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Sample records for 186 mev calculated

  1. Tensor polarization of 6Li*(2.186 MeV, 3+) in the 9Be(p,α)6Li reaction at 40 MeV

    Tensor moments tkq have been determined for the 6Li*(2.186 MeV, 3+) state produced in the 9Be(p,α1)6Li reaction at 40 MeV. Angular correlation measurements were made between α1 and the α-particle or deuteron fragment from the breakup of 6Li*. Comparison of the tkq are made with the predictions of a model that includes direct and exchange processes. Angular distributions of the differential cross sections for the 9Be(p,α)6Li reaction for the g.s. and first two excited states are presented. (orig.)

  2. Yield of Radionuclides and Isomers Measured in Fragmentation of the ^{nat}W and ^{186}W (97%) Targets with Protons at 630, 420 and 270 MeV

    Karamian, S A; Chaloun, P; Filossofov, D V; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Korolev, N A; Lebedev, N A; Novgorodov, A F; Collins, C B; Popescu, I I; Ur, C A

    2004-01-01

    Yields and cross sections of the radioactive nuclide formation have been measured via induced activity gamma-spectra after irradiation of the natural composition W and enriched ^{186)W targets at Dubna synchrocyclotron. Spallation and fission products have been represented among the detected nuclides. The high-spin isomers of Hf and Lu were produced and the isomer-to-ground state ratios could be estimated. The nuclide yields have also been calculated using the LAHET code at 6 values of proton energy in the range from 100 to 800 MeV both for ^{nat)W and for enriched ^{186)W targets. Measured isotope yields are generally in agreement with the calculations, however, the code is incapable to predict the isomer-to-ground state ratios. In experiment, it has been shown that the ^{177m}Lu, ^{178m2}Hf and ^{179m2}Hf high-spin isomers are produced with 2.5 times higher yield in the 97% enriched ^{186)W target as compared to the ^{nat)W target at identical irradiations. This makes significance for the creation of high-a...

  3. Calculation of 14 MeV neutron transmission

    The possibility of using the 28 group constant system (28-GCS) for calculating the transport of neutrons with initial energy of 14 MeV in thermonuclear reactor blankets is studied. A blanket project suggested by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used as a test version to estimate applicability of the 28-GCS. Niobium is used in a blanket as a structural material. A mixture of lithium nuclides is used for tritium production. The results of blanket test calculation and the calculational results obtained using the 28-GCS from the UKNDL library are compared. The numerical 28-group calculation of blonket is carried out by means of the ROZ-6 and ROZ-9 codes but not by the Monte-Carlo method as compared with the test calculation. Time of the blanket calculation on the BESM-6 computer by means of the ROZ-9 code in 2P5 approximation using the 28-GCS amounts to 10 min. It is noted that to create effective codes for the numerical blanket calculation different calculational grids are necessary for different energy grups. The calculations carried out have shown the possibility of using the 28-group library of cross sections for the numerical solution of the neutron transport equation in estimating analysis of blankets

  4. Production cross-section calculations of medical {sup 32}P, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 186,188}Re radionuclides used in bone pain palliation treatment

    Demir, Bayram [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Kaplan, A.; Capali, V. [Univ. Isparta (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Sarpuen, I.H. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Aydin, A. [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Tel, E. [Univ. Osmaniye (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2015-03-15

    In this study, production cross-section calculations of {sup 32}P, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 186,188}Re radionuclides used in bone pain palliation treatment produced by {sup 30}Si(d,γ){sup 32}P, {sup 118}Sn(γ,n){sup 117}Sn, {sup 116}Sn(n,γ){sup 117}Sn, {sup 150}Nd(α,n){sup 153}Sm, {sup 154}Sm(n,2n){sup 153}Sm, {sup 152}Sm(n,γ){sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186}Re, {sup 187}Re(γ,n){sup 186}Re, {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186}Re and {sup 187}Re(n,γ){sup 188}Re reactions have been investigated in the different incident energy range of 0.003-34 MeV. Two-component exciton and generalised superfluid models of the TALYS 1.6 and exciton and generalised superfluid models of the EMPIRE 3.1 computer codes have been used to pre-equilibrium (PEQ) reaction calculations. The calculated production cross-section results have been compared with available experimental results existing in the experimental nuclear reaction database (EXFOR). Except the {sup 118}Sn(γ,n){sup 117}Sn, {sup 150}Nd(α,n){sup 153}Sm and {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186}Re reactions, the two-component exciton model calculations of TALYS 1.6 code exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this present study.

  5. Monte Carlo 20 and 45 MeV Bremsstrahlung and dose-reduction calculations

    The SANDYL electron-photon coupled Monte Carlo code has been compared with previously published experimental bremsstrahlung data at 20.9 MeV electron energy. The code was then used to calculate forward-directed spectra, angular distributions and dose-reduction factors for three practical configurations. These are: 20 MeV electrons incident on 1 mm of W + 59 mm of Be, 45 MeV electrons of 1 mm of W and 45 MeV electrons on 1 mm of W + 147 mm of Be. The application of these results to flash radiography is discussed. 7 references, 12 figures, 1 table

  6. The excitation functions of 187Re(n,2n) 186m,gRe reactions

    Huang, Xiao-Long; Kang, Meng-Xiao; Liu, Li-Le; Wang, Ji-Min; Chen, Xiong-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A new value for the emission probability of 137.144 keV γ-rays from 186gRe decay is recommended to be (9.47±0.03)/%. Using this value the measured cross sections for 187Re(n,2n)186mRe and 187Re(n,2n)186gRe reactions around 14 MeV are analyzed, and the cross section for 187Re(n,2n)186m+gRe reaction at 14.8 MeV is (2213±116) mb. The UNF code was adopted to calculate the cross sections for the 187Re(n,2n)186m+gRe reaction below 20 MeV, fitting to the value (2213±116) mb at 14.8 MeV using a set of optimum neutron optical potential parameters which were obtained based on the relevant experimental data of rhenium. The isomeric cross section ratio for the 187Re(n,2n)186m,gRe reaction was analyzed using the V-H method based on nuclear statistical theory. Combining these calculated results, the excitation functions for the 187Re(n,2n)186mRe and 187Re(n,2n)186gRe reactions were obtained. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Observation of 186mTa

    Unreported tantalum isomer 186mTa has been produced through the reaction 186W(n,p) by irradiation of natW with 14 MeV neutrons. The activity of 186mTa and 186Ta was measured using HPGe detectors and several X-γ as well as γ-γ coincidence arrangements. The 186mTa has been identified by means of measuring known γ rays from 186Ta β-decay. The half-life of 186mTa has been determined to be (1.5±0.1) min. (authors)

  8. n + 55Mn (≤20 MeV) nuclear data calculation and analysis

    n+ 2555Mn(≤20MeV) whole set of nuclear data calculation in ENDF/B6 format was carried out by using spherical optical model, coupled channel optical model, pre-equilibrium exciton model and equilibrium statistical model. The calculated cross sections, angular distributions, spectrum and double differential cross sections by using codes of APOM, ECIS95 and UNF are compared with all existential measured nuclear data for n+ 2555Mn (≤20 MeV) taking from EXFOR. The calculated results are analyzed from theoretical model and model parameters used. (authors)

  9. Shape coexistence in neutron-deficient Hg isotopes studied via lifetime measurements in $^{184,186}$Hg and two-state mixing calculations

    Gaffney, L P; Page, R.D.; Grahn, T.; Scheck, M.; Butler, P.A.; Bertone, P.F.; Bree, N.; Carroll, R.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chiara, C.J.; Dewald, A.; Filmer, F.; Fransen, C.; Huyse, M.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Joss, D.T.; Julin, R.; Kondev, F.G.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rigby, S.V.; Rother, W.; Van Duppen, P.; Watkins, H.V.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes, $^{184,186}$Hg, were studied with the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method using the Gammasphere array and the K\\"oln Plunger device. The Differential Decay Curve Method (DDCM) was employed to determine the lifetimes of the yrast states in $^{184,186}$Hg. An improvement on previously measured values of yrast states up to $8^{+}$ is presented as well as first values for the $9_{3}$ state in $^{184}$Hg and $10^{+}$ state in $^{186}$Hg. $B(E2)$ values are calculated and compared to a two-state mixing model which utilizes the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model, allowing for extraction of spin-dependent mixing strengths and amplitudes.

  10. Observation of 186mTa

    2006-01-01

    Unreported tantalum isomer 18mTa has been produced through the reaction 186W(n,p) by irradiation of natW with 14 MeV neutrons. The activity of 186Ta and 186Ta was measured using HPGe detectors and several X-γ as well as γ-γ coincidence arrangements. The 186mTa has been identified by means of measuring known γ rays from 186Ta p-decay. The half-life of 186mTa has been determined to be (1.5±0.1) min.

  11. Magnetic field calculation for a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    Yang, W Y; Oh, S; Chai, J S; Ha, J H

    1999-01-01

    A design study of the main magnet for a 13 MeV cyclotron has been carried out in a joint collaboration between the Korea Cancer Center Hospital (KCCH) and POSTECH. A maximum energy of 13 MeV has been chosen to produce radioisotopes such as /sup 18/F. There are four magnet sectors, each with radial-ridged shape. Maximum magnetic fields are 1.85 T and 0.48 T at hill and valley centers, respectively. The total size of the cyclotron is less than 2 m in diameter. The program TOSCA has been utilized for the field calculation and optimization. In this paper, we describe design parameters of the 13 MeV PET cyclotron, with emphasis on the magnetic field shape and the beam optics calculation. (3 refs).

  12. Evaluation and calculation of photonuclear reaction data for 209Bi below 30 MeV

    Based on available experimental data of neutron and photonuclear reaction, both neutron optical potential parameter and giant resonance parameters of gamma for 209Bi were obtained. The photonuclear reaction data for 209Bi were calculated, compared with experimental data and recommended below 30 MeV

  13. Transport calculations for a 14.8 MeV neutron beam in a water phantom

    A coupled neutron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MORSE-CG) has been used to calculate neutron and photon doses in a water phantom irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutrons from the Gas Target Neutron Source. The source-collimator-phantom geometry was carefully simulated. Results of calculations utilizing two different statistical estimators (next-collision and track-length) are presented

  14. Production cross-sections of 181-186Re isotopes from proton bombardment of natural tungsten.

    Lapi, S; Mills, W J; Wilson, J; McQuarrie, S; Publicover, J; Schueller, M; Schyler, D; Ressler, J J; Ruth, T J

    2007-03-01

    Cross-sections for the production of (181)Re, (182m)Re, (182g)Re, (183)Re, (184)Re, and (186)Re from proton bombardment of natural tungsten have been measured using the stacked foil technique for proton energies up to 17.6 MeV. Results are compared with the theoretical excitation functions as calculated by the EMPIRE II code (version 2.19) and experimental literature values. Results are in strong agreement with some of the previously reported literature as well at theoretical calculations for multiple reactions providing for more reliable estimates for the (186)W(p,n)(186)Re reaction. PMID:17098433

  15. Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Transport Calculations at Energies up to 150 MeV

    A new evaluated nuclear data library has been created. The library consists of two sub-libraries for neutron and proton incident particles. The first version of neutron sub-library has been completed and described in the present paper. The library contains nuclear data for transport, heating, and shielding applications for 242 nuclides ranging in atomic number from 8 to 82 in the energy region of primary neutrons from 10-5 eV to 150 MeV. Data below 20 MeV are taken mainly from ENDF/B-VI (Revision 8) and for some nuclides, from the JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.0 libraries. The evaluation of emitted particle energy and angular distributions at the energies above 20 MeV was performed with the help of the ALICE/ASH code and the analysis of available experimental data. The total cross sections, elastic cross sections, and elastic scattering angular distributions were calculated with the help of the coupled channel model. The results of the calculation were adjusted to the data from ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.3m or JEFF-3.0 at the neutron energy equal to 20 MeV. The library is written in ENDF/B-VI format using the MF=3/MT=5 and MF=6/MT=5 representations

  16. Cross sections in the energy range from 10 to 40 MeV calculated with the GNASH code. [GNASA, below 40 MeV

    Arthur, E.D.; Young, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description of the preequilibrium-statistical model code GNASH is given. Features which make the code applicable to the calculation of cross sections induced by nucleons of energy 40 MeV or less are described. Finally, examples of calculations of neutron- and proton-induced reaction cross sections, activation cross sections, and secondary spectra made with global input parameters are given.

  17. Calculated neutron-induced cross sections for 53Cr from 1 to 20 MeV

    Neutron-induced cross sections of 53Cr have been calculated in the energy regions from 1 to 20 MeV. The quantities obtained are the cross sections for the reactions (n,n'γ), (n,2n), (n,np), (n,nα), (n,pγ), (n,pn), (n,αγ), (n,αn), (n,d), (n,t), (n,3He), and (n,γ), as well as the spectra of emitted neutrons, protons, alpha particles, and gamma rays. The precompound process was included above 5 MeV in addition to the compound process. For the inelastic scattering, the contribution of the direct interaction was calculated with DWBA. 36 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    Chadwick, M.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.; Normand, E. [Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Systems, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  19. Intercomparison of Monte Carlo and SN sensitivity calculations for a 14 MeV neutron benchmark

    An inter-comparison has been performed of probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity calculations with the objective to check and validate the Monte Carlo technique for calculating point detector sensitivities as being implemented in MCSEN, a local version of the MCNP4A code. A suitable 14 MeV neutron benchmark problem on an iron assembly has been considered to this end. Good agreement has been achieved for the calculated individual sensitivity profiles, the uncertainties and the neutron flux spectra as well. It is concluded that the Monte Carlo technique for calculating point detector sensitivities and related uncertainties as being implemented in MCSEN is well qualified for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of fusion neutronics integral experiments. (orig.)

  20. Calculation of Multisphere Neutron Spectrometer Response Functions in Energy Range up to 20 MeV

    Martinkovic, J

    2005-01-01

    Multisphere neutron spectrometer is a basic instrument of neutron measurements in the scattered radiation field at charged-particles accelerators for radiation protection and dosimetry purposes. The precise calculation of the spectrometer response functions is a necessary condition of the propriety of neutron spectra unfolding. The results of the response functions calculation for the JINR spectrometer with LiI(Eu) detector (a set of 6 homogeneous and 1 heterogeneous moderators, "bare" detector within cadmium cover and without it) at two geometries of the spectrometer irradiation - in uniform monodirectional and uniform isotropic neutron fields - are given. The calculation was carried out by the code MCNP in the neutron energy range 10$^{-8}$-20 MeV.

  1. Calculation of multisphere neutron spectrometer response functions in energy range up to 20 MeV

    Multisphere neutron spectrometer is a basic instrument of neutron measurements in the scattered radiation field at charged-particles accelerators for radiation protection and dosimetry purposes. The precise calculation of the spectrometer response functions is a necessary condition of the propriety of neutron spectra unfolding. The results of the response functions calculation for the JINR spectrometer with LiI(Eu) detector (a set of 6 homogeneous and 1 heterogeneous moderators, 'bare' detector within cadmium cover and without it) at two geometries of the spectrometer irradiation - in uniform monodirectional and uniform isotropic neutron fields - are given. The calculation was carried out by the code MCNP in the neutron energy range 10-8 - 20 MeV

  2. Experimental and Calculated Effectiveness of a Radiochromic Dye Film to Stopping 21 MeV 7Li- and 64 MeV 16O Ions

    Olsen, Kjeld J; Hansen, Johnny

    1984-01-01

    Relative radiation effectiveness, RE, of 21 MeV 7Li and 64 MeV 16O ions being completely stopped in a tissue equivalent film dose meter has been measured as a function of penetration depth and energy, and the results have been compared with calculations based on a δ-ray theory for heavy charged...... in the detector, which are important parameters in the theoretical model, does not improve the overall correlation between theory and experiment. It is concluded that disagreement between theoretical and experimental RE-values below 1.5 MeV/amu is partly due to lack of equivalence between the δ-ray spectrum...

