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Sample records for 188re-hedp comparing urine

  1. Evaluation of safe use of 188Re-HEDP comparing urine data and whole body counting in gamma camera

    Cancer is the second more frequent cause of death, after cardiovascular disease, in developing countries. Most of adult patients with neoplasms will develop skeletal metastases that can lead to progressive pain. 188Re emits both beta particles suitable for therapy and a gamma ray (155 keV), adequate for diagnostic imaging in order to verify localization in the pain areas associated to metastatic process. The aim of this work was to correlate 188Re-HEDP dose estimations using biological samples and direct measures. All the patients had breast or prostate cancer, with bone metastases. Each patient received a tracer dose of 185 MBq of radiopharmaceutical. Urine samples were collected at 0-1, 1-2, 2-4 and, 4-6 hours post administration, and measured in dose calibrator. Whole body counts were acquired using a camera without collimator, window centered at 155 KeV, matrix 256 x 256, during 60 seconds. Data were obtained at 1 and 6 hours post administration with the patient in sitting position at 2 meter from the detector. Percentage of injected dose was calculated both for urine samples and image for each patient. The number of disintegrations was determined for organs in which higher concentration of activity was observed: those involved in the excretion, red marrow and the reminder of the body. Total doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM software. Conclusions: Data showed that the organs chosen as more compromised during the tracer dose procedure received very low effective doses. A good correlation between calculations performed both for image and urine samples was obtained. Safety of the radiopharmaceutical was also verified using this method. (author)

  2. {sup 188}Re-HEDP combined with capecitabine in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a phase I safety and toxicity study

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bosma, Tjitske B.; Rijk, Peter P. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, Bernard A. [UMC Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    {sup 188}Re-HEDP is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients with painful osteoblastic bone metastases, including hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Efficacy may be improved by adding chemotherapy to the treatment regimen as a radiation sensitizer. The combination of {sup 188}Re-HEDP and capecitabine (Xeloda registered) was tested in a clinical phase I study. Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with capecitabine for 14 days (oral twice daily in a dose escalation regimen with steps of 1/3 of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day in cohorts of three to six patients, depending on toxicity). Two days later patients were treated with 37 MBq/kg {sup 188}Re-HEDP as an intravenous injection. Six hours after treatment post-therapy scintigraphy was performed. Urine was collected for 8 h post-injection. Follow-up was at least 8 weeks. The primary end-point was to establish the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of capecitabine when combined with {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Secondary end-points included the effect of capecitabine on the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Three patients were treated in the first and second cohorts, each without unacceptable toxicity. One of six patients in the highest cohort experienced unacceptable toxicity (grade 4 thrombopaenia). The MTD proved to be the maximum dose of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day capecitabine. No unexpected toxicity occurred. Capecitabine had no effect on uptake or excretion of {sup 188}Re-HEDP. Capecitabine may be safely used in combination with {sup 188}Re-HEDP in a dose of 2,500 mg/m{sup 2} per day and 37 MBq/kg, respectively. Efficacy will be further studied in a phase II study using these dosages. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of effectiveness of the palliative treatment of metastatic bone's pain with 188Re-HEDP

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the treatment effectiveness with 188Re-HEDP in a group of 27 patients, who had received 36 doses. A pharmaceutical care programme was also added in order to improve drug follow-up after treatment. Two levels of doses were administered: 30 or 60 mCi. Initially a trace dose was given in order to estimate the therapeutic dose, which was individualise according to bone uptake of the radiopharmaceutical. Bone uptake was determined measuring radioactivity in urine samples (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 hs), because the radiopharmaceutical showed only renal elimination. Multiple dose schedules with with 3 months between both doses were also tried. Seventy two percent showed an algesic effect during the first week post-treatment, with was kept during one month, while seven tenn (17%) percent of the patients the effect was kept for two of more months. Opioid analgesic (third level of OMS scale) were diminished in eighty two percent of the patients and AINES drugs in seventy one percent. The pharmaceutical care programme also showed the importance of the radio pharmacist role to improve treatment outcomes. 188Re-HEDP effectiveness was achieved in 100% of the patients, but with different pain palliation response in time and/or drug intake, with a suitable radiological safety

  4. A Freeze-Dried Kit for the Preparation of (188)Re-HEDP for Bone Pain Palliation: Preparation and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation.

    Mallia, Madhava B; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan; Kameswaran, Mythili; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Aswathy, K K; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    (188)Re-HEDP is an established radiopharmaceutical used for pain palliation in patients with osseous metastasis. Considering commercial availability of (188)W/(188)Re generator, the accessibility to a lyophilized kit would make preparation of this radiopharmaceutical feasible at the hospital radiopharmacy having access to a generator. A protocol for the preparation of a single-vial lyophilized hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) kit was developed and its consistency was checked by preparing six batches. Each sterile lyophilized kit prepared as per the protocol contained 9 mg of HEDP, 3 mg of gentisic acid, and 4 mg of SnCl2.2H2O. Randomly selected kits from all six batches were subjected to thorough quality control tests that were passed by all batches. (188)Re-HEDP could be prepared by addition of 1 mL of freshly eluted Na(188)ReO4 (up to 3700 MBq) containing 1 μmol of carrier ReO4(-) (perrhenate) and heating at 100°C for 15 minutes. (188)Re-HEDP with >95% radiochemical purity could be consistently prepared using the lyophilized kits. Sterile (188)Re-HEDP prepared using the lyophilized kit was evaluated in patients with osseous metastasis. Post-therapy images of the patient were compared with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and found to be satisfactory. The bone-to-background as well as tumor-to-normal bone uptake ratio was found to be significant. All patients who received therapy reported significant pain relief within a week to 10 days post-administration of (188)Re-HEDP. PMID:27183437

  5. The tolerance to 188Re-HEDP treatment in patients with bone pain from osseous metastases

    Objective: To study the tolerance to 188Re-1-hydroxy-1 ,1-ethylidene disodium phosphonate (HEDP) in patients with bone pain caused by osseous metastases. Methods: Thirty-one patients (10 with prostate cancer, 9 with breast cancer, 3 with lung cancer, 5 with liver cancer, 2 with rectal cancer, 1 with esophageal cancer and 1 with renal cancer) received a single injection dose of 188Re-HEDP. The patients were divided into four groups according to the injection dose: 20 MBq/kg (6 patients), 30 MBq/kg(6 patients), 40 MBq/kg (9 patients), and 50 MBq/kg (10 patients). Haematological toxicity (WHO grading) of grade III- IV was considered unacceptable. Vital signs and adverse effects after injection were recorded for 8 weeks. Blood counts were measured weekly during a period of 8 weeks. Biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram were assayed at week 4 and 8. Statistical analysis was performed for per-protocol (pp) population (t-test). Results: Twenty-seven patients belonged to PP population with 5 in the group of 20 MBq/kg, 5 in the group of 30 MBq/kg, 8 in the group of 40 MBq/kg and 9 in the group of 50 MBq/kg. No obvious adverse effects and no significant change of vital signs, electrocardiogram, liver and renal function were found after injection. Alkaline phosphatase was slightly higher than baseline at week 4 and 8 after therapy, but the difference was not statistically significant. In the 20 MBq/kg group, reversible grade I leucopenia was noted in 1 patient. In the 30 MBq/kg group, 2 patients showed reversible grade I leucopenia including 1 alone with reversible grade III thrombopenia. In the 40 MBq/kg group, reversible grade I leucopenia and thrombopenia was observed in 1 patient and reversible grade II leucopenia and thrombopenia in another patient. In the 50 MBq/kg group, 3 patients showed reversible grade II leucopenia. The lowest level of thrombopenia was at week 4(143.5 x 109/L), leucopenia at week 6 (5.4 x 109/L) and anaemia at week 8 (t =3.1325, 3.3156, 3

  6. Development of 188Re-HEDP as radiopharmaceutical for palliative bone pain

    Full text: The optimized condition for labeling HEDP with Re-188 was assessed by wet labeling. The mixture solution of 10 mg HEDP, 3 mg SnCl2.2H2O, 4 mg Gentisic acid and 50 ?g of NH4ReO4 was labeled with 3- 10 mCi ReO-4 at pH1 with heating temperature at 100 ?C for 15 minutes. After adjusting pH to 5-6 with 0.3 M NaOAc pH 8 and NaOH, radiochemical purity of the labeled product was checked by TLC. Labeling efficiency was high as 98.88%. The HEDP ligand was prepared in form of lyophilized kits then labeled and controlled for labeling efficiency. Labeling yield of labeled HEDP kits were more than 94% for 5 months storage. Biodistribution of 188Re-HEDP in rat measured in % injected dose/g of bone at time 2, 4 and 24 hours was 1.372%, 1.302% and 1.154%, respectively

  7. 188Re-HEDP combined with capecitabine in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a phase I safety and toxicity study

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Bosma, Tjitske B.; Rijk, Peter P. van; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose 188Re-HEDP is indicated for the treatment of pain in patients with painful osteoblastic bone metastases, including hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Efficacy may be improved by adding chemotherapy to the treatment regimen as a radiation sensitizer. The combination of 188Re-HEDP and capecitabine (Xeloda®) was tested in a clinical phase I study. Methods Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with capecitabine for 14 days (oral twice daily in a dose esca...

  8. Problems in quality control of excipients in radiopharmaceutical kits. Validation of standard addition method in quality control of ascorbic acid assay in 188Re-HEDP kit

    A Method of Standard Addition (MOSA) and HPLC analysis for quality control anddetermination of ascorbic acid (AA) in Re-HEDP lyophilized samples kit are presented. The chromatographic conditions are the following: Column - ODS, Microsorb, 250 x 4.6 mm, 100 A, 5 Pm; Detector - UV, 245 nm; sensitivity - 0.5 AU/1V; Eluent-1 ml 85% H3PO4 + NaOH to pH = 6.4 and distilled water up to 1 L; Flow - 1 ml/min; Isocratic. The chromatographic parameters describing separation process (in terms of validation - system suitability test) are the following: retention time 2.6 - 2.7 min. Resolution (R): 2.0 - 2.6; Symmetry factor (at 5% peak height): 1.46 -1.56; Separation factors: 1 = 1.05 - 1.2, 2 = 1.13 - 1.16; Number of theoretical plates/m (N/m): 24220-25863. Parameters R and N/m were calculated based on well known equations with using the peak width at half height. Results of analysis of some samples are presented

  9. Evaluation of Postmortem Drug Concentrations in Bile Compared with Blood and Urine in Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    For drug screening and pharmaco-/toxicokinetic analysis, bile as a major drug excretion route in addition to urine may be used in forensic autopsy cases; however, there are limited published data on correlations between bile and blood or urine drug concentrations. The present study retrospectively investigated drug concentrations in bile, compared with blood and urine concentrations, reviewing forensic autopsy cases during 6 years (January 2009-December 2014). Drugs were analyzed using automated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following solid-liquid phase extraction. Compared with peripheral blood concentrations, bile concentrations were higher for most drugs; however, caffeine concentrations were similar. Bile concentrations were mostly lower than urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine and methylephedrine, but were usually similar to or higher for other drugs. Significant correlations were detected between bile and peripheral blood concentrations for amphetamines, several cold remedies, phenobarbital, phenothiazine derivatives and diazepam, as well as between bile and urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine, diphenhydramine, phenobarbital and promethazine derivatives. These findings suggest that bile can provide supplemental data useful in routine forensic toxicology, for the spectrum of drugs mentioned above, as well as for investigating pharmaco-/toxicokinetics and postmortem redistribution when analyzed in combination with drug concentrations at other sites. PMID:27185819

  10. Comparative analysis of biogas slurry and urine as sustainable nutrient sources for hydroponic vertical farming

    Dumitrescu, Vlad Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable alternatives to using mined nutrients in agriculture must be found in order to limit environmental impacts such as eutrophication, habitat destruction and greenhouse gas emis-sions. Biogas slurry and urine recycled to hydroponic food production (a type of soilless agri-culture) have the potential of providing inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, the main essential nutrients required for plant growth. A Life Cycle Inventory Assessment (LCI) methodology has been used to compare the sy...

  11. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management.

    De Vries, Jerke W; Aarnink, André J A; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; De Boer, Imke J M

    2013-02-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt system and to compare it to conventional liquid manure management, that is, the reference. Moreover, we aimed at analyzing the uncertainty of the outcomes related to applied emission factors. We compared a reference with two scenarios: segregation with solid, aerobically, stored feces and with liquid, anaerobically, stored feces. Results showed that, compared to the reference, segregation reduced climate change (CC) up to 82%, due to lower methane emission, reduced terrestrial acidification (TA) and particulate matter formation (PMF) up to 49%, through lower ammonia emission, but increased marine eutrophication up to 11% through nitrogen oxide emission from storage and nitrate leaching after field application. Fossil fuel depletion did not change. Segregation with liquid feces revealed lower environmental impact than segregation with solid feces. Uncertainty analysis supported the conclusion that segregating fattening pig urine and feces significantly reduced CC and additionally segregation with liquid feces significantly reduced TA and PMF compared to the reference. PMID:23268735

  12. Relationship of doses and bone uptake with dosimetric results in bone pain treatment with 188Rhenium - HEDP

    Bone pain paliation in metastases by means of bone seeking β-emitters is an accepted option and 188Rhenium - HEDP has several advantages already communicated. Increased doses and multiple doses put emphasis on dosimetric considerations, although this radiopharmaceutical is estimated to deliver comparatively low absorbed doses to bone marrow. The dosimetric results of 29 therapeutic 188Re-HEDP doses in patients with painful bone metastases are presented in comparison to administered dose amount and to bone uptake

  13. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2008-01-01

    Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules sho...

  14. Studies of HEDP labelled with 188Re from different generators of 188W /188Re

    The widespread interest in 188Re for therapeutic applications, is due to its attractive 16,9 hours half-life, emission of a β- particle with maximum energy of 2.12 MeV and gamma-ray of 155 keV suitable for imaging. This work presents the radiolabelling of HEDP (etidronate) with 188Re eluted from alumina-based 188W/188Re generators and tungstate-based 188W/188Re gel generators. Dependence of the yield of the 18'8Re-HEDP on the concentration of the reduction agent, p H, reaction time, temperature and addition of carrier Re2O7 were evaluated. The radiolabelling of 188Re-HEDP procedure using the optimum conditions resulted a yield >= 98% for liquid and lyophilized kits. This basic formulation contains: 30 mg de HEDP, 7 mg de SnCl2, 3 mg de ascorbic acid and addition of 20 mug of Re2O7. The reactions were carried out with heating in boiling water for 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of incubation. Another important aspect of this work was the radiochemical quality control comparing the results of PC, TLC and ion chromatography, along with the experiments with HPLC. The biological distribution proved the adequate bone uptake and in vivo stability of 188Re-HEDP complexes. (author)

  15. A Comparative Study of Clinical Utility of Spot Urine Samples with 24-h Urine Albumin Excretion for Screening of Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Chavan, Vilas U.; Durgawale, Pushpa P.; Sayyed, Anjum K.; Sontakke, Ajit V.; Attar, Nazir R.; Patel, Swati B.; Patil, Sangita R.; Nilakhe, Shreyasprasad D.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is considered as gold standard method for albuminuria measurement, but collection of 24-h urine is inconvenient. The aim of present study was to evaluate whether albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR) and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) in different spot urine samples correlate or not with 24-h UAE for screening of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. We collected first morning void (FMV), random urine sample (RUS) and 24-h urine, separat...

  16. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Proteome Study.

    Helle H Nielsen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO, NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD and multiple sclerosis (MS. Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine proteome may differentiate NMO from MS.The proteins in urine samples from anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4 seropositive NMO/NMO-SD patients (n = 32, patients with MS (n = 46 and healthy subjects (HS, n = 31 were examined by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after trypsin digestion and iTRAQ labelling. Immunoglobulins (Ig in the urine were validated by nephelometry in an independent cohort (n = 9-10 pr. groups.The analysis identified a total of 1112 different proteins of which 333 were shared by all 109 subjects. Cluster analysis revealed differences in the urine proteome of NMO/NMO-SD compared to HS and MS. Principal component analysis also suggested that the NMO/NMO-SD proteome profile was useful for classification. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a 3-protein profile for the NMO/NMO-SD versus HS discrimination, a 6-protein profile for NMO/NMO-SD versus MS discrimination and an 11-protein profile for MS versus HS discrimination. All protein panels yielded highly significant ROC curves (AUC in all cases >0.85, p≤0.0002. Nephelometry confirmed the presence of increased Ig-light chains in the urine of patients with NMO/NMO-SD.The urine proteome profile of patients with NMO/NMO-SD is different from MS and HS. This may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of NMO/NMO-SD versus MS and suggests that urine may be a potential source of biomarkers differentiating NMO/NMO-SD from MS.

  17. The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis

    Nielsen, Helle H; Beck, Hans C; Kristensen, Lars P;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO), NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine...

