 47 signal, and 12C 18O 17O 16O 2- contributes most of the remainder (3%). This suggests

  4. The high-resolution climaterecorded in the δ18O of Porites lutea from the Nansha Islands of China

    2001-01-01

    A Porites lutea core from Yongshu Reef of Nansha Islands covering 50 years growth history was analyzed for oxygen isotopic composition with monthly and seasonally resolution. The calibration of the δ18O with the instrumental temperature indicated that the coral δ18O is a good indicator for sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature ( t ). It can be used to reconstruct the SST and air temperature of the Yongshu Reef sea area. In addition, the coral δ18O provides signatures for the intensity of the East Asia monsoon and it is a record for the activities of El Ni(n~)o events. With the calibrated SST and air temperature formulas, the most recent fifty years SST and air temperature were reconstructed based on the coral δ18O, thus back up the understanding of the climate of Nansha Islands to 1950, far beyond the limit of the instrumental recording since September 1988. It was found that, in general, increasing 1℃ air temperature results in 0.24‰ decrease in skeletal δ18O.

  5. Correlation between δ18O in precipitation and surface air temperature on different time-scale in China

    The relation between isotopic compositions of precipitation and surface air temperature provides a unique tool for paleoclimate studies, among which the relation between long term changes in δ18O of precipitation and surface air temperature at different stations or in a given location seems to be the most appropriate to paleoclimatic reconstructions. Analysis was conducted on monthly and annual mean δ18O content of precipitation and surface air temperature at spatial and fixed locations by using the data of China (1985-2002) in Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) Database. This study shows that there is a positive correlation between δ18O of precipitation and surface air temperature for stations located in north of 34 degree-36 degree N latitudes. The seasonal δ18O-temperature gradient derived from the monthly data of 12 stations in northern China is about 0.034% degree C-1. The δ18O-temperature gradient, however, derived from the long term annual mean data of 13 stations, is about 0.052% degree C-1, which is substantially larger than the seasonal gradient. (authors)

  6. The interstellar C18O/C17O ratio in the solar neighbourhood: The rho Oph cloud

    Wouterloot, J G A; Henkel, C

    2004-01-01

    Observations of up to ten carbon monoxide (CO and isotopomers) transitions are presented to study the interstellar C18O/C17O ratio towards 21 positions in the nearby (d~140pc) low-mass star forming cloud rho Oph. A map of the C18O J=1-0 distribution of parts of the cloud is also shown. An average 12C18O/12C17O isotopomeric ratio of 4.11 +/- 0.14, reflecting the 18O/17O isotope ratio, is derived from Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) calculations. From LTE column densities we derive a ratio of 4.17 +/-0.26. These calculations also show that the kinetic temperature decreases from about 30 K in the cloud envelope to about 10 K in the cloud cores. This decrease is accompanied by an increase of the average molecular hydrogen density from 10^4 cm-3 to >10^5 cm-3. Towards some lines of sight C18O optical depths reach values of order unity.

  7. δ18O and δ13C Analysis in Tree Rings of Pterocarpus angolensis Growing in Zimbabwe

    McLeran, K.; Schoof, J. T.; Lefticariu, L.; Therrell, M.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental weather records in southern Africa are largely limited to the last 100 years and documentary weather-related data are rare prior to the 1800s, hindering our understanding of the natural and/or anthropogenic factors that influence climate variability over this region. Measuring stable isotopes ratios (commonly 13C/12C and 18O/16O) in tree rings can provide a good proxy for extending climate data beyond the instrumental record. The objective of this study is to characterize historical variations in the climatology underlying extreme climatic events in Zimbabwe using instrumental climate records (precipitation and temperature) and a multi-proxy approach (ring width, δ18O, and δ13C) for dendroclimatic proxy reconstructions. A 90-year (1900-1990) δ18O and δ13C tree ring record using four Pterocarpus angolensis samples is being developed and compared to tree ring width, monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation totals, meteoric water δ18O values, and mean monthly and seasonal temperature. Preliminary results indicate significant correlations between the average δ18O record and the previous year December precipitation totals (r=0.41, pZimbabwe.

  8. Incomplete fusion and preequilibrium emission in the reactions 40Ar + 45Sc, 40Ar + 24Mg, 40Ar + 13C at 27.5 MeV by nucleon

    The evaporation residues were detected by means of a heavy ion time of flight system. As an attempt to examine in detail incomplete fusion for medium and light mass systems we have studied the reactions with experimental conditions allowing a complete separation and identification of the final products. We have analysed the velocity of the evaporation residues. The preequilibrium particles appear to be governed by two different regimes. The results show clearly that various compound nuclei are formed in the incomplete fusion process. The 40Ar + 13C reaction appears to be a special case. In the 40Ar+24Mg reaction, the study of preequilibrium particles in coincidence with evaporation residues confirms the results suggested for the heavy fragments

  9. Aplicaciones de los marcadores biogeoquímicos δ13C y δ18O en Mazama temama Aplications of biogeochemical markers δ13C and δ18O in Mazama temama

    Víctor Adrián Pérez-Crespo; Ximena Ulloa-Montemayor; Guillermo Acosta-Ochoa; Joaquín Arroyo-Cabrales; Luis M. Alva-Valdivia; Pedro Morales-Puente; Edith Cienfuegos-Alvarado

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan los valores isotópicos de δ13C y δ18O obtenidos del esmalte dental de un temazate procedente de un sitio arqueológico. Dichos valores indican que este cérvido tenía una dieta ramoneadora y habitaba en una zona de vegetación cerrada.We present isotopic values of δ13C and δ18O obtained from dental enamel in a brocket deer individual found in an archeological site. Those values show that the individual had a browser in an area of closed vegetation.

  10. Determination of ring-oxygen kinetic-isotope effects in methyl-D-xylopyranoside-5-18O

    The analytical procedures are described for measuring oxygen-18 kinetic-isotope effects in the ring oxygen of methyl-α and β-D-xylopyranosides-5-18O. The study was undertaken to confirm one of two possible mechanisms by which D-glycopyranosides undergo hydrolysis, i.e., the A-1 cyclic or acyclic mechanism. Oxygen-18 labeled sugars were subjected to either acid or enzyme hydrolysis. β-D-xylopyranose-5-18O was separated by GLC as a reaction product (5% and 100% hydrolysis) in the form of a t-butyldimethyl silyl ether (BDMS) and monitored for oxygen-18. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) provided data consistent with an A-1 cyclic mechanism. No significant kinetic-isotope effect (18O. An additional neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure is presented for monitoring oxygen-18 in sugars. A computer program is included for verifying fragment losses in mass spectra for unenriched compounds

  11. H_2^{16}O and H_2^{18}O Maser Emission from Gas-Dust Clouds

    Nesterenok, Aleksandr; 10.1134/S1063773711070036

    2011-01-01

    The collisional pumping of H_2^{16}O and H_2^{18}O masers in hot dense gas-dust clouds has been simulated numerically. New data on the rate coefficients for collisional transitions from Faure et al. (2007) were used in the calculations. The possibility of detecting H_2^{18}O emission in 22.2-GHz H_2^{16}O maser sources is investigated. The medium is shown to become optically thick in the H_2^{16}O lines for which an inverted level population is observed at H_2O column densities of ~10^{19}-10^{20} cm^{-2}. A simultaneous observation of H_2^{18}O emission and H_2^{16}O maser emission in the same source will allow the physical conditions in the gas-dust cloud to be refined.