  3. Calculated differential elastic and inelastic neutron scattering by 12C and 16O between 30 and 60 MeV

    Well-verified models for elastic and inelastic scattering of fast neutrons (and protons) from 12C and 16O are translated into a useful form for transport, dosimetry, and scintillator response calculations. The information presented here is complementary to published calculations of secondary-particle production by incident neutrons in the energy region 15 ≤ En ≤ 60 MeV. Tables are given of Legendre expansion coefficients derived from fits to experimental cross sections at incident neutron energies En = 18-26 MeV and from fits to model predictions for 30- to 60-MeV neutrons. 11 refs., 8 tabs

  4. 500-MeV electron beam bench-mark experiments and calculations

    Experiments measuring the energy deposited by electron beams were performed to provide bench marks against which to evaluate our HANDYL76 electron beam computer code. The experiments, done at Stanford's Mk III accelerator, measured dose vs depth and dose vs radius profiles induced in layered aluminum targets by 500-MeV electrons. The dose was measured by passive thermoluminescence and photographic film placed between aluminum plates. The calculations predict a dose vs radius profile that forward-peaks on axis after the beam passes through a 200-cm air gap; the experimental measurements do not show this peak. This discrepancy indicates there may be a problem in using HANDYL76 to calculate deep penetration of a target with a large gap

  5. Calculations of complete data for n + 99Tc reaction in En = 0.01-20 MeV region

    Calculations of complete data for n+99Tc reaction in En=0.01-20 MeV region are given in this paper. The calculated σtot, σnon, σel, σn,γ, σn,n', σn,p, σn,α and σn,nα are good agreement with experimental data

  6. Cross Sections Calculations of ( d, t) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    Tel, E.; Yiğit, M.; Tanır, G.

    2013-04-01

    In nuclear fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In contrast with fission power, the fusion reaction processes does not produce radioactive nuclides. The fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2. So the fusion energy will not contribute to environmental problems such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. Fusion powered electricity generation was initially believed to be readily achievable, as fission power had been. However, the extreme requirements for continuous reactions and plasma containment led to projections being extended by several decades. In 2010, more than 60 years after the first attempts, commercial power production is still believed to be unlikely before 2050. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. In the fusion reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. Therefore, for self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( d, t) nuclear reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. Since the experimental data of charged particle induced reactions are scarce, self-consistent calculation and analyses using nuclear theoretical models are very important. In this study, ( d, t) cross sections for target nuclei 19F, 50Cr, 54Fe, 58Ni, 75As, 89Y, 90Zr, 107Ag, 127I, 197Au and 238U have been investigated up to 50 MeV deuteron energy. The excitation functions for ( d, t) reactions have been calculated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. Calculation results have been also compared with the available measurements in

  7. Calculated alpha-induced thick-target neutron and radionuclide yields for Eα≤ 50 MeV

    Thick-target yields for αs incident on elements 4 ≤ Z ≤ 15 and Z = 17 have been calculated using the α stopping data of Ziegler with radionuclide production cross sections calculated with the GNASH code. Comparisons are made of the calculated cross sections with sparse measured data. Radionuclide production yields are tabulated at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 MeV. 9 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  8. Use of the nuclear model code GNASH to calculate cross section data at energies up to 100 MeV

    The nuclear theory code GNASH has been used to calculate nuclear data for incident neutrons, protons, and deuterons at energies up to 100 MeV. Several nuclear models and theories are important in the 10--100 MeV energy range, including Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory, spherical and deformed optical model, preequilibrium theory, nuclear level densities, fission theory, and direct reaction theory. In this paper we summarize general features of the models in GNASH and describe the methodology utilized to determine relevant model parameters. We illustrate the significance of several of the models and include comparisons with experimental data for certain target materials that are important in applications

  9. Calculated proton-induced thick-target neutron and radionuclide yields for Ep ≤ 100 MeV

    Earlier proton-induced thick-target yield calculations have been extended in proton energy range and to additional target elements, using the proton stopping cross section data of Anderson and Ziegler and cross sections modeled with the GNASH code. The targets now described include Be, C, O, Ne, Al, Si, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, W, Pb and Bi. Thick-target yields are presented for these thirteen targets, with most extending to 100 MeV. 13 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Modeling the Bremsstrahlung of 30-60 MeV electrons. Source term calculation

    The photofission process has been recently considered for the production of neutron rich isotopes and the development of radioactive beams. The radioprotection hazard should be studied accordingly. A survey of the radiative electron energy loss theory is reported in order to estimate numerically the Bremsstrahlung production of thick targets. The resulted Bremsstrahlung angular and energy theoretical distributions delivered from W and UCx thick converters are presented and compared with previous results. This study is focused on initial kinetic energies of the electron beam included in the range 30-60 MeV, suitable for the production of large photon yields able to induce the 238U fission. The source term for 50 MeV incident electrons is reported for radioprotection purposes. (authors)

  11. A calculation on n-D scattering cross sections in the energy range 0 to 20 MeV

    A calculation on n-D scattering cross sections with phase shift analysis is carried out in the neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV. An optimum set of parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental data which include total, (n,2n) and differential cross section of n-D scattering. The comparisons were made between this calculated results and previous works. It was showed that the obtained differential elastic cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental values

  12. Nucleon transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions from domain wall fermion calculations at 297 MeV pion mass

    Engelhardt, Michael; Musch, Bernhard; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Gupta, Rajan; Hagler, Phillip; Negele, John; Pochinsky, Andrew; Shafer, Andreas; Syritsyn, Sergey; Yoon, Boram

    2014-12-01

    Lattice QCD calculations of transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs) in a nucleon are performed based on a definition of TMDs via hadronic matrix elements of quark bilocal operators containing staple-shaped gauge connections. A parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes serves to cast them in the Lorentz frame preferred for the lattice calculation. Using a RBC/UKQCD domain wall fermion ensemble corresponding to a pion mass of 297MeV, on a lattice with spacing 0.084fm, selected TMD observables are accessed and compared to previous explorations at heavier pion masses on coarser lattices.

  13. Production and separation of 186gRe from proton bombardment of 186WC

    A proof of concept study was undertaken where non-carrier added 186gRe was produced from the cyclotron bombardment of 186WC. 186WC was carbo-thermally generated from a novel precursor synthesized from 186WO3, aqueous ammonia and hexamethyltetramine. The inherent high electrical and thermal conductivity of this material, coupled with its high melting point, made it an ideal candidate for proton bombardment for production of 186Re. An18 μA irradiation for 3 h and processing via thermo-chromatography, 186WC yielded 0.93 mCi of 186gRe which corresponds to 89% of the calculated theoretical yields. The radiochemical purity of the desired 186gRe species was found to be between 95 and 97% with small contaminants of 186ReO2. The radiochemistry utility of the product was investigated using S-benzoyl-MAG3, and 100% complexation was achieved with stability being maintained for 96 h. The re-oxidation of 186WC back to186WO3 by oxygen in the thermo-chromatography method of processing ensured that the starting material was regenerated and recovered from the process in 94–98% yield

  14. Calculation of the longitudinal acceptance of the 50 MeV track microtron

    The algorithm for analysing a longitudinal motion and calculation phase trajectory in racetrack microtron with small injection energy and small energy gain per turn is described. A longitudinal acceptance is calculated. 7 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Accuracy of the phase space evolution dose calculation model for clinical 25 MeV electron beams

    The phase space evolution (PSE) model is a dose calculation model for electron beams in radiation oncology developed with the aim of a higher accuracy than the commonly used pencil beam (PB) models and with shorter calculation times than needed for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. In this paper the accuracy of the PSE model has been investigated for 25 MeV electron beams of a MM50 racetrack microtron (Scanditronix Medical AB, Sweden) and compared with the results of a PB model. Measurements have been performed for tests like non-standard SSD, irregularly shaped fields, oblique incidence and in phantoms with heterogeneities of air, bone and lung. MC calculations have been performed as well, to reveal possible errors in the measurements and/or possible inaccuracies in the interaction data used for the bone and lung substitute materials. Results show a good agreement between PSE calculated dose distributions and measurements. For all points the differences - in absolute dose - were generally well within 3% and 3 mm. However, the PSE model was found to be less accurate in large regions of low-density material and errors of up to 6% were found for the lung phantom. Results of the PB model show larger deviations, with differences of up to 6% and 6 mm and of up to 10% for the lung phantom; at shortened SSDs the dose was overestimated by up to 6%. The agreement between MC calculations and measurement was good. For the bone and the lung phantom maximum deviations of 4% and 3% were found, caused by uncertainties about the actual interaction data. In conclusion, using the phase space evolution model, absolute 3D dose distributions of 25 MeV electron beams can be calculated with sufficient accuracy in most cases. The accuracy is significantly better than for a pencil beam model. In regions of lung tissue, a Monte Carlo model yields more accurate results than the current implementation of the PSE model. (author)

  16. Accuracy of the phase space evolution dose calculation model for clinical 25 MeV electron beams

    Korevaar, Erik W.; Akhiat, Abdelhafid; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Huizenga, Henk

    2000-10-01

    The phase space evolution (PSE) model is a dose calculation model for electron beams in radiation oncology developed with the aim of a higher accuracy than the commonly used pencil beam (PB) models and with shorter calculation times than needed for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. In this paper the accuracy of the PSE model has been investigated for 25 MeV electron beams of a MM50 racetrack microtron (Scanditronix Medical AB, Sweden) and compared with the results of a PB model. Measurements have been performed for tests like non-standard SSD, irregularly shaped fields, oblique incidence and in phantoms with heterogeneities of air, bone and lung. MC calculations have been performed as well, to reveal possible errors in the measurements and/or possible inaccuracies in the interaction data used for the bone and lung substitute materials. Results show a good agreement between PSE calculated dose distributions and measurements. For all points the differences - in absolute dose - were generally well within 3% and 3 mm. However, the PSE model was found to be less accurate in large regions of low-density material and errors of up to 6% were found for the lung phantom. Results of the PB model show larger deviations, with differences of up to 6% and 6 mm and of up to 10% for the lung phantom; at shortened SSDs the dose was overestimated by up to 6%. The agreement between MC calculations and measurement was good. For the bone and the lung phantom maximum deviations of 4% and 3% were found, caused by uncertainties about the actual interaction data. In conclusion, using the phase space evolution model, absolute 3D dose distributions of 25 MeV electron beams can be calculated with sufficient accuracy in most cases. The accuracy is significantly better than for a pencil beam model. In regions of lung tissue, a Monte Carlo model yields more accurate results than the current implementation of the PSE model.

  17. Calculated neutron-induced cross sections for 52Cr from 1 to 20 MeV and comparisons with experiments

    Nuclear model codes were used to compute cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on 52Cr for incident energies from 1 to 20 MeV. The input parameters for the model codes were determined through analysis of experimental data in this energy region. Discussion of the models used, the input data, the resulting calculations, extensive comparisons to measured data, and comparisons to the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-V) for Cr (MAT 1324) are included in this report. 103 refs., 67 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Calculations of Excitation Functions of Some Structural Fusion Materials for ( n, t) Reactions up to 50 MeV Energy

    Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aktı, N. N.; Okuducu, Ş.

    2010-06-01

    Fusion serves an inexhaustible energy for humankind. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, the working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n, t) reactions for some structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, and 56Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27Al( n, t)25Mg, 51V( n, t)49Ti, 52Cr( n, t)50V, 55Mn( n, t)53Cr and 56Fe( n, t)54Mn reactions have been carried out up to 50 MeV incident neutron energy. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model, hybrid model and the cascade exciton model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, we have calculated ( n, t) reaction cross-sections by using new evaluated semi-empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  19. Calculation and analysis of cross-sections for p+184W reactions up to 200 MeV

    Sun, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Jun; Han, Yin-Lu

    2015-08-01

    A set of optimal proton optical potential parameters for p+ 184W reactions are obtained at incident proton energy up to 250 MeV. Based on these parameters, the reaction cross-sections, elastic scattering angular distributions, energy spectra and double differential cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 184W are calculated and analyzed by using theoretical models which integrate the optical model, distorted Born wave approximation theory, intra-nuclear cascade model, exciton model, Hauser-Feshbach theory and evaporation model. The calculated results are compared with existing experimental data and good agreement is achieved. Supported by National Basic Research Program of China, Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation (2007CB209903) and Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Nuclear Energy System (XDA02010100)

  20. Production cross-sections of {sup 181-186}Re isotopes from proton bombardment of natural tungsten

    Lapi, S. [Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada) and TRIUMF, Pet Group, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: slapi@sfu.ca; Mills, W.J. [Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Wilson, J. [University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); McQuarrie, S. [University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Publicover, J. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, V8W 5C2 (Canada); Schueller, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Schyler, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ressler, J.J. [Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Ruth, T.J. [Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); TRIUMF, Pet Group, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    Cross-sections for the production of {sup 181}Re, {sup 182m}Re, {sup 182g}Re, {sup 183}Re, {sup 184}Re, and {sup 186}Re from proton bombardment of natural tungsten have been measured using the stacked foil technique for proton energies up to 17.6 MeV. Results are compared with the theoretical excitation functions as calculated by the EMPIRE II code (version 2.19) and experimental literature values. Results are in strong agreement with some of the previously reported literature as well at theoretical calculations for multiple reactions providing for more reliable estimates for the {sup 186}W(p, n){sup 186}Re reaction.

  1. Shielding Calculations for Industrial 5/7.5MeV Electron Accelerators Using the MCNP Monte Carlo Code

    High energy X-rays from accelerators are used to irradiate food ingredients to prevent growth and development of unwanted biological organisms in food, in order to extend the shelf life of products. High energy photons can cause food activation due to (D3,n) reactions. Until 2004, to eliminate the possibility of food activation, the electron energy was limited to 5 MeV X-rays for food irradiation. In 2004, the FDA approved the usage of up to 7.5 MeV, but only with tantalum and gold targets (1). Higher X-ray energy results an increased flux of X-rays in the forward direction, increased penetration, and higher photon dose rate due to better electron-to-photon conversion. These improvements could decrease the irradiation time and allow irradiation of larger packages, thereby providing higher production rates with lower treatment cost. Medical accelerators usually work with 6-18 MV electron energy with tungsten target to convert the electron beam to X-rays. In order to protect the patients, the accelerator head is protected with a heavy lead shielding; therefore, the bremsstrahlung is emitted only in the forward direction. There are many publications and standards that guide how to design optimal shielding for medical accelerator rooms. The shielding data for medical accelerators is not applicable for industrial accelerators, since the data is for different conversion targets, different X-Ray energies, and only for the forward direction. Collimators are not always in use in industrial accelerators, and therefore bremsstrahlung photons can be emitted in all directions. The bremsstrahlung spectrum and dose rate change as a function of the emission angle. The dose rate decreases from maximum in the forward direction (0°) to minimum at 180° by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In order to design and calculate optimal shielding for food accelerator rooms, there is a need to have the bremsstrahlung spectrum data, dose rates and concrete attenuation data in all emission directions

  2. Model Calculation of n + 6Li Reactions Below 20 MeV

    ZHANG Jing-Shang; HAN Yin-Lu

    2001-01-01

    Based on the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model for light nuclei, the calculations of reaction cross sections and the double-differential cross sections for n + 6Li are performed. Since all of the first-particle emissions are from the compound nucleus to the discrete levels, the angular momentum coupling effect in pre-equilibrium mechanism must be taken into account. The fitting of the measured data indicates that the three-body break-up process needs to be involved, and the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism dominates the reaction processes. In light nucleus reactions the recoil effect must be taken into account.``

  3. Calculation of excitation functions of the 54,56,57,58Fe(, ) reaction from threshold to 30 MeV

    Damewan Suchiang; J Joseph Jeremiah; B M Jyrwa

    2014-10-01

    The cross-sections for the formation of 54,56,57,58Co in the 54,56,57,58Fe(, ) reaction from threshold to 30 MeV protons have been theoretically calculated using the TALYS-1.4 nuclear model code, whereby we have studied major nuclear reaction mechanisms, including direct, preequilibrium and compound nuclear reaction. Subsequently, the level density and shell damping parameters have been adjusted and at the same time, the odd–even effects are well comprehended. The excitation functions have been compared with experimental nuclear data. It is observed that the theoretical cross-sections match fairly well. Proton-induced reaction cross-sections provide clues to understand the nuclear structure and offers a good testing ground for ideas about nuclear forces. In addition, complete information in this field is very much required for application in accelerator-driven subcritical system.