  18. Comparative Study of Extracellular Vesicles from the Urine of Healthy Individuals and Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Bryzgunova, Olga E; Zaripov, Marat M; Skvortsova, Tatyana E; Lekchnov, Evgeny A; Grigor'eva, Alina E; Zaporozhchenko, Ivan A; Morozkin, Evgeny S; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Yurchenko, Yuri B; Voitsitskiy, Vladimir E; Laktionov, Pavel P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study we investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients and 20 healthy volunteers was clarified by low-speed centrifugation and total extracellular vesicles fraction was obtain by high-speed centrifugation. The exosome-enriched fraction was obtained by filtration of total extracellular vesicles through a 0.1 μm pore filter. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cell-free urine in both groups contained vesicles from 20 to 230 nm. Immunogold staining after ultrafiltration demonstrated that 95% and 90% of extracellular vesicles in healthy individuals and cancer patients, respectively, were exosomes. Protein, DNA and RNA concentrations as well as size distribution of extracellular vesicles in both fractions were analyzed. Only 75% of the total protein content of extracellular vesicles was associated with exosomes which amounted to 90-95% of all vesicles. Median DNA concentrations in total extracellular vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions were 18 pg/ml and 2.6 pg/ml urine, correspondingly. Urine extracellular vesicles carried a population of RNA molecules 25 nt to 200 nt in concentration of no more than 290 pg/ml of urine. Additionally, concentrations of miR-19b, miR-25, miR-125b, and miR-205 were quantified by qRT-PCR. MiRNAs were shown to be differently distributed between different fractions of extracellular vesicles. Detection of miR-19b versus miR-16 in total vesicles and exosome-enriched fractions achieved 100%/93% and 95%/79% specificity/sensitivity in distinguishing cancer patients from healthy individuals, respectively, demonstrating the diagnostic value of urine extracellular vesicles. PMID:27305142

  19. Urine test.

    1996-08-23

    On August 6, 1996, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first urine test to detect HIV antibodies. The FDA states that the urine test, developed by Calypte Biomedical Corp. of Berkeley, CA, should not be used to screen donors at blood banks and should be used only as a supplemental diagnostic tool because it is not as accurate as the standard blood-based test. The test, for use only by health care professionals and insurance companies, will be marketed by Seradum Inc. of Indianapolis under the trade name Sentinel. The price will be $40 to $50, comparable to the recently approved saliva-based tests. Advocates of the urine test say it is safer, easier, and less intrusive than blood testing. Critics say the tests are too unreliable and fear that the urine samples used in drug testing in the workplace also could be used to screen out HIV-positive job applicants. PMID:11363733

  20. A comparative study on bioassay and radioimmunoassay of vasopressin in human urine

    The excretion of vasopressin in urine from healthy human subjects under different stages of hydration was estimated in urine extracts by bioassay (rat antidiuresis) and radioimmunoassay. In normally hydrated subjects the excretion was 490 plus minus 164 μU/h and 430 plus minus 133μU/h for bioassay and radioimmunoassay respectively (mean plus minus SEM, n=5). After total fluid restriction for 10 to 12 h the excretion increased to 1370 plus minus 329 μU/h for bioassay and 1163 plus minus 279 μU/h for radioimmunoassay (mean plus minus SEM, n=6). An oral water load (25 ml/kg) reduced the value to 169 μU/h (bioassay) and 118 μU/h (radioimmunoassay) (mean, n=2). In general the biological estimations were 20 % higher than the immunological estimations (P<0.01). The urinary vasopressin excretion was positively correlated to urine osmolality. Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) and urine extracts were both heterogeneous in ion exchange chromatography. The immunoreactive material was always eluted in 2 peaks, situated at the same places in the elution diagram. The material in the second peak was biologically active. The first peak from the AVP standard was biologically inactive, whereas the same peak from urine extract was active. This peak was shown to be an artefact formed during the extraction procedure. (author)

  1. A COMPARATIVE BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF SOME BRANDS OF OFLOXACIN BY URINE AND SALIVARY ANALYSIS IN INDIA

    SHARMA A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the bioequivalence of randomly selected brands of ofloxacin tablets marketed in India. Bioavailability assessment was conducted by measuring the concentration of drugs in the urine as well as saliva and bioavailability data was presented as cumulative quantity of drugs recovered in urine in 24 hours. Simple and sensitive, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of ofloxacin in urine and saliva samples using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 at 288 nm. Microbiological assay technique was used to analyze urine samples. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-20 µg/ml for ofloxacin. The two different brands of ofloxacin with the strength of 200mg and 400mg each showed same minimum inhibitory concentration value against the test strain of Staphylococcus aureus of 0.468 µg /ml and 1.388 µg /ml respectively. The salivary ofloxacin concentration ratio was highly dependent on sampling time. The salivary half-lives showed significant correlation with each other while the area under curve of ofloxacin concentration in saliva failed to show significant correlation. The two brands of ofloxacin 200mg(X1-X2, 400mg(X3-X4 each in punjab (India exhibited same bioavailability data in vivo and can be said to be bioequivalents.

  2. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Inoculation of Urine Samples with the Copan WASP® and BD Kiestra™ InoqulA™ Instruments

    Iversen, Jesper; Stendal, Gitta; Gerdes, Cecilie Marie; Hjortberg Meyer, Christian; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated quantitative results as well as the quality of the inoculation patterns on urine specimens produced by two automated instruments, the Copan WASP® and the BD InoqulA™. 526 urine samples submitted in 10 ml canisters containing boric acid were processed within 30 minutes on an...... InoqulA, plating 10 ul of specimen, and two WASP instruments, one plating 1 ul of specimen (WASP-1) and the second WASP 10 ul (WASP-10). All samples were incubated, analysed, and digitally imaged using the BD Kiestra™ Total Lab Automation system. Results were evaluated using a quantitative protocol as...... automated instruments divided by the counts for the calibrated pipet (golden standard). Ratios for the InoqulA were closest to 1,0 with the smallest standard deviations indicating that, compared to a calibrated pipet, the InoqulA results were more accurate than the WASP.. For clinical samples, the WASPs...

  4. Comparing Serum and 24-hour Urine Calcium between Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Patients

    N Shahbazian

    2014-02-01

    Results: No statistically significant difference was found between serum calcium means in the two groups (p=0.07, though mean of 24-hour urine calcium in preeclamptic patients was significantly lower than that of control group (p=0.0003. In preeclamptic group, the degree of hypocalciuria was related to disordered liver enzymes, serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia and proteinuria more than 2g/24h. Conclusion: Preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria; the more hypocalciuria there exists , the more preeclampsia is observed.

  5. Urine odor

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

  6. Urine culture

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  7. Calcium - urine

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003603.htm Calcium - urine To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order ...

  8. Sodium-induced hyperhydration decreases urine output and improves fluid balance compared with glycerol- and water-induced hyperhydration.

    Savoie, Félix A; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2015-01-01

    Before 2010, which is the year the World Anti-Doping Agency banned its use, glycerol was commonly used by athletes for hyperhydration purposes. Through its effect on osmoreceptors, we believe that sodium could prove a viable alternative to glycerol as a hyperhydrating agent. Therefore, this study compared the effects of sodium-induced hyperhydration (SIH), glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) and water-induced hyperhydration (WIH) on fluid balance responses. Using a randomized, double-blind and counterbalanced protocol, 17 men (21 ± 3 years, 64 ± 6 kg fat-free mass (FFM)) underwent three 3-h hyperhydration protocols during which they ingested, over the first 60-min period, 30 mL/kg FFM of water with (i) an artificial sweetener (WIH); (ii) an artificial sweetener + 7.45 g/L of table salt (SIH); or (iii) an artificial sweetener + 1.4 g glycerol/kg FFM (GIH). Changes in body weight (BW), urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the 3-h trials. After 3 h, SIH was associated with significantly (p hyperhydrating technique than, and proves to be a worthwhile alternative to, GIH. PMID:25494972

  9. Urination Pain

    ... more often bad-smelling, bloody, or discolored urine (pee) fever or chills decreased appetite or activity irritability nausea or vomiting lower back pain or abdominal (belly) pain wetting accidents (in potty-trained kids) What to Do Call the doctor if your child has pain while urinating or can't ...

  10. Black urine.

    Altmann, P.; Mansell, M A

    1980-01-01

    A patient is described in whom spontaneous blackening of the urine, due to melanin formation, resulted from treatment with alpha-methyldopa. The colour change became apparent only after the correction of a severe postoperative hyponatraemic alkalosis, the urinary pH had become alkaline, as melanin formation in acid urine is very slow.

  11. Amylase - urine

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  12. Black Urine

    Rahim Vakili; Parisa Armanpoor; Parvaneh Armanpoor

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5)). Qualitative urine examination showed dar...

  13. Ketones urine test

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  14. HPLC-ICP-MS compared with radiochemical detection for metabolite profiling of H-3-bromohexine in rat urine and faeces

    Jensen, B.P.; Gammelgaard, B.; Hansen, S.H.; Andersen, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    H-3-Bromohexine was dosed to rats as a model compound to allow comparison of HPLC-ICP-MS detection on bromine to radiochemical detection in an in vivo drug metabolism study. Metabolite profiles were obtained in urine and faeces extracts. No influence of the methanol gradient on the bromine response...... was observed in the range of 18 - 75% methanol. The sensitivity obtained by HPLC- ICP-MS was almost two orders of magnitude better than on-line H-3 radiochemical detection. For ICP- MS, the limit of detection was calculated to be 69 nM Br ( injection volume 100 mu l), corresponding to an absolute...

  15. The urine test with 14C-urea compared with other methods of diagnosing helicobacter pylori infection

    At present many diseases of the upper part of the alimentary canal are linked with infection by Helicobacter pylori (H.p.). The initiating role of that bacterium in the genesis of chronic gastritis is already recognised. Together with the progress in knowledge on H.p. the number of methods used to diagnose infection by the bacterium is also growing. So far, however, little attention has been attached to the use of measurements of the activity of the 14C excreted in the urine for the detection of H.p. infection

  16. Uranium measurements in urine

    This paper describes the purpose of the uranium in urine programs presently instituted at Canadian uranium mills. The role and responsibility of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the regulatory authority, is explained. A description of the current sampling strategy at each of the five operating mills is provided. The sampling strategy description includes the job-related sampling of mill workers, the frequency of sampling, the time of voiding and the administrative controls used to investigate high results. At each uranium mill the annual urine results for mill operators and mine maintenance personnel during the years 1982 and 1983 are reviewed. It is shown that the majority of the urine results are below the 15 μg/L value. The statistical test, Ridit Analysis is performed to determine whether a significant difference between the 1982 and 1983 workers' urine results at each mine. The Ridit statistic provides a measure of odds of receiving a higher result in 1983 when compared to 1982. Linear and convilinear regression techniques are used to show the relationship between frequency of the year's urine results for the two job occupations examined. Both Ridit Analysis and the regression techniques are suitable means of comparing urine data for trend analysis

  17. Pink urine.

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  18. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  19. Validity of Urine Specific Gravity When Compared With Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes.

    Sommerfield, Lesley M; McAnulty, Steven R; McBride, Jeffrey M; Zwetsloot, Jennifer J; Austin, Melanie D; Mehlhorn, Jonathan D; Calhoun, Mason C; Young, Juliane O; Haines, Traci L; Utter, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    Sommerfield, LM, McAnulty, SR, McBride, JM, Zwetsloot, JJ, Austin, MD, Mehlhorn, JD, Calhoun, MC, Young, JO, Haines, TL, and Utter, AC. Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2219-2225, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared with plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hour rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and 26 NCAA women's soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg, and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10 and 6%, respectively) and females (29 and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition. PMID:26694503

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY PATTERNS OF PRE OPERATIVE MID STREAM URINE WITH RENAL PELVIC URINE AND STONE TO PREDICT UROSEPSIS FOLLOWING PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY: A PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL STUDY

    Bhargava Vardhana Reddy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is the most frequently performed surgery for stone disease at our institution. Nearly 100 PCNL procedures are being performed in a year at our institution. Septicemia following PCNL can be catastrophic despite sterile preoperative urine and prophylactic antibiotics. Infected stones, obstructed kidneys , and comorbidit y have been held responsible. In this study we analyzed various culture specimens, namely Mid - stream urine (MSU, renal pelvic urine and crushed stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS : We performed a prospective clinical study in all our patients undergoing PCNL b etween January 2013 and December 2014. MSU was sent for culture and sensitivity testing (C&S one day prior to surgery. Percutaneous access into the ipsilateral pelvicaliceal system is achieved under image intensification using a fine, 14 gauge Kellet need le. Urine from the pelvicaliceal system is first aspirated and sent as pelvic urine C&S. Stone fragments are collected to be proces0sed for C&S. The data collected were divided into 3 main groups, that is MSU C&S, pelvic urine C&S and stone C&S. RESULTS : A total of 83 patients were included in the study, of this MSU C&S was positive in 9/83 (10.8% patients, Pelvic C&S in 10 /73 (13.7% patients and Stone C&S in 25/83 (30.1% patients. Out of 25 cases of stone culture positive patients 17 patients develope d Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS but only 2 patients developed SIRS in MSU C & S positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that positive stone C&S is the better predictor of potential urosepsis than MSU. Stone cultur e is available only after surgery but appears to be the best guide for antibiotic therapy in case of sepsis. So the routine collection of stone for C&S will be beneficial

  1. Thin layer chromatography of camel urine

    Tarig Hab,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available General screening of 10 camel urine samples was carried out to determine the most common constituent of camel urine. Samples used were crude, ethanolic and chlorofermic extracts and compared with their lyophilysed urine. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids and triterpene. The objectives of this investigation are to verify camel urine major chemical constituents which are extremely valuable information for detecting new drugs of natural origin.

  2. Thin layer chromatography of camel urine

    Tarig Hab,; Samia H. A,; Baragob A. E. A; Khojali S. M. E

    2011-01-01

    General screening of 10 camel urine samples was carried out to determine the most common constituent of camel urine. Samples used were crude, ethanolic and chlorofermic extracts and compared with their lyophilysed urine. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids and triterpene. The objectives of this investigation are to verify camel urine major chemical constituents which are extremely valuable information for detecting new drugs of natural origin.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of the Novel bioNexia Legionella Test with the BinaxNOW Legionella Card Assay and the Sofia Legionella FIA Assay for Detection of Legionella pneumophila (Serogroup 1) Antigen in Urine Samples.

    Congestrì, Francesco; Crepaldi, Elisabetta; Gagliardi, Marina; Pedna, Maria Federica; Sambri, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    A new immunochromatographic test (bioNexiaLegionella; bioMérieux) for the detection ofLegionella pneumophilaurinary antigen was evaluated in 255 urine samples. The results were compared with those obtained by the BinaxNOW and SofiaLegionellatests. The novel test compared well with those currently in use. PMID:26865691

  4. Urinal Dynamics

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  5. Urine specific gravity test

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  6. Clean catch urine sample

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  7. Urination - difficulty with flow

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Urination - difficulty with flow

    ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ... conditions or surgeries that could affect your urine flow? What medicines do you take? Tests that may ...

  10. Urine in clinical proteomics.

    Decramer, Stéphane; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne; Breuil, Benjamin; Mischak, Harald; Monsarrat, Bernard; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P

    2008-01-01

    Urine has become one of the most attractive biofluids in clinical proteomics as it can be obtained non-invasively in large quantities and is stable compared with other biofluids. The urinary proteome has been studied by almost any proteomics technology, but mass spectrometry-based urinary protein and peptide profiling has emerged as most suitable for clinical application. After a period of descriptive urinary proteomics the field is moving out of the discovery phase into an era of validation ...

  11. Comparative Study of Seven Commercial Kits for Human DNA Extraction from Urine Samples Suitable for DNA Biomarker-Based Public Health Studies

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The pre...

  12. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  13. Comparative diagnostic value of the breath test and the urine test with 14C-urea in the detection of the Helicobacter pylori infection

    Among 92 patients with chronic gastritis we conducted a synchronous diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using a culture and a serological test (IFP), in conjunction with breath and urine tests involving 14C-urea (BTU-C14 and UTU-C14). The infection was confirmed by isolation in 71 persons (77.2%), the presence of specific IgG in the blood serum was found in 75 (81.5%). In comparison, the BTU-C14 indicated a group of 77 people (83.7%) as infected, and the UTU-C14 a group of 76 (82.6%). In order to determine the diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and efficiency) of the latter tests, the results were compared with those of the culture and of the serological tests. It was found that the BTU-C14 test used showed a 100% sensitivity, a 89.5% specificity and a 97.9% efficiency. The UTU-C14 test showed a 100.0% sensitivity, a 94.4% specificity and a 98.9% efficiency in the detection of the H. pylori infection. (author)

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  15. The urine marker test

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  16. Comparative estimation of use potentialities of salt-accumulating and salt-eliminating halophytes for inclusion of NaCl contained in human mineralized urine in BLSS's mass exchange

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina; Balnokin, Yurii; Popova, Larissa; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Comparative potentialities of different halophytes' cultivation on a human mineralized urine containing NaCl with the aim of this salt inclusion into the intrasystem BLSS mass exchange were investigated. Two halophyte species were studied namely, salt-accumulating (Salicornia europaea) and salt-eliminating (Limonium gmelinii). During the first two vegetation weeks the plants had been grown on the Knop solution; then a daily norm of the human mineralized urine was gradually added in the experiment solutions. During vegetation the model solutions simulating the urine mineral composition were gradually added in the control solutions. The NaCl concentration in the experiment and control solutions of the first treatment was 9 g/l and that of the second treatment was 20 g/l. The mineralized human urine exposed some inhibitory action on Salicornia europaea and Limonium gmelinii plants. The experiment plants' productivity was lower in comparison with the control. As far as Limonium gmelinii appears to be a perennial plant the growth rate and productivity of this halophyte species was signifi- cantly lower in comparison with Salicornia europaea. Na content in Salicornia europaea plants was higher in comparison with sodium amount emitted by Limonium gmelinii. Consequently Salicornia europaea appears to be a more perspective halophyte for its further use in BLSS aiming at involvement of sodium chloride contained in human liquid wastes in intrasystem mass exchange.