  12. Holocene East Asian summer monsoon records in northern China and their inconsistency with Chinese stalagmite δ18O records

    Liu, Jianbao; Chen, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Fahu

    2016-04-01

    Monsoon precipitation over China exhibits large spatial differences. It has been found that a significantly enhanced East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is characterized by increased rainfall in northern China and by reduced rainfall in southern China, and this relationship occurs on different time scales during the Holocene. This study presents results from a diverse range of proxy paleoclimatic records from northern China where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an EASM proxy. Our aim is to evaluate the evolution of the EASM during the Holocene and to compare it with all of the published stalagmite δ18O records from the Asian Monsoon region in order to explore the potential mechanism(s) controlling the Chinese stalagmite δ18O. We found that the intensity of the EASM during the Holocene recorded by the traditional EASM proxy of moisture (or precipitation) records from northern China are significantly different from the Chinese stalagmite δ18O records. The EASM maximum occurred during the mid-Holocene, challenging the prevailing view of an early Holocene EASM maximum mainly inferred from stalagmite δ18O records in eastern China. In addition, all of the well-dated Holocene stalagmite δ18O records, covering a broad geographical region, exhibit a remarkably similar trend of variation and are statistically well-correlated on different time scales, thus indicating a common signal. However, in contrast with the clear consistency in the δ18O values in all of the cave records, both instrumental and paleoclimatic records exhibit significant spatial variations in rainfall on decadal-to- centennial time scales over eastern China. In addition, both paleoclimatic records and modeling results suggest that Holocene East Asian summer monsoon precipitation reached a maximum at different periods in different regions of China. Thus the stalagmite δ18O records from the EASM region should not be regarded as a reliable indicator of the strength of the East

  13. A new interpretation of the two-step δ18O signal at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    H. A. Dijkstra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The most marked step in the global climate transition from "Greenhouse" to "Icehouse" Earth occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E–O boundary, 33.7 Ma. Evidence for climatic changes comes from many sources, including the marine benthic δ18O record, showing an increase by 1.2–1.5‰ at this time. This positive excursion is characterised by two steps, separated by a plateau. The increase in δ18O values has been attributed to rapid glaciation of the Antarctic continent, previously ice-free. Simultaneous changes in the δ13C record are indicative of a greenhouse gas control on climate. Previous studies show that a decline in pCO2 beyond a certain threshold value may have initiated the growth of a Southern Hemispheric ice sheet. These studies were not able to conclusively explain the remarkable two-step profile in δ18O. Furthermore, they did not address the potential role of changes in ocean circulation in the E–O transition. Here a new interpretation of the δ18O signal is presented, based on model simulations using a simple coupled 8-box-ocean, 4-box-atmosphere model with an added land ice component. The model was forced with a slowly decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. It is argued that the first step in the δ18O represents a shift in meridional overturning circulation from a Southern Ocean to a bipolar source of deep-water formation, which is associated with a cooling of the deep sea. This shift can be initiated by a small density perturbation in the model, although there is also a parameter regime for which the shift occurs spontaneously. The second step in the δ18O profile occurs due to a rapid glaciation of the Antarctic continent. This new interpretation is a robust outcome of our model and is in good agreement with proxy data.

  14. Water budget of Semiadalia undecimnotata Schn. larvae feeding on Myzus persicae Sulz. studied with HT18O

    In coccinella larvae the total uptake was determined in two different ways: (1) from the cumulative water diet measured directly, by aphid consumption, and from the vapour cuticular absorption rate, which was estimated with HTO alone in control experiments; (2) from the elimination rate of double-labelled water, HT18O, initially added to the body water and analysed with a theoretical model. The results obtained from both methods in the 3rd and 4th larval stages are correlated, and it is suggested that double-labelled HT18O may be used to measure aphid consumption in the field. (author)

  15. Latest miocene benthic delta/sup 18/O changes, global ice volume, sea level and the Messinian salinity crisis

    Hodell, D.A.; Elmstrom, K.M.; Kennett, J.P.

    1986-04-03

    Oxygen isotope evidence indicates high but variable delta/sup 18/O values in benthic foraminiferal calcite during the latest Miocene and earliest Pliocene. These high values may represent increases in global ice volume and associated sea-level fall. The delta/sup 18/O record resembles glacial/interglacial cycles, but with only one-third the amplitude of the late Pleistocene signal. This variability may reflect instability in the Antarctic ice sheet, and palaeomagnetic correlation points to an isotopic event coinciding with the isolation and desiccation of the Mediterranean basin during the latest Messinian.

  16. Sub-barrier enhancement of fusion as compared to a microscopic method in 18O+12C

    Steinbach, T. K.; Vadas, J.; Schmidt, J.; Haycraft, C.; Hudan, S.; deSouza, R. T.; Baby, L. T.; Kuvin, S. A.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the energy dependence of the fusion cross-sec on at sub-barrier energies provides an important test for theoretical models of fusion. To extend the measurement of fusion cross-sections in the sub-barrier domain for the 18O+12C system. Use the new experimental data to confront microscopic calculations of fusion. Evaporation residues produced in fusion of 18O ions with 12C target nuclei were detected with good geometric efficiency and identified by measuring their energy and time...