  4. Dose calculation for neutrons of thermal to 10 MeV

    In the ICRP publication 60 adopted in 1990, the drastic change was proposed regarding the definition of the dose used for radiation protection. The main changes were the introduction of radiation weighting factor, the definition of tissue equivalent dose, the change of tissue weighting factor and the change of the equation for defining radiation quality factor (the equation for Q-L relation). In the exposure to neutrons, all these changes exert influence. In the case of neutrons, the conservativeness of operational quantity in relation to the limit of exposure may break down. Effective dose is defined as the sum of weighted risks of the equivalent doses of 12 organs and tissues and the rest of tissues. Also it has been recommended to take the mass-weighted average value for 10 specified organs and tissues as the equivalent dose. As to the effective dose for neutrons, the calculating method, the effective dose for adults, the comparison of effective dose and effective dose equivalent, and the age dependence of effective dose are explained. It is difficult to directly measure effective dose which is the limiting quantity of exposure. Therefore, ICRU defined operational quantity for area monitoring and individual monitoring. The relation of effective dose with operational quantity is shown. (K.I.)

  5. Radiation field calculation of ventilation duct for 3-MeV electron irradiation accelerator

    Background: Ozone will be produced when the accelerator runs. Because ozone can cause corrosive damage to metal, ventilation duct has to be set in the irradiation room to discharge ozone. Purpose: Photons go into the ventilation duct, and then produce additional radiation. To do the quantitative assessment of radiation field at the outlet of duct, the simulate calculation of radiation doses at the outlet has been done. Methods: The Monte Carlo code of MCNP can analog the electronic and photon transport, so that using MCNP can solve the problem. Results: The result shows that the location and the number of backscattered interface of duct significantly affect the dosage rate while the size of duct doesn't. Increasing a backscatter interface can lower dosage rate attenuation about three orders of magnitude. The dosage rate under the target is two orders of magnitude than that in the comer. The setting project of duct is drawn and the ratio of length and depth has been optimized. The duct should be about 3 m long and 80 cm deep when the multi-tortuous duct is placed under the target, and U-shaped duct should be about 6 m long and l m deep when it is set at the comer of irradiation room. Conclusions: In order to reduce dosage rates and economic costs, the shape of duct and the location of duct are designed critically. And according to the actual situation, the project is flexible. (authors)

  6. Calculation and analysis of neutron induced reactions on 175,176Lu and NatLu in energy region 1 keV∼20 MeV

    A set of neutron optical potential parameters for 1 keV≤En≤20 MeV is obtained on the basis of the relevant experimental data, and all cross sections of neutron induced reaction on 175,176,NatLu are calculated. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. (7 figs.)

  7. Monte Carlo calculated stopping-power ratios, water/air, for clinical proton dosimetry (50-250 MeV)

    Calculations of stopping power ratios, water to air, for the determination of absorbed dose to water in clinical proton beams using ionization chamber measurements have been undertaken using the Monte Carlo method. A computer code to simulate the transport of protons in water (PETRA) has been used to calculate Sw,air-data under different degrees of complexity, ranging from values based on primary protons only to data including secondary electrons and high-energy secondary protons produced in nonelastic nuclear collisions. All numerical data are based on ICRU 49 proton stopping powers. Calculations using primary protons have been compared to the simple continuous slowing-down approximation (c.s.d.a.) analytical technique used in proton dosimetry protocols, not finding significant differences that justify elaborate Monte Carlo simulations except beyond the mean range of the protons (the far side of the Bragg peak). The influence of nuclear nonelastic processes, through the detailed generation and transport of secondary protons, on the calculated stopping-power ratios has been found to be negligible. The effect of alpha particles has also been analysed, finding differences smaller than 0.1% from the results excluding them. Discrepancies of up to 0.6% in the plateau region have been found, however, when the production and transport of secondary electrons are taken into account. The large influence of nonelastic nuclear interactions on proton depth-dose distributions shows that the removal of primary protons from the incident beam decreases the peak-to-plateau ratio by a large factor, up to 40% at 250 MeV. It is therefore emphasized that nonelastic nuclear reactions should be included in Monte Carlo simulations of proton beam depth-dose distributions. (author)

  8. Calculation for cross section of (p,n) reaction on sixteen targets in energy region up to 100 MeV

    A semiempirical method based on the evaporation and exciton models is developed to calculate the cross section of the (p,n) reaction, in the mass number region 30≤A≤140, and incident proton energy EP≤100 MeV, and the systematics of two parameters obtained. Using the formulas, the calculation for sixteen targets has been performed, the results of the calculation are in agreement with the measured data. (3 figs., 1 tab.)

  9. Intercomparisons of benchmark calculations for the transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43- and 68-MeV protons through iron and concrete shields

    To evaluate calculation codes and the nuclear data in the energy region from 20 MeV to 100 MeV, intercomparisons of benchmark calculations with the MORSE-CG, modified HETC-KFA2 and MCNP4A codes were carried out for the transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43- and 68-MeV protons through iron and concrete shields. The comparisons between the calculations and the experiments show that the spectra on the axis of the neutron beam calculated by the MORSE-CG and the MCNP4A codes with the DLC-119/HILO86 and HILO86R are in good agreement with those measured. The spectra calculated for the thin shields by the modified HETC-KFA2 code agree well with those measured, while those for the thick shields are higher than measured ones. The spectra at the off-axis positions calculated by the MORSE-CG code agree well with those measured, though the modified HETC-KFA2 code greatly underestimates the measured spectra. (author)

  10. Comment: 186 [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available keru Nakazato (Database Center for Life Science) アゲハチョウ(ナミアゲハ) Papilio xuthus 標本風の写真もあるかと思うので探してみます。 (もしくは撮り直す) nakazato 2008/12/22 09:47:51 2010/01/14 19:54:38 ... ...Asian Swallowtail Papilio xuthus Papilio_xuthus_L.png 186.png Takeru Nakazato (Database Center for Life Scie...nce) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 撮影:仲里猛留(ライフサイエンス統合データベースセンター) Photo: Ta

  11. Reliability assessment of high energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code DCHAIN-SP 2001 by analysis of integral activation experiments with 14 MeV neutrons

    Reliability assessment for the high energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code DCHAIN-SP 2001 was carried out through analysis of integral activation experiments with 14-MeV neutrons aiming at validating the cross section and decay data revised from previous version. The following three kinds of experiments conducted at the D-T neutron source facility, FNS, in JAERI were employed: (1) the decay gamma-ray measurement experiment for fusion reactor materials, (2) the decay heat measurement experiment for 32 fusion reactor materials, and (3) the integral activation experiment on mercury. It was found that the calculations with DCHAIN-SP 2001 predicted the experimental data for (1) - (3) within several tens of percent. It was concluded that the cross section data below 20 MeV and the associated decay data as well as the calculation algorithm for solving the Beteman equation that was the master equation of DCHAIN-SP were adequate. (author)

  12. Calculations of neutron and proton induced reaction cross sections for actinides in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV

    Several nuclear model codes were applied to calculations of nuclear data in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV. At energies up to 100MeV the nuclear theory code GNASH was used for nuclear data calculation for neutrons incident for on 238U, 233-236U, 238-242Pu, 237Np, 232Th, 241-243Am and 242-247Cm. At energies from 100MeV to 1GeV the intranuclear cascade exciton model including the fission process was applied to calculations of protons and neutrons with 233U, 235U, 238U, 232Th, 232Pa, 237Np, 238Np, 239Pu, 241Am, 242Am and 242-248Cm. Determination of parameter systematics was a major effort in the present work that was aimed at improving the predictive capability of the models used. An emphasis was placed upon a simultaneous analysis of data for a variety of reaction channels for the nuclei considered, as well as of data that are available for nearby nuclei or for other incident particles. Comparisons with experimental data available on multiple reaction cross sections, isotope yields, fission cross sections, particle multiplicities, secondary particle spectra, and double differential cross sections indicate that the calculations reproduce the trends, and often the details, of the measurements data. (author) 82 refs

  13. Hauser-Feshbach calculations of neutron-induced reaction cross sections for 52Cr in 6-20 MeV neutron energy range

    Calculations of cross sections of neutron induced reactions for 52Cr in 6-20 MeV energy range have been performed using Hauser-Feshbach code developed by the author. The calculations include cross sections of (n,n'), (n.np), (n,2n), (n,p), (n,pn), (n,pγ), (n,α), (n,αγ) and (n, αn) reactions induced in 52Cr. The calculations have been compared with measurements and evaluations. (author). 30 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Calculations of an HPGe detector peak efficiency curve up to 11 MeV with EGS4 and GEANT4

    We determined an efficiency curve of an HPGe detector in the energy range of 0.3 - 11 MeV within 0.5% accuracy with the measured data of the 14N(n,γ)15N reaction and the aid of the Monte Carlo cords EGS4 and GEANT4. (author)

  15. Calculation of SF6-/SF6 and Cl-/CFCl3 electron attachment cross sections in the energy range 0-100 meV

    Chutjian, A.

    1982-01-01

    Electron attachment cross sections for the processes SF6-/SF6 and Cl-/CFCl3 are calculated in a local theory using a model in which diatomic-like potential energy curves for the normal modes are constructed from available spectroscopic data. Thermally populated vibrational and rotational levels are included. Good agreement is found with experimental cross sections in the energy range 5-100 meV for a particular choice of potential energy curve parameters.

  16. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of 16O, 27Al, natFe, 59Co, natZr and 197Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for natZr and 197Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  17. Calculation of the neutron induced fission cross-section of 233Pa up to 20 MeV

    Since very recently, direct measurements of the 233Pa(n,f) cross-section are available in the energy range from 1.0 to 8.5 MeV. This has stimulated a new, self-consistent, neutron cross-section evaluation for the n+233Pa system, in the incident neutron energy range 0.01-20 MeV. Since higher fission chances are involved also the lighter Pa-isotopes had to be re-evaluated in a consistent manner. The results are quite different compared to earlier evaluation attempts. Since 233Pa is a key isotope in the thorium based fuel cycle the quality of its reaction cross-sections is important for the modeling of future advanced fuel and reactor concepts. The present status of the evaluated libraries is that they differ by a factor of two in the absolute fission cross-section and also in the threshold energy value

  18. Calculation of neutron field generated at thick Li target bombarded with 10-40 MeV deuterons for energy selective neutron irradiation test facility

    Characteristics of neutrons generated from the lithium target bombarded with high energetic deuterons of 10-40 MeV have been calculated to determine the specification for the neutron irradiation material test facility (ESNIT) planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The simple nuclear reaction model was applied to estimation of neutron flux distribution and energy spectrum and the results showed an agreement with the reported experiment within a factor of 2. The present calculation gives the basic spectrum data for estimation of damage parameters in test samples to evaluate the high energy neutron effect on them. (author)

  19. Study the sensitivity of dose calculation in prism treatment planning system using Monte Carlo simulation of 6 MeV electron beam

    Hardiansyah, D.; Haryanto, F. [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) (Indonesia); Male, S. [Radiotherapy Division, Research Hospital of Hassanudin University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Prism is a non-commercial Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (RTPS) develop by Ira J. Kalet from Washington University. Inhomogeneity factor is included in Prism TPS dose calculation. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dose calculation on Prism using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space source from head linear accelerator (LINAC) for Monte Carlo simulation is implemented. To achieve this aim, Prism dose calculation is compared with EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and R50 from both calculations are observed. BEAMnrc is simulated electron transport in LINAC head and produced phase space file. This file is used as DOSXYZnrc input to simulated electron transport in phantom. This study is started with commissioning process in water phantom. Commissioning process is adjusted Monte Carlo simulation with Prism RTPS. Commissioning result is used for study of inhomogeneity phantom. Physical parameters of inhomogeneity phantom that varied in this study are: density, location and thickness of tissue. Commissioning result is shown that optimum energy of Monte Carlo simulation for 6 MeV electron beam is 6.8 MeV. This commissioning is used R50 and PDD with Practical length (R{sub p}) as references. From inhomogeneity study, the average deviation for all case on interest region is below 5 %. Based on ICRU recommendations, Prism has good ability to calculate the radiation dose in inhomogeneity tissue.

  20. Study the sensitivity of dose calculation in prism treatment planning system using Monte Carlo simulation of 6 MeV electron beam

    Hardiansyah, D.; Male, S.; Haryanto, F.

    2014-09-01

    Prism is a non-commercial Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (RTPS) develop by Ira J. Kalet from Washington University. Inhomogeneity factor is included in Prism TPS dose calculation. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dose calculation on Prism using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space source from head linear accelerator (LINAC) for Monte Carlo simulation is implemented. To achieve this aim, Prism dose calculation is compared with EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and R50 from both calculations are observed. BEAMnrc is simulated electron transport in LINAC head and produced phase space file. This file is used as DOSXYZnrc input to simulated electron transport in phantom. This study is started with commissioning process in water phantom. Commissioning process is adjusted Monte Carlo simulation with Prism RTPS. Commissioning result is used for study of inhomogeneity phantom. Physical parameters of inhomogeneity phantom that varied in this study are: density, location and thickness of tissue. Commissioning result is shown that optimum energy of Monte Carlo simulation for 6 MeV electron beam is 6.8 MeV. This commissioning is used R50 and PDD with Practical length (Rp) as references. From inhomogeneity study, the average deviation for all case on interest region is below 5 %. Based on ICRU recommendations, Prism has good ability to calculate the radiation dose in inhomogeneity tissue.

  1. Study the sensitivity of dose calculation in prism treatment planning system using Monte Carlo simulation of 6 MeV electron beam

    Prism is a non-commercial Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (RTPS) develop by Ira J. Kalet from Washington University. Inhomogeneity factor is included in Prism TPS dose calculation. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dose calculation on Prism using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space source from head linear accelerator (LINAC) for Monte Carlo simulation is implemented. To achieve this aim, Prism dose calculation is compared with EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and R50 from both calculations are observed. BEAMnrc is simulated electron transport in LINAC head and produced phase space file. This file is used as DOSXYZnrc input to simulated electron transport in phantom. This study is started with commissioning process in water phantom. Commissioning process is adjusted Monte Carlo simulation with Prism RTPS. Commissioning result is used for study of inhomogeneity phantom. Physical parameters of inhomogeneity phantom that varied in this study are: density, location and thickness of tissue. Commissioning result is shown that optimum energy of Monte Carlo simulation for 6 MeV electron beam is 6.8 MeV. This commissioning is used R50 and PDD with Practical length (Rp) as references. From inhomogeneity study, the average deviation for all case on interest region is below 5 %. Based on ICRU recommendations, Prism has good ability to calculate the radiation dose in inhomogeneity tissue

  2. Evaluation of cross sections and calculation of kerma factors for neutrons up to 80 MeV on {sup 12}C

    Harada, M.; Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Chiba, S.; Fukahori, T.