  17. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka;

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of a...

  18. Urine 24-hour volume

    ... test results: Dehydration Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Emotional stress Heavy exercise Urinary tract infection

  19. 24-hour urine protein

    ... of fluid (dehydration) Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Severe emotional stress Strenuous exercise Urinary tract infection

  20. Urine specific gravity test

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  1. Urine drug screen

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  2. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    . For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily......'s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values....

  3. Bifunctional Bisphosphonate Complexes of 99mTc and 188Re for Diagnosis and Therapy of Bone Metastases. Chapter 13

    A simple method to purify the rhenium tricarbonyl precursor for labelling small molecules and biomolecules with 188Re is reported in this chapter. The synthesis of a new radiopharmaceutical for the radionuclide therapy of bone metastases and of the corresponding 99mTc analogue is also described. In contrast with the clinically approved 186/188Re HEDP, this new 188Re agent forms an inert, single species that has been well characterized and displays superior stability, selective bone targeting and retention properties. Similarly, a new bone seeking 99mTc tracer prepared using the 99mTc nitrido core as a prereduced intermediate shows prolonged retention in bone and higher stability and binding to serum proteins compared to 99mTc MDP. (author)

  4. Identification of recombinant human EPO variants in greyhound plasma and urine by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting: a comparative study.

    Timms, Mark; Steel, Rohan; Vine, John

    2016-02-01

    The recombinant human erythropoietins epoetin alfa (Eprex®), darbepoetin (Aranesp®) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera®) were administered to greyhounds for 7, 10 and 14 days respectively. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for erythropoietin by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting. Limits of confirmation in plasma for western blotting and LC-MS/MS methods ranged from a low of 2.5mIU/mL, and closely matched the sensitivity of ELISA screening. PMID:26290355

  5. Palliation and Survival After Repeated Re-188-HEDP Therapy of Hormone-Refractory Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer: A Retrospsective Analysis

    Knapp Jr, Russ F [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study compared the effects of single and multiple administrations of {sup 186}Re-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonate (186Re-HEDP) on palliation and survival of prostate cancer patients presenting with more than 5 skeletal metastases. Methods: A total of 60 patients were divided into 3 groups. Group A (n = 19) consisted of patients who had received a single injection; group B (n = 19), patients who had 2 injections; and group C (n = 22), patients who had 3 or more successive injections. The {sup 188}Re-HEDP was prepared using non-carrier-added {sup 188}Re obtained from an in-house {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator after dilution with carrier perrhenate. Patients data available from the referring physicians - including prostate-specific antigen levels - were entered into a Windows-based matrix and analyzed using a statistical program. The Gleason scores were similar for all 3 groups. Results: Mean survival from the start of treatment was 4.50 {+-} 0.81 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.92-6.08) for group A, 9.98 {+-} 2.21 mo (95% CI, 5.65-14.31) for group B, and 15.66 {+-} 3.23 (95% CI, 9.33-22.0) for group C. Although the 3 groups did not differ in Gleason score, the number of lost life-years was significantly lower in group C than in groups A and B. Pain palliation was achieved in 89.5% of group A, 94.7% of group B, and 90.9% of group C. Conclusion: Posttreatment overall survival could be improved from 4.50 to 15.66 mo by multiple-injection bone-targeted therapy with {sup 188}Re-HEDP, when compared with a single injection. Significant pain palliation was common and independent of administration frequency.

  6. The Urinal Problem

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny

    A man walks into a men's room and observes n empty urinals. Which urinal should he pick so as to maximize his chances of maintaining privacy, i.e., minimize the chance that someone will occupy a urinal beside him? In this paper, we attempt to answer this question under a variety of models for standard men's room behavior. Our results suggest that for the most part one should probably choose the urinal furthest from the door (with some interesting exceptions). We also suggest a number of variations on the problem that lead to many open problems.

  7. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  8. Improvement in quantification of urine components: Alternate technique

    Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    Urea and creatinine are two important diagnostic components of urine. The study of creatinine in liquid phase is difficult due to its feeble concentration in urine. To bring down the detection limit, DCD Raman spectroscopy was employed. Raman studies in association with partial least square algorithm of artificial urine samples gave improved results in dried phase as compared to liquid phase. These findings were further validated on real urine samples.

  9. Effect of magnetic field strength on NMR-based metabonomic human urine data. Comparative study of 250, 400, 500, and 800 MHz

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Malmendal, Anders; Petersen, Bent O.;

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomic analysis of urine utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to an intervention. To assess the effect of magnetic field strength on information contained in NMR-based metabonomic data sets, 1H NMR...... the ability of the 1H spectra acquired at various field strengths to identify possible spectral differences and discriminate between pre- and postintervention samples. The loadings from PLS-DA contained the same spectral regions, implying that the same metabolites were involved in the discrimination...... independent of magnetic field strength. The investigation revealed a strong increase in prediction performance and thereby spectral information content when increasing the magnetic field strength from 250 to 500 MHz, while from 500 to 800 MHz the increase was less pronounced....

  10. Urine Monitoring System

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction method for simultaneous determination of anethole, estragole, and para-anisaldehyde in different plant extracts and human urine: a comparative study.

    Rajabi, Maryam; Haji-Esfandiari, Sudabeh; Barfi, Behruz; Ghanbari, Hanieh

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the performances of four ionic-liquid-based microextraction methods, ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME), ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (IL-USA-ME), temperature-controlled ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (TC-IL-DLME), and ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (USA-TC-IL-DLME), were investigated for extraction of three bioactive compounds (anethole, estragole, and anisaldehyde) from different plant extracts and human urine. Anethole and estragole were chosen because they can alter cellular processes positively or negatively, and an efficient method is needed for their extraction and sensitive determination in the samples mentioned. Because there is no previous report on the separation of anethole and estragole (structural isomers), first, simultaneous gradient elution and flow programming were used. The microextraction methods were then applied and compared for analysis of these compounds in plant extracts and human urine by use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effect of conditions on extraction efficiency was studied and under the optimum conditions, the best enrichment factors (58-64), limits of detection (14-18 ng mL(-1)), limits of quantification (47-60 ng mL(-1)), and recovery (94.4-101.7 %) were obtained by use of USA-TC-IL-DLME. The optimized conditions were used to determine anethole, estragole, and para-anisaldehyde in fennel, anise, and tarragon extracts and in human urine. PMID:24817361

  12. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols. PMID:16225131

  13. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    Amalia Utami Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram stains of uncentrifuged urine have been done in rural health centers and laboratories in peripheral areas that lack facilities to evaluate urine specimens. Gram stains of urine may be an effective method for ruling out UTI in rural health center patients, thus saving time and money in impoverished settings. Objective To compare urine Gram stain and urine culture as diagnostic tests for in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was held in H. Adam Malik Hospital from May to June 2010. The 54 participants were aged 0 - 14 years, suspected to have UTI and recruited by consecutive sampling. Uurine was collected after the external urethral orifice was cleaned. A drop of the urine specimen was Gram stained and examined by a light microscope, while the remainder of the specimen was used for laboratory urine cultures. If Gram negative bacteria were observed by Gram stain, we considered the subject to have UTI. Results The sensitivity and specificity of urine Gram stain compared to urine culture were 88% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion Uurine Gram stain may be a good alternative to urine culture for diagnosing UTI in children living in areas with limited health care facilities. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:121-4.].

  14. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    Amalia Utami Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram stains of uncentrifuged urine have been done in rural health centers and laboratories in peripheral areas that lack facilities to evaluate urine specimens. Gram stains of urine may be an effective method for ruling out UTI in rural health center patients, thus saving time and money in impoverished settings.Objective To compare urine Gram stain and urine culture as diagnostic tests for in children.Methods This cross-sectional study was held in H. Adam Malik Hospital from May to June 2010. The 54 participants were aged 0 - 14 years, suspected to have UTI and recruited by consecutive sampling. Uurine was collected after the external urethral orifice was cleaned. A drop of the urine specimen was Gram stained and examined by a light microscope, while the remainder of the specimen was used for laboratory urine cultures. If Gram negative bacteria were observed by Gram stain, we considered the subject to have UTI.Results The sensitivity and specificity of urine Gram stain compared to urine culture were 88% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were 100% and 90%, respectively.Conclusion Uurine Gram stain may be a good alternative to urine culture for diagnosing UTI in children living in areas with limited health care facilities. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:121-4.].

  15. The selection of female urinals: results of a multicentre evaluation.

    Fader, M; Pettersson, L; Dean, G; Brooks, R; Cottenden, A

    Female urinals are designed to enable women to empty their bladders while not on the toilet and are therefore potentially useful in preventing incontinence. However, there is little published information to guide product selection. Therefore, an evaluation of these products was undertaken by the Continence Products Evaluation Network (funded by the Medical Devices Agency). All 13 reusable female urinals available in the UK in March 1997 were evaluated. Each urinal was evaluated by 28-32 community-based women. Preliminarily, each subject tested all urinals by trying to place them in one or two of their preferred positions, to establish if the urinals were suitable for full testing. Each of the urinals that were selected for full testing were then used for 1 week each. During this week the subjects kept a diary to record leakage or spillage when using the urinal. At the end of the week a product evaluation form was filled in to record product performance. The results from full testing indicate that all urinals were successful for some subjects. However, some urinals were found to be successful for all four main positions (e.g. Petal Female Urinal) while others were successful mainly in one or two positions (e.g. Bridge Saddle Pan and Subaseal). Many urinals were successful in the standing/crouching and sitting on the edge (of chair or bed) positions, while comparatively few urinals were successful in the lying position. It was found that the chances of finding a suitable urinal increased with levels of independence. This means that subjects with higher levels of dependency found fewer urinals to be suitable for their needs when used without assistance. The results of this evaluation provide guidance for product selection. However, it is recommended that continence specialists keep samples of the full range of female urinals to enable women to experiment with urinals in order to find one that best suits their needs. PMID:10711014

  16. Comparative proteomics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during growth in human urine identify UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae as an adherence factor involved in biofilm formation and binding to uroepithelial cells.

    Wurpel, Daniël J; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P; Webb, Richard I; Moriel, Danilo G; Schembri, Mark A

    2016-01-10

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans. For the successful colonisation of the human urinary tract, UPEC employ a diverse collection of secreted or surface-exposed virulence factors including toxins, iron acquisition systems and adhesins. In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was utilised to define the UPEC pan and core surface proteome following growth in pooled human urine. Identified proteins were investigated for subcellular origin, prevalence and homology to characterised virulence factors. Fourteen core surface proteins were identified, as well as eleven iron uptake receptor proteins and four distinct fimbrial types, including type 1, P, F1C/S and a previously uncharacterised fimbrial type, designated UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae in this study. These pathogenicity island (PAI)-associated fimbriae are related to UCA fimbriae of Proteus mirabilis, associated with UPEC and exclusively found in members of the E. coli B2 and D phylogroup. We further demonstrated that UCL fimbriae promote significant biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and mediate specific attachment to exfoliated human uroepithelial cells. Combined, this study has defined the surface proteomic profiles and core surface proteome of UPEC during growth in human urine and identified a new type of fimbriae that may contribute to UTI. PMID:26546558

  17. PBG urine test

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  18. Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth

    Aubron Cecile

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critically ill patients including trauma patients are at high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI. The composition of urine in trauma patients may be modified due to inflammation, systemic stress, rhabdomyolysis, life support treatment and/or urinary catheter insertion. Methods Prospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in patients with severe trauma and without a history of UTIs or recent antibiotic treatment. The 24-hour urine samples were collected on the first and the fifth days and the growth of Escherichia coli in urine from patients and healthy volunteers was compared. Biochemical and hormonal modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results Growth of E. coli in urine from trauma patients was significantly higher on days 1 and 5 than in urine of healthy volunteers. Several significant modifications of urine composition could explain these findings. On days 1 and 5, trauma patients had an increase in glycosuria, in urine iron concentration, and in the concentrations of several amino acids compared to healthy volunteers. On day 1, the urinary osmotic pressure was significantly lower than for healthy volunteers. Conclusion We showed that urine of trauma patients facilitated growth of E. coli when compared to urine from healthy volunteers. This effect was present in the first 24 hours and until at least the fifth day after trauma. This phenomenon may be involved in the pathophysiology of UTIs in trauma patients. Further studies are required to define the exact causes of such modifications.

  19. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    Pooneh Nabavizadeh; Shadi Ghadermarzi; Mohammad Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional...

  20. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed

  1. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vargas, Gonzalo García [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Coahuila, Coahuila, México (Mexico); Silbergeld, Ellen K. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rothenberg, Stephen J. [Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fadrowski, Jeffrey J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rubio-Andrade, Marisela [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  2. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say ... Your Baby's Growth Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > For Parents > Urine Test: Dipstick Print A A A Text ...

  3. Urine Diagnosis for Cancer

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ The key to saving the life of a person suffering from a malignant tumor lies in early diagnosis and surgery. Chinese scientists have developed a new method of diagnosing cancer by analyzing a person's urine. This feat was acclaimed by a panel of experts at a meeting under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July 30 in Dalian, in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  4. Polyglycolic acid (Dexon) sutures in Escherichia coli infected urine

    Hovendal, C P; Schwartz, W

    1979-01-01

    The tensile strength, knot strength and stretch of polyglycolic acid (Dexon) was studied after emersion in physiological saline, sterile urine and infected urine. Tests were made each day under controlled conditions over a 10 day period. The results are compared with those of other earlier studie...

  5. Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

    Alfred L.K. Kuwornu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and female urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male and female urine was done for nitrogen phosphorus potassium temperature pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in the determination of phosphorus and potassium contents and Kjedahl digestion and non-digestion direct methods for nitrogen content. Temperature pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer temperaturepH meter and a colour chart. Results showed that nitrogen in female urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in male urine after 2 to 5 months of storage. However there were no significant differences p0.05 with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly phosphorus in male urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in female urine after 2 to 3 months of storage but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all male and female urine samples. Generally NPK yields in both urine sources peaked four months after storage. There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine Nitrogen and storage time. The phosphorus levels also correlated positively with storage time and temperature but weakly negative with pH. Generally urine nitrogen strongly correlated positively with potassium but moderately with temperature and pH. Colour of matured urine after six months storage was yellow for females and brown for males. NPK contents in both male 30.43.4-1-43.7 and female 34.46.5-1-62.8 urine were comparable to those of chemical fertilizers such as 21 N ammonia. However the nitrogen content of digested female urine was significantly higher than that of male urine. Phosphorus concentration was

  6. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after...

  7. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine, and...... ratio vegetation index (RVI). Compared to unamended urine, emissions of N2O were significantly higher with urea-amendment, and lower with DCD amendment, also when expressed as proportions of N applied. Soil mineral N dynamics showed that N2O emissions were closely linked to nitrification activity. There...... was no close relationship between N2O emissions and concentration profiles of N2O in the soil; instead, emissions were significantly (p < 0.05) related to N2O concentrations at 5 cm depth. Chamber supports increased water retention in urine-amended soil, but not in reference soil. Based on patterns of...

  8. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  9. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  10. Successful suprapubic aspiration of urine.

    O'Callaghan, C; McDougall, P N

    1987-01-01

    When the bladder of neonates requiring suprapubic aspiration of urine was shown to contain urine on ultrasound scanning, suprapubic aspiration was successful on the first attempt in all cases. Without prior scanning only 36% of first attempts at aspiration were successful.

  11. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery.

    Mistry, Hiten D; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew J; Ward, Malcolm A; Thompson, Andrew J; Chappell, Lucy C

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the 'gold standard' amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia). BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-acid assay, which performed particularly poorly at higher protein concentrations. These data highlight the need to use amino-acid or BCA assays for unprocessed urine protein estimation. PMID:26103798

  12. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral....... Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng/mL in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng/mL in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng/mL in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng/mL in healthy subjects. In conclusion we found no significant...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...

  13. Avian bornavirus in the urine of infected birds

    Villalobos AR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Alice R Villalobos21Zoological Medicine, 2Department of Nutrition & Food Science, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV causes proventricular dilatation disease in multiple avian species. In severe clinical disease, the virus, while primarily neurotropic, can be detected in many organs, including the kidneys. We postulated that ABV could be shed by the kidneys and found in the urine of infected birds. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral N and P proteins of ABV within the renal tubules. We adapted a nonsurgical method of urine collection for use in parrots known to be shedding ABV in their droppings. We obtained urine without feces, and results were compared with swabs of fresh voided feces. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction assay performed on these paired samples from five birds indicated that ABV was shed in quantity in the urine of infected birds, and a single sample was urine-positive and fecal-negative. We suggest that urine sampling may be a superior sample for detection of birds shedding ABV, and advocate that additional birds, known to be shedding or infected with ABV, should be investigated via this method.Keywords: avian bornavirus, Psittaciformes, parrot, urine, proventricular dilatation disease

  14. Comparison of Urine Dipstick Test with Conventional Urine Culture in Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of Urine Nitrite (NIT) and Leukocyte Esterase (LE) test compared with urine culture for diagnosis of UTI. Study Design: Validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January 2013 to December 2013. Methodology: Three hundred fresh uncentrifuged urine samples with suspicion of UTI, were collected and tested for LE and NIT by using (COMBI-10SL, UK) strip. Nitrite was considered as positive if there was a change in color of dipstick from colorless towards pink within 60 seconds. Leukocyte esterase was considered as positive if there was a change in color from off-white towards purple within 2 minutes. Quantitative urine culture was performed by using the strips calibrated to deliver 0.02 ul of urine on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) medium agar. All plates were incubated at 37 degree C and read after 24 and 48 hours. Culture was considered as gold standard to evaluate the performance of dipstick test. Results: Out of 300 samples, 136 were culture positive and 164 were culture negative. Out of 136 positive culture results, 103 were dipstick positive and 33 were negative. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of both nitrite and leukocyte esterase were 75.74%, 68.90%, 66.66% and 77.40% respectively considering culture as gold standard. Conclusion: Dipstick test for the detection of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in urine are sensitive and specific and can be used reliably for the detection of UTI in resource limited setup. (author)

  15. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  16. Variability in Urine Culture Reporting by Canadian Microbiology Laboratories

    Noble, Michael A.; Nikiforuk, Shirley

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of microbiology laboratories to perform and to report urine colony counts.DESIGN: Clinical Microbiology Proficiency Testing program participants received stabilized simulated urine samples. Laboratories were asked to perform the appropriate test and report results.PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and nine clinical microbiology laboratories in British Columbia, Alberta and Nova Scotia.OUTCOME MEASURES: Consistency of reporting was compared with standards for report...