  17. Variability of the Indo-Pacific warm pool convection since 1867 AD in a tree cellulose δ18O record

    Zhu, M.; Stott, L. D.; Buckley, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) is a major heat and moisture source for atmospheric circulation and is influential for global climate. Various methods, e.g. satellite observations, paleoclimate reconstructions using corals, marine sediments, and speleothems, as well as climate models, have been employed to study the hydrological variability of the IPWP and its relation to global climate. In this study, we provide an alternative way to investigate this problem by analyzing the stable isotopic composition (δ18O) of tree ring cellulose, sampled subannually from Pinus merkusii that grow in Kirirom National Park of southern Cambodia. Our cellulose δ18O record, which spans the period 1867-2006, reveals regular seasonal cycles with an average amplitude of ~4 %, mainly reflecting the seasonal difference in the isotopic composition of soil moisture. The δ18O minimum value in each annual cycle is believed to represent the most isotopically- depleted precipitation of each year, which derives from the oceanic moisture from IPWP in September-October. An isotope amount effect is manifested in the cellulose δ18O minimum values, as they correlate strongly with the amount of rainout over the IPWP before the moisture is transported towards Cambodia. They correlate strongly with the outgoing long wave radiation over the IPWP as well, suggesting that the cellulose δ18O from southern Cambodia could be used to reconstruct the convection intensity over the IPWP. Spectral analysis of the cellulose δ18O reveals significant peaks that are accordant with the ENSO periodicity, 2-7 years, as well as a decadal periodicity of 13.5 years. The variability of our cellulose δ18O record on ENSO band are similar to central Pacific coral δ18O records, with reduced amplitude of variability in the1920sthrough the 1950s, a period of weak ENSO activity. The decadal variability in our cellulose record is also common in coral records, such as the 1976-77 shift, and this might be related to internal

  18. Fluid participation in deep fault zones: Evidence from geological, geochemical, and 18O/16O relations

    Kerrich, R.; La Tour, T. E.; Willmore, L.

    1984-06-01

    Fluid incursion into fault zones and their deeper level counterparts, brittle-ductile shear zones, is examined in a number of different crustal environments. At the Grenville front, translation was accommodated along two mylonite zones and an associated boundary fault. The high- (MZ II) and low-temperature (MZ I) mylonite zones formed at 580 to 640°C and 430 to 490°C, respectively, in the presence of fluids of metamorphic orgin indigenous to the immediate rocks. A population of posttectonic quartz veins occupying brittle fractures were precipitated from fluids with extremely negative δ18O at 200 to 300°C. The water may have been derived from downwards penetration into fault zones of low-18O precipitation on a mountain range induced by continental collision with, uplift accommodated at deep levels by the mylonite zones coupled with rebound on the boundary faults. At Lagoa Real, Brazil, Archaean gneisses overlie Proterozoic sediments along thrust surfaces and contain brittle-ductile shear zones locally occupied by uranium deposits. Following deformation at 500 to 540°C, in the presence of metamorphic fluids and under conditions of low water to rock ratio, shear zones underwent local intense oxidation and desilicification. All minerals undergo a shift of -10‰, indicating discharge of meteoric water recharged formation brines in the underlying Proterozoic sediments up through the Archaean gneisses during overthrusting: about 1000 km3 of solutions passed through these structures. At Yellow-knife, a series of large-scale shear zones developed by brittle-ductile mechanisms, involving volume dilation with migration of ˜5 wt % volatiles into the shear zone from surrounding metabasalts. This early deformation involved no departures in redox state or whole rock δ18O from background states of Fe2+/ΣFe = 0.72 and 7 to 7.5‰, respectively, attesting to conditions of low water/rock. Shear zones subsequently acted as high-permeability conduits for pulsed discharge of >9

  19. Biosynthesis of the meroterpenoid, austin, by Aspergillus ustus: incorporation of 18O2, sodium [1-13C,18O2] acetate, and [Me-13C,2H3] methionine

    Mass spectral and 13C n.m.r. analyses of austin produced by fermentation of Aspergillus ustus in the presence of 18O2 and [Me-13C,2H3]methionine showed that all labelled methionine-derived hydrogens were retained, determined that five of nine oxygens were introduced by aerobic oxidation, and elucidated the general mechanism of late biosynthetic stages. (author)

  20. Planktic δ18O records in the northern South China Sea: MIS 5.5 vs MIS 1

    Sarnthein, M.; Sadatzki, H.

    2012-04-01

    Benthic δ18O records show peak and average levels for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5, which are 0.1-0.2 ‰ lighter than during MIS 1, a shift that largely results from changes in global ice volume. In planktic δ18O records of the northern South China Sea this trend may grow by 0.1-0.2 ‰ due to both a rise in sea surface temperatures (SST) during MIS 5.5 and enhanced freshwater input. On the other hand, dominant sources of atmospheric humidity may alter from the far distant equatorial Indian (18O depleted) to the nearby West Pacific Ocean (18O enriched), thus significantly influencing the δ18O value of the monsoon-controlled freshwater discharge to the South China Sea (Pausata et al., 2011), and accordingly, the local planktic δ18O signal of surface waters. We tested the role of these possibly opposed factors by means of planktic δ18O records with centennial-scale resolution at ODP Site 1144 (2040 m w.d.; Bühring et al., 2004) and MD05-2904 (2070 m w.d.; Ge et al., 2010). In contrast to an expected 18O depletion for MIS 5.5 of 0.3 ‰, the pertinent core sections were 18O enriched by 0.4 ‰ as compared to MIS 1. This positive shift may either suggest a major and dominant switch in atmosph¬eric water supply from Indian to nearby West Pacific sources or exhibit a loss of the sediment section crucial for MIS 5.5, that is a distinct stratigraphic gap. Highly resolved δ18O records obtained for comparison from three sediment cores retrieved nearby at much greater water depths (ODP Sites 1145, 1146; Core 17924) clearly show for MIS-5.5 the expected δ18O level that is slightly lighter than that of MIS 1, in harmony with increased SST (He et al., 2008), and thus support the hiatus model. It is also corroborated by large fields of (modern) erosional furrows which are generated by a vigorous inflow of Upper Pacific Deepwater passing along the continental slope off Hong Kong near 2350 m w.d. During interglacial MIS 5.5, this current had probably moved upslope by