    1997-03-01

    We have evaluated the cross sections for neutrons with incident energies from 20 to 80 MeV on {sup 12}C for the JENDL high-energy file. The total cross sections were determined by a generalized least-squares method with available experimental data. The cross sections of elastic and inelastic scattering to the first 2{sup +} were evaluated with the theoretical calculations. The optical potentials necessary for these calculations were derived using a microscopic approach by Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux. For the evaluation of double differential emission cross sections (DDXs), we have developed a code system SCINFUL/DDX in which total 35 reactions including the 3-body simultaneous breakup process (n+{sup 12}C {yields} n+{alpha}+{sup 8}Be) can be taken into consideration in terms of a Monte Carlo method, and have calculated the DDXs of all light-emissions (A{<=}4) and heavier reaction products. The results for protons, deuterons, and alphas showed overall good agreement with experimental data. The code is also applicable for calculations of total and partial kerma factors. Total kerma factors calculated for energies from 20 to 80 MeV were compared with the measurements and the other latest evaluations from the viewpoints of medical application and nuclear heating estimation. (author)

  3. Calculated neutron-activation cross sections for E/sub n/ /le/ 100 MeV for a range of accelerator materials

    Activation problems associated with particle accelerators are commonly dominated by reactions of secondary neutrons produced in reactions of beam particles with accelerator or beam stop materials. Measured values of neutron-activation cross sections above a few MeV are sparse. Calculations with the GNASH code have been made for neutrons incident on all stable nuclides of a range of elements common to accelerator materials. These elements include B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ar, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Mo, Nd, and Sm. Calculations were made for a grid of incident neutron energies extending to 100 MeV. Cross sections leading to the direct production of as many as 87 activation products for each of 84 target nuclide were tabulated on this grid of neutron energies, each beginning with the threshold for the product nuclide's formation. Multigrouped values of these cross sections have been calculated and are being integrated into the cross-section library of the REAC-2 neutron activation code. Illustrative cross sections are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Calculation and recommendation of n + 142-148,150Nd reactions in the energy region up to 20 MeV

    The neutron data of 142-148,150Nd were calculated and recommended in the energy region 10-5 eV to 20 MeV. The data include total, elastic, (n, γ), total inelastic, discrete level and continuum inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, 3n), (n, p), (n, α), (n, t), (n, 3He), (n, n'p + pn'), (n,n'α + αn') cross sections. The angular distributions and the spectra of the secondary neutrons and the resonance parameters were also included

  5. Monte carlo calculations of fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors in finite slab phantom for thermal to 10 MeV neutrons

    Finite slab tissue equivalent phantom (ICRU slab) is rather practical phantom than the ICRU sphere since a large number of dosimeters can be calibrated. It is therefore the aim of this work to determine the conversion factors for the ICRU slab which might replace the ICRU sphere as a calibration phantom. By using the MCNP code, conversion factors are calculated in the ICRU slab resulting from external neutron irradiation with energies from thermal to 10 MeV. The depth-dose distributions in the ICRU slab are similar to those in the ICRU sphere. Resultly, the ICRU tissue equivalent finite slab phantom can be used for calibrating the individual dosimeter. (Author)

  6. SU-E-T-554: Monte Carlo Calculation of Source Terms and Attenuation Lengths for Neutrons Produced by 50–200 MeV Protons On Brass

    Ramos-Mendez, J; Faddegon, B [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used TOPAS (TOPAS wraps and extends Geant4 for medical physicists) to compare Geant4 physics models with published data for neutron shielding calculations. Subsequently, we calculated the source terms and attenuation lengths (shielding data) of the total ambient dose equivalent (TADE) in concrete for neutrons produced by protons in brass. Methods: Stage1: The Bertini and Binary nuclear models available in Geant4 were compared with published attenuation at depth of the TADE in concrete and iron. Stage2: Shielding data of the TADE in concrete was calculated for 50– 200 MeV proton beams on brass. Stage3: Shielding data from Stage2 was extrapolated for 235 MeV proton beams. This data was used in a point-line-source analytical model to calculate the ambient dose per unit therapeutic dose at two locations inside one treatment room at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center. Finally, we compared these results with experimental data and full TOPAS simulations. Results: At larger angles (∼130o) the TADE in concrete calculated with the Bertini model was about 9 times larger than that calculated with the Binary model. The attenuation length in concrete calculated with the Binary model agreed with published data within 7%±0.4% (statistical uncertainty) for the deepest regions and 5%±0.1% for shallower regions. For iron the agreement was within 3%±0.1%. The ambient dose per therapeutic dose calculated with the Binary model, relative to the experimental data, was a ratio of 0.93±0.16 and 1.23±0.24 for two locations. The analytical model overestimated the dose by four orders of magnitude. These differences are attributed to the complexity of the geometry. Conclusion: The Binary and Bertini models gave comparable results, with the Binary model giving the best agreement with published data at large angle. Shielding data we calculated using the Binary model is useful for fast shielding calculations with other analytical models. This work was supported by

  7. Comparison between the calculated and measured dose distributions for four beams of 6 MeV linac in a human-equivalent phantom

    Reda Sonia M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation dose distributions in various parts of the body are of importance in radiotherapy. Also, the percent depth dose at different body depths is an important parameter in radiation therapy applications. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are the most accurate methods for such purposes. Monte Carlo computer calculations of photon spectra and the dose ratios at surfaces and in some internal organs of a human equivalent phantom were performed. In the present paper, dose distributions in different organs during bladder radiotherapy by 6 MeV X-rays were measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry placed at different points in the human-phantom. The phantom was irradiated in exactly the same manner as in actual bladder radiotherapy. Four treatment fields were considered to maximize the dose at the center of the target and minimize it at non-target healthy organs. All experimental setup information was fed to the MCNP-4b code to calculate dose distributions at selected points inside the proposed phantom. Percent depth dose distribution was performed. Also, the absorbed dose as ratios relative to the original beam in the surrounding organs was calculated by MCNP-4b and measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Both measured and calculated data were compared. Results indicate good agreement between calculated and measured data inside the phantom. Comparison between MCNP-4b calculations and measurements of depth dose distribution indicated good agreement between both.

  8. Calculation and evaluation of cross-sections and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 16}O and {sup 14}N

    Chadwick, M.B. [California Univ., Livermor, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Young, P.G.

    1997-03-01

    We present evaluations of the interaction of neutrons with energies between 20 and 100 MeV with oxygen and nitrogen nuclei, which follows on from our previous work on carbon. Our aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. We apply the FKK-GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. We determine total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra for light ejectiles with A {<=} 4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions. Our results for charged-particle emission spectra agree well with the measurements of Subramanian et al. We compare kerma factors derived from our evaluated cross sections with experimental data, providing an integral benchmarking of our work. (author). 52 refs.

  9. Calculation of Double-Differential Cross Sections of n+7Li Reactions Below 20 MeV

    ZHANG Jing-Shang; HAN Ying-Lu

    2002-01-01

    A new reaction model for light nuclei is proposed to analyze the measured data,especially for analysis of the double-differential cross sections of the outgoing particles.Many channels arc opened in the n + 7Li reaction below En< 20 MeV.The reaction mechanism is very complex,beside the sequential emissions there are also three-body breakup processes.Because of a strong recoil effect of light nucleus reactions,the energy balance is strictly taken into account.The comparisons of the calculated results with the double-differential measurements indicate that the model calculations are successful for the total outgoing neutrons.

  10. Neutron effective dose calculation behind concrete shielding of charge particle accelerators with energy up to 100 MeV

    The purpose of work is the comparison of results of calculations of effective neutron doses behind concrete shielding by a method Monte-Carlo and by phenomenological method. Data obtained by these two methods agree within factor 2 over considered range of neutron energies and shielding thickness. Comparison of the results shows that difference in shield thickness between calculated by Monte Carlo and phenomenological method is not exceeded half-value layer for neutron effective dose, that is from 10 cm to 30 cm for considered energies and thickness of shields. (authors)

  11. Calculation of proton-induced reactions on Tellurium isotopes below 60 MeV for medical radioisotope production

    The 123Te(p,n)123I, 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(p,2n)123I reactions, among the many reaction channels opened, are the major reactions under consideration from a diagnostic purpose because reaction residuals as the gamma emitters are used for most radiopharmaceutical applications involving radioiodine. Based on the available experimental data, the absorption cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions of the proton-induced nuclear reaction on Te isotopes below 60 NeV are calculated using the optical model code APMNK. The transmission coefficients of neutron, proton, deuteron, trition and alpha particles are calculated by CUNF code and are fed into the GNASH code. By adjusting level density parameters and the pair correction values of some reaction channels, as well as the composite nucleus state density constants of the pre-equilibrium model, the production cross sections and energy-angle correlated spectra of the secondary light particles, as well as production cross sections and energy distributions of heavy recoils and gamma rays are calculated by the statistical plus pre-equilibrium model code GNAH. The calculated results are analysed and compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR. The optimized global optical model parameters give overall agreement with the experimental data over both the entire energy range and all tellurium isotopes. (author)

  12. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O4- stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  13. Calculating the neutron yield from thick targets irradiated by electrons with the energy upto 500 MeV

    The mathematical simulation technique used for calculating the photoneutron yield from thick targets made of different Materials is suggested. Cascade-evaporative nucleus model being a part of the IMITATOR program complex is used for calculations. Three groups of materials are investigated: light-oxygen and aluminium, medium- iron and nickel, heavy,tungsten and lead. Maximum thickness of targets consistuting 10 radiation length is determined on the basis of the experiment and represents the thickness at which in the investigated energy range secondary neutron flux ''saturation'' arises. The dependences of total neutron yield on electron beam energy and target material are obtained. The values of fast neutrons yield from thick targets, their spatial distribution and dependences on the energy of primary electrons and target thickness are determined. Anomalies of photoneutrons yield near magic and double magic nuclei are pointed out. A considerable drop of total yield of fast neutrons with increase of atomic number of target material is noted

  14. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  15. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the dummy assembly shown in drawing 175-0000 including load sensors specified in §...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  17. Description of the shape evolution in the yrast states of 186Pt

    186Pt was tested in the framework of IBM-1 and the X(3) model. The results show that 186Pt is located close to the shape phase transition point, but the B(E2) values little agree with the X(3) model. The shape evolution in the yrast states of 186Pt is also discussed in detail. TRS calculation exhibits a flat bottomed potential at low spin states, but a relatively deep minimum at high spin states. It suggests that a shape evolution from vibrational mode to rotational mode happens in 186Pt. The result is in agreement with the E-GOS calculation. (authors)

  18. New calculation for the neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV

    The 233Pa(n,f) cross section, a key ingredient for fast reactors and accelerators driven systems, was measured recently with relatively good accuracy [F. Tovesson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 062502 (2002)]. The results are at strong variance with accepted evaluations and an existing indirect experiment. This circumstance led us to perform a quite detailed and complete evaluation of the 233Pa(n,f) cross section between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV, where use of our newly developed routines for the parametrization of the nuclear surface and the calculation of deformation parameters and level densities (including low-energy discrete levels) were made. The results show good quantitative and excellent qualitative agreement with the experimental direct data obtained by Tovesson et al. [F. Tovesson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 062502 (2002)]. Additionally, our methodology opens new possibilities for the analysis of subthreshold fission and above threshold second-chance fission for both 233Pa and its decay product 233U, as well as other strategically important fissionable nuclides

  19. Calculation of cross sections of discrete γ rays production in the (n,n'γ) reaction on chromium and nickel with neutron energy up to 10MeV

    Cross-sections for the production of de-excitation γ rays following inelastic neutron scattering have been calculated, using the statistical model, and are given for natural chromium and nickel for neutron incident energy up to 10MeV

  20. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  2. Identification of a new isotope 186Hf

    The new neutron-rich isotope 186Hf has been produced through a multinucleon transfer reaction by irradiation of natural tungsten targets with 60 MeV/u 18O projectiles. The 186Hf activities were separated radiochemically from the tungsten and reaction product mixture. The γ-ray singles spectra were measured with a high resolution HPGe detector. The new isotope 186Hf was identified based on the growth and decay of 737.5 keV γ rays from the β- decay of its daughter 186Ta. Its half-life has been determined to be 2.6 +- 1.2 min

  3. Present status of research on Re-186 radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center

    Mutalib, A. [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium shows a close chemical similarity to technetium and is suitable for radiotherapy because the {beta}-emitting radionuclides {sup 186}Re (t{sub 1/2} 90 h, E{sub {beta}} = 1.1 MeV, E{sub {gamma}} = 137 keV) and {sup 188}Re (t{sub 1/2} = 17 h, E{sub {beta}} = 2.1 MeV). The {gamma}-emission associated with decay of {sup 186}Re is also useful in scintigraphy. The research on {sup 186}Re radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center has been carried out since April 1997. Interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) led us to the development of labeling antibodies with rhenium isotopes. Although there are several methods for coupling radiometal to antibody, we prefer an indirect labeling method in which a bifunctional chelating agent is used for coupling of {sup 186}Re to monoclonal antibodies. In this report we outline the study on the preparation of {sup 186}Re DMSA-TFP as precursor for labeling with monoclonal antibody. (author)

  4. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations: Application to 6He+64Zn at 13.6 MeV

    The recently developed four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method, making use of the binning procedure, is applied to the reaction 6He+64Zn at 13.6 MeV (around the Coulomb barrier). Excellent agreement with available elastic data is found.

  5. Measurement by film dosimetry and calculation of energy dose distributions for electron and photon irradiation of 42 MeV using the Alderson phantom for planning of pendulum irradiation of the mediastinum in the treatment of peripheral bronchial carcinomas

    The energy dose distribution in an Alderson phantom applying a radiation energy of 42 MeV has been determined by film dosimetry and computation; the results have been compared in order to verify both methods and to improve the irradiation of bronchial carcinoma by achieving the best possible protection of healthy tissue and of the spinal cord. The comparative evaluations have shown that there is a good agreement between the calculated results and those measured by film dosimetry. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of neutron cross sections for 90Zr, 208Pb and 209Bi in the energy range of 0.5-25 MeV by using the optical model potentials

    Neutron total cross sections and differential elastic scattering cross sections for the nuclides 90Zr, 208Pb and 209Bi were calculated using different global spherical optical potential (SOP) parameter sets at neutron energies from 0.5-25 MeV. Calculated cross sections for the corresponding nuclides were compared with their experimental data obtained by the EXFOR file to select the best fit parameter sets. It is found that the parameter sets of Ferer Rapaport for 90Zr and Bechetti and Greenless for 208Pb and 209Bi are the best fitted set to obtain the experimental data of total cross sections and angular distributions of these nuclides. (author)

  7. Tritons at energies of 10 MeV to 1 TeV: Conversion coefficients for fluence-to-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, and gray equivalent, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.C

    Conversion coefficients were calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-equivalent dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent for isotropic exposure of an adult female and an adult male to tritons (3H+) in the energy range of 10 MeV to 1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). Coefficients were calculated using Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.C and BodyBuilderTM 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms. Phantoms were modified to allow calculation of effective dose to a Reference Person using tissues and tissue weighting factors from 1990 and 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and calculation of gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. At 15 of the 19 energies for which coefficients for effective dose were calculated, coefficients based on ICRP 2007 and 1990 recommendations differed by less than 3%. The greatest difference, 43%, occurred at 30 MeV. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the US Government 2010. (authors)

  8. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rhenium up to 40 MeV

    Highlights: ► Excitation function measurement of deuteron induced reactions on rhenium up to 40 MeV. ► Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS (TENDL-2011). ► Integral production yield calculation. ► Thin layer activation (TLA) curves; 185Os and 186Re. -- Abstract: As a part of a thorough work of excitation functions on deuteron induced reactions, experimental cross-sections of 185,183m,183g,182Os and 188,186,184m,184g,183Re activation products on natRe were measured up to 40 MeV for the first time with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution γ-spectrometry. Comparison with the former results of other laboratories and with the predictions of the ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE-3 model codes, modified for improved calculations for deuteron reactions, and with data in the TENDL-2011 library are also presented. Thick target yields were given deduced from our experimental cross-sections and compared with the few literature values. For practical applications (thin layer activation) also activity versus depth distributions were calculated for selected isotopes

  9. Calculation of equivalent dose index for electrons from 5,0 to 22,0 MeV by the Monte Carlo method

    The index of equivalent dose in depth and in a sphere surface of a soft tissue equivalent material were determined by Monte Carlo method for electron irradiations from 5,0 to 22.00 MeV. The effect of different irradiation geometries which simulate the incidence of onedirectional opposite rotational and isotropic beams was studied. It is also shown that the detector of wall thickness with 0.5g/cm2 and isotropic response com be used to measure index of equivalent dose for fast electrons. The alternative concept of average equivalent dose for radiation protection is discussed. (M.C.K.)