  17. IS URINE CULTURE ROUTINELY NECESSARY BEFORE PROSTATE BIOPSY ?

    Bruyere, Franck; Faivre D'Arcier, Benjamin; Boutin, Jean-Michel; Haillot, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the value of a urine bacterial culture performed before prostate biopsy. Methods: We performed a prospective study on 353 patients who underwent prostate biopsy. All patients had a urine bacterial culture performed before biopsy. We compared the outcomes of patients with bacteriuria (left untreated) to those of patients without bacteriuria. Results: Of the 353 men, 12 had a pre-biopsy positive bacterial culture an...

  18. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961)

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors)

  19. Excretion rates of uranium in urine

    Summarising the results obtained at RB Hanau, the following statements are made: For determination of the contribution of uranium excreted in urine emanating from intake through the diet, a carefully planned measuring programme should be performed with individuals whose examination delivered reliable evidence that they have not been exposed before. The measuring methods of the participating laboratories are to be monitored for comparability and reproducibility of results, for corrections to be made if necessary. In order to eliminate or flatten individual fluctuations in excretion, urine samples collected over two or more subsequent days should be used for monitoring. The highest detection limit to be required for the programme should be at least 1 mBq for one daily sample. (orig./CB)

  20. Influence of various beverages on urine acid output.

    de Vries, E G; Meyer, C; Strubbe, M; Mulder, N H

    1986-01-01

    High dose methotrexate therapy requires a high alkaline urine output. In order to evaluate the effect of various beverages on the urine acid output, healthy volunteers (n = 6) took 1.5-2 liters of a test drink during a 2-h period. On the test day urine pH and urine acid excretion (titratable acid plus ammonia minus bicarbonate) were measured. Controls received water and tea as test drink. Orange juice (pH 3.64) and tube feeding (pH 6.78) both led to alkaline urine pH and significantly decreased urine acid output compared to the control group (n = 4, P less than 0.01 and n = 3, P less than 0.001, respectively). Yoghurt (pH 4.1), buttermilk (pH 4.58), and Coca-Cola (pH 2.54), on the other hand, all induced a higher acid output than the control group (n = 6) and a urine pH less than 7.0 during the whole test day (n = 6, NS; n = 6, P less than 0.02; n = 4, P less than 0.05, respectively). If high urine output with an alkaline pH is required, fruit juices or well balanced tube feeding, both with low cation and low sulfur-bound amino acid content, can accomplish this. Drinks with high inorganic acid content (such as Coca-Cola) or high sulfur-bound amino acid content such as yoghurt and buttermilk will result in acidification of the urine. PMID:3940208

  1. Radioimmunoassay of calcitonin in normal human urine

    Direct radioimmunoassay of calcitonin in human urines containing 0espectively. The urine calcitonin values apparently reflect serum calcitonin concentrations (e.g., urine/serum r = 0.9873 for 40 hypercalcitonemic patients); but urine calcitonin determination has two important advantages: greater reproducibility because of decreased heterogeneity and greater differentiation of patient populations. In view of these results, the assay of urine calcitonin may prove to be a very useful clinical tool

  2. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus). Nitrogen (N) compounds are removed as inert nitrogen gas and phosphorus (P) is for example removed as iron phosphate. About 80% of the N and 50% of the P in wastewater originate from urine1, but urine on...

  3. Metabolomic biomarkers in serum and urine in women with preeclampsia.

    Marie Austdal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis. METHODS: Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10, normal pregnancies (n = 10 and non-pregnant women (n = 10 matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared between groups. RESULTS: Urine and serum samples revealed clear differences between women with preeclampsia and both control groups (normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. Nine urine metabolites were significantly different between preeclampsia and the normal pregnant group. Urine samples from women with early onset preeclampsia clustered together in the multivariate analysis. The preeclampsia serum spectra showed higher levels of low and very-low density lipoproteins and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins when compared to both non-pregnant and normal pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The MR determined metabolic profiles in urine and serum from women with preeclampsia are clearly different from normal pregnant women. The observed differences represent a potential to examine mechanisms underlying different preeclampsia phenotypes in urine and serum samples in larger studies. In addition, similarities between preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in metabolomics are demonstrated.

  4. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  5. Creating a urine black hole

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  6. Preparation, quality control and animal testing of Re-188 labelled compounds

    Rhenium-188 is an attractive therapeutic radioisotope obtained by elution from tungsten 188/rhenium 188-generator system. We used this eluate to label HEDP and lanreotide to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for experimental use. The results of our studies showed that using methods worked out under the framework of the CRP allowed us to prepare 188Re-HEDP and 188Re-lanreotide with high yield and favourable biodistribution in animals. In animal studies 188Re-HEDP was successfully used for localizing osteosarcoma in dog. (author)

  7. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  8. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR), thereby exploring the possibility of replacing the blood sample with an easy obtainable urine sample. We enrolled 1,007 adults, older than 15 years of age, with a negative TB diagnosis between April 2004 and December 2006. Levels of U-suPAR and P-suPAR were available in 863 individuals. U-suPAR was...... measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives and...

  9. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  10. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    ... and commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ... urine visible on the x ray. The contrast medium also shows any blockage in the urinary tract. When a small mass is found with IVP, another imaging test, ...

  11. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    K W D′Hauwers

    2009-01-01

    We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  12. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page ... known as: Microalbumin; ACR; UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; ...

  13. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  14. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  15. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus). Nitro

  16. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  17. Detection of Zika Virus in Urine

    Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle

    2015-01-01

    We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

  18. The urine output definition of acute kidney injury is too liberal

    Md Ralib, Azrina; Pickering, John W; Shaw, Geoffrey M.; Endre, Zoltán H

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The urine output criterion of 0.5 ml/kg/hour for 6 hours for acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been prospectively validated. Urine output criteria for AKI (AKIUO) as predictors of in-hospital mortality or dialysis need were compared. Methods All admissions to a general ICU were prospectively screened for 12 months and hourly urine output analysed in collection intervals between 1 and 12 hours. Prediction of the composite of mortality or dialysis by urine output was analysed in in...

  19. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    Pooneh Nabavizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients’ adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation P<0.001 between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects’ adherence to this difficult sampling.

  20. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  1. Compare of high-yield and middle-yield holstein dairy cows in the nitrogen content in feces and urine and the NH3, H2S emission content in feces%奶牛粪尿中含氮量、NH3和H2S散发量的比较

    龚飞飞; 胡登林; 赵正剑; 张志军; 余雄

    2011-01-01

    以荷斯坦高产和中产奶牛为例,研究其粪便含水量、粪尿中总氮(TN)、氨态氮(AN)浓度和NH3、H2S的散发量.选取高产和中产奶牛牛舍各一栋,测定粪便含水量、粪尿中总氮(TN)氨态氮(TN)质量分数以及粪中NH3和H2S气体的散发量.结果表明,粗蛋白的摄入与需求比增加,奶牛粪尿中氮和硫的质量分数也会增加.超过动物蛋白质需要量的几乎所有的氮都是通过尿液排出体外,尿氮增加的幅度大于粪氮增加的幅度.因此,减少粪氮不是降低氮污染的有效途径.%Test to compare the high-yield and middle-yield Holstein dairy cows in feces water content, the total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentration in feces and urine, NH3 and H2S emission content in feces. Were selected a high-yield and a middle-yield cowshed, determination the feces water content, the total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentration and NH3, H2S emission content in feces. The results showed that:The ratio of crude protein intake and demand increase, the nitrogen and sulfur content in feces and urine will increase. Protein, which more than demand will almost all be excreted through urine, the rate of increase urine nitrogen is greater than the rate of increase fecal nitrogen. Reduce the fecal nitrogen is not an effective way to reduce nitrogen pollution.

  2. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  3. METHOD FOR THE CONFIRMATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN HUMAN URINE BY LC WITH AN ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTOR

    A method is described for the confirmation of chlorophenols in human urine. A hydrolyzed urine sample is analyzed by both gas chromatography (GC), and liquid chromatography (LC) with electrochemical detection and the results compared. A discussion of these results, including fact...

  4. Combined cervical swab and urine specimens for PCR diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Wilcox, M; Reynolds, M.; Hoy, C.; Brayson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

  5. Comparison of proteomic biomarker panels in urine and serum for ovarian cancer diagnosis

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Høgdall, Estrid; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Yip, Christine; Risum, Signe Normann; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Hartwell, Dorte; Fung, Eric T; Høgdall, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to confirm previously found candidate epithelial ovarian cancer biomarkers in urine and to compare a paired serum biomarker panel and a urine biomarker panel from the same study cohort with regard to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the ...

  6. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  7. Analysis of uranium in urine by delayed neutrons

    A method developed at LASL for the measurement of uranium concentration in water samples delayed neutron counting (DNC) after reactor irradiation had been applied to urine analysis for the routine monitoring of personnel. For calibration purposes urine solutions were spiked with known amounts of depleted, natural or enriched uranium. Spiked samples were analyzed by DNC, as well as by fluorometric analysis for natural U, and by wet chemical isolation followed by α-measurement for enriched U, and results are compared. The DNC method is shown to be highly reliable and to have greater precision than the other two methods. The sensitivity and limitations of the DNC method, and experience with routine samples are discussed. For routine use the % 235U in the uranium should be known. DNC can also be used for Pu measurement in urine after accidental exposure if the exposure is known to be 239Pu, but the lower limit of detection is too high for routine monitoring. (author)

  8. Nutrients in urine: energetic aspects of removal and recovery

    Maurer, M.; Schwegler, P.; Larsen, T.A. [EAWAG, Environmental Engineering, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    The analysis of different removal and recovery techniques for nutrients in urine shows that in many cases recovery is energetically more efficient than removal and new-production for natural resources. Considering only the running electricity and fossil energy requirements for the traditional way of wastewater treatment and fertiliser production, the following specific energy requirements can be calculated: 45 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} for denitrification in a WWTP, 49 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub P} for P-precipitation in a WWTP, 45 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} for N-fertiliser and 29 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub P} for P-fertiliser production. These numbers are higher than the values derived for thermal volume reduction of urine (35 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} for eliminating 90% water) or production of struvite (102 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N}, including 2.2 kg P). Considering only the electricity and fossil energy for the traditional way of wastewater treatment and fertiliser production, the energy value of 1 PE urine is 0.87 MJ PE{sup -1}d{sup -1} (fertiliser value: 0.44, wastewater treatment: 0.43 MJ PE{sup -1}d{sup -1}). A more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of the entire urine collection system, including the required materials and the environmental burden, support the energy analysis. The LCA compares conventional denitrification in a wastewater treatment plant with collecting urine in households, reducing the volume by evaporation and using it as a multi-nutrient fertiliser. The primary energy consumption for recovery and reuse of urine, including the nutrients N, P and K, is calculated with 65 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N}, compared with 153 MJ kg{sup -1}{sub N} derived for the conventional 'recycling over the atmosphere'. (author)

  9. Optimization for Peptide Sample Preparation for Urine Peptidomics

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Dai, Hong; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2014-02-25

    Analysis of native or endogenous peptides in biofluids can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms. Furthermore, the detected peptides may also have utility as potential biomarkers for non-invasive monitoring of human diseases. The non-invasive nature of urine collection and the abundance of peptides in the urine makes analysis by high-throughput ‘peptidomics’ methods , an attractive approach for investigating the pathogenesis of renal disease. However, urine peptidomics methodologies can be problematic with regards to difficulties associated with sample preparation. The urine matrix can provide significant background interference in making the analytical measurements that it hampers both the identification of peptides and the depth of the peptidomics read when utilizing LC-MS based peptidome analysis. We report on a novel adaptation of the standard solid phase extraction (SPE) method to a modified SPE (mSPE) approach for improved peptide yield and analysis sensitivity with LC-MS based peptidomics in terms of time, cost, clogging of the LC-MS column, peptide yield, peptide quality, and number of peptides identified by each method. Expense and time requirements were comparable for both SPE and mSPE, but more interfering contaminants from the urine matrix were evident in the SPE preparations (e.g., clogging of the LC-MS columns, yellowish background coloration of prepared samples due to retained urobilin, lower peptide yields) when compared to the mSPE method. When we compared data from technical replicates of 4 runs, the mSPE method provided significantly improved efficiencies for the preparation of samples from urine (e.g., mSPE peptide identification 82% versus 18% with SPE; p = 8.92E-05). Additionally, peptide identifications, when applying the mSPE method, highlighted the biology of differential activation of urine peptidases during acute renal transplant rejection with distinct laddering of specific peptides, which was obscured for most proteins

  10. Model for validation of radioimmunoassay kit reagents: measurement of follitropin and lutropin in blood and urine

    We measured lutropin and follitropin in blood and urine with radioimmunoassay kits from Diagnostic Products Corporation and compared the results with those obtained by use of re agents from the National Institutes of health (NIH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The urine standard (second IRP-HMG) from WHO, the blood standard (LER-907) from NIH, and the commercial standards all effected similar displacement of trace material when the commercial gonadotropin kit reagents were used. Highly significant correlations were achieved for these hormones in blood or urine on comparing commercial and NIH/WHO reagents. Serial dilutions of urine samples produced similar relative potencies with the commercial reagents. Conversion factors are presented to relate results for LER-907, second IRP, or commercial standards. Commercially available reagents can provide a practical and reliable means of gonadotropin radioimmunoassay in blood or urine

  11. A history of urine microscopy.

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since. PMID:26079823

  12. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  14. Comparison of Plasma and Urine Biomarker Performance in Acute Kidney Injury.

    Gunnar Schley

    Full Text Available New renal biomarkers measured in urine promise to increase specificity for risk stratification and early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI but concomitantly may be altered by urine concentration effects and chronic renal insufficiency. This study therefore directly compared the performance of AKI biomarkers in urine and plasma.This single-center, prospective cohort study included 110 unselected adults undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between 2009 and 2010. Plasma and/or urine concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1, and albumin as well as 15 additional biomarkers in plasma and urine were measured during the perioperative period. The primary outcome was AKI defined by AKIN serum creatinine criteria within 72 hours after surgery.Biomarkers in plasma showed markedly better discriminative performance for preoperative risk stratification and early postoperative (within 24h after surgery detection of AKI than urine biomarkers. Discriminative power of urine biomarkers improved when concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine, but urine biomarkers had still lower AUC values than plasma biomarkers. Best diagnostic performance 4h after surgery had plasma NGAL (AUC 0.83, cystatin C (0.76, MIG (0.74, and L-FAPB (0.73. Combinations of multiple biomarkers did not improve their diagnostic power. Preoperative clinical scoring systems (EuroSCORE and Cleveland Clinic Foundation Score predicted the risk for AKI (AUC 0.76 and 0.71 and were not inferior to biomarkers. Preexisting chronic kidney disease limited the diagnostic performance of both plasma and urine biomarkers.In our cohort plasma biomarkers had higher discriminative power for risk stratification and early diagnosis of AKI than urine biomarkers. For preoperative risk stratification of AKI clinical models showed similar discriminative performance

  15. Anti-Urolithiatic Effect of Cow Urine Ark on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Calculi

    A.B Shukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of cow urine ark (medicinal distilled cow urine on ethylene glycol (EG induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Group I animals served as vehicle control and received distilled water for 28 days. Group II to VI animals received 1% v/v EG in distilled water for 28 days. Group II served as EG control. Group III and IV (preventive groups received cow urine ark orally for 28 days in doses of 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg, respectively. Group V and VI (treatment groups received 1 mL/kg and 2 mL/kg cow urine ark orally, respectively from 15th to 28th days. 24-hour urine samples were collected on day 0 and 28. Urine volume and oxalate levels were measured. On day 28, blood was collected for biochemical parameters. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals. To calculate the percentage of inhibition of mineralization, simultaneous flow static in-vitro model was used. Results EG significantly increased urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea level; kidney weight and CaOx deposits. Provision of cow urine ark resulted in significantly lower levels of urine oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea and CaOx depositions as compared to Group II. (p value < 0.05 It also significantly restored kidney weight. (p value < 0.05 Cow urine ark inhibited 40% and 35% crystallization of CaOx and calcium phosphate, respectively. Conclusion Cow urine ark is effective in prevention and treatment of EG induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats.

  16. Screening for proteinuria in a rheumatology clinic: comparison of dipstick testing, 24 hour urine quantitative protein, and protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples.