  1. The Impact of Clouds on Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO18O Exchanges in the U.S. Great Plains

    Still, C. J.; Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S. C.; Noone, D. C.; Berry, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    The downward excursion in δ18O of atmospheric CO2 observed during the 1990s and the large interannnual variability characteristic of this isotopologue are not understood. We hypothesize that these variations in δ18O of atmospheric CO2 may be linked to global-scale variations in cloud cover and its influence on biosphere-atmosphere CO18O exchanges. Recent work has demonstrated the influence of clouds on canopy photosynthesis through increases in the diffuse radiation fraction and relative humidity, combined with decreases in leaf temperature. In concert, these alterations tend to increase canopy photosynthesis, which should also increase CO18O fluxes. However, photosynthetic CO18O fluxes also depend on the δ18O of leafwater, and enhanced cloudiness should decrease the δ18O of leafwater by enhancing relative humidity. Thus, the net impact of differing cloud cover on biosphere-atmosphere CO18O exchanges is difficult to predict. To capture these contrasting effects, we employed a comprehensive ecosystem isotope model (ISOLSM) in the southern great plains region of Oklahoma and Kansas. This region is particularly amenable for such a study because of the density of cloud property and radiation measurements. The region contains natural and agricultural ecosystems representing a variety of photosynthetic pathways and growth forms, including tallgrass prairie pastures, broadleaf forests, and crops. To drive the model across the entire region, we used Mesonet meteorological data collected at 120 stations in 2004, as well as precipitation δ18O values from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program network. LAI profiles from 2004 were derived from MODIS data. Our results suggest a large impact of clouds on photosynthetic CO2 and CO18O fluxes across this region. In an unstressed broadleaf deciduous forest (LAI=6.3), three sequential midsummer days with contrasting cloud cover illustrate this impact. Julian Day 222 is sunny, JD 223 is partly cloudy, and JD 224 is very

  2. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  3. Oxygen determination in materials by 18O(p,αγ)15N nuclear reaction

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Sunitha, Y.; Reddy, G. L. N.; Sukumar, A. A.; Ramana, J. V.; Sarkar, A.; Verma, Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents a proton induced γ-ray emission method based on 18O(p,αγ)15N nuclear reaction to determine bulk oxygen in materials. The determination involves the measurement of 5.27 MeV γ-rays emitted following the de-excitation of 15N nuclei. A description of the energetics of the reaction is given to provide an insight into the origin of 5.27 MeV γ-rays. In addition, thick target γ-ray yields and the limits of detection are measured to ascertain the analytical potential of the reaction. The thick-target γ-ray yields are measured with a high purity germanium detector and a bismuth germanate detector at 0° as well as 90° angles in 3.0-4.2 MeV proton energy region. The best limit of detection of about 1.3 at.% is achieved at 4.2 MeV proton energy for measurements at 0° as well 90° angles with the bismuth germanate detector while the uncertainty in quantitative analysis is oxygen in several oxide as well as non-oxide materials.

  4. States of 15C via the (18O,16O) reaction

    Cappuzzello, F; Cunsolo, A; Foti, A; Orrigo, S E A; Rodrigues, M R D; Borello-Lewin, T; Carbone, D; Schillaci, C

    2010-01-01

    A study of the 15C states was pursued in 2008 at the Catania INFN-LNS laboratory by the 13C(18O,16O)15C reaction at 84 MeV incident energy. The 16O ejectiles were detected at forward angles by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. Thanks to an innovative technique the ejectiles were identified without the need of time of flight measurements. Exploiting the large momentum acceptance (25%) and solid angle (50 msr) of the spectrometer, the 15C energy spectra were obtained with a quite relevant yield up to about 20 MeV excitation energy. The application of the powerful technique of the trajectory reconstruction did allow to get an energy resolution of about 250 keV FWHM, limited mainly by straggling effects. The spectra show several known low lying states up to about 7 MeV excitation energy as well as two unknown resonant structures at about 11.4 and 13.5 MeV. The strong excitation of these latter together with the measured width of about 2 MeV FWHM could indicate the presence of collective modes of excitation connec...

  5. The ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) reaction as a probe for nuclear spectroscopy

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondì, M.; Nicolosi, D.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Agodi, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Borello-Lewin, T.; Rodrigues, M. R. D. [Instituto de Física - Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão Travessa R Nr.187, 05508-090 Cidade Universitária, São Paulo (Brazil); De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Linares, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania, Italy and INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-11-11

    The response of nuclei to the ({sup 18}O, {sup 16}O) two-neutron transfer reaction at 84 MeV incident energy has been systematically studied at the Catania INFN-LNS laboratory. The experiments were performed using several solid targets from light ({sup 9}Be, {sup 11}B, {sup 12,13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si) to heavy ones ({sup 58,64}Ni, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 208}Pb). The {sup 16}O ejectiles were detected at forward angles by the MAGNEX magnetic spectrometer. Exploiting the large momentum acceptance (−10%, +14%) and solid angle (50 msr) of the spectrometer, energy spectra were obtained with a relevant yield up to about 20 MeV excitation energy. The application of the powerful trajectory reconstruction technique did allow to get energy spectra with energy resolution of about 150 keV and angular distributions with angular resolution better than 0.3°. A common feature observed with light nuclei is the appearance of unknown resonant structures at high excitation energy. The strong population of these latter together with the measured width can reveal the excitation of a collective mode connected with the transfer of a pair.

  6. The use of 18O/ 16O ratios to study the formation and chemical origin of coal

    Dunbar, John; Wilson, A. T.

    1983-08-01

    The 18O /16O ratios of some New Zealand peat, lignite and coal samples were measured and compared with those of various coal precursors (cellulose, lignin and plant resins). The results showed that the major source of oxygen in all cases (except that of high rank coal) was from cellulose with the contribution from lignin and plant resins being insignificant.

  7. The use of 18O/16O ratios to study the formation and chemical origin of coal

    The 18O/16O ratios of some New Zealand peat, lignite and coal samples were measured and compared with those of various coal precursors (cellulose, lignin and plant resins). The results showed that the major source of oxygen in all cases (except that of high rank coal) was from cellulose with the contribution from lignin and plant resins being insignificant. (author)

  8. Efficient Total Chemical Synthesis of (13) C=(18) O Isotopomers of Human Insulin for Isotope-Edited FTIR.

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Fitzpatrick, Ann; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Kent, Stephen B H

    2016-03-01

    Isotope-edited two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (2 D FTIR) can potentially provide a unique probe of protein structure and dynamics. However, general methods for the site-specific incorporation of stable (13) C=(18) O labels into the polypeptide backbone of the protein molecule have not yet been established. Here we describe, as a prototype for the incorporation of specific arrays of isotope labels, the total chemical synthesis-via a key ester insulin intermediate-of 97 % enriched [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) ] human insulin: stable-isotope labeled at a single backbone amide carbonyl. The amino acid sequence as well as the positions of the disulfide bonds and the correctly folded structure were unambiguously confirmed by the X-ray crystal structure of the synthetic protein molecule. In vitro assays of the isotope labeled [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) ] human insulin showed that it had full insulin receptor binding activity. Linear and 2 D IR spectra revealed a distinct red-shifted amide I carbonyl band peak at 1595 cm(-1) resulting from the (1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) backbone label. This work illustrates the utility of chemical synthesis to enable the application of advanced physical methods for the elucidation of the molecular basis of protein function. PMID:26715336

  9. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  10. In folio study of carbonic anhydrase and Rubisco activities in higher C3 plants using 18O and mass spectrometry