  10. To calculating the gamma radiation interaction coefficients by an interpolation method in the 0.02-2 MeV energy range

    Interpolation formula earlier used for determining linear coefficients of gamma radiation attenuation in a substance is applied for determining mass coefficients of attenuation without regard for coherent scattering and mass coefficients of interaction due to incoherent scattering on bound electrons as well as mass coefficients of energy absorption. It is concluded that approximation error for 0.02-2 MeV energy range doesn't exceed 1.5 % except for several points for which the difference constitutes 2.5-3 %

  11. Deuterons at energies of 10 MeV to 1 TeV: Conversion coefficients for fluence-to-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and gray equivalent, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.C

    Conversion coefficients were calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-equivalent dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent for isotropic exposure of an adult female and an adult male to deuterons (2H+) in the energy range 10 MeV-1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). Coefficients were calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.C and BodyBuilderTM 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms. Phantoms were modified to allow calculation of the effective dose to a Reference Person using tissues and tissue weighting factors from 1990 and 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Coefficients for the equivalent and effective dose incorporated a radiation weighting factor of 2. At 15 of 19 energies for which coefficients for the effective dose were calculated, coefficients based on ICRP 1990 and 2007 recommendations differed by < 3 %. The greatest difference, 47 %, occurred at 30 MeV. (authors)

  12. Helions at energies of 10 MeV to 1 TeV: Conversion coefficients for fluence-to-absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and gray equivalent, calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.C

    Conversion coefficients were calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-equivalent dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent, for isotropic exposure of an adult male and an adult female to helions (3He2+) in the energy range of 10 MeV to 1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). Calculations were performed using Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.C and BodyBuilderTM 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms modified to allow calculation of effective dose using tissues and tissue weighting factors from either the 1990 or 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. At 15 of the 19 energies for which coefficients for effective dose were calculated, coefficients based on ICRP 2007 and 1990 recommendations differed by less than 2%. The greatest difference, 62%, occurred at 100 MeV. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the U.S. Government 2010. (authors)

  13. (n,p, (n,2n, (n,d, and (n,α cross-section calculations of 16O with 0-40 MeV energy neutrons

    Ozdemir Omer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is one of the elements which interacts with emitted neutrons after fission reactions. Oxygen exists abundantly both in nuclear fuel (UO2 and moderators (H2O. Nuclear reactions of oxygen with neutrons are important in terms of stability of nuclear fuel and neutron economy. In this study, equilibrium and pre-equilibrium models have been used to calculate (n,p, (n,d, (n,2n and (n,α nuclear reaction cross-sections of 16O. In these calculations, neutron incident energy has been taken up to 40 MeV. Hybrid and Standard Weisskopf-Ewing Models in ALICE-2011 program, Weisskopf-Ewing and Full Exciton Models in PCROSS program, and Cascade Exciton Model in CEM03.01 program have been utilized. The calculated results have been compared with experimental and theroretical cross-section data which are obtained from libraries of EXFOR and ENDF/B VII.1.

  14. Dicty_cDB: SSE186 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSE186 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10248-1 SSE186P (Link to Original site) SS...E186F 194 SSE186Z 130 SSE186P 324 - - Show SSE186 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SS... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSE1-D/SSE186Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SS...E186P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSE186 (SSE186Q) /CSM/SS/SSE1-D/SSE1...ant alignments: (bits) Value SSL425 (SSL425Q) /CSM/SS/SSL4-B/SSL425Q.Seq.d/ 343 1e-93 SSH468 (SSH468Q) /CSM/SS/SSH4-C/SS

  15. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of 10–220 MeV proton beams with CR-39 and their verifications by calculation of reaction cross sections using ALICE, TALYS and GEANT4 codes

    High- and intermediate-energy protons are not able to directly form a track in a CR-39 etch detector (TED). Such detectors, however, can be used for the detection and dosimetry of the beams of these particles through the registration of secondary charged particles with sufficiently high values of linear energy transfer (LET). High-energy protons (72–220 MeV) and Intermediate-energy protons (10–30 MeV) with low LET values ranging from 1.1 down to 0.4 keV/μm and 5.87 down to 2.40 keV/μm, respectively are considered in this study. It seems to be sufficient to create secondary particles, although the LET values are low. This phenomenon can modify the characteristics of the energy transfer process due to these particles, which should be taken into account when such particles are used for radiobiology studies or for radiotherapy. The importance of these secondary particles was investigated experimentally by means of an LET spectrometer based on a chemically etched track detector in which the tracks of the primary protons are not revealed. Experiments were performed with proton beams available at the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM) in Karaj, Iran and at the National Cancer Center (NCC) in Seoul, Korea with protons of primary energies of about 10–30 MeV and 72–220 MeV respectively. The contribution of the secondary particle dose increases as the proton energy decreases. The origin of the secondary particles in interactions with protons having high and intermediate energies due to various nuclear reactions was calculated by the both ALICE and TALYS computer codes. The secondary microdosimetry doses were also calculated by GEANT4 code. There is large discrepancy between experimental and calculated results in low proton energies. It has been verified that there is a good correlation between the experimentally obtained results and the reaction cross sections predicted by ALICE and TALYS codes.

  16. 38 CFR 18.6 - Compliance information.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance information... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance... compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as the responsible...

  17. Rhenium-186 direct labelling HIgG

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re for achievement of potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. There were selected methods and techniques for the direct labelling of intact HIgG by studding chemical and radiochemical processes of -S-S- bridges prereduction, reduction of 186ReO4- and coupling reaction of rhenium with HIgG. The -S-S- bridges prereduction of HIgG to sulfhydryls was effected using different reducing agents: ascorbic acid, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol, cysteine, active hydrogen. The prereduction reactions are controlled by masic ratios of HIgG/reduction agent, pH, temperature and time of incubation. A pH=4.5 and a 24 hours incubation time are in the advantage of the prereduction yield. The labelling with 186Re of prereduced HIgG with ascorbic acid or active hydrogen and 37 deg. C incubation in 22 hours releases 92% radiochemical purity. (author)

  18. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  19. Evaluation and calculation of activation cross sections for 151,153Eu(n,2n),(n,3n),(n,γ) and (n,x) reactions below 20 MeV

    The activation cross sections for 151,153Eu(n,2n),(n,3n), (n,γ) and some emission charged particle (n,x) reactions below 20 MeV were evaluated based on experimental and theoretical data. The results are compared with the experimental and other evaluated data from ENDF/B-6 and JENDL-3. The evaluated cross sections for 151,153Eu(n,2n)150,152Eu reactions are consistent with experimental data and better than the evaluated data from other nuclear libraries. The cross sections for 151,153Eu(n,γ)152,154Eu reactions were evaluated based on the new accurate measured and calculated data. The recommended cross sections are reliable

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSC186 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC186 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SSC186P (Link to Original site) SSC186F ... CP000901_2522( CP000901 |pid:none) Yersinia pestis Angola , complet... 228 5e-58 AM286415_1135( AM286415 |pid ...

  1. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by...

  2. The evaluation and calculation of production cross sections for 11C, 13N and 15O from 11B, 13C, 15N(p,n) and 16O(p,x)13N reactions up to 80 MeV

    The excitation function of 11B, 13C, 15N(p,n) and 16O(p,α) reactions were measured with the aid of either residual nucleus activity or outgoing neutron methods. In general, there are some experimental data in energy range from threshold to 30 Mev and extrapolation of experimental data up to 80 Mev. The excitation functions of 13C, 15N(p,n) and 16O(p,x)13N reactions were calculated by the code ALICE95 up to 80 Mev. The comparison between calculated cross sections of 13C, 15N(p,n) and 16O(p,x)13N reactions and experimental data from threshold to 80 Mev are given. (8 figs.)

  3. Fast-neutron interactions with 182W, 184W and 186W

    Neutron total cross sections of 182W, 184W and 186W are measured from approx. = 0.3 to 5.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV to accuracies of 1 to 3%. Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of the same three isotopes are measured at scattering angles in the range 20 to 1600 and at incident-neutron energy intervals of approx. = 100 keV from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV. Approximately thirty scattered-neutron groups are observed for each of the isotopes. Prominent of these are excitations attributed to collective rotational and vibrational bands. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels models with particular attention to the direct excitation of ground-state-rotational and β- and γ-vibrational bands. The strengths of the direct interactions and the magnitudes of the collective deformations are inferred from the interpretations and compared with similar values previously reported elsewhere. The experimental results are used to deduce experimentally-based evaluated data sets for 182W, 184W and 186W over the energy range 0.1 - approx. = 5.0 MeV

  4. A nuclear structure study of the proposed gamma-ray laser candidate nucleus 186Re

    We present results of theoretical nuclear structure model calculations for the gamma-ray laser candidate nucleus 186Re proposed by Collins. Our calculations of this odd-odd transitional nucleus are based on an axially-asymmetric (particle plus triaxial rotor) model for constructing the orbitals of the odd nucleons that couple under the influence of the residual neutron-proton interaction. We include pairing correlations in the determination of these orbitals by using the BCS approximation with newly determined pairing strengths. The matrix elements of the residual neutron-proton interaction are obtained using phenomenological spin-dependent δ function potentials of both surface and volume forms. We examine the sensitivity of the calculated low-excitation level structure of 186Re to the strength of these potentials. Calculated energy levels of 186Re will be presented and compared with experiment. The impact of our results on the proposed use of 186Re as a gamma-ray laser will be discussed. In addition, based upon these and other model calculations to be described, we assess the level of effort necessary in a full-scale theoretical search for a viable candidate nucleus for a gamma-ray laser. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Dicty_cDB: SSI186 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available um calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule-1 (cadA) gene...gnificant alignments: (bits) Value ( P54657 ) RecName: Full=Calcium-dependent cell adhesion...l.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI1-D/SSI186Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI186Z (Link to Original si...endent cell adhesion molecule-1 DdCAD-1 (cadA) mRNA, complete cds. 1142 0.0 2 U20997 ...te) Representative DNA sequence >SSI186 (SSI186Q) /CSM/SS/SSI1-D/SSI186Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLG186 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available P PERKYSFWIGGSILASLSTFQQMWISKEEYDESGPSIVHRKCF*tiktsdesasxtxxxi *mynnnki*lflmvvdlyptik Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences pr...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLG1-D/SLG186Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLG18...6Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLG186 (SLG186Q) /CSM/SL/SLG1-D/SLG186Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...LASLSTFQQMWISKEEYDESGPSIVHRKCF*tiktsdesasxtxxxi *mynnnki*lflmvvdlyptik Translated...LG8-C/SLG871Q.Seq.d/ 1124 0.0 own update 2002.12.11 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant

  7. Measurements of 186Re production cross section induced by deuteron on tungsten target at ARRONAX facility

    Full text of publication follows. The ARRONAX cyclotron [Ref.1], acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes Atlantique' is a new facility installed in Nantes, France. A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particle. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility to use them to produce medical isotopes. Indeed, in some cases, the use of deuterons allows higher production yield than protons. In this study, we have focused on 186Re production using deuteron. This radionuclide is a β- emitter which has chemical properties close to the widely used 99mTc and has been used in clinical trials for palliation of painful bone metastases resulting from prostate and breast cancer [Ref.2]. Production cross section has been measured between 9 and 23 MeV using the ARRONAX deuteron beam and the stacked-foil technique [Ref.3]. A novelty in our work is the use of natTi monitor foils behind each natW target foil in order to record efficiently the deuteron incident flux and energies all over the stack relying on the IAEA recommended cross section [Ref.4] of the natTi(d,x)48V reaction. Typical experimental conditions consist in an irradiation time of 30 minutes in air with a beam intensity of 100 nA. Activity measurements are made using gamma spectrometry. Isotope of interest and contaminants created during irradiation are measured since a good optimization process is supposed to find the best compromise between production yield and purity of the final product. Our new sets of data will be compared with the existing ones [Refs.5, 6] and with results given by TALYS code calculations [Ref.7]. Production yield will be determined and the best production route, using proton or deuteron, identified. References: [1] F.Haddad et al., Eur. J. Med. Mol. Imaging (2008) 35

  8. Evaluation of The Use of Beta and Gamma Counter Apparatus in Determination of Radiochemical Purity 188/186Re-CTMP

    CTMP (1,4,8,11-tetraaza cyclo tetradecil-1,4,8,11-tetrametilenfosfonat) labeled 188/186Re is one of the radiopharmaceuticals being developed in PTNBR-BATAN. It is commonly used for palliative therapy of bone metastasis. 188/186Re can be yielded from Na188/186ReO4 and CTMP with addition SnCl2 as reductor. Radiochemical side products that can be generated from the reaction are 188/186ReO4 - and 188/186Re reducted. As radiopharmaceutical, 188/186Re-CTMP has fulfilled some standard qualifications, such as radiochemical purity >90 %. The paper chromatography method is was used to determine radiochemical purity. To obtain quantitative data from chromatography, therefore can be done by using radiation counter apparatus. 188/186Re is a beta radiation emitter radionuclide with energy 1.07 MeV (92%) and gamma radiation emitter with energy 137 keV (7%). As a consequence of these characteristics, so that radioactivity testing can be determined based on beta radiation emission by using Geiger Mueller (GM) beta counter, otherwise based on gamma radiation emission by using gamma counter NaI(Tl). The experiment showed there is similarity radiochemical purity with regression value 0.9951%. (author)

  9. 31 CFR 103.186 - Special measures against Burma.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special measures against Burma. 103.186 Section 103.186 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering Programs Law...

  10. 33 CFR 110.186 - Port Everglades, Florida.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Everglades, Florida. 110.186... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.186 Port Everglades, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds. The... entrance to Port Everglades, is an area bounded by a line connecting points with the following...

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFO186 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFO186 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11647-1 AFO186Z (Link to Original ... 2.2 1 X80176 |X80176.1 F.rubripes gene for D3-like dopamine ... receptor. 44 2.2 1 AC079103 |AC079103.2 Homo sapie ...

  12. Analysis of 6Li Scattering at 240 MeV Using Different Nuclear Potentials

    Al-Ghamdi, A. H.; Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-06-01

    Angular distributions of the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections of 6Li projectile on different heavy ion target nuclei including the 24Mg, 28Si, 48Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr, and 116Sn at energy of 240 MeV have been analyzed by using two different folded potentials based on the CDM3Y6 and São Paulo potentials for the real part of the optical potential, while the imaginary parts have a phenomenological Woods-Saxon shape. Coupled channel calculations for the low-lying 2+ state at 1.369, 1.779, 3.832, 1.454, 2.186, and 1.29 MeV for 24Mg, 28Si, 48Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr, and 116Sn, respectively, have been carried out, and the best fit values for B(EL) with the above models have been extracted by fitting the inelastic scattering cross section and compared with the values of previous works. The total reaction cross section and real and imaginary volume integrals have also been investigated.

  13. Decay properties of /sup 186/Pb and the lead alpha-decay rate anomaly

    Toth, K.S.; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.; Bingham, C.R.; Moltz, D.M.; Carter, H.K.; Mlekodaj, R.L.; Spejewski, E.H.; Sousa, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha-decay transitions between ground states of doubly-even nuclei are taken to represent unhindered decays. Reduced widths for these s-wave transitions behave in a regular fashion as a function of both neutron and atomic number. They are largest for nuclei two or four particles beyond a closed shell (with sharp minima at the shell) and they then decrease as the next closure is approached. The s-wave widths for /sup 186/ /sup 188/ /sup 190/ /sup 192/Pb, however, have been reported to behave anomalously, i.e., they purportedly increase by a factor of 30 between /sup 186/Pb (N = 104) and /sup 192/Ob (N = 110) instead of decreasing as one nears N = 126. Theoretical calculations have not reproduced this unusual behavior. The (electron-capture (EC) + ..beta../sup +/) strengths were deduced from K x-ray intensities. A number of corrections are involved in such determinations. We undertook the investigation of the (EC + ..beta../sup +/) decay schemes of these neutron-deficient lead isotopes, in conjunction with studies of their ..cap alpha..-decay properties, to obtain more reliable ..cap alpha..-branching ratios. Herein we present new information on /sup 186/Pb and discuss the partial ..cap alpha.. half-lives for /sup 192/Pb, /sup 190/Pb, /sup 188/Pb, and /sup 186/Pb together with ..cap alpha..-decay rates for even-even nuclei with Z greater than or equal to 78.

  14. Preparation and quality control of 186Re compounds

    The optimal conditions were investigated in order to label the methylendiphosphonate (MDP), hydroxyethylendiphosphonate (HEDP), pyrophosphonate (PYP) and ethylendiaminotetramethylenphosphoric (EDTMP) with 186Re. The biodistribution of these compounds in experimental animals were studied to determine the most suitable therapeutic agent for its eventual use as pain palliative in patients with bone metastases. The biodistribution assays were performed in Wistar rats, and the 186Re HEDP was finally chosen. (M.E.L.)