    Ralston, S. H.; Caine, N; Richards, I; O'REILLY, D; Sturrock, R D; Capell, H A

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of protein/creatinine ratio in 'spot' urine samples were compared with measurements of 24 hour quantitative proteinuria and side room 'dipstick' testing in 104 samples from 90 patients presenting consecutively to a rheumatology unit. Linear regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between the random urinary protein/creatinine ratio and total protein excretion in 24 hour urine samples (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001, y = 6.55x + 0.04). Although an approximation of ...

  17. Substoichiometry and radioactive isotopic dilution determination of trace content of zinc in human's hair and urine

    This experiment has been successfully used in substoichiometry and isotopic dilution for determining trace content of zinc in human's hair and urine. Experimental results are compared with those using others methods

  18. Sheath flow SERS for chemical profiling in urine.

    Riordan, Colleen M; Jacobs, Kevin T; Negri, Pierre; Schultz, Zachary D

    2016-06-23

    The molecular specificity and sensitivity of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) makes it an attractive method for biomedical diagnostics. Here we present results demonstrating the utility and complications for SERS characterization in urine. The chemical fingerprint characteristics of Raman spectra suggest its use as a label free diagnostic; however, the complex composition of biological fluids presents a tremendous challenge. In particular, the limited number of surface sites and competing absorption tend to mask the presence of analytes in solution, particularly when the solution contains multiple analytes. To address these problems and characterize biological fluids we have demonstrated a sheath-flow interface for SERS detection. This sheath-flow SERS interface uses hydrodynamic focusing to confine analyte molecules eluting out of a column onto a planar SERS substrate where the molecules are detected by their intrinsic SERS signal. In this report we compare the direct detection of benzoylecgonine in urine using DSERS with chemical profiling by capillary zone electrophoresis and sheath-flow SERS detection. The SERS spectrum from the observed migration peaks can identify benzoylecgonine and other distinct spectra are also observed, suggesting improved chemical diagnostics in urine. With over 2000 reported compounds in urine, identification of each of the detected species is an enormous task. Nonetheless, these samples provide a benchmark to establish the potential clinical utility of sheath-flow SERS detection. PMID:27034996

  19. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    ... Urine Disease Mitsubuchi H, Owada M, Endo F. Markers associated with inborn errors of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and their relevance to upper levels of intake in healthy people: an implication from clinical and molecular investigations on maple syrup urine disease. J Nutr. ...

  20. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de ...

  1. Microalgae growth on concentrated human urine

    Tuantet, K.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Temmink, H.; Zeeman, G.; Wijffels, R.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, a microalga was grown on non-diluted human urine. The essential growth requirements for the species Chlorella sorokiniana were determined for different types of human urine (fresh, hydrolysed, male and female). Batch experimental results using microtiter plates sho

  2. Clinical Significance of Mites in Urine

    Dini, Leigh A.; Frean, John A.

    2005-01-01

    We report a case where a mite egg found in urine caused diagnostic confusion. The possibility of gut or bladder mite infection should be entertained only after repeated identification of mites in urine or stool samples from a symptomatic patient with no other cause for the symptoms and where the possibilities of contamination and spurious infection have been excluded.

  3. [The Bourdaloue urinal in all its forms].

    Mathieu, F

    1996-01-01

    The author draws the attention of his urologist as well as nonurologist colleagues to the "Bourdaloue" urinal describing its dual aspect of a utilitarian and artistic object. A rapid study situates it in its particular historical context and in the more general context of urine collection bottles. PMID:8924944

  4. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It may seem gross and embarrassing to pee ...

  5. Use of gonozyme on urine sediment for diagnosis of gonorrhea in males.

    Schachter, J; Pang, F; Parks, R M; Smith, R.F.; Armstrong, A S

    1986-01-01

    We compared enzyme immunoassay (Gonozyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for detection of gonococcal antigen in urine sediments with urethral swab culture for diagnosis of gonorrhea in men attending a venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of infection was 14% by culture (27/196). The sensitivity of enzyme immunoassay was 93% (25/27) compared with the culture method, and the specificity was 99% (167/169). The ability to detect gonococcal antigen in urine sediment may provide the b...

  6. Direct Agglutination Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishma-niasis

    Sarkari B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or Kala azar is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of vis-ceral leishmaniasis patients using ELISA and DAT methods."nMethods: A total of 30 urine samples were collected from VL patients referred to Shiraz (southeast of Iran hospitals. Moreover 31 urine samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases such as malaria, brucellosis, hydatidosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collected samples were examined to detect anti-Leishmania antibod-ies in urine, using ELISA and DAT."nResults: Anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in urine of 18 out of 30 (60% VL patients by DAT while ELISA detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine of 28 out of 30 (93.3% of VL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-based DAT was 60% and 83.9%, respectively while sensitivity and specificity of urine-based ELISA were 93.3% and 93.5%, corre-spondingly. "nConclusion: Urine-based DAT and ELISA have a reasonable specificity and sensitivity in diagnosis of VL. Accordingly, urine-based ELISA might be a suitable alternative for serum based assays for diagnosis of VL.

  7. [Delayed testing for the diagnosis of fungi in the urines. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes for the storage of urine samples at room temperature].

    Baixench, M T; Al-Sheikh, M; Paugam, A

    2005-01-01

    The study included 37 urine samples which have been artificially infected with low levels (10(3) CFU/mL) of various fungi strains. We compared the effects of sample storage, up to 48 hours, at room temperature, in a urine evacuated tube containing specific additives with storage at + 4 degrees C, for the same length of time, in a urine evacuated tube without any additives. There have been no differences of results (speed of growth and colony size) between the 2 modes of storage. However, the experience has shown that samples needed a careful mixing before seeding to avoid underdetection of the strains. Based on the study results, the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes are suitable for delayed testing for the diagnosis of urine fungal infection. PMID:16330387

  8. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  9. Internal contamination by natural uranium: monitoring by analysis of urine of individuals exposed by occupational inhalation

    Urine samples from men working at Usina Santo Amaro (USAM - State of Sao Paulo), a monazite refinery, were analysed for uranium concentration, using fluorometric analysis and alpha spectrometry. All samples analysed presented uranium concentration below the lower limit of detection. Theoretical values were calculated for uranium concentration in urine samples from workers at the annual limit of intake (ALI) for inhalation of natural uranium, recommended in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1979). The two different methods used for analysis of natural uranium concentration in the urine samples were compared: fluorimetry and alpha spectrometry. (author)

  10. Mass spectrometry for high-throughput metabolomics analysis of urine

    Abdelrazig, Salah M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (direct ESI-MS), by omitting the chromatographic step, has great potential for application as a high-throughput approach for untargeted urine metabolomics analysis compared to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The rapid development and technical innovations revealed in the field of ambient ionisation MS such as nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) chip-based infusion and liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA...

  11. Metabolomic Biomarkers in Serum and Urine in Women with Preeclampsia

    Marie Austdal; Ragnhild Bergene Skråstad; Astrid Solberg Gundersen; Rigmor Austgulen; Ann-Charlotte Iversen; Tone Frost Bathen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR) metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis. Methods Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10), normal pregnancies (n = 10) and non-pregnant women (n = 10) matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared ...

  12. Metabolomic Biomarkers in Serum and Urine in Women with Preeclampsia

    Austdal, Marie; Skråstad, Ragnhild Bergene; Gundersen, Astrid Solberg; AUSTGULEN, Rigmor; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Bathen, Tone Frost

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR) metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis. Methods Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10), normal pregnancies (n = 10) and non-pregnant women (n = 10) matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared between grou...

  13. Metabolomic biomarkers in serum and urine in women with preeclampsia

    Austdal, Marie; Skråstad, Ragnhild; Gundersen, Astrid; AUSTGULEN, Rigmor; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Bathen, Tone Frost

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR) metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis. Methods Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10), normal pregnancies (n = 10) and non-pregnant women (n = 10) matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared ...

  14. Rapid column extraction method for uranium in urine

    The conventional method used for estimation of uranium in bioassay samples involves ion exchange separation followed by alpha spectrometry, which takes nearly 4-5 days for complete sample analysis. There is a need to reduce overall analysis time for the estimation of uranium in bioassay samples in case of acute exposure incidences. Therefore efforts were made in the present study to develop a comparatively rapid method for analysis of uranium in urine

  15. Correlation between urine analysis and urine culture in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in Yazd central laboratory

    Khalili M B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The misdiagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI may lead to kidney deficiency and even pyelonephritis. Since different species may cause this disease, urine culture (UC and antibiogram of the isolated species should be performed and results compared to urine analysis (UA parameters to obtain the best diagnosis."nMethods: The urine specimens from 1509 patients (1195 women and 314 men were processed for UA, UC and antibiogram. First of all, the sterile urine samples were cultured using differential media, including EMB and blood agar. After 24 hr incubation, the colonies were identified and differentiated by biochemical tests. Antibiograms for all isolated species were determined using Muller Hinton agar. All results obtained from this survey were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: Of the 1509 samples, 986 (65.3% were positive for pathogenic bacteria, 170 (17.2% of which were from men and 816 (82.8% from women. E. coli was the most prevalent with 591 cases (58.7%, followed by Enterobacter 115 (11.4% and Klebsiella 88 (8.8%. Data analysis revealed that the correlations between the WBC, RBC, nitrite, crystal, and protein were significantly higher in culture-positive samples. Of the antibiotics tested, isolated species were most sensitive to amikacin and most resistant to ampicillin."nConclusion: The present study revealed a correlation between pyuria and bacteruria; however, it should be noted that the clinical signs and the presence of WBC in urine could not be used to confirm the UTI. In addition, since different bacterial species are able to cause UTI, in order to administer proper treatment while controlling improper use of antibiotics, thorough testing, including UA and UC together with antibiogram, is strongly recommended.

  16. Purple urine bag syndrome- changing hue!

    Sadhna Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple Urine Bag Syndrome (PUBS is a unique disease entity characterised by purple discoloration of urine secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubin producing bacteria and is predominantly seen in constipated, chronically debilitated and catheterised women with alkaline urine. This syndrome indicates underlying recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs associated with higher incidence of mortality and morbidity than urinary tract infection alone without this occurrence. This article is about an elderly hypothyroid woman with PUBS and reviews the need to be aware of this entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 31-32

  17. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls (PURD) refers to an athlete's inability to urinate during a doping control. This paper reports PURD to occur quite frequently in elite athletes, investigates the relationship to the clinical disorder of paruresis (PAR), and investigates its...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self-perception of...... professionalism and athletic excellence. Suggestions for psychological interventions and recommendations for improving the doping control system are given....

  18. Leukocyte counts in urine reflect the risk of concomitant sepsis in bacteriuric infants: A retrospective cohort study

    Harper Marvin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When urine infections are missed in febrile young infants with normal urinalysis, clinicians may worry about the risk – hitherto unverified – of concomitant invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid by uropathogens. In this study, we determine the extent of this risk. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of febrile 0–89 day old infants evaluated for sepsis in an urban academic pediatric emergency department (1993–1999, we estimated rates of bacteriuric sepsis (urinary tract infections complicated by sepsis after stratifying infants by urine leukocyte counts higher, or lower than 10 cells/hpf. We compared the global accuracy of leukocytes in urine, leukocytes in peripheral blood, body temperature, and age for predicting bacteruric sepsis. The global accuracy of each test was estimated by calculating the area under its receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests compared count data. Medians for data not normally distributed were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Two thousand two hundred forty-nine young infants had a normal screening dipstick. None of these developed bacteremia or meningitis despite positive urine culture in 41 (1.8%. Of 1516 additional urine specimens sent for formal urinalysis, 1279 had 0–9 leukocytes/hpf. Urine pathogens were isolated less commonly (6% vs. 76% and at lower concentrations in infants with few, compared to many urine leukocytes. Urine leukocytes (AUC: 0.94 were the most accurate predictors of bacteruric sepsis. Infants with urinary leukocytes Conclusion In young infants evaluated for fever, leukocytes in urine reflect the likelihood of bacteriuric sepsis. Infants with urinary tract infections missed because of few leukocytes in urine are at relatively low risk of invasive bacterial sepsis by pathogens isolated from urine.

  19. Screening for drugs of abuse: which matrix, oral fluid or urine?

    Allen, Keith R

    2011-11-01

    Urine is recognized as the prime matrix for drug test screening with well-established methods and testing protocols. Its major limitation is with regard to the inconvenience of sample collection and lack of integrity due to adulteration, dilution, drug spiking or sample exchange. The question is whether oral fluid, with its apparent better sample integrity, can replace urine for drug screening. This review examines the sample integrity problems and the advantages and limitations of oral fluid and urine in drug screening programmes. The variety of sample collection devices for oral fluid is shown to be a problem with recovery and detection for some drugs. This is examined in relation to the pharmacokinetics of drug metabolism and excretion in this matrix. Buccal contamination with drugs in oral fluid may also cause problems with interpretation. The clinical advantages of oral fluid analysis compared with urine testing are highlighted. Parent drugs are often found in oral fluid where only their metabolites may be found in urine, for example the benzodiazepines. 6-Monoacetylmorphine, an indicative marker of heroin, has a high prevalence in oral fluid from users of this drug but its detection in urine is limited due to its short half-life. Advances in analytical techniques, particularly chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry, are helping to promote oral fluid analysis. However, the lack of concordance studies examining both urine and oral fluid drug levels and kinetics in the clinical setting is of some concern. PMID:21885472

  20. Plasma and urine levels of electrolytes, urea and steroid hormones involved in osmoregulation of cetaceans

    Birukawa, Naoko; Ando, Hironori; Goto, Mutsuo; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A.; Nakatsuji, Hiroki; Hata, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    Cetaceans are well adapted to their hyperosmotic environment by properly developed osmoregulatory ability. A question here is how they regulate water and mineral balances in marine habitats. In the present study, we determined blood and urine levels of various chemicals involved in osmoregulation, compared them with those in artiodactyls, and characterized the values in the whales. Blood and urine samples obtained from baleen whales of common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei (B. boreal...

  1. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–con...

  2. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives: We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–c...

  3. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; Simon, David; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is a well known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinin...

  4. Endothelial function and urine albumin levels among asymptomatic Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites

    Sklar Sharon K; Wong Nathan D; Allebban Zuhair; Gardin Julius M; Bess Renee L; Spence M Anne; Pershadsingh Harrihar A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background- Mexican-Americans (MA) exhibit increases in various cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), yet are reported to have lower CVD mortality rates. Our aim was to help explain this apparent paradox by evaluating endothelial function and urine albumin levels in MA and NHW. Methods- One hundred-five MA and 100 NHW adults were studied by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), blood and urine tests. Participants were studied by ul...

  5. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation.

    Faridi, M S; Rahman, Md Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-02-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  6. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  7. On-Demand Urine Analyzer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  8. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    D′Hauwers K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, because HPV-related, life threatening malignancies in men are rare. The importance of male HPV screening lies mainly in HPV vaccination. Young females are the target group for HPV, but men are considered to be the reservoir for HPV and to have a role in the perpetuation of the infection in the general population. We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  9. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    Faridi, M S; Rahman, MD Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recur...

  10. Method comparison for 241Am emergency urine bioassay.

    Li, Chunsheng; Sadi, Baki; Benkhedda, Karima; St-Amant, Nadereh; Moodie, Gerry; Ko, Raymond; Dinardo, Anthony; Kramer, Gary

    2010-10-01

    241Am is one of the high-risk radionuclides that might be used in a terrorist attack. 241Am in urine bioassay can identify the contaminated individuals who need immediate medical intervention and decontamination. This paper compares three methods for the measurement of 241Am in urine, namely liquid scintillation counting (LSC), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry (GS), at two levels, 20 and 2 Bq l(-1). All three methods satisfied the ANSI N13.30 radio-bioassay criteria for accuracy and repeatability. ICP-MS offered the best sensitivity and fastest sample turnaround; however, the ICP-MS system used in this work may not be available in many bioassay laboratories. LSC and GS are more commonly available instruments. GS requires minimal or no sample preparation, which makes it a good candidate method. Moreover, the sample throughput can be significantly improved if the GS and LSC methods are automated. PMID:20573683

  11. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  12. Determination of DTPA in urine by paper chromatography

    A paper chromatographic assay has been developed for measuring DTPA in urine to within 10% at concentrations greater than 10-5 M. This rapid method is subject to few interferences, needs only 10 to 20 μl of urine, and requires minimal handling of radioactive urine. The method has been tested on in vitro and in vivo DTPA-spiked urine samples

  13. Peningkatan Kandungan Kalium Urin Setelah Pemberian Ekstrak Sari Buah Belimbing Manis (Averrhoa carambola (THE INCREASE OF POTASSIUM URINE CONTENT AFTER ADMINSTRATION OF CARAMBOLA (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA FRUIT JUICE EXTRACT

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. has been used as medicinal plant. This research has beenconducted to study the potential diuretic of fruit juice carambola extract on male rats. Diuretic activitywas tested by using Cumming’s method. The treatment was administered only once, and the urine up to 24hours after treatment was collected. The result shows that the administration of 1.6 mL/100 g body weightof fruit juice carambola extract resulted in lower urine volume compared to the without treatment orklortalidon at dose 0.315 mg/100 body weight (p>0.05. Furthermore, Na+ content in treatment rats’ wasurine lower compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p<0.05. in contrast, high content of K+ wasobserveb in treatment  rast’ urine compared to the without treatment or klortalidon (p> 0.05. It is concludedthat the administration of carambola fruit juice extract may increase K+ content in urine and produce moreconcentrated urine. The mechanism of action, however, remains need to be proven, further.