    This document studies the effects of a mild water stress and carbonic anhydrase activity by ethoxyzolamide (EZA) on the diffusion of CO2 in leaves, by 18O labelling of O2 and of CO2 associated to mass spectrometry. (A.B.). 5 refs., 2 figs

  11. A coral δ18O record of ENSO driven sea surface salinity variability in Fiji (south -western tropical Pacific)

    Le Bec, Nolwenn; Julliet-Leclerc, Anne; Corrège, Thierry; Blamart, Dominique; Delcroix, Thierry

    2000-12-01

    The role of salinity in the dynamics and thermodynamics of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events is increasingly being investigated. However, instrumental records of salinity are scarce and short in the tropical Pacific, and there is a clear need for a reliable salinity proxy to extend our knowledge of ENSO through time. Here, we present 40 years of δ18O data from a Fiji coral (16°48‧S-177°27‧E). The coral δ18O signal integrates both sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) variations. On a seasonal timescale, δ18O is mainly driven by SST changes whereas on an interannual ENSO timescale, it is almost exclusively affected by SSS variability. Since interannual fluctuations of SSS are rather well correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index in Fiji, coral δ18O can be used to reconstruct paleo-salinity data with some level of confidence. This may help for tracking ENSO influences back in time.

  12. Use of laser spectroscopy to measure the 13C/12C and 18O/16O compositions of carbonate minerals.

    Barker, Shaun L L; Dipple, Gregory M; Dong, Feng; Baer, Douglas S

    2011-03-15

    The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of carbonate minerals are utilized throughout the earth and environmental sciences for various purposes. Here, we demonstrate the first application of a prototype instrument, based on off-axis integrated cavity output laser spectroscopy, to measure the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of CO(2) gas evolved from the acidification of carbonate minerals. The carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were recorded from absorption spectra of (12)C(16)O(16)O, (13)C(16)O(16)O, and (12)C(16)O(18)O in the near-infrared wavelength region. The instrument was calibrated using CaCO(3) minerals with known δ(13)C(VPDB) and δ(18)O(VSMOW) values, which had been previously calibrated by isotope ratio mass spectrometry relative to the international isotopic standards NBS 18 and NBS 19. Individual analyses are demonstrated to have internal precision (1 SE) of better than 0.15‰ for δ(13)C and 0.6‰ for δ(18)O. Analysis of four carbonate standards of known isotopic composition over 2 months, determined using the original instrumental calibration, indicates that analyses are accurate to better than 0.5‰ for both δ(13)C and δ(18)O without application of standard-sample-standard corrections. PMID:21341717

  13. The evolution of Phanerozoic seawater - Isotope paleothermometry finds consensus on Early Paleozoic warmth and constant seawater δ18O

    Grossman, E. L.; Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.; Perez-Huerta, A.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of metazoan life is closely linked to the Phanerozoic evolution of ocean temperatures and chemistry. Oxygen isotopic evidence for early Phanerozoic paleotemperatures has been equivocal, with decreasing δ18O values with age being interpreted as warmer early oceans, decreasing seawater δ18O with age, or increasing diagenetic alteration in older samples. Here we compare an updated compilation of oxygen isotope data for carbonate and phosphate fossils and microfossils (Grossman, 2012, Geol. Time Scale, Elsevier, 195-220) with a compilation of new and existing clumped isotope data. Importantly, these data are curated based on sample preservation with special consideration given to screening techniques, and tectonic and burial history. Burial history is critical in the preservation of carbonate clumped isotope temperatures in particular, which can undergo reordering in the solid state. We use a model derived for reordering kinetics (Henkes et al., 2014, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 139:362-382) to screen clumped isotope data for the effects of solid-state burial alteration. With minor but significant exceptions (Late Cretaceous, Early Triassic), average δ18O values (4 m.y. window, 2 m.y. steps) for post-Devonian brachiopods, belemnites, and foraminifera, representing tropical-subtropical surface ocean conditions, yield average isotopic temperatures below 30°C (assuming a seawater δ18O value [ -1‰ VSMOW] of an "ice-free" world). In contrast, Ordovician to Devonian data show sustained temperatures of 35-40°C. Likewise, isotopic paleotemperatures from conodont apatite, known to be resistant to isotopic exchange, follow the same pattern. Clumped isotope data derived from Paleozoic brachiopod shells that experienced minimal burial (< 100 °C) and <1% reordering according to the taxon-specific clumped isotope reordering model yield typical temperatures of 25-30°C for the Carboniferous, and 35-40°C for the Ordovician-Silurian. Inserting clumped temperatures and

  14. Clumped Isotope Verification of δ18O-Based Freshwater Mussel Shell Growth Chronology for a High-Resolution Climate and River Discharge Record

    VanPlantinga, A.; Grossman, E. L.; Passey, B. H.; Randklev, C.

    2015-12-01

    Isotope profiles in freshwater mussel shells can be used to reconstruct climate, water source, and river discharge, but problems arise from variable water temperature and δ18O. To resolve this complexity and expand the application of isotope sclerochronology to the study of past river systems, we measured δ18O and Δ47 in two common freshwater mussel species from the Brazos River in Texas. To compare the environmental record with the shell record and develop a sclerochronology, weekly water temperature and δ18O data were collected from the Brazos River near College Station from January 2012 to August 2013. The river data reveal complex, irregular patterns for predicted aragonite δ18O. Comparing δ18O profiles from micromilled transects (70-200 µm increments) of coeval shell growth within and between shells yielded consistent patterns. Shell δ18O can be accurately matched to predicted δ18O, providing a chronology of shell growth. However, without a water temperature and δ18O record, interpreting a sclerochronology would be impossible. Shell Δ47 can potentially provide a seasonal chronology to verify the δ18O sclerochronology, which would be invaluable for the use of δ18O sclerochronology in historical and ancient shells. For Δ47 analyses, samples were taken at 0.5 mm resolution in presumed seasonal dark and light growth bands. Clumped temperatures range between 21 and 35 ± 4˚C (Henkes et al., 2013) and track the river temperature record, supporting the interpreted shell δ18O chronology. Shell Δ47-calculated water δ18O values range from -1.2 to 1.5 ± 0.9‰ and match river δ18O. High-resolution shell δ18O profiles combined with Δ47 temperatures can reconstruct a weekly history of water δ18O, and with the observed river discharge vs. water δ18O relation, produce a qualitative record of river discharge. These analytical techniques applied to a historical Brazos River mussel shell collected prior to dam construction reveal weekly records of