  15. The role of lysine 186 in HIV-1 integrase multimerization

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes biochemical reactions required for viral cDNA insertion into host cell chromosomal DNA, an essential step in the HIV-1 replication cycle. In one of these reactions, the two ends of the linear viral cDNA are believed to be simultaneously ligated to chromosomal DNA by a tetrameric form of IN. The structure of the full-length IN tetramer is not known but a model consisting of the N-terminal domain and the catalytic core revealed basic residues 186 to 188 at the interface between the two IN dimers. We found that alteration of these residues, in particular changing IN lysine residue 186 to glutamate (K186Q), impairs IN oligomerization in the yeast two-hybrid system and decreases oligomeric forms of IN within virions. When expressed independently of other viral proteins in human cells, IN-K186Q did not concentrate in the nucleus as did wild-type IN. Co-expression of wild-type IN restored the multimerization defects of IN-K186Q, in both the two-hybrid system and in virions, and also rescued the nuclear targeting defects. Virions bearing IN-K186Q were not infectious in a single cycle of replication but when mixed virions containing two different IN mutants were produced, IN-K186Q was capable of complementing the catalytically inactive mutant IN-D116A. Our biochemical and functional data support the crystallographic model in which IN residue K186 lies at the interface between IN dimers and suggest that tetramerization is important, not only for concerted integration, but also for IN nuclear targeting

  16. Effects of MCI-186 upon neutrophil-derived active oxygens.

    Sumitomo, K; Shishido, N; Aizawa, H; Hasebe, N; Kikuchi, K; Nakamura, M

    2007-01-01

    Reactions of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one (MCI-186) with hypochlorous acid and superoxide were analysed by spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry. The results were applied to the neutrophil system to evaluate the scavenging activity of neutrophil-derived active oxygen species by MCI-186. MCI-186 reacted rapidly with hypochlorous acid (1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1)) to form a chlorinated intermediate, followed by a slow conversion to a new spectrum. MCI-186 consumed 3 moles of hypochlorous acid and did not react with superoxide. The newly synthesized fluorescence probes, 2-[6-(4'-amino)-phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl]benzoic acid (APF) and 2-[6-(4'-hydroxy)phenoxy-3H-anthen-3-on-9-yl]benzoic acid (HPF) successfully detected neutrophil-derived active oxygens (Setsukinai K, Urano Y, Kakinuma K, Majima HJ, Nagano T. Development of novel fluorescence probes that can reliably detect reactive oxygen species and distinguish specific species. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 3170-3175). The rate constants for the reaction of hypochlorous acid with MCI-186 and fluorescence probes was in the order of MCI-186 > APF > HPF. Fluorescence due to the oxidation of APF and HPF was observed with the stimulated neutrophils. The result that the intensity from APF oxidation was higher than that from HPF oxidation is compatible with reports that APF selectively reacts with hypochlorous acid. Fluorescence due to oxidation of both APF and HPF decreased when the reactions were carried out in the presence of a fluorescence probe and MCI-186 in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that MCI-186 effectively scavenges neutrophil-derived hypochlorous acid and other active oxygens. PMID:17705989

  17. Comparison of Bonner sphere responses calculated by different Monte Carlo codes at energies between 1 MeV and 1 GeV – Potential impact on neutron dosimetry at energies higher than 20 MeV

    Rühm, W; Pioch, C; Agosteo, S; Endo, A; Ferrarini, M; Rakhno, I; Rollet, S; Satoh, D; Vincke, H

    2014-01-01

    Bonner Spheres Spectrometry in its high-energy extended version is an established method to quantify neutrons at a wide energy range from several meV up to more than 1 GeV. In order to allow for quantitative measurements, the responses of the various spheres used in a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) are usually simulated by Monte Carlo (MC) codes over the neutron energy range of interest. Because above 20 MeV experimental cross section data are scarce, intra-nuclear cascade (INC) and evaporation models are applied in these MC codes. It was suspected that this lack of data above 20 MeV may translate to differences in simulated BSS response functions depending on the MC code and nuclear models used, which in turn may add to the uncertainty involved in Bonner Sphere Spectrometry, in particular for neutron energies above 20 MeV. In order to investigate this issue in a systematic way, EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) initiated an exercise where six groups having experience in neutron transport calcula...

  18. New transitions and feeding of the Jπ=(8+) isomer in 186Re

    Matters, D. A.; Fotiades, N.; Carroll, J. J.; Chiara, C. J.; McClory, J. W.; Kawano, T.; Nelson, R. O.; Devlin, M.

    2015-11-01

    The spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Weapons Neutron Research facility was used to populate excited states in 186Re via (n ,2 n γ ) reactions on an enriched 187Re target. Gamma rays were detected with the GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations spectrometer, a Compton-suppressed array of 18 HPGe detectors. Incident neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique and used to obtain γ -ray excitation functions for the purpose of identifying γ rays by reaction channel. Analysis of the singles γ -ray spectrum gated on the neutron energy range 10 ≤En≤25 MeV resulted in five transitions and one level added to the 186Re level scheme. The additions include the placement of three γ rays at 266.7, 381.2, and 647.7 keV which have been identified as feeding the 2.0 ×105yr , Jπ=(8+) isomer and yield an improved value of 148.2 (5 )keV for the isomer energy. These transitions may have astrophysical implications related to the use of the Re-Os cosmochronometer.

  19. Configuration mixing in the neutron-deficient $^{186-196}$Pb isotopes

    Hellemans, V; Heyde, K

    2008-01-01

    In this article we report the results of detailed interacting boson model calculations with configuration mixing for the neutron-deficient Pb isotopes. Calculated energy levels and $B(E2)$ values for $^{188-196}$Pb are discussed and some care is suggested concerning the current classification on the basis of level systematics of the $4_1^+$ and $6_1^+$ states in $^{190-194}$Pb. Furthermore, quadrupole deformations are extracted for $^{186-196}$Pb and the mixing between the different families (0p-0h, 2p-2h, and 4p-4h) is discussed in detail. Finally, the experimental and the theoretical level systematics are compared.

  20. Competition between fusion-fission and quasifission processes in the 30Si+182,184,186W systems

    The dynamics of fusion-fission processes in heavy-ion collisions has been extensively investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, in recent years. The time evolution of the composite system formed after interaction, and parameters on which the dynamics depends etc., are still not fully understood. Studies on dynamical processes in heavy ion collisions at the near-Coulomb-barrier energies have shown that complete fusion does not occur immediately in the case of massive nuclei collisions. Among various competing processes, quasifission (QF) is the dominant non-compound nuclear process. We, here report the di-nuclear system (DNS) model predictions of capture, fusion and quasi fission cross-sections for 30Si+182,184,186W systems in the centre-of-mass energy range 113 MeV to 163 MeV

  1. Probing intruder configurations in $^{186, 188}$Pb using Coulomb excitation

    Columb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence, mixing and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient $^{188}$Pb nuclei are proposed with a view to extending similar studies to the $^{186}$Pb midshell nucleus. The HIE-ISOLDE beam of $^{186,188}$Pb nuclei will be delivered to MINIBALL+SPEDE set-up for simultaneous in-beam $\\gamma$-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy. The proposed experiment will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the two lowest 2$^{+}$ states in $^{188}$Pb. Moreover, the advent of SPEDE will allow probing of the bandhead 0$^{+}$ states via direct measurements of E0 transitions. Beam development is requested to provide pure and instense $^{186}$Pb beam.

  2. Formation, tidal evolution, and habitability of the Kepler-186 system

    Bolmont, Emeline; Raymond, Sean N.; Selsis, Franck; Hersant, Franck [Univ. Bordeaux, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Von Paris, Philip [Institut für Planetenforschung, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Barclay, Thomas, E-mail: bolmont@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    The Kepler-186 system consists of five planets orbiting an early M dwarf. The planets have physical radii of 1.0-1.50 R {sub ⊕} and orbital periods of 4-130 days. The 1.1 R {sub ⊕} Kepler-186f with a period of 130 days is of particular interest. Its insolation of roughly 0.32 S {sub ⊕} places it within the surface liquid water habitable zone (HZ). We present a multifaceted study of the Kepler-186 system, using two sets of parameters which are consistent with the data and also self-consistent. First, we show that the distribution of planet masses can be roughly reproduced if the planets were accreted from a high surface density disk presumably sculpted by an earlier phase of migration. However, our simulations predict the existence of one to two undetected planets between planets e and f. Next, we present a dynamical analysis of the system including the effect of tides. The timescale for tidal evolution is short enough that the four inner planets must have small obliquities and near-synchronous rotation rates. The tidal evolution of Kepler-186f is slow enough that its current spin state depends on a combination of its initial spin state, its dissipation rate, and the stellar age. Finally, we study the habitability of Kepler-186f with a one-dimensional climate model. The planet's surface temperature can be raised above 273 K with 0.5-5 bars of CO{sub 2}, depending on the amount of N{sub 2} present. Kepler-186f represents a case study of an Earth-sized planet in the cooler regions of the HZ of a cool star.

  3. Candidate materials to prevent brittle fracture - (186)

    For heavy transport or dual purpose casks, selecting the appropriate materials for the body is a key decision. To get a Type B(U) approval, it is necessary to demonstrate that the mechanical strength of the material is good enough at temperature as low as -40 C so as to prevent the cask from any risk of brittle fracture in regulatory accident conditions. Different methods are available to provide such a demonstration and can lead to different choices. It should be noted also that the material compositions given by national or international standards display relatively wide tolerances and therefore are not necessarily sufficient to guarantee a required toughness. It is therefore necessary to specify to the fabricator the minimum value for toughness, and to verify it. This paper gives an overview of the different methods and materials that are used in several countries. Although the safety is strongly linked to the choice of the material, it is shown that many other parameters are important, such as the design, the fabrication process (multi layer, cast or forged body), the welding material and process, the ability to detect flaws, and the measured and/or calculated stress level, including stress concentration, in particular when bolts are used. The paper will show that relying exclusively on high toughness at low temperature does not necessarily deliver the maximum safety as compared with other choices. It follows that differences in approaches to licensing by different competent authorities may bias the choice of material depending on the country of application, even though B(U) licenses are meant to guarantee unilaterally a uniform minimum level of safety

  4. Systemic application of rhenium-186 hydroxyethylidenediphosphonate ({sup 186}Re HEDP) as an option for the treatment of chronic arthritis and arthropathy[Radiosynoviorthesis]; Systemische Applikation von Rhenium-186 Hydroxyethylidendiphosphonat ({sup 186}Re HEDP) als Therapieoption bei chronischen Arthritiden und Arthropathien

    Bucerius, J.; Biersack, H.J.; Palmedo, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany); Wallny, T. [Orthopaedische Klinik l, Klinik fuer Orthopaedische Chirurgie, St. Bernhard-Hospital Kamp-Lintfort (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany); Brackmann, H.H. [Inst. fuer experimentelle Haematologie und Transfusionsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Chronic arthritis is very common and is associated with a variety of systemic diseases whereas hemophilic arthropathy is one of the most common clinical manifestations of hemophilia, mainly of hemophilia type A. All of these polyarticular diseases are associated with progressive pain and increasing lack of mobility. Therapy is based on conservative treatment such as medication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective therapy strategies such as intraarticular injections of e.g. radioactive substances (radiosynoviorthesis) or surgical interventions. However, in some cases, the disease does not respond to one of these treatment options or cannot be continued due to important side-effects. Systemic application of radioisotopes like {sup 186}Re HEDP has been successfully administered for pain palliation of osseous metastases. Today, only few data exist for systemic therapy with {sup 186}Re HEDP in patients suffering from benign polyarticular disease. In a prospective study with patients suffering from chronic arthritis a single systemic application of {sup 186}Re HEDP led to a reduction of disease activity in six of eight and to a reduction of the number of painful or swollen joints in five of eight included patients. In a further prospective study with 12 patients with hemophilic arthropathy, 19 of 36 (52.7%) most painful joints could be successfully treated with one systemic {sup 186}Re HEDP therapy. Furthermore, a reduction of global pain could be observed in those patients. However, further randomized studies with larger study populations are necessary in order to confirm this promising results. (orig.)

  5. Fisiognomica a Qumran: a proposito di 4Q186

    Catastini, Alessandro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the Author singled out physiognomonic practice by Essenes according to Flavius Josephus’ source in Ant II, 119-161. In this article, the research is extended to the Qumranic manuscript 4Q186, a parchment carrying a text whose content is manifestly physiognomonic. In consequence of a comparison between this text and the so-called Two Spirits Treatise of 1QS, the Author argues that the expression רוח לו, utilised in 4Q186, points out the “typology” of the spirit of the individuals that are considered in this text.

    En un estudio previo, el autor había estudiado la práctica fisiognómica de los esenios a partir de la evidencia recogida por Flavio Josefo (Ant II, 119-161. En esta ocasión, la investigación se extiende al manuscrito 4Q186, cuyo texto tiene un contenido claramente fisiognómico. La comparación entre este texto y el denominado Tratado de los Dos Espíritus (1QS, lleva al autor a señalar que la expresión רוח לו utilizada en 4Q186 muestra la «tipología» del espíritu de los individuos de los que trata este texto.

  6. 27 CFR 555.186 - Seizure or forfeiture.

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.186 Seizure or forfeiture. Any plastic explosive that does not contain a detection agent in violation of 18 U... of this chapter for regulations on summary destruction of plastic explosives that do not contain...

  7. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    2010-04-01

    ... Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred between breweries without payment of tax, the shipping brewer shall prepare a serially numbered invoice or commercial record, in duplicate, covering the transfer. The invoice will be marked “transfer without...

  8. Alpha particle induced reactions on natCr up to 39 MeV: Experimental cross-sections, comparison with theoretical calculations and thick target yields for medically relevant 52gFe production

    Thin natCr targets were obtained by electroplating, using 23.75 μm Cu foils as backings. In five stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross sections for production of 52gFe, 49,51cumCr, 52cum,54,56cumMn and 48cumV in Cr and 61Cu,68Ga in Cu were measured up to 39 MeV incident α-particle energy. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the natCu(α,x)67,66Ga monitor reactions over the whole energy range. Comparisons with the scarce literature values and results from the TENDL-2013 on-line library, based on the theoretical code family TALYS-1.6, were made. A discussion of the production routes for 52gFe with achievable yields and contamination rates was made

  9. Dosimetric comparison of 4 MeV and 6 MeV electron beams for total skin irradiation

    In this study, dosimetric aspects of TSEI consisting of a 4 MeV beam with no spoiler were investigated in comparison to a nominal 6 MeV beam with spoiler, and the potential for clinical applications was evaluated. The TSEI technique is based on the Stanford technique, which utilizes a beam configuration of six-dual fields. MOSFETs were used to measure the optimal gantry angle, profile uniformity, and absolute dose at the calibration point. The depth dose curve of the central axis was measured in the treatment plane using EBT2 film. Photon contamination was measured as the dose at 5 cm depth in a solid water phantom relative to the maximum dose using a parallel plate ion chamber. A MOSFET dosimeter placed on the surface of a humanoid phantom, and EBT2 films inserted into a humanoid phantom were used to verify the TSEI commissioning. Dosimetric aspects of the 4 MeV TSEI beam, such as profile uniformity (±10%) and relative photon contamination (<0.001%), were comparable to those of a 6 MeV TSEI beam. The relative depth dose of the 4 MeV electrons was 81.4% at the surface and 100% at 0.4 cm. For the 6 MeV electrons, the relative depth dose was 93.4% at the surface and 100% from 0.2 cm to 0.4 cm. The calculated B-factor of the 4 MeV TSEI beam was 1.55, and 1.53 for the 6 MeV TSEI. 80% of the prescribed dose was obtained at 0.22 cm depth for the 4 MeV TSEI beam and 0.53 cm for the 6 MeV TSEI beam in the humanoid phantom measurement. The suggested 4 MeV beam for TSEI could be applied to shallow depth skin diseases and to electron boost as second treatment course

  10. Assessment of 186Re chelate-conjugated bisphosphonate for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for bones