  14. The potential of at-home prediction of the formation of urolithiasis by simple multi-frequency electrical conductivity of the urine and the comparison of its performance with urine ion-related indices, color and specific gravity.

    Silverio, Angelito A; Chung, Wen-Yaw; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Hai-Lung, Wang; Chien-Min, Kung; Chen, Jun; Tsai, Vincent F S

    2016-04-01

    It is important to control daily diet, water intake and life style as well as monitor the quality of urine for urolithiasis prevention. For decades, many ion-related indices have been developed for predicting the formation of urinary stones or urolithiasis, such as EQUILs, relative supersaturation (RSS), Tiselius indices (TI), Robertson risk factor algorithms (RRFA) and more recently, the Bonn risk index. However, they mostly demand robust laboratory analysis, are work-intensive, and even require complex computational programs to get the concentration patterns of several urine analytes. A simple and fast platform for measuring multi-frequency electrical conductivity (MFEC) of morning spot urine (random urine) to predict the onset of urolithiasis was implemented in this study. The performance thereof was compared to ion-related indices, urine color and specific gravity. The concentrations of relevant ions, color, specific gravity (SG) and MFEC (MFEC tested at 1, 10, 100, 5001 KHz and 1 MHz) of 80 random urine samples were examined after collection. Then, the urine samples were stored at 4 °C for 24 h to determine whether sedimentation would occur or not. Ion-activity product index of calcium oxalate (AP(CaOx) EQ2) was calculated. The correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color, SG and MFEC were analyzed. AP(CaOx) EQ2, urine color and MFEC (at 5 frequencies) all demonstrated good prediction (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, respectively) for stone formation. The positive correlation between AP(CaOx) EQ2 and MFEC is also significant (p = 0.01). MFEC provides a good metric for predicting the onset of urolithiasis, which is comparable to conventional ion-related indices and urine color. This technology can be implemented with much ease for objectively monitoring the quality of urine at points-of-care or at home. PMID:26271351

  15. Katkor(R cat litter, a non-invasive method of collecting cat urine for phosphate determination : short communication

    P.C. Delport

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to compare the collection of cat urine, for phosphate concentration determination, by catheterisation with that via a proprietary cat litter (Katkor (R. The passage of urine through the litter or its retention in the litter for a period of 2 hours did not affect the concentration of phosphates compared with that of the original sample. Apart from a small volume of urine trapped in the litter by capillary action, and some urine adhering to the funnel in which the litter was placed, the litter proved to be an excellent medium for routine urine collection from cats, and more especially as an alternative to catheterisation when regular collection from a particular cat is required.

  16. Comparison of results of GICA and RIA in determination of HCG in urine

    Objective: To compare the results of golden immuno-chromatographic assay (GICA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in urine. Methods: 148 random urine specimens from child-bearing age women were determined for HCG with both GICA and RIA. Results: The lowest detectable content of HCG in urine was 120.0 mIU/ml with GICA and the detectable range of concentration was 120-427570 mIU/ml, over which the zone phenomena (antigen excess) occurred with false negative result. The sensitivity with RIA was 25 mIU/ml and there was no zone phenomena. Conclusion: The GICA was a simple and rapid method in determination of HCG in urine, but there was the disadvantage of lower sensitivity and presence of zone phenomena

  17. Law of Urination: all mammals empty their bladders over the same duration

    Yang, Patricia J; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David L

    2013-01-01

    The urinary system evolved to eject fluids from the body body quickly and efficiently. Despite a long history of successful urology treatments in humans and animals, the physics of urination has received comparatively little attention. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in animal mass, from mice to elephants. Using high-speed fluid dynamics videos and flow-rate measurement at Zoo Atlanta, we discover the "Law of Urination", which states animals empty their bladders over nearly constant duration of average 21 seconds (standard deviation 13 seconds), despite a difference in bladder volume from 100 mL to 100 L. This feat is made possible by the increasing urethra length of large animals which amplifies gravitational force and flow rate. We also demonstrate the challenges faced by the urinary system for rodents and other small mammals for which urine flow is limited to single drops. Our findings reveal the urethr...

  18. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Urine of Patients with Hepatitis B and C

    Ömer Faruk Kökoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to determine the role of oxidative stress biomarkers in hepatic damage in hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients with chronic hepatitis B, 15 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 30 healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, urine oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdehyde (MDA levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 and catalase (CAT activities were measured. Results: Urine MDA levels increased in patients with HBV and HCV compared to the control group. It was higher in HCV patients than HBV patients (p<0.001. Besides, while CAT and SOD-1 activities were decreased in the urine of patients with HCV, they increased in the urine of patients with HBV compared to controls (p<0.05. Furthermore, urine CAT ve SOD-1 activities in patients with HBV were statistically significantly higher than those of the HCV patients (p<0.001. Conclusion: Increase in urine MDA levels in hepatitis forms may be valuable in monitoring in viral hepatitis cases. Also, we thought that insufficiency of antioxidant barrier in patients with HCV may cause oxidative damage, so antioxidant treatment may useful and should be added to the combined therapy for these patients.

  19. Efficacy of Cow Urine as Plant Growth Enhancer and Antifungal Agent

    Savita Jandaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine antifungal activity of three different concentrations (5, 10, and 15% of cow urine against three fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii isolated from infected plants of Methi and Bhindi that showed symptoms of damping off and wilting disease by poison food technique. The extent of growth of test fungi in plates poisoned with cow urine was lesser when compared with the control plates. Among these concentrations cow urine at 15% concentration was most effective. When the three fungal organisms were compared, maximum growth suppression was observed in Fusarium oxysporum (78.57% at 15% concentration of cow urine followed by Rhizoctonia solani (78.37% and Sclerotium rolfsii (73.84%. Finally we concluded that the cow urine has antifungal activities and the inhibitory activity can be used in the control of fungi. The nutritional effect of cow urine on plant growth was also tested with Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi and Abelmoschus esculentus (Bhindi plants and the chlorophyll and protein content was also estimated.

  20. Male panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) urine contains kinship information

    LIU DingZhen; WEI RongPing; ZHANG GuiQuan; YUAN Hong; WANG ZhiPeng; SUN Lixing; ZHANG dianXu; ZHANG HeMin

    2008-01-01

    Chemical communication plays an important role in kin selection and mate choice in mammals. The covariance of odor-genes of rodents has been documented and kinship odor has been proposed and termed, yet little is known of the relationship between genetic relatedness and chemical composition of kinship odors. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) rely substantially on chemical communication to mediate their social interactions. To examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and compounds in the urine/anogenital gland secretions, we compared the similarities between genetic relatedness and the chemical profiles of anogenital gland secretions and urine via lineage construction and GC-MS (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). We found that information about kinship odors was present only in the urine of male adults in the mating season but absent in the non-mating season. Adult females and all sub-adults did not have such kinship odors in either mating or non-mating season. Therefore, kinship odor in the panda was contingent on age, sex, and season. This is the first report about the condition-dependent expression of kinship odor, which may have a sig-nificant implication in the practice of panda conservation in relation to chemical communication and sexual selection.

  1. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  2. The recycle of water and nitrogen from urine in bioregenerative life support system

    Deng, Shengda; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The recycle of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), among which the treatment and recovery of the crew's urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Researchers have paid a lot of attention on the desalination of urine in the previous studies, however, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved more significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urine was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification method (HTAM) and immobilized urease catalysis method (IUCM) were investigated in the hydrolysis pretreatment of urine. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the hydrolysis efficiencies were compared. The results showed that the optimum treatment temperature and acidity for HTAM were 99 °C and [H+] =2 mol/L when the reaction time was 7 h, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency was 39.7%. While, the optimum treatment conditions for IUCM were 60 °C, pH=7.0 and 40 min, and the maximum nitrogen recycle efficiency could reach 52.2%. Therefore, compared with HTAM, IUCM has higher hydrolysis efficiency with milder reaction temperature and pH and shorter reaction time which means it could adapt to the heavy urine treatment workload in BLSS. This investigation has provided a promising method to recycle the urine in BLSS, and all the results will contribute to the further BLSS experiments conducted in the stage II of the "Lunar Palace 1".

  3. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    Antonini, Samantha, E-mail: sam_antonini@uni-bonn.de; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  4. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY WATER AND URINE SAMPLES

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  5. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  6. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  7. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  8. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  9. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) μg/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (rs=0.5; p2; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  10. Urine flow cytometry can rule out urinary tract infection, but cannot identify bacterial morphologies correctly.

    Geerts, N; Jansz, A R; Boonen, K J M; Wijn, R P W F; Koldewijn, E L; Boer, A K; Scharnhorst, V

    2015-08-25

    The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) by urine culture is a time-consuming and costly procedure. Usage of a screening method, to identify negative samples, would therefore affect time-to-diagnosis and laboratory cost positively. Urine flow cytometers are able to identify particles in urine. Together with the introduction of a cut-off value, which determines if a urine sample is subsequently cultured or not, the number of cultures can be reduced, while maintaining a low level of false negatives and a high negative predictive value. Recently, Sysmex developed additional software for their urine flow cytometers. Besides measuring the number of bacteria present in urine, information is given on bacterial morphology, which may guide the physician in the choice of antibiotic. In this study, we evaluated this software update. The UF1000i classifies bacteria into two categories: 'rods' and 'cocci/mixed'. Compared to the actual morphology of the bacterial pathogen found, the 'rods' category scores reasonably well with 91% chance of classifying rod-shaped bacteria correctly. The 'cocci/mixed' category underperforms, with only 29% of spherical-shaped bacteria (cocci) classified as such. In its current version, the bacterial morphology software does not classify bacteria, according to their morphology, well enough to be of clinical use in this study population. PMID:26123581

  11. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam.

    Antonini, Samantha; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. PMID:22172663

  12. Alteration of podocyte phenotype in the urine of women with preeclampsia

    Zhai, Tianyue; Furuta, Itsuko; Akaishi, Rina; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takahiro; Koyama, Takahiro; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-01-01

    Podocyte injury has been suggested to induce phenotypic alteration of glomerular podocytes and accelerate the detachment of podocytes from the glomeruli resulting in podocyturia. However, it is not clear whether podocyte phenotypic alteration occurs in the urine of women with preeclampsia (PE). Seventy-seven and 116 pelleted urine samples from 38 and 18 women at various stages of normal and PE pregnancies, respectively underwent quantitative analysis of podocyte-specific or associated protein mRNA expression, including podocin, nephrin, and synaptopodin using RT-PCR. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy (SPIP) is defined as protein:creatinine ratio (P/Cr, mg/mg) ≥0.27 in the urine supernatant. All three urine-pellet mRNAs expression levels were significantly positively correlated with P/Cr levels, suggesting that podocyturia increased with proteinuria. The podocin:nephrin mRNA ratio (PNR) and synaptopodin:nephrin mRNA ratio (SNR) increased significantly with increasing P/Cr, while the podocin:synaptopodin mRNA ratio (PSR) did not change significantly according to P/Cr, resulting in significantly higher PNR and SNR, but not PSR levels, in urine from PE women with than without SPIP. The PNR, SNR, and PSR in urine from PE women before onset of SPIP were comparable to those from controls. Thus, nephrin mRNA expression was reduced in the podocytes recovered from PE women. PMID:27052160

  13. The application of supercritical fluid extraction to cocaine and its metabolites in blood and urine.

    Allen, D L; Oliver, J S

    2000-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is emerging as a valuable analytical technique for use as an alternative to conventional solid-phase (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction techniques. It is a relatively new technique based on the use of supercritical fluids for the isolation of analytes from various matrices and is attracting great interest because of the increasing need for a simple, rapid, environmentally friendly, automated, and selective extraction method. A new method using SFE procedures for the extraction of cocaine and its major metabolites, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, from whole blood and urine was developed. This study has shown that cocaine and its metabolites can be successfully extracted from blood and urine using SFE techniques. Levels measured using SFE have shown analyte recovery better than 70% for cocaine, better than 40% for benzoylecgonine, and better than 85% for ecognine methyl ester from whole blood and urine. Good run-to-run reproducibility was observed between each extraction with limits of detection and quantitation of 1 ng and 10 ng based on 200 microL of blood and urine. A comparison between SPE and developed SFE techniques was investigated to observe if a correlation existed between the two methods. Studies proved that a correlation did exist between the two methods for spiked blood and urine samples with comparative results. This paper details a procedure for the extraction of cocaine and its metabolites from blood and urine. PMID:10774543

  14. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  15. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. Wolfe St., Rm. 7041, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Industrial Medicine, SoonChunHyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Spector, June [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Fadrowski, Jeffrey [Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jaar, Bernard G. [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Todd, Andrew C. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  16. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  17. Investigation of Urination Disorder in Parkinson's Disease

    Li-Mei Zhang; Xu-Ping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Urination disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and respond poorly to medication.This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for urination disorders in PD.Methods:Ninety-one patients with PD (aged 34-83 years old) were recruited.Patients were assessed with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS),Hoehn and Yahr stage,Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI),Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD),and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA).Micturition number was recorded,and Type B ultrasound was used to evaluate residual urine.Statistics was performed using binary logistic regression,bivariate correlations,and Chi-square and t-tests.Results:Of 91 patients,urinary dysfunction occurred in 55.0%.Among these,49.5% suffered with nocturia,47.3% with pollakiuria.Nocturia number had a positive linear relationship with HAMA score (odds ratio [OR] =0.340,P =0.001),HAMD score (OR =0.323,P =0.002),duration of L-dopa medication (OR =0.328,P =0.001),dose of L-dopa (OR =0.273,P =0.009),UPDRS-Ⅱ (OR =0.402,P =0.000),UPDRS-Ⅲ score (OR =0.291,P =0.005),and PSQI score (OR =0.249,P =0.017).Micturition number over 24 h was positively associated with HAMA (OR =0.303,P =0.004) and UPDRS-Ⅱ scores (OR =0.306,P =0.003).Of patients with residual urine,79.3% had a volume of residual urine <50 ml.Residual urine was present in 44.4% of the patients with nocturia,46.5% of the patients with pollakiuria,and 80.0% of the patients with dysuria.More men than women had residual urine (35.2% male vs.13.3% female;P =0.002).Conclusions:Nocturia and pollakiuria were common micturition symptoms in our participants with PD.Nocturia was associated with depression,anxiety,sleep problems,and severity of PD.Pollakiuria was associated with anxiety and severity of PD.Male patients were more prone to residual urine and pollakiuria.

  18. Protective Effect of Distillate and Redistillate of Cow's Urine in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Challenged With Established Genotoxic Chemicals

    K. KRISHNAMURTHI; DIPANWITA DUTTA; S. D. SIVANESAN; T. CHAKRABARTI

    2004-01-01

    From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. In Veda, cow's urine was compared to the nectar. In Susrut, several medicinal properties of cow's urine have been mentioned and are known to cause weight loss, reversal of certain cardiac and kidney problems, indigestion, stomach ache, edema, etc. However, the literature and scripture did not mention the antigenotoxic properties of cow's urine. Methods In the present investigation, the antigenotoxic/ antioxidant properties of cow's urine distillate and redistillate were studied in vitro. The antioxidant status and volatile fatty acid levels were determined. Actinomycin-D (0.1 μmol/L) and hydrogen peroxide (150 μmol/L) were used for inducing DNA strand break with 0.1% DMSO as negative control. Dose for the antigenotoxic effect of cow's urine was chosen from the dose response study carried out earlier. Results Both actinomycin-D and H2O2 caused statistically significant DNA unwinding of 80% & 75% respectively (P<0.001) as revealed by fluorimetric analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU), and the damage could be protected with the redistilled cow's urine distillate (1, 50 & 100 μL) in simultaneous treatment with genotoxic chemicals. Conclusion The redistillate of cow's urine was found to possess total antioxidant status of around 2.6 mmol, contributed mainly by volatile fatty acids (1500 mg/L) as revealed by the GC-MS studies. These fatty acids and other antioxidants might cause the observed protective effects.

  19. A comparison of different radiochemical methods applicable for the determination of plutonium isotopes in urine via alpha spectrometry

    The aim of the present work was to compare the performance of four of the most widely adopted radiochemical procedures making use of different extraction methods for the determination of plutonium in urine samples via alpha spectrometry

  20. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol

    Elers, J; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, J;

    2011-01-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use of...... beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at...

  1. Efficacy of an enzyme immunoassay with uncentrifuged first-voided urine for detection of gonorrhea in males.

    Rudrik, J T; Waller, J M; Britt, E M

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (Gonozyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antigens was used to screen 184 urethral or uncentrifuged first-voided urine or both specimens from males and 78 cervical specimens. When compared with culture, the sensitivity and specificity of Gonozyme for cervical and urethral specimens were comparable to those in published reports. The sensitivity and specificity for urine specimens were 91.6 and 97.9%, respectively.

  2. Audit of catheter urine culture requests.

    Manek, N; Napier Rees, E

    1992-01-01

    An audit to assess the appropriateness of catheter urine culture requests was carried out for a period of one month. The requests were followed up by members of the Infection Control Team at ward level. The laboratory report had no impact on the removal of the catheter in asymptomatic or symptomatic patients, although the reports did aid antibiotic prescribing in symptomatic patients.

  3. Audit of catheter urine culture requests.

    Manek, N; Napier Rees, E

    1992-01-01

    An audit to assess the appropriateness of catheter urine culture requests was carried out for a period of one month. The requests were followed up by members of the Infection Control Team at ward level. The laboratory report had no impact on the removal of the catheter in asymptomatic or symptomatic patients, although the reports did aid antibiotic prescribing in symptomatic patients. PMID:1740523

  4. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS... aftercare as a condition of release; (2) Who have a known history of drug abuse; or (3) Who are suspected...