  15. Convenient recycling and reuse of bombarded [18O]H2O for the production and the application of [18F]F−

    The limited availability and the increasing demands of [18O]H2O force the reuse of bombarded [18O]H2O for the production of [18F]F− at least for the purposes of research. Therefore, inorganic and organic contaminants have to be removed from the [18O]H2O after bombardment. We present a simple, effective, easy-handling and reliable method of [18O]H2O purification including oxidation and distillation. The obtained recycled [18O]H2O had comparable quality to commercially distributed [18O]water. This was confirmed by a detailed comparison of produced radionuclides and their activities and the application of [18F]F− for the automated synthesis of [18F]fluspidine. - Highlights: • A reliable recycling procedure of irradiated (bombarded) enriched [18O]H2O is described. • Two methods for the oxidation of organic contaminants followed by low temperature distillation are presented. • The characterisation revealed [18O]H2O with high purity, and the production of [18F]F− and its use in radiosyntheses confirm a high quality of the [18O]H2O for the purposes of research

  16. The 18O:16O of dissolved oxygen in rivers and lakes in the Amazon Basin: Determining the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis rates in freshwaters

    The concentration and 18O:16O ratio of dissolved oxygen were measured for 23 rivers and lakes of the Amazon Basin during 1988, 1990, and 1991. With only two exceptions, the rivers and lakes had dissolved oxygen concentrations that were at 20-90% of atmospheric saturation levels. The δ18O of the dissolved oxygen ranged from 15 to 30% (vs. SMOW). The δ18O for the lakes were the lowest at 15-23%. δ18O 18O of the rivers, in contrast, ranged from 24 to 30 per-thousand > 24.2 per-thousand resulted from respiration. Despite this clear difference between the δ18O for rivers and lakes, these water bodies had similar levels of oxygen undersaturation. The δ18O and dissolved oxygen concentrations are used to determine the ratio of community respiration (R) to gross photosynthesis (P) rates. R:P varied between ∼1 and 1.5 for lakes and between 1.5 and 4 for rivers. For all rivers and lakes, the measured δ18O indicated the presence of photosynthetically produced oxygen, with the highest proportion occurring in lakes. The δ18O of dissolved oxygen is a unique tracer of photosynthetic oxygen and provides, through a determination of R:P, a means of quantifying the heterotrophic state of freshwaters. 29 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Stable isotope time-series in mammalian teeth: In situ δ18O from the innermost enamel layer

    Blumenthal, Scott A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chritz, Kendra L.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in mammalian tooth enamel are commonly used to understand the diets and environments of modern and fossil animals. Isotope variation during the period of enamel formation can be recovered by intra-tooth microsampling along the direction of growth. However, conventional sampling of the enamel surface provides highly time-averaged records in part due to amelogenesis. We use backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope (BSE-SEM) to evaluate enamel mineralization in developing teeth from one rodent and two ungulates. Gray levels from BSE-SEM images suggest that the innermost enamel layer, isotopic signal than other layers. We sampled the right maxillary incisor from a woodrat subjected to an experimentally induced water-switch during the period of tooth development, and demonstrate that secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can be used to obtain δ18O values with 4-5-μm spots from mammalian tooth enamel. We also demonstrate that SIMS can be used to discretely sample the innermost enamel layer, which is too narrow for conventional microdrilling or laser ablation. An abrupt δ18O switch of 16.0‰ was captured in breath CO2, a proxy for body water, while a laser ablation enamel surface intra-tooth profile of the left incisor captured a δ18O range of 12.1‰. The innermost enamel profile captured a δ18O range of 15.7‰, which approaches the full magnitude of δ18O variation in the input signal. This approach will likely be most beneficial in taxa such as large mammalian herbivores, whose teeth are characterized by less rapid mineralization and therefore greater attenuation of the enamel isotope signal.

  18. Fourth interlaboratory comparison exercise for δ2H and δ18O analysis of water samples (WICO2011)

    Complete text of publication follows. The IAEA Isotope Hydrology Laboratory organized the fourth interlaboratory comparison exercise for the analysis of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition of water. Four water samples prepared and calibrated at the IAEA Isotope Hydrology Laboratory were labelled IAEA-OH-13 to IAEA-OH-16. Altogether 137 laboratories from 53 countries submitted 172 datasets to the IAEA. Samples cover the range of δ18O and δ2H values typical of natural waters. Each laboratory received four samples with a randomly assigned identification code. The reference values were calculated from the results of the 12 laboratories whose performance was the best in the last intercomparison exercise, WICO2002 (Table 1). Cumulative deviations for δ18O and δ2H are less than 0.2h and 2.0h, respectively. Statistical analysis of the submitted results was undertaken to assess the performance of each laboratory (precision and accuracy) with respect to the reference δ18O and δ2H values for the analysed four samples by a two-stage statistical treatment adopted in previous IAEA interlaboratory exercises. From our results (Table 2) it is generally seen that the mean values are within uncertainty the same as the reference values, however, our standard deviations are significantly higher. Fig. 1. shows the obtained value of each laboratory for the δ18O of the OH-16 sample and the δ2H value of the OH-14 sample, respectively. Our values are indicated by black arrows. The upper and the lower horizontal black lines show the 1σ deviation of the reference value (middle line). Fig. 2. shows the cumulative deviation of datasets from the reference values determined as 8 x δ18O + δ2H. According to these data, our dataset (black arrow) is the 25th best out of the 172 datasets of 153 laboratories in the world.

  19. A (nearly) complete experimental linelist for 13C16O2, 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 13C18O2 and 17O13C18O by high-sensitivity CW-CRDS spectroscopy between 5851 and 7045 cm-1

    An experimental database for the 13C16O2, 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 13C18O2 and 17O13C18O isotopologues of carbon dioxide has been constructed on the basis of the high-sensitivity absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide with 99% enrichment in 13C recorded by CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) between 5851 and 7045 cm-1. As a result of the achieved sensitivity (typical noise equivalent absorption αmin∼2-5x10-10 cm-1) combined with the high linearity and dynamics (more than four decades) of the CW-CRDS technique, the amount of spectroscopic information contained in these spectra was considerable. A total of 8639 transitions of the 13C16O2, 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 13C18O2 and 17O13C18O isotopologues with line strength as low as 5x10-29 cm/molecule were assigned. They belong to a total of 150 bands, while less than 20 bands were previously reported by Fourier transform spectroscopy. The excellent agreement between the predictions of the effective operators model and the observations has allowed using an automatic search program to assign the weaker lines observed in the congested spectrum. The spectroscopic parameters of the vibrational upper levels were obtained from a fit of the measured line positions. A number of resonance interactions were observed; in particular, several occurrences of interpolyad anharmonic couplings not included in the polyad model of effective Hamiltonian, were found to affect a few bands of the 16O13C18O and 16O13C17O isotopologues. In the list of 8639 transitions, which are provided as Supplementary material, line positions are experimental values (typical uncertainty in the order of 1x10-3 cm-1), while line strengths were calculated at 296 K by using the effective operators approach (typical uncertainty in the order of 5%). In the case of the 13C16O2 isotopologue, the reported transitions represent 99.65% of the total absorbance in the region considered