    Introduction: The preferable pharmacokinetics of rhenium-186 (186Re)-monoaminemonoamidedithiol-conjugated or 186Re-mercaptoacetyltriglycine-conjugated bisphosphonates (BPs) suggested that the molecular design would be applicable to other radionuclides such as 68Ga, 99mTc, 153Sm and 177Lu. In this study, a key factor affecting the pharmacokinetics of a chelate-conjugated BP was investigated to estimate the validity and the applicability of molecular design. Methods: Chemically inert and well-characterized tricarbonyl[186Re][(cyclopentadienylcarbonyl amino)-acetic acid]rhenium ([186Re]CpTR-Gly) was conjugated with 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to prepare [186Re](1-{3-[tricarbonyl(cyclopentadienylcarbonyl amino)-acetylamido]-1-hydroxy-1-phosphono-propyl}-phosphonic acid)rhenium ([186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD). Plasma stability, plasma protein binding, hydroxyapatite (HA) binding and the pharmacokinetics of [186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD were compared with those of 186Re 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate (HEDP). The effect of HEDP coadministration and preadministration on the pharmacokinetics of [186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD was also determined. Results: The HPLC-purified [186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD showed higher plasma stability, higher HA binding, higher bone accumulation and lower plasma protein binding than did 186Re-HEDP. However, HA binding of [186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD decreased to levels slightly higher than that of 186Re-HEDP at similar HEDP concentrations. Bone accumulation of [186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD also decreased to levels similar to that of 186Re-HEDP when [186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD was coinjected with HEDP equivalent to that in 186Re-HEDP. In contrast, HEDP pretreatment did not impair bone accumulation of the two 186Re-labeled compounds. However, a delay in blood clearance and an increase in renal radioactivity levels were observed particularly with 186Re-HEDP. Conclusions: Although 186Re-HEDP possessed HA binding and bone

  11. Alpha particle induced reactions on {sup nat}Cr up to 39 MeV: Experimental cross-sections, comparison with theoretical calculations and thick target yields for medically relevant {sup 52g}Fe production

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-08-01

    Thin {sup nat}Cr targets were obtained by electroplating, using 23.75 μm Cu foils as backings. In five stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross sections for production of {sup 52g}Fe, {sup 49,51cum}Cr, {sup 52cum,54,56cum}Mn and {sup 48cum}V in Cr and {sup 61}Cu,{sup 68}Ga in Cu were measured up to 39 MeV incident α-particle energy. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the {sup nat}Cu(α,x){sup 67,66}Ga monitor reactions over the whole energy range. Comparisons with the scarce literature values and results from the TENDL-2013 on-line library, based on the theoretical code family TALYS-1.6, were made. A discussion of the production routes for {sup 52g}Fe with achievable yields and contamination rates was made.

  12. Biodistribution and dosimetric evaluation of 186Re hydroxy ethylen diphosphate

    The pharmacokinetics and the dose of radiation absorbed in different body tissues by the administration of 186Re HEDP (hydroxyethylendiphosphate). The radiation dose in the standard man was established between 5,5 and 25 rad/mCi for red marrow, and red marrow and bone respectively; the radiation dose in metastases would be of 125 rad/mCi. It is concluded that this radiopharmaceutical is suitable for palliative treatment for pain with the mentioned patollogy. (M.E.L.)

  13. Pox 186: an ultracompact galaxy with dominant ionized gas emission

    Guseva, N G; Izotov, Yu I; Noeske, K G; Fricke, K J

    2004-01-01

    We present a ground-based optical spectroscopic and HST U, V, I photometric study of the blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Pox 186. It is found that the emission of the low-surface brightness (LSB) component in Pox 186 at radii 3'' the light of the LSB component is contaminated by the emission of background galaxies complicating the study of the outermost regions. The surface brightness distribution in the LSB component can be approximated by an exponential law with a scale length alpha < 120 pc. This places Pox 186 among the most compact dwarf galaxies known. The derived alpha is likely to be an upper limit to the scale length of the LSB component because of the strong contribution of the gaseous emission. The oxygen abundance in the bright HII region derived from the 4.5m Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and 3.6m ESO telescope spectra are 12+log(O/H)= 7.76+/-0.02 and 7.74+/-0.01 (~ Zsun/15), respectively, in accordance with previous determinations. The helium mass fractions found in this region are Y=0.248...

  14. Development of a {sup 186}Re-HEDP formulation and radio pharmacokinetics comparison with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP; Desarrollo de una formulacion de {sup 186}Re-HEDP y comparacion radiofarmacocinetica con el {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP

    Bribiesca C, A.I

    1998-12-01

    Because of the growing interest in the use of the beta emitters radiopharmaceuticals applied to therapy in different cancer cases, we developed a formulation of {sup 186} Re-HEDP (hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate) as a pain palliative in osseous metastases. Besides serving like therapeutic agent, together with the {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonate), which has already been synthesized and proved, labels EHDP could be very useful like a diagnostic agent in the pursuit of the illness. The irradiation conditions for Rhenium-186 were established by ORIGIN 2 codes for TRIGA reactors. A pharmaceutical formulation was developed employing a factorial experimental design obtaining a complex with a radiochemical purity over 90 %. The complexes {sup 186} Re-HEDP {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP were intravenous administered in BALB-C mice sacrifying them in several intervals of time in order to determine the cumulated activity in each organ to perform absorbed dose calculation by MIRD methodology (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). Radio pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that both complexes follow a biexponential kinetic of first order behavior. In the case of the {sup 186} Re-HEDP the value of the {alpha} constant was 0.2789 and {beta} 0.0006 with an effective dose of 2.56 (mSv)/MBq , while for the complex {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP the values of {alpha} to and {beta} were 0.9012 and and 0.616 respectively and the effective dose was 0.262 (mSv)/MBq. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP, showed a greater bone uptake and a minor effective dose, for which it is a better radiopharmaceutical, respect to with the formulation of {sup 186} Re-HEDP. (Author)

  15. 26 CFR 1.186-1 - Recoveries of damages for antitrust violations, etc.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recoveries of damages for antitrust violations, etc. 1.186-1 Section 1.186-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... (continued) § 1.186-1 Recoveries of damages for antitrust violations, etc. (a) Allowance of deduction....

  16. 40 CFR 96.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.186 Section 96.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Opt-in Units § 96.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual...

  17. 40 CFR 97.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.186 Section 97.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Opt-In Units § 97.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program. Except as...

  18. Development of a 186Re-HEDP formulation and radio pharmacokinetics comparison with 153Sm-EDTMP

    Because of the growing interest in the use of the beta emitters radiopharmaceuticals applied to therapy in different cancer cases, we developed a formulation of 186 Re-HEDP (hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate) as a pain palliative in osseous metastases. Besides serving like therapeutic agent, together with the 153 Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonate), which has already been synthesized and proved, labels EHDP could be very useful like a diagnostic agent in the pursuit of the illness. The irradiation conditions for Rhenium-186 were established by ORIGIN 2 codes for TRIGA reactors. A pharmaceutical formulation was developed employing a factorial experimental design obtaining a complex with a radiochemical purity over 90 %. The complexes 186 Re-HEDP 153 Sm-EDTMP were intravenous administered in BALB-C mice sacrifying them in several intervals of time in order to determine the cumulated activity in each organ to perform absorbed dose calculation by MIRD methodology (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). Radio pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that both complexes follow a biexponential kinetic of first order behavior. In the case of the 186 Re-HEDP the value of the α constant was 0.2789 and β 0.0006 with an effective dose of 2.56 (mSv)/MBq , while for the complex 153 Sm-EDTMP the values of α to and β were 0.9012 and and 0.616 respectively and the effective dose was 0.262 (mSv)/MBq. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical 153 Sm-EDTMP, showed a greater bone uptake and a minor effective dose, for which it is a better radiopharmaceutical, respect to with the formulation of 186 Re-HEDP. (Author)

  19. Estimation of continental 187Os/186Os values by using 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in marine manganese nodules

    Turekian, Karl K.; Luck, Jean-Marc

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd in different manganese nodule fields is used to determine the 187Os/186Os ratio of the continental terrains bounding the major ocean basins. The Atlantic Ocean drainages yield 187Os/186Os of about 11; the Pacific Ocean, between 25 and 36; and the western Indian Ocean, 20. By assuming a two-component continental crust composed of “ultramafic rocks” (high Os concentration, low 187Os/186Os) and “granite” with only radiogenic 187Os produced in ...

  20. Electret dosemeter response to electrons with energy of 3 Mev, 7 Mev, 11 Mev

    The preliminary results obtained when electret ionization chambers are irradiated with electron of 3, 7, 11 Mev, from 12 mevatron accelerators using a external cop of polyethylene and nylon are presented. (C.G.C.)

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHB186 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available omucin complex (Muc4) gene, promoter and partial cds. 32 2.2 2 AC116984 |AC116984.2 Dictyosteli...equence from clone DKEY-15F12 in linkage group 20 Contains the 5' end of the gene for a novel protein similar to vert....12.20 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AE004437_1261( AE004437 |pid:none) Hal...SH (Link to library) SHB186 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11234-1 - (Link to Original...lvlngxklxl*wvmvxxhvilvxapl Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Val

  2. Dicty_cDB: SFE186 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ipllcs Frame B: ---syi*xxidhnkhrlrrgy*mhpk*hnailkyylemv*lkxfqldsy*slxixxlisx ynl*lvdelyxyyar Frame C: ---vifkxxltiinta...ence from clone RP11-14B2 on chromosome 13q21.1-21.3 Contains GSSs and STSs. 40 1...b: 0.00 m_ : 1.00 48.0 %: cytoplasmic 28.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: ...Golgi 4.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction fo...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFE1-D/SFE186Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SFE18

  3. The neutron capture cross sections of 186;187;188 Os and their application to Re/Os cosmochronometer

    Fujii, Kaori; Mastinu, P; Milazzo, P M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is a fine determination of 186;187;188Os neutron capture cross sections, in order to remove principal nuclear physics uncertainties on the age of the universe determined using the Re/Os cosmochronometer. A general introduction including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear cosmochronometry,available neutron facilities and neutron reaction features is given. Dedicated measurements of the 186;187;188Os capture cross sections have been performed at the CERN neutron time-of- ight facility, n TOF, in the neutron energy range from 1 eV up to 1 MeV. The details of the measurement and the data treatment are reported. Using obtained capture yields, resolved resonance region analysis is completed. Resonance parameters have been extracted from a full R-matrix fit. A statistical analysis has been performed and the related averaged resonance parameters are derived. This information is crucial for a complete understanding and modelling in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model of the capture and ...

  4. Attaining 186-nm light generation in cooled beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal.

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

    1999-09-01

    The transparency range of beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) was expanded by means of cooling, and the resulting absorption coefficient at 193.4 nm was reduced to 0.29cm(-1) at 91 K from 1.39cm(-1) at 295 K. Further, generation of light at 186.0 nm (the measurement limit in air) by type I sum-frequency generation (SFG) based on fundamental (744-nm) and third-harmonic (248-nm) light from a Ti:sapphire laser was confirmed for cooled BBO. Calculations based on observed data for SFG wavelengths and phase-matching angles indicate a potential for cooled BBO to generate wavelengths as low as 181.7 nm. PMID:18073993

  5. 50 MeV polarimeter

    A description is given of the construction, operation and calibration of the 50 MeV polarimeter which was used at the ZGS. The dependence of the observed counts on various parameters, including the beam polarization, beam intensity and the solid angle in the two polarimeter arms is also discussed

  6. Cross sections and analyzing powers of 15N(p,n)15O at 200 MeV and 494 MeV

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the 15N(p,n)15 O(g.s.) reaction at bombarding energies of 200 MeV and 494 MeV. The 494 MeV data were obtained at the LAMPF Neutron Time-Of-Flight Facility on an 82 m flight path with a resolution of about 2.7 MeV. The 200 MeV data were obtained at IUCF on a 76m flight path with a resolution of about 1.1 MeV. At both energies, the measured analyzing power is small, the magnitude is less than .2 for momentum transfers of less than 1 fm-1. In contrast, both Relativistic and standard DWIA calculations predict a maximum of A=-.7 near q=0.7 fm-1. 53 refs., 44 figs

  7. Re-186-bleomycine: Radiopharmaceutic for diagnosis and therapy

    Bleomycine is an antibiotic used for chemotherapy of several neoplasms. Earlier studies with labelling of bleomycine (BLM) with different radionuclide were done. It was tested for different kind of tumours imaging. Due to previous encouraging imaging results with BLM-Tc-99m , BLM-Co-57 and BLM-In-111 authors decided to check the possibility and methods of labelling BLM with Re-186 to obtain radiopharmaceuticals potentially suitable for diagnosis and treatment of some neoplastic tumours. Different methods of labelling were investigated. The best one are electrolytic and with use of cationic-Sn complex modified by using of gentisic acid and incubation of the reaction mixture at 100 deg. C for 10 min. (author)

  8. Production study of high specific activity NCA Re-186g by proton and deuteron cyclotron irradiation

    Very high specific activity (AS) 186gRe could be produced by either proton or deuteron cyclotron irradiation on highly enriched 186W target in no-carrier-added (NCA) form, leading to a AS very close to the theoretical carrier free (CF) value of 6.88 GBq μg-1. Thick Target Yields (TTYs), obtained irradiating both thick metal W targets of natural isotopic composition and highly enriched powdered 186W targets, were measured at different particles energies taking into account high accuracy and precision. The evaluation of radionuclidic purities of 186gRe obtained activating highly enriched 186W by both p and d were also carried out and accurately compared. The thin-target excitation functions for all Re (A = 181, 182, 183, 184, 186 and their metastable levels), and W and Ta coproduced radionuclides will be presented elsewhere in deep details. (author)

  9. Production of 186Re and 188Re, and synthesis of 188Re-DTPA

    Production of radioactive rhenium isotopes 186Re and 188Re, and synthesis of 188Re-DTPA have been studied. For 186Re, a production method by the 185Re(n, γ) 186Re reaction in a reactor has been established. For 188Re, a production method by the double neuron capture reaction of 186W, which produces a 188W/188Re generator, has been established. For synthesis of 188Re-DTPA, the optimum conditions, including pH, the amounts of regents and so on, have been determined. (author)

  10. 浅析两系“龙凤胎”—x186%The Elementary Analysis of Two Lines "twins" - X186

    南钟浩

    2012-01-01

    2003年在01-124稻田里发现不育株36-20S后,先后两年南北两地高低温条件下未得到不育株种子,因而采用"逐代展开法"保留其不育基因。2011年9月,发现其杂交后代不育株率高达42%。利用冬季南滨变温幅度大的条件,观察x186不育株稻茬、可育株单株和同代原种不育株的育性。结果表明x186G1S、x186HS是温敏不育系,起点温度为21~22℃,x186G2S、x186-1S、x186-2S是反温敏不育系,临界温度为25~26℃。x186同时含有温敏型不育基因和反温敏不育基因,因而称作"龙凤胎"。同时选育育性类型截然不同的两系不育系,既拓宽时空,又便于制、繁种。反温敏不育系的选育及应用,将为两系法杂交粳稻育种的发展和杂交粳稻的推广应用带来变革,x186便是北方早粳稻区两系法育种的拐点。%The sterile lines 36-20S was found in 01-124 paddy fields in 2003 which had no sterile seeds in a two years test under the north-south and low-high temperature condition.In order to retain its sterile gene,the "generational expansion method" was used.The hybrid sterility rate was as high as 42% in Sep.2011.By using the broad temperature variation in the winter of Nanbin,the rice stubble of sterile rice line X186,fertile individuals and the fertility of the original sterile individuals of the same generation were observed.The results showed that X186G1S and x186HS were temperature sensitive.The starting temperature was 21-22 ℃.X186G2S,x186-1S and X186-2S were antitemperature sensitive sterile line.The critical temperature was 25~26℃.X186 was named as "twins" since it contains both temperature sensitive sterile gene and anti-temperature sensitive sterile gene.The development of the anti temperature sensitive line X186-1S eliminated the bottleneck of the two-line hybrid rice breeding in the northeast early Japonica rice district.