  5. Determination of natural thorium in urines

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of thorium in urine is described. After precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, dissolution of the precipitate, extraction at pH 4-4.2 with cupferron in chloroformic solution and mineralization, a colorimetric determination of thorium with thorin is performed. It is thus possible to detect about 2 γ of thorium in the sample. (author)

  6. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if you know what to expect, it doesn't have to be embarrassing ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.

    Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

  8. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if you know what to expect, it doesn't have to be ... Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  9. Effect-based detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine.

    Pitardi, Danilo; Cini, Barbara; Paleologo, Maurizio; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; van der Linden, Sander; Vincenti, Marco; Capra, Pierluigi; Gili, Marilena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meloni, Daniela; Bozzetta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to testing for the illicit use of anabolic substances in meat-producing animals stem from the production of new synthetic compounds and the administration of low-dose cocktails to circumvent detection by the surveillance schemes of European Union member states. This work evaluated for the first time GR-CALUX, a highly sensitive reporter gene assay, as a screening tool for the detection of synthetic glucocorticoids in bovine urine. In order to verify the effect of natural corticosteroids on the method, the bioassay was tested first using blank urine samples collected at the farm and the slaughterhouse. Next, the dose-response curves were measured for the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids. The bioassay's ability to detect them in spiked and incurred samples of bovine urine was then evaluated. Finally, its performance was compared against a commercially available ELISA kit ordinarily used in screening activities. GR-CALUX performance did not appear to be influenced by physiological levels of endogenous corticosteroids in the farm samples, whereas an increase in these hormones might invalidate the analysis in samples obtained at the slaughterhouse. Using pure compounds, GR-CALUX showed a high sensitivity toward the synthetic glucocorticosteroids tested in order of relative potencies: flumethasone ≫ dexamethasone > betamethasone > methylprednisolone > prednisolone. As expected, the bioassay failed to detect the prohormone prednisone. The results obtained from analysis of the spiked and incurred specimens reproduced those of the blank samples and the pure compounds. GR-CALUX is a promising screening tool for the detection of illicit treatments in meat-producing bovines. Its ability to detect the most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoids was comparable with the ELISA test. Importantly, it appeared to be less susceptible to matrix effects than ELISA. PMID:25569131

  10. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  11. Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.

    Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role. PMID:24292466

  12. Safe Reuse of Urine: Screening of Stored Urine for Pharmaceuticals Using Chromatography

    Zambeze Kallio, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Urine has a large potential to be used as fertilizer due to the nutrient content in ionic form. As the amount of reused urine grows, the concern with the safety also grows when it comes to the presence of microorganisms and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, the concentrations of the nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium, were determined as well as the presence of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. The determination nitrogen and phosphorus, was done by Hach-Lange DR...

  13. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer - methylene urea - from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urin...

  14. Pregnancy diagnosis from urine in even-toed ungulates

    Kubátová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis reviewed possible non-invasive pregnancy diagnostic methods in ungulates with special attention to diagnosis from urine. The practical part was focused on pregnancy diagnosis from urine in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The aims of the thesis were to examine the possibility of catching fresh urine directly from female alpacas and to evaluate three pregnancy diagnostic tests from urine in alpacas – the seed germination test, the barium chloride test, and the Cuboni reaction. The r...

  15. Nitrification and microalgae cultivation for two-stage biological nutrient valorization from source separated urine.

    Coppens, Joeri; Lindeboom, Ralph; Muys, Maarten; Coessens, Wout; Alloul, Abbas; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Clauwaert, Peter; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-07-01

    Urine contains the majority of nutrients in urban wastewaters and is an ideal nutrient recovery target. In this study, stabilization of real undiluted urine through nitrification and subsequent microalgae cultivation were explored as strategy for biological nutrient recovery. A nitrifying inoculum screening revealed a commercial aquaculture inoculum to have the highest halotolerance. This inoculum was compared with municipal activated sludge for the start-up of two nitrification membrane bioreactors. Complete nitrification of undiluted urine was achieved in both systems at a conductivity of 75mScm(-1) and loading rate above 450mgNL(-1)d(-1). The halotolerant inoculum shortened the start-up time with 54%. Nitrite oxidizers showed faster salt adaptation and Nitrobacter spp. became the dominant nitrite oxidizers. Nitrified urine as growth medium for Arthrospira platensis demonstrated superior growth compared to untreated urine and resulted in a high protein content of 62%. This two-stage strategy is therefore a promising approach for biological nutrient recovery. PMID:26998796

  16. Detection of Genitourinary Tract Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Urine specimens by PCR Assay

    李洪霞; 温泉; 夏迎华; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the cervical/urethral swabs with voided urine specimens for the detection of genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and determine whether urine specimens can replace the cervical/urethral swabs in detection of C. trachomatis. Methods: The matched cervical/urethral swabs and voided urine specimens were collected from 569 patients of STD clinics.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for C. trachomatis plasmid DNA and rapid antigen testing (Clear view assay) was used to detect C. trachomatis. Standard criteria that defined """"true"""" positive included: 1) positive PCR results both in cervical/urethral swab and voided urine specimen or 2) positive voided urine results both by PCR assay and clear view test or 3)positive results in both PCR assay of cervical/urethral swab and clear view test of voided urine. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with symptoms was 12.1% (28/231) in women and 10.4%(10/96) in men, with no significant difference between them (x2=0.21,P>0.05). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with no symptoms was 11.0% (11/100) in women and 15.5% (22/142) in men, with a significant difference existing between them. (x2=4.0, P0.05) existed between PCR testing of swabs (sensitivity 87.3 %; specificity 99.2 %) and PCR testing of urine (sensitivity 88.7%; specificity 98.8%). As for clear view assay, sensitivity was 60.6% and specificity was 100%. Conclusions: PCR assay is superior to clear view in detecting C. trachomatis. Although both PCR testing of swabs and PCR testing of urine specimens both have high sensitivity and specificity, urine specimen testing is more cost-effective, practical and noninvasive. Thus urine specimens can take the place of the swabs in PCR testing for chlamydia.

  17. Accuracy and precision of a laser-spectroscopy approach to the analysis of δ²H and δ¹⁸O in human urine.

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Enright, Lindsey E; Barnette, Janet E; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-12-01

    The isotope ratio analysis of body water often involves large sample numbers and lengthy sample processing. Here we demonstrate the ability of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) to rapidly and accurately analyse the isotope ratios of water in urine. We analysed water extracted from human urine using traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and compared those values with IRIS-analysed extracted water and un-extracted urine. Regression analyses for δ²H and δ¹⁸O values between (1) extracted water analysed via IRMS and IRIS and (2) urine and extracted water analysed via IRIS were significant (R²=0.99). These results indicate that cryogenic distillation of urine was not required for an accurate estimate of the isotopic composition of urine when using IRIS. PMID:21154006

  18. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  19. Gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow.

    Steele, J E; Skarlatos, S; Brand, P H; Metting, P J; Britton, S L

    1993-10-01

    The rate of urine formation is a primary index of renal function, but no techniques are currently available to accurately measure low rates of urine flow on a continuous basis, such as are normally found in rats. We developed a gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow in anesthetized rats. Catheters were inserted directly into the ureters close to the renal pelves, and a siphon was created to collect all of the urine formed as rapidly as it was produced. Urine flow was determined by measuring the weight of the urine using a direct-reading analytical balance interfaced to a computer. Basal urine flow was measured at 2-sec intervals for 30 to 60 min. The dynamic response of urine flow to a rapid decrease in arterial pressure produced by a bolus intravenous injection of acetylcholine (0.5 micrograms) was also measured. Intrinsic drift, evaporative losses, and the responsiveness of the system to several fixed pump flows in the low physiologic range were evaluated in vitro. The gravimetric method described was able to continuously measure basal urine flows that averaged 37.3 +/- 12.4 microliters/min. Error due to drift and evaporation was negligible, totaling less than 1% of the measured urine flow. Acetylcholine-induced declines in arterial pressure were followed within 8 sec by a decline in urine flow. These data demonstrate that this new gravimetric method provides a simple, inexpensive, dynamic measurement of urine flow in the microliter/min range. PMID:8372099

  20. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  1. Métodos de tratamento utilizados na incontinência urinária de esforço genuína: um estudo comparativo entre cinesioterapia e eletroestimulação endovaginal Methods of treatment of genuine stress incontinence: a comparative study between a pelvic floor exercise program and a pelvic floor electrical stimulation

    Nicole O. Bernardes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar pacientes portadoras de incontinência urinária de esforço genuína (IUEG que se submeteram a um protocolo de cinesioterapia para reforço perineal àquelas que se submeteram a eletroestimulação endovaginal (EEEV. O objetivo foi traçar uma conduta de tratamento fisioterápico mais adequada para tal enfermidade. Métodos: foram selecionadas 14 pacientes portadoras de IUEG, com idade entre 31 e 64 anos, sendo divididas em dois grupos de 7 mulheres cada. Cada grupo foi submetido a um dos protocolos de tratamento ambulatorial diário durante 10 dias consecutivos. As pacientes foram avaliadas e reavaliadas por somente uma fisioterapeuta. Para as análises estatísticas foram utilizados testes não-paramétricos. Resultados: todas pacientes obtiveram uma melhora parcial ou total da IUEG com 10 sessões fisioterápicas consecutivas, considerando os critérios objetivos e subjetivos de avaliação. Conclusão: tanto a cinesioterapia quanto a EEEV se mostraram efetivas no tratamento da IUEG, porém, a cinesioterapia para reforço perineal apresentou uma tendência para ser o tratamento de escolha.Purpose: to compare patients with genuine stress incontinence (GSI who were submitted to a pelvic floor exercise program (PFEP with those who were submitted to a pelvic floor electrical stimulation (PFES. Methods: fourteen GSI patients, with age between 31-64 years, participated in the study. They were divided into two groups of 7 each. PFEP or PFES was performed for 10 days. The women were evaluated at the first consultation and reevaluated after the ten-day treatment by only one physical therapist. For the statistical analysis nonparametric tests were used. Results: all had a partial or a total improvement of the GSI after the treatment, considering the subjective and objective analysis of the research. Conclusion: both PFEP and PFES showed to be effective to treat GSI, although PFEP showed a tendency to be the better treatment.

  2. The determination of radium-226 in urine

    The method for determining radium-226 in urine that is currently being used by the Bioassay Laboratory has been tested and documented. Radium-226 is coprecipitated from urine by alkaline calcium phosphate. This precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric acid and the radium purified by cation exchange. Radium is collected by a barium sulphate coprecipitation and then estimated by alpha counting. The method has been tested using radium-226 and cross-contamination studies were performed using Am-24l, Pu-239, Np-237, Th-Nat and U-233. With the exception of Am-24l, cross-contaminations were found to be negligible. The method gives an overall chemical recovery of 80 +- 5α and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.39 mBq - counting time, 72 h; background, 0.05 counts per minute (cpm)

  3. Principal component analysis of urine metabolites detected by NMR and DESI-MS in patients with inborn errors of metabolism.

    Pan, Zhengzheng; Gu, Haiwei; Talaty, Nari; Chen, Huanwen; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Hainline, Bryan E; Cooks, R Graham; Raftery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Urine metabolic profiles of patients with inborn errors of metabolism were examined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) methods. Spectra obtained from the study of urine samples from individual patients with argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA), classic homocystinuria (HCY), classic methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), phenylketonuria (PKU) and type II tyrosinemia (TYRO) were compared with six control patient urine samples using principal component analysis (PCA). Target molecule spectra were identified from the loading plots of PCA output and compared with known metabolic profiles from the literature and metabolite databases. Results obtained from the two techniques were then correlated to obtain a common list of molecules associated with the different diseases and metabolic pathways. The combined approach discussed here may prove useful in the rapid screening of biological fluids from sick patients and may help to improve the understanding of these rare diseases. PMID:16821030

  4. Radioimmunoassay of ADH in human urine

    A simple efficient procedure for extracting and concentrating arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) from urine has been coupled with a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay in order to measure antidiuretic hormone (ADH) excretion in normal human under various physiological stimuli. Antisera have been raised in rabbits injected with lysine-vasopressin (LVP) or AVP coupled with bovine serum albumin. The antiserum selected for the assay which inhibits the antidiuresis induced in the rat by AVP is used at a final dilution of 1 : 50,000 and possesses a high association constant of 1x1011 l.mol-1. The limit of detection of the RIA system is 0.5 μUI/ml of urine (1.25 pg). Urinary ADH has been extracted from urine by Miller and Moses method. Mean recovery of added vasopressin averaged 90.2%+-11 (SD) and assay of serial dilutions of such extracts showed that they behave in the assay system in the same way as synthetic AVP standards. Moreover comparison of the results obtained by the RIA to those given by the biological method using the ethanol anesthetized rat showed excellent correlation (r=0.9p<0.001). Under ad libitum fluid and food intake, mean daily urinary excretion of AVP (uncorrected for recovery) determined in 22 subjects was found to be 30.58+-11.64mU/h with no significant difference between men and women. In response to an oral waterload ADH became undetectable at the peak of diuresis. Following a 16 hr fluid deprivation, ADH rose moderately. A significant correlation has been found between urine osmolality and AVP excretion rate

  5. Radioimmunological detection of vasopressin in urine extracts

    After initial measures had been taken to ensure that ion exchange chromatography would yield a sufficiently high recovery of labelled and non-labelled hormone as well as to eliminate all intervening factors it was possible to use the described extraction procedure in connection with the RIA introduced by Freisenhausen et al. At the clinical level, the technique was employed to assess the post-operative release of AVP (argenine vasopressin) in 24-hour urine samples obtained from patients subjected to hypophysectomy. In a total of 10 patients, where hypophysectomy had been performed for different clinical reasons, the AVP values were seen to be significantly decreased for the first three hours after surgical intervention. They recovered slightly during the following three hours to remain at an average level of 2 pg / 400 μl urine. The extraction procedure described can be used to determine levels of AVP approaching the limit of detection - either due to large volumes of urine or very low concentrations of AVP. (orig./MG)

  6. Significance of weakly positive urine pregnancy tests

    Suguna R. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the pregnancy outcome of weakly positive urine pregnancy tests in 207 women by transvaginal sonograghy (TVS. Background: Urine pregnancy test (UPT also called Home pregnancy test (HPT currently make up the fastest growing segment of home diagnostic testing market. These tests give a significant results as a weakly positive pregnancy test (hCG 25-50IU/L and a positive pregnancy test (hCG >50IU/L, but both the results are reported as a positive pregnancy test by a non- professional. Human gonadotropin (hCG levels indicate the health of the trophoblastic tissue, low level of βhCG is associated with poor decidual reaction. A weakly positive result indicates low hCG level and requires further evaluation. Method: Women visiting Antenatal Clinic for confirmation of pregnancy with weakly positive UPT were advised repeat UPT after 48hours on morning urine sample, repeat UPT with weakly positive results were advised TVS to known the pregnancy outcome. Result: TVS of these weakly positive results showed early pregnancy failure (EPF in 138(66.6%, viable pregnancy 58 (28% and no pregnancy in 11(5.3%. Conclusion: Thus these kits require a manufactures instruction to distinguish positive and weakly positive results and an advice for further evaluation by an expert to known the pregnancy outcome and to prevent the complications of interference in non- pregnant status and continuation of EPF

  7. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  8. Urine proteomic profiling of uranium nephrotoxicity

    Malard, V.; Gaillard, J.C.; Sage, N. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire de Biochimie des Systemes Perturbes (LBSP), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Berenguer, F. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Laboratoire d' Etude des Proteines Cibles (LEPC), Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France); Quemeneur, E. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBTN, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, F-30207 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Uranium is used in many chemical forms in civilian and military industries and is a known nephro-toxicant. A key issue in monitoring occupational exposure is to be able to evaluate the potential damage to the body, particularly the kidney. In this study we used innovative proteomic techniques to analyse urinary protein modulation associated with acute uranium exposure in rats. Given that the rat urinary proteome has rarely been studied, we first identified 102 different proteins in normal urine, expanding the current proteome data set for this central animal in toxicology. Rats were exposed intravenously to uranyl nitrate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg and samples were collected 24 h later. Using two complementary proteomic methods, a classic 2-DE approach and semi-quantitative SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, 14 modulated proteins (7 with increased levels and 7 with decreased levels) were identified in urine after uranium exposure. Modulation of three of them was confirmed by western blot. Some of the modulated proteins corresponded to proteins already described in case of nephrotoxicity, and indicated a loss of glomerular permeability (albumin, alpha-1-anti-proteinase, sero-transferrin). Others revealed tubular damage, such as EGF and vitamin D-binding protein. A third category included proteins never described in urine as being associated with metal stress, such as ceruloplasmin. Urinary proteomics is thus a valuable tool to profile uranium toxicity non-invasively and could be very useful in follow-up in case of accidental exposure to uranium. (authors)

  9. Detection of gonococcal antigens in urine by radioimmunoassay

    A method of detecting gonococcal antigens by solid-phase radioimmunoassay with radioactively labelled antibody is described. A specificity test has been developed that enables this method to be used to detect gonococcal antigens in urine sediments. When sediments from samples of urine from male patients with gonorrhoea were tested, 31 (74%) of 42 gave positive results, clearly distinguishing them from sediments from urine samples from men with non-specific urethritis, none of which was positive. Ten of 14 urine sediments from urine samples from women with gonorrhoea gave positive results, as did 3 of 18 sediments from urine samples from women patients without gonorrhoea.These experiments demonstrate that gonococcal antigens can be detected in urine by radioimmunoassay; the method could be useful in diagnosis if, after refinement, its sensitivity and specificity were to be increased. (author)

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase 3α regulates urine concentrating mechanism in mice

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Tao, Shixin; Nilsson, Line;

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 comprises GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms. GSK3β has been shown to play a role in the ability of kidneys to concentrate urine by regulating vasopressin-mediated water permeability of collecting ducts, whereas the role of GSK3α has yet to be discerned....... To investigate the role of GSK3α in urine concentration, we compared GSK3α knockout (GSK3αKO) mice with wild-type (WT) littermates. Under normal conditions, GSK3αKO mice had higher water intake and urine output. GSK3αKO mice also showed reduced urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 levels but higher urinary...... vasopressin. When water deprived, they failed to concentrate their urine to the same level as WT littermates. The addition of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin to isolated inner medullary collecting ducts increased the cAMP response in WT mice, but this response was reduced in GSK3αKO mice, suggesting...