  20. The 1996 thaw as a {sup 18}O tracer experiment at the lysimeter plant in Wagna; Die Schneeschmelze 1996 als {sup 18}O-Tracerversuch an der Lysimeteranlage in Wagna

    Fank, J.; Zojer, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Geothermie und Hydrogeologie; Stichler, W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    In the year 1991 a research site was set up in Wagna in the western Leibnitz Field (Styria) which permits an examination of seepage water movement and of material transport as a function of the permeability of the uppermost soil layers and the underlying more coarsly clastic sediments under locale-specific natural management systems. Research at this site is largely based on hydrochemical and isotope-hydrological analysis. The {sup 18}O isotope is an ideal natural tracer of water movement. Infiltration water from the thaw following a snowy winter was displaced downward into the unsaturated zone as a result of a major precipitation event of 85.5 mm from April 2 to 5, 1996. This displacement is evident in the {sup 18}O concentrations of the seepage water at various measuring depths. The displacement is associated with recharge events, thaw processes tending to produce dispersive flows and precipitation events leading to ``piston flow effects. Winter precipitation water reaches a depth of 60 to 70 cm by mid-April. The attenuated {sup 18}O concentration reveals the predominant flow characteristics in the different compartments of the unsaturated zone (finely clastic soils, gravels, and sands). [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1991 wurde in Wagna, im westlichen Leibnitzer Feld (Steiermark), eine Forschungsstation errichtet, die es erlaubt, unter ortsueblichen, natuerlichen Bewirtschaftungssystemen die Sickerwasserbewegung und den Transport von Stoffen in Abhaengigkeit von der Durchlaessigkeit der obersten Bodenschichten und der darunter folgenden groeberklastischen Sedimente vor allem auf Grundlage der hydrochemischen und isotopenhydrologischen Analytik zu untesuchen. Die Verwendung des {sup 18}O-Isotops als natuerlicher Tracer repraesentiert in idealer Weise die Bewegung des Wassers. Infiltrationswasser aus der Schneeschmelze nach einem schneereichen Winter wurde durch ein starkes Niederschlagsereignis von 85.6 mm zwischen 2. und 5. April 1996 in der ungesaettigten Zone

  1. Analysis of the CRDS spectrum of 18O3 between 6950 and 7125 cm-1

    The absorption spectrum of the 18O3 isotopologue of ozone was recorded by CW-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy in the 6950-7125 cm-1 region. The typical noise equivalent absorption of the recordings is αmin ≈1×10-10 cm-1. The spectrum is dominated by three very weak bands: 3ν1+5ν3 near 7009 cm-1 and the ν2+7ν3 and 4ν2+5ν3 interacting bands near 7100 cm-1. In total 260, 206 and 133 transitions were assigned for the 3ν1+5ν3, ν2+7ν3 and 4ν2+5ν3 bands, respectively. The line positions of the 3ν1+5ν3 band were modelled using an effective Hamiltonian (EH) model involving two dark states - (6 0 1) and (2 5 2) - in interaction with the (3 0 5) bright state. The EH model developed for the ν2+7ν3 and 4ν2+5ν3 bands involves only the (0 1 7) and (0 4 5) interacting bright states. Line positions could be reproduced with rms deviations on the order of 0.01 cm-1 and the dipole transition moment parameters were determined for the three observed bands. The obtained set of parameters and the experimentally determined energy levels were used to generate a list of 984 transitions of the three bands which is provided as Supplementary Material.

  2. Differential cross section measurements of 27Al(p,p/γ)27Al and 27Al(p,αγ)24Mg reactions in the energy range of 1.6-3.0 MeV

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Sharifzadeh, N.; Fathollahi, V.

    2015-11-01

    In this work measurement of differential cross sections of 27Al(p,p/γ)27Al (Eγ = 844, 1014 keV) and 27Al(p,αγ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV) nuclear reactions in the proton energy range of 1.6-3.0 MeV are described and the measured values are presented. Thin Al target was prepared by evaporating a 26 μg/cm2 Al onto a 129 μg/cm2 self-supporting Ag film. The gamma-rays and backscattered protons were detected simultaneously. The gamma-rays and protons were collected by an HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to beam direction and an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165°, respectively. In this experimental setup the great advantage is that differential cross sections could be independent on absolute values of the collected beam charge. The overall systematic uncertainty of cross sections was estimated to be ±9% while statistical errors were less than ±5%.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of 17O- and 18O-enriched carbon dioxide: Line positions and intensities in the 4681-5337 cm-1 region

    Borkov, Yu. G.; Jacquemart, D.; Lyulin, O. M.; Tashkun, S. A.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    The line positions and intensities of carbon dioxide isotopologues have been retrieved in the 4681-5337 cm-1 spectral range from Fourier transform spectra of carbon dioxide recorded in LADIR (Paris, France) with the Bruker IFS 125-HR [Jacquemart D, et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2012;113:961-975]. In total 6386 line positions and intensities of 89 bands of 12 isotopologues 16O12C16O, 16O13C16O, 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 16O13C18O, 16O13C17O, 18O12C18O, 17O12C18O, 17O12C17O, 18O13C18O, 17O13C18O, and 17O13C17O have been retrieved. 23 bands were newly assigned. All studied bands belong to the ΔP=7 series of transitions, where P = 2V1 +V2 + 3V3 is the polyad number (Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The accuracy of the line position measurement is about 0.3×10-3 cm-1 for the unblended and not very weak lines. The accuracy of the line intensities varies from 4% to 15% depending on the isotopologue, on the intensity of the line and on the extent of the line overlapping. The observed intensities were used to fit the effective dipole moment parameters for the ΔP=7 series of transitions in 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 12C17O2, 17O12C18O, 16O13C17O, 13C17O2 and 17O13C18O isotopologues of carbon dioxide.