  11. Comparison of estrogens and estrogen metabolites in human breast tissue and urine

    Veenstra Timothy D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important aspect of the link between estrogen and breast cancer is whether urinary estrogen levels are representative of the intra-tissue levels of bioavailable estrogens. Methods This study compares 15 estrogen and estrogen metabolite levels in breast tissue and urine of 9 women with primary breast cancer using a quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Results The average levels of estrogens (estrone, 17 beta-estradiol were significantly higher in breast tissue than in urine. Both the 2 and the 16-hydroxylation pathways were less represented in breast tissue than urine; no components of the 4-hydroxypathway were detected in breast tissue, while 4-hydroxyestrone was measured in urine. However, the 2/16 ratio was similar in urine and breast tissue. Women carrying the variant CYP1B1 genotype (Leu/Val and Val/Val showed significantly lower overall estrogen metabolite, estrogen, and 16-hydroxylation pathway levels in breast tissue in comparison to women carrying the wild type genotype. No effect of the CYP1B1 polymorphism was observed in urinary metabolites. Conclusions The urinary 2/16 ratio seems a good approximation of the ratio observed in breast tissue. Metabolic genes may have an important role in the estrogen metabolism locally in tissues where the gene is expressed, a role that is not readily observable when urinary measurements are performed.

  12. High incidence of intact or fragmented immunoglobulin in urine of patients with multiple myeloma.

    Kraj, Maria; Kruk, Barbara; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective study we determined the incidence of intact/fragmented immunoglobulin and Bence Jones protein in urine immunofixation using Sebia reagents and HydrasysTM 2 apparatus and compared the results to concentrations of serum free light chains (FLC) assessed using Siemens BNTM II nephelometer and the immunoassay Freelite (Binding Site) in 289 patients with multiple myeloma at diagnosis. It was found that in one third of IgG, IgA and IgD myeloma patients, intact/fragmented immunoglobulin can be detected in urine and is connected with impaired renal function and reduced survival. Urine immunofixation detects monoclonal protein (FLC and intact/fragmented immunoglobulin) in 66-79% of IgG and IgA myeloma patients while serum FLC immunoassay detect it in 82-94% of IgG and IgA myeloma patients. However, the latter method is inadequate for detection of intact/fragmented immunoglobulin in urine. Serum FLC immunoassay and urine immunofixation are complementary methods in diagnosing and monitoring monoclonal protein in patients with myeloma. PMID:25860239

  13. Composition and Morphology of Nanocrystals in Urines of Lithogenic Patients and Healthy Persons

    Bao-Song Gui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and morphology of nanocrystals in urines of healthy persons and lithogenic patients were comparatively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was shown that the main composition of urinary nanocrystals in healthy persons were calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD, uric acid, and ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite. However, the main compositions of urinary nanocrystals in lithogenic patients were struvite, β-tricalcium phosphate, uric acid, COD, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM. According to the XRD data, the size of nanocrystals was calculated to be 23∼72 nm in healthy urine and 12∼118 nm in lithogenic urine by Scherer formula. TEM results showed that the nanocrystals in healthy urine were dispersive and uniform with a mean size of about 38 nm. In contrast, the nanocrystals in lithogenic urine were much aggregated with a mean size of about 55 nm. The results in this work indicated that the urinary stone formation may be prevented by diminishing the aggregation and the size differentiation of urinary nanocrystals by physical or chemical methods.

  14. Absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole in male mouse urine.

    Cavaggioni, Andrea; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2003-11-01

    The absolute configuration of 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (DHT) in urine of adult male mice was determined through chiral trifluoroacetyl derivative capillary chromatography by comparing the retention time with synthetic standards. (S)-DHT was extracted from fresh urine, while neither (R)-DHT nor the racemization of (S)-DHT were detected. We can conclude that DHT in urine possesses the S configuration, although we cannot exclude a minor component in the R configuration. (S)-DHT was then characterized for binding to the complex of major urinary proteins of male mouse urine (MUP) and for a behavioral response, the competitive scent marking behavior (countermarking). The binding constant of (S)-DHT to MUP (determined by competitive displacement) was 8.2 +/- 0.6 microM (mean +/- SD) and was 10.5 +/- 0.6 microM for R-DHT, thus excluding a relevant difference in binding. (S)-DHT modified countermarking in a peculiar way. Male mice were slow in countermarking urinary spots streaked 2 days earlier and on top of which (S)-DHT was added shortly before the test. This response was not seen when adding (S)-DHT to freshly streaked urinary spots or to clean paper. Unlike (S)-DHT, (R)-DHT prompted countermarking rather than delaying it. We can further conclude that (S)-DHT in male mouse urine is an aversive chemosignal for countermarking. PMID:14654447

  15. A comparison of four DNA extraction protocols for the analysis of urine from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva; Zulma Medeiros; Cynthia Regina Pedrosa Soares; Elis Dionísio da Silva; Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho; Fábio Lopes de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may offer an alternative diagnostic option when clinical signs and symptoms suggest visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but microscopic scanning and serological tests provide negative results. PCR using urine is sensitive enough to diagnose human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, DNA quality is a crucial factor for successful amplification. Methods A comparative performance evaluation of DNA extraction methods from the urine of patients with VL using...

  16. A comparison of RIFLE with and without urine output criteria for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    Wlodzimirow, Kama A.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Slabbekoorn, Mathilde; Chamuleau, Robert AFM; Schultz, Marcus J; Bouman, Catherine SC

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) is a consensus-based classification system for diagnosing acute kidney insufficiency (AKI), based on serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output criteria (RIFLESCr+UO). The urine output criteria, however, are frequently discarded and many studies in the literature applied only the SCr criteria (RIFLESCr). We diagnosed AKI using both RIFLE methods and compared the effects on time to AKI diagnosis, AKI incidence and A...

  17. Experimental evaluation of the detection threshold of uranium in urine samples

    The routine internal dosimetric tests for nuclear installations workers includes the determination of uranium in urine. The analysis is carried out, after chemical treatment, by UV fluorometry, comparing the results with urine blank samples from workers not exposed professionally to contamination. The fluctuation of the results of the uranium content in the blank samples greatly affects the determinations. In 30 blank samples the uranium content was determined and the results were evaluated by three calculation methods: 1) The procedure recommended by IUPAC; 2) The graphical method; 3) and The error propagation method. The last one has been adopted for the calculation of the detection threshold. (authors)

  18. Zinc and selenium in serum and urine of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    Zn and Se levels were measured by the method of neutron activation analysis in serum and urine of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients, comparing them with a well paired control group in order to help defining the phenotype of this pathology and the role these trace elements could have in the physiopathology of this disease. The levels of Zn and Se in serum and urine in DMD patients are higher than in controls. A tendency to higher levels of Zn in serum LDH and CK is observed in patients of lower age. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in Urine Specimens from Pregnant Women

    Tamayo, Javier; Gómez-Garcés, José-Luis; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    The Granada agar plate (GAP; Biomedics SL, Madrid, Spain) was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in urine specimens from pregnant women submitted for testing for asymptomatic bacteriuria and was compared with blood agar (BA [Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood]; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). The GAP detected 103 out of 105 GBS, whereas BA detected only 50. Use of the GAP could be a good method for the detection of GBS in urine specimens from pregnant women.

  20. Mechanical characterization of benign and malignant urothelial cells from voided urine

    Shojaei-Baghini, Ehsan; Zheng, Yi; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Geddie, William B.; Sun, Yu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether mechanical differences exist between benign and malignant urothelial cells in voided urine. The Young's modulus of individual cells was measured using the micropipette aspiration technique. Malignant urothelial cells showed significantly lower Young's modulus values compared to benign urothelial cells. The results indicate that Young's modulus as a biomechanical marker could possibly provide additional information to conventional urinary cytology. We hope that these preliminary results could evoke attention to mechanical characterization of urine cells and spark interest in the development of biomechanical approaches to enhance non-invasive urothelial carcinoma detection.

  1. Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats

    V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

    Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

  2. Proteomics profiling of urine with surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    Roelofsen, Han; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Schepers, Marianne; Landman, Karloes; Vonk, Roel J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Urine consists of a complex mixture of peptides and proteins and therefore is an interesting source of biomarkers. Because of its high throughput capacity SELDI-TOF-MS is a proteomics technology frequently used in biomarker studies. We compared the performance of seven SELDI protein chip

  3. Urine metabolomics in rats after administration of ketamine

    Wen C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Wen,1 Meiling Zhang,2 Jianshe Ma,2 Lufeng Hu,3 Xianqin Wang,2 Guanyang Lin31Laboratory Animal Centre, 2Analytical and Testing Center, 3First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, to evaluate the effect of ketamine on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis revealed that ketamine (50 mg/kg induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, at day 7, the level of alanine, butanoic acid, glutamine, butanedioic, trimethylsiloxy, L-aspartic acid, D-glucose, cholesterol, acetamide, and oleic acid of the ketamine group was increased, while the level of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzene­acetic acid, threitol, ribitol, xylitol, and glycine decreased. At day 14, the level of alanine, ethanedioic acid, L-proline, glycerol, tetradecanoic acid, l-serine, l-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, d-glucose, cholesterol, heptadecanoic acid, and acetamide in rat urine of the ketamine group was increased, while the 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzeneacetic acid, d-ribose, threitol, ribitol, glycine, pyrazine, and oleic acid levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC-MS may be useful to elucidate ketamine abuse, through the exploration of biomarkers.Keywords: GC-MS, abuse, biomarker, metabolite

  4. Analysis of Correlation Between Urinal Excretion Ratio of Radioactive Iodine and Daily Urinal Excretion Volume

    Internal exposure to radionuclide results from depositing of radioactive substance within human body and is called intra-body exposure as well. Radioactive substance may find its way into human body via nose, mouth or skin and internal exposure to radionuclide is rarely ascribable to radioactive substance deposited through skin. Radioactive substances deposited in human tissues or organs do not stay there for good. Instead, they are transferred to other tissues, organs or excreted by sweat, excrements, urine and breath. However, natural excretion has its limits in terms of safeguarding human body actively against radioactive exposure. When radionuclide is deposited in human organs or tissues, diuretic or evacuant is used to induce excrements or urine to increase removal and discharging of radionuclide artificially, thereby reducing internal exposure. Therefore, we have attempted to propose an optimum approach to removing and excreting radioactive iodine by analyzing the correlation among the radioactive iodine intake ratio, daily urinal excretion ratio and volume

  5. Analysis of Correlation Between Urinal Excretion Ratio of Radioactive Iodine and Daily Urinal Excretion Volume

    Kim, Junghoon; Whang, Jooho [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Teaman [The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Internal exposure to radionuclide results from depositing of radioactive substance within human body and is called intra-body exposure as well. Radioactive substance may find its way into human body via nose, mouth or skin and internal exposure to radionuclide is rarely ascribable to radioactive substance deposited through skin. Radioactive substances deposited in human tissues or organs do not stay there for good. Instead, they are transferred to other tissues, organs or excreted by sweat, excrements, urine and breath. However, natural excretion has its limits in terms of safeguarding human body actively against radioactive exposure. When radionuclide is deposited in human organs or tissues, diuretic or evacuant is used to induce excrements or urine to increase removal and discharging of radionuclide artificially, thereby reducing internal exposure. Therefore, we have attempted to propose an optimum approach to removing and excreting radioactive iodine by analyzing the correlation among the radioactive iodine intake ratio, daily urinal excretion ratio and volume.

  6. Ion Chromatography Based Urine Amino Acid Profiling Applied for Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    Jing Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Amino acid metabolism in cancer patients differs from that in healthy people. In the study, we performed urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer at different stages and health subjects to explore potential biomarkers for diagnosing or screening gastric cancer. Methods. Forty three urine samples were collected from inpatients and healthy adults who were divided into 4 groups. Healthy adults were in group A (n=15, early gastric cancer inpatients in group B (n=7, and advanced gastric cancer inpatients in group C (n=16; in addition, two healthy adults and three advanced gastric cancer inpatients were in group D (n=5 to test models. We performed urine amino acids profile of each group by applying ion chromatography (IC technique and analyzed urine amino acids according to chromatogram of amino acids standard solution. The data we obtained were processed with statistical analysis. A diagnostic model was constructed to discriminate gastric cancer from healthy individuals and another diagnostic model for clinical staging by principal component analysis. Differentiation performance was validated by the area under the curve (AUC of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. The urine-free amino acid profile of gastric cancer patients changed to a certain degree compared with that of healthy adults. Compared with healthy adult group, the levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine increased (P<0.05, but the levels of histidine and methionine decreased (P<0.05, and aspartate decreased significantly (P<0.01. The urine amino acid profile was also different between early and advanced gastric cancer groups. Compared with early gastric cancer, the levels of isoleucine and valine decreased in advanced gastric cancer (P<0.05. A diagnosis model constructed for gastric cancer with AUC value of 0.936 tested by group D showed that 4 samples could coincide with it. Another diagnosis model for clinical staging with an AUC value of 0.902 tested by

  7. Production of slow-released nitrogen fertilizer from urine.

    Ito, Ryusei; Takahashi, Eri; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Human excreta, especially urine is rich in nitrogen that can be utilized for agricultural purposes, while the slow-release fertilizer allows effective utilization of nutrients in agricultural production. The direct formation of slow-release fertilizer--methylene urea--from urine was being proposed in this study. The experiments were tried to prove formation of methylene urea from human urine, and to investigate the effect of pH and salt concentration on the reaction rate. The synthetic urine and real urine were used for the urea source of the reaction. As a result, the precipitates were prepared from synthetic urine, while the small molecule fractions generated then they grew into precipitate. The nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, element analyses showed the precipitates in synthetic urine were the same compound found in the urea solution, which was methylene urea. The reaction rate was high at low pH value. The reaction rate in the buffer solution was lower than the synthetic urine at the same pH, because some salts may work as a catalyst. The urea concentration reduction rate in real urine showed the same trend with synthetic urine at the same pH, while the precipitation was quite similar to methylene urea. PMID:24527645

  8. Determination of salbutamol and salbutamol glucuronide in human urine by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Mareck, Ute; Guddat, Sven; Schwenke, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    The determination of salbutamol and its glucuronide in human urine following the inhalative and oral administration of therapeutic doses of salbutamol preparations was performed by means of direct urine injection utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and employing d(3......)-salbutamol and d(3)-salbutamol glucuronide as internal standards. Unconjugated salbutamol was detected in all administration study urine samples. Salbutamol concentrations following inhalation were commonly (99%) below 1000 ng/ml whereas values after oral administration frequently (48%) exceeded this...... threshold. While salbutamol glucuronide was not detected in urine samples collected after inhalation of the drug, 26 out of 82 specimens obtained after oral application contained salbutamol glucuronide with a peak value of 63 ng/ml. The percentage of salbutamol glucuronide compared to unconjugated...

  9. PENGARUH APLIKASI URIN KAMBING DAN PUPUK CAIR ORGANIK KOMERSIAL TERHADAP BEBERAPA PARAMETER AGRONOMI PADA TANAMAN PAKAN INDIGOFERA SP.

    L. Abdullah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been done during 6 months period in order to study the effect of goat urine and comersial liquid organic fertilizer (NASA® as fertizers on some agronomic parameters which are related with potential forage production. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment which is consist of PO = control, P1 = 50% goat urine + 50% mineral water, P2= 100% urine, P3= NASA 0.25%, P4 NASA= NASA 0.50% and P5 = NASA 0.75%, with 5 repetitions. Some agronomic parameters observed were biomass production of tajuk, leaves dry matter production, numbers of leafs and leaf square. To observe the effect of goat urine observation were conducted in two growth periodes. The results of the experiment showed that the application of goat urine and comercial liquid organic fertilizer produce better results in all treatments compared to control. 100% goat urine treatment showed that better results in all parameters compared to commercial liquid organic fertilizers

  10. The radioimmunological determination of vasopressin in urine

    This thesis describes the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which can be used for the quantitative measurement of the urinary excretion of the hormone in man during physiological and pathological conditions. The final RIA method, using approximately 5 pg 125I-AVP diluted (1 : 50,000) antiserum 121 and charcoal-dextran separation of the antibody-bound and free fractions, is found to be specific for vasopressin and closely related substances; the sensitivity is 9 pg. The validity is demonstrated and the results of measurements of vasopressin excretion in urine from 39 normal subjects, including 4 children are presented. (Auth.)