  4. Assimilation of High 18O/16O Crust by Shergottite-Nakhlite-Chassigny (SNC) Magmas on Mars

    Day, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Valley, J. W.; Spicuzza, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    There is significant geochemical evidence for assimilation of crustal material into sub-aerial, mantle-derived, terrestrial basaltic magmas. Some of the most powerful constraints on crustal assimilation come from oxygen isotope studies, because supracrustal rocks often have distinct 18O/16O ratios resulting from interaction with Earth's hydrosphere. From a planetary perspective, studies of carbonate concretions from meteorite ALH84001 have yielded evidence for low-temperature crustal interaction at or near the surface of its putative parent body, Mars. This finding raises the possibility that crustal assimilation processes may be tracked using oxygen isotopes in combination with geochemical data of other reputed martian (SNC) meteorites. The whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios (Laser fluorination δ18O = +4.21 to +5.85‰ VSMOW) of SNC meteorites, correlate with aspects of their incompatible element chemistry. Some of the oxygen isotope variability may be explained by post-magmatic alteration on Mars or Earth; however, it appears, based on petrographic and geochemical observations, that a number of SNC meteorites, especially Shergottites, retain the original whole-rock oxygen isotope values of their magmas prior to crystallisation. Correlations between oxygen isotopes and incompatible element geochemistry are consistent with assimilation of a high-18O/16O, incompatible-element rich, oxidizing crustal component by hot, mantle-derived magmas (δ18O = ~~4.2‰). A crustal component has previously been recognized from Sr-Nd-Os isotope systematics and oxygen fugacity measurements of SNC meteorites. Oxygen isotope evidence from SNC meteorites suggests high-18O/16O crustal contaminants on Mars result from low temperature (< 300°C) interaction with martian hydrosphere. The extent of apparent crustal contamination tracked by oxygen isotopes in SNC meteorites implies that the majority of martian crust may have undergone such interactions. Evidence for assimilation of

  5. Reconstructing relative humidity from plant δ18O and δD as deuterium deviations from the global meteoric water line.

    Cellulose δ18O and δD in preserved plant material can provide insights on climates and hydrological cycling in the distant past. However, most studies of plant cellulose have used only one isotope, most commonly δ18O, resulting in difficulties partitioning variation between chang...

  6. Isotopic tracing (D, 18O and 29Si) to understand the alteration on historic glass

    Verney-Carron, Aurélie; Saheb, Mandana; Valle, Nathalie; Mangin, Denis; Remusat, Laurent; Loisel, Claudine

    2015-04-01

    In order to better preserve historic glasses, e.g. stained glass windows, the understanding of their alteration mechanisms and of what controls the kinetics corresponding to each process is required. The ancient stained glasses are characterized by thick alteration layers, continuous or as pits, that are cracked or lost. Therefore, if a passivating role of the alteration layer has been proved on some other kinds of glass (such as basaltic or nuclear glass) in aqueous medium, the issue can be addressed for low durable stained glass weathered in varying atmospheric conditions. The mechanism of alteration layer formation was first investigated by performing dynamic and static experiments on model medieval glasses altered with a solution doped in 29Si at different concentrations (or saturation degrees). Solid analyses were carried out by SIMS and solution by HR-ICP-MS. Medieval stained glass has mainly a potash-lime-silica composition with a low content in alumina. The alkaline and alkaline-earth elements have thus a modifier role in the glassy network. This structural difference compared to boro- or alumino-silicate glasses could induce differences in the alteration mechanisms. However, the analysis of the Si isotopic signature of the gel layer highlighted that diffusion, but also hydrolysis/condensation reactions, are also involved in the gel layer formation process, leading to a structural and textural reorganization. The second objective was to determine the kinetic role of the alteration layer, and especially to trace the circulation of water once the altered layer is formed. For that, ancient glasses were exposed to simulated rainfall events / drying periods cycles during 3 months by using a solution doped in D and 18O. NanoSIMS analyses have shown that the transport in the alteration layer is mainly driven by diffusion in the porosity despite the presence of cracks that could have been preferential ways of circulation. This demonstrates also a potential

  7. Climatic significance of δ18O records from an 80.36 m ice core in the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Qomolangma (Everest)

    ZHANG; Dongqi; QIN; Dahe; HOU; Shugui; KANG; Shichang; REN

    2005-01-01

    The δ18O variations in an 80.36 m ice core retrieved in the accumulation zone of the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Qomolangma (Everest), is not consistent with changes of air temperature from both southern and northern slopes of Himalayas, as well as these of the temperature anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere. The negative relationship between the δ18O and the net accumulation records of the ice core suggests the "amount effect" of summer precipitation on the δ18O values in the region. Therefore, the δ18O records of the East Rongbuk ice core should be a proxy of Indian Summer Monsoon intensity, which shows lower δ18O values during strong monsoon phases and higher values during weak phases.

  8. Re—Examination on the Climatological Significance of the Ice Core δ18O Records from No.1 Glacier at the Head of Urumqi River

    侯书贵

    2000-01-01

    Ice core δ18O recorde from the No.a glacier at the head of the Urumqi River were used o characterize the relationship between δ18O and contemporaneous surface air temperature(Ta) nearby the Daxigou Meteorological Station(3539 m above sea level,-2km away from the ice core drilling site),Although the ice core records of annually averaged δ18O are positively correlated with conemporaneous surface air temperature,especially summer air temperature,the correlation is less significant than that for the precipitation samples due to depositional and post-depositional modification processes,However,the Climatological significance of the ice corδ18O records can be still preserved to a certain degree,which moght extend the application of high altitude and sub-tropical ice core δ18O records to paleoclimate reconstruction.

  9. 13C/12C and 18O/16O in calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands ('beach rocks')

    A study of the stable isotope composition (C13/C12 and O18/O16) of the cement and the local groundwater in Itaparica Island (Salvador-Brazil) is carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. For area A, the cement has Δ13C = 9% showing that CO2 in groundwater charged by decay of organic material is the source of carbonate in the cement. Probably comentation occurs during loss of excess CO2 from groundwater as comes into an environment where loss of CO2 is possible . In area B, where the cements contain, on the average Δ18O v=1,3%, the cement is formed from carbonate typical of sea water or a mixture of sea water and fresh water. (Autor)

  10. Fourier transform measurements of H218O and HD18O in the spectral range 1000-2300 cm-1

    The spectra of water vapor enriched by 18O were recorded in the 1000-2300 cm-1 spectral range, which corresponds to the spectral region studied by IASI instrument (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Spectrometer) instrument. The spectra were recorded by a step by step Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at room temperature with absorption path lengths up to 36 m. Positions, intensities and self broadening coefficients of about 1800 lines of H218O and 900 of HD18O were analyzed and all the transitions were assigned. This paper focuses on lines intensities and comparisons with data from literature are presented. An average difference of 10% with HITRAN2008 database H218O line intensities is found with a maximum discrepancy of about 25% for the ν1-ν2 band.