  11. Light-particle emission from the fissioning nuclei sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 Ba, sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Pt and sup 2 sup 6 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 7 sup 2 sup , sup 2 sup 7 sup 8 110: theoretical predictions and experimental results 24.75.+i; 25.85.-w; 25.60.Pj; 25.70.-z; Nuclear reactions 98Mo(28Si ,X) , E=166,187,204 MeV; 107Ag(19F ,X) , E=128,148 MeV; 154Sm(34S ,X) , E=160,203 MeV; 172Yb(16O ,X) , E=138 MeV; 208Pb(58Ni ,X) , (64Ni ,X) , 232Th(40Ca ,X) , 238U(40Ar ,X) , E=66 -186 MeV; Calculated fusion, fission sigma(L) , prefission particle multiplicities; Deduced entrance channel effects; Comparisons with data

    Pomorski, K; Surowiec, A; Kowal, M; Bartel, J; Dietrich, K G; Richert, J; Schmitt, C; Benoit, B; De Goes-Brennard, E; Donadille, L; Badimon, C

    2000-01-01

    We present a comparison of our model treating fission dynamics in conjunction with light-particle ( n,p,alpha ) evaporation with the available experimental data for the nuclei sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 Ba, sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Pt and three isotopes of the element Z=110 . The dynamics of the symmetric fission process is described through the solution of a classical Langevin equation for a single collective variable characterizing the nuclear deformation along the fission path. A microscopic approach is used to evaluate the emission rates for prefission light particles. Entrance-channel effects are taken into account by generating an initial spin distribution of the compound nucleus formed by the fusion of two deformed nuclei with different relative orientations.

  12. AVERAGE REACTION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR 74-MEV TO 112-MEV ALPHA-PARTICLES ON I-127 AND CS-133

    WARNER, RE; WILSCHUT, HW; RULLA, WF; FELDER, GN

    1991-01-01

    The average reaction cross section for 74- to 112-MeV alpha particles on I-127 and Cs-133 was measured by a new method using a magnetic spectrograph and a CsI scintillation detector. The result, sigma-R = 2220+/-50 mb, is in good agreement with optical model calculations and finite-range microscopic

  13. Station Black-Out Analysis with MELCOR 1.8.6 Code for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant

    Analia Bonelli; Oscar Mazzantini; Martin Sonnenkalb; Marcelo Caputo; Juan Matias García; Pablo Zanocco; Marcelo Gimenez

    2012-01-01

    A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be avail...

  14. THE ZR-90(N, P)Y-90 REACTION AT E(N) = 98 MEV

    CONDE, H; OLSSON, N; RAMSTROM, E; RONNQVIST, T; ZORRO, R; BLOMGREN, J; HAKANSSON, A; TIBELL, G; JONSSON, O; NILSSON, L; RENBERG, PU; OSTERLUND, M; UNKELBACH, W; WAMBACH, J; VANDERWERF, SY; ULLMANN, J; WENDER, SA

    1992-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections of the Zr-90(n, p) reaction have been measured at 98 MeV in the angular range 0-degrees-30-degrees for excitation energies up to 40 MeV. The spectra have been interpreted in terms of direct and multistep reactions. The contributions from the latter have been calcul

  15. Response of BGO sectors to protons up to 170 MeV

    The response to monoenergetic protons of 24 cm long pyramidal BGO sectors, designed for a 4π spectrometer, was measured up to 173 MeV by scattering 200 MeV protons off a polyethylene target. The experimental results are compared with lower energy results and Monte Carlo calculations performed with a modified version of the GEANT code. (orig.)

  16. (3He,t) reaction at 80MeV on 90Zr and 208Pb

    An experiment using the 80MeV 3He beam of the ISN cyclotron at Grenoble has been done on a target of 90Zr and another one of 208Bi. The 90Zr and 208Pb IAS angular distributions are fitted by DWBA calculations. For the previously reported Gamow Teller transition centered in 90Nb at 8.4MeV, two components are observed. The first one of M1 type is centered at 7.2MeV, the other one of unknown polarity at 9.7MeV

  17. 19 CFR 122.186 - Presentation of Customs access seal by other person.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of Customs access seal by other person. 122.186 Section 122.186 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Presentation of Customs access seal by other person. If an approved Customs access seal is presented by...

  18. Nuclear model calculations of long-lived isomer production in neutron reactions for fusion reactor technology

    Intense neutron fluxes within fusion reactors that are currently being designed will lead to the activation of structural components, and to assess and minimize this radioactivity, nuclear cross sections are needed for neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. We describe research performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Programme on activation cross sections for fusion reactor technology, which has selected certain high-priority reactions for both experimental and theoretical study. Using statistical model codes, we have investigated excitation function cross sections for radionuclide production in the reactions 94Mo(n,p)94Nb, 109Ag(n,2n)108mAg, 151Eu(n,2n)150m Eu, 153Eu(n,2n)152g+m2Eu, 159Tb(n,2n)158Tb, 187Re(n,2n)186mRe, 179Hf(n,2n)178m2Hf, 193Ir(n,2n)192m2Ir. Using our calculated results for the excitation functions, along with calculations by other groups, the theoretical excitation functions have been normalized to experimental values at 14.5 MeV to produce evaluated excitation functions. These evaluations can be used within radiation transport and nuclide inventory codes to design, and assess the environmental impact of, fusion reactors. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Nuclear model calculations of activation cross sections for fusion reactor technology

    Intense neutron fluxes within fusion reactors that are currently being designed will lead to the activation of structural components. To assess and minimize this radioactivity, nuclear cross sections are needed for neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV. We describe research performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Programme on activation cross sections for fusion reactor technology, which has selected certain high-priority reactions for both experimental and theoretical study. Using statistical model codes, we have investigated: (1) excitation function cross sections for radionuclide production in the reactions 94Mo(n,p)94Nb, 109Ag(n,2n)108mAg, 151Eu(n,2n)150mEu, 153Eu(n,2n)152g+m2Eu, 159Tb(n,2n)158Tb, 187Re(n,2n)186mRe, 179Hf(n,2n)178m2Hf, 193Ir(n,2n)192m2Ir; and (2) the systematical dependence of isomeric ratios on isomer spin and incident-energy. Using our calculated results for the excitation functions, along with calculations by other groups, the theoretical excitation functions have been normalized to experimental values at 14.5 MeV to produce evaluated excitation functions. These evaluations can be used within radiation transport and nuclide inventory codes to design and assess the environmental impact of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  20. Radiation effects on MOS and bipolar devices by 8 MeV protons, 60 MeV Br ions and 1 MeV electrons

    The radiation effects of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) and the bipolar devices are characterised using 8 MeV protons, 60 MeV Br ions and 1 MeV electrons. Key parameters are measured in-situ and compared for the devices. The ionising and nonionising energy losses of incident particles are calculated using the Geant4 and the stopping and range of ions in matter code. The results of the experiment and energy loss calculation for different particles show that different incident particles may give different contributions to MOS and bipolar devices. The irradiation particles, which cause a larger displacement dose within the same chip depth of bipolar devices at a given total dose, would generate more severe damage to the voltage parameters of the bipolar devices. On the contrary, the irradiation particles, which cause larger ionising damage in the gate oxide, would generate more severe damage to MOS devices. In this investigation, we attempt to analyse the sensitivity to radiation damage of the different parameter of the MOS and bipolar devices by comparing the irradiation experimental data and the calculated results using Geant4 and SRIM code. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  1. Neutron inelastic scattering studies for lead-204. [Threshold energy to 10 MeV, transitions, cross sections, angular distributions

    Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.

    1977-12-01

    A 9.57-g sample of lead metal, enriched to 99.7 percent /sup 204/Pb, was used in an investigation of neutron inelastic scattering from this rare isotope at the Argonne National Laboratory Fast-Neutron Generator Facility. Neutron excitation of the 66.9-m isomeric state at 2.186 MeV in /sup 204/Pb was measured from near threshold to approximately 10 MeV using activation techniques. Cross sections and a value for the isomeric half life were derived from these data. Time-of-flight techniques were employed to measure spectra of promptly-emitted gamma rays from the /sup 204/Pb(n;n',..gamma..)/sup 204/Pb reaction at neutron energies less than or equal to 3 MeV. Cross sections and angular distributions were derived from these data for several of the stronger transitions. Other available fast-neutron data for this isotope are reviewed briefly.

  2. Dosimetry for the treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma through radiocolloids with {sup 186} Re; Dosimetria para el tratamiento de craneofaringiomas quisticos mediante radiocoloide con {sup 186} Re

    Rojas, E.L.; Al-dweri, F.M.O.; Lallena, A.M. [Depto. de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada (Spain); Bodineau, C.; Galan, P. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , 29010 Malaga (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The cystic craniopharyngioma (CQ) are histologically benign tumors that can affect important organs, as the hypothalamus or the optic nerve. They are treated introducing, inside the cyst, a radioactive colloid. The wall constitutes the white volume and the dosimetry is usually carried out starting from analytic formulas that only are valid in the case of an homogeneous media, uniform and infinite. In this work it is studied the dosimetry of the CQ by means of Monte Carlo simulation (MC), taking in account the different materials and interfaces that conform them. We present the obtained results for the radionuclide {sup 186} Re. We have used the Monte Carlo code Penelope and we follow 5x10{sup 6} histories in each simulation. We supposed a size of CQ of 1.75 cm of radio and a wall thickness of 1 mm and we have varied the constituent materials of the interior of the cyst and of the wall. The analytic calculations that we carry out show an excellent agreement with the MC results for an unique media (water), as much for the beta radiation as for those originated of the Rhenium disintegration. However, when it takes in account the gel that is introduced in the tumor for the treatment and we vary the constituent material of the wall, we find important differences. Of the analysis of our results we can conclude that the dosimetry for the treatment of CQ based in the usual analytic formulas overestimates the doses really deposited in the wall of the CQ. (Author)

  3. Preparation of 186Re complexes of dimercaptosuccinic acid hydroxy ethylidine diphosphonate

    99mTc(V)-DMSA and 99mTc-HEDP are widely used for imaging medullary carcinoma and bone, respectively. 186Re-HEDP is now well established as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for palliation of pain due to bone metastases. It is expected that 186/188Re(V)-DMSA could find application for treating medullary carcinoma. In the present paper we report the work carried out for the preparation of 186Re complexes of DMSA and HEDP and their bio-distribution studies in Wistar rats. 186Re was prepared by irradiation of natural Re metal at a flux of 3x1013 neutrons/cm2/s for seven days and processed after a cooling period of four days. The specific activity of 186Re formed was ∼35 mCi/mg. Complexes with RC purity >98% could be prepared in both the cases by carefully optimizing the reaction conditions. Bio-distribution studies carried out in rats revealed that pharmacological behaviour of 186Re(V)-DMSA was similar to that of 99mTc(V)-DMSA. 186Re-HEDP showed a bone uptake of ∼ 30% at 3 h post injection which remained almost constant for 48 h. (author)

  4. A Monte Carlo comparison of PGNAA system performance using 252Cf neutrons, 2.8-MeV neutrons and 14-MeV neutrons

    Naqvi, A. A.

    2003-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare performance of a 252Cf neutron and a 14-MeV neutron-based prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Since the energy of neutron beam used in the KFUPM PGNAA system is very close to that produced by a DD neutron generator, performance comparison between a DD and a DT neutron generator-based PGNAA system is highly desired. For the sake of comparison, the calculations were carried out for the PGNAA system with geometry similar to the KFUPM PGNAA system. These calculations were required to determine improvement in performance of the KFUPM PGNAA system if its 2.8-MeV neutron source is replaced by a 252Cf neutron source or a 14-MeV neutron source. Results of the calculations revealed that the geometry of the 252Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are not significantly different but the geometry of the 14-MeV neutron-based system is significantly different from that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. Accordingly, the prompt γ-ray yields from the 252Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable but prompt γ-ray yields from 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are about three times smaller than that from the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. This study has shown that performance of the 252Cf neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system but the performance of the 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is poorer than that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system.

  5. A Monte Carlo comparison of PGNAA system performance using {sup 252}Cf neutrons, 2.8-MeV neutrons and 14-MeV neutrons

    Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa

    2003-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare performance of a {sup 252}Cf neutron and a 14-MeV neutron-based prompt {gamma}-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Since the energy of neutron beam used in the KFUPM PGNAA system is very close to that produced by a DD neutron generator, performance comparison between a DD and a DT neutron generator-based PGNAA system is highly desired. For the sake of comparison, the calculations were carried out for the PGNAA system with geometry similar to the KFUPM PGNAA system. These calculations were required to determine improvement in performance of the KFUPM PGNAA system if its 2.8-MeV neutron source is replaced by a {sup 252}Cf neutron source or a 14-MeV neutron source. Results of the calculations revealed that the geometry of the {sup 252}Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are not significantly different but the geometry of the 14-MeV neutron-based system is significantly different from that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. Accordingly, the prompt {gamma}-ray yields from the {sup 252}Cf neutron and the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable but prompt {gamma}-ray yields from 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system are about three times smaller than that from the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system. This study has shown that performance of the {sup 252}Cf neutron-based PGNAA system is comparable with that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system but the performance of the 14-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system is poorer than that of the 2.8-MeV neutron-based PGNAA system.

  6. MCI-186 (edaravone), a novel free radical scavenger, protects against acute autoimmune myocarditis in rats.

    Nimata, Masaomi; Okabe, Taka-aki; Hattori, Miki; Yuan, Zuyi; Shioji, Keisuke; Kishimoto, Chiharu

    2005-12-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MCI-186 (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one; edaravone), a novel free radical scavenger, protects against acute experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) in rats by the radical scavenging action associated with the suppression of cytotoxic myocardial injury. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. We administered MCI-186 intraperitoneally at 1, 3, and 10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) to rats with EAM for 3 wk. The results were compared with untreated rats with EAM. MCI-186 treatment did not affect hemodynamics. MCI-186 treatment (3 and 10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) reduced the severity of myocarditis as assessed by comparing the heart-to-body weight ratio and pathological scores. Myocardial interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-positive cells and myocardial oxidative stress overload with DNA damage in rats with EAM given MCI-186 treatment were significantly less compared with those of the untreated rats with EAM. In addition, MCI-186 treatment decreased not only the myocardial protein carbonyl contents but also the myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substance products in rats with EAM. The formation of hydroxyl radicals in MCI-186-treated heart homogenates was decreased compared with untreated heart homogenates. Furthermore, cytotoxic activities of lymphocytes of rats with EAM treated with MCI-186 were significantly lower compared with those of the untreated rats with EAM. Hydroxyl radicals may be involved in the development of myocarditis. MCI-186 protects against acute EAM in rats associated with scavenging hydroxyl free radicals, resulting in the suppression of autoimmune-mediated myocardial damage associated with reduced oxidative stress state. PMID:16100244

  7. Combined in-beam electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy of (184,186)Hg

    Scheck, M; Rahkila, P; Butler, P A; Larsen, A C; Sandzelius, M; Scholey, C; Carrol, R J; Papadakis, P; Jakobsson, U; Grahn, T; Joss, D T; Watkins, H V; Juutinen, S; Bree, N; Cox, D; Huyse, M; Uusitalo, J; Leino, M; Ruotsalainen, P; Nieminen, P; Srebrny, J; Van Duppen, P; Herzan, A; Greenlees, P T; Julin, R; Herzberg, R D; Hauschild, K; Pakarinen, J; Page, R D; Peura, P; Gaffney, L P; Kowalczyk, M; Rinta-Antila, S; Saren, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Sorri, J; Ketelhut, S

    2011-01-01

    By exploiting the SAGE spectrometer a simultaneous measurement of conversion electrons and gamma rays emitted in the de-excitation of excited levels in the neutron-deficient nuclei (184,186)Hg was performed. The light Hg isotopes under investigation were produced using the 4n channels of the fusion-evaporation reactions of (40)Ar and (148,150)Sm. The measured K- and L-conversion electron ratios confirmed the stretched E2 nature of several transitions of the yrast bands in (184,186)Hg. Additional information on the E0 component of the 2(2)(+) -> 2(1)(+) transition in (186)Hg was obtained.

  8. NMR-ON measurement s of 187WFe, 187,183,186ReNi, 186ReFe and 203PbFe

    The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies of 187WFe, 182Re(jπ = 2+)Ni, 186ReNi, 186ReFe, 186ReFe and 203PbFe in a zero external magnetic field have been determined by the NMR-ON method at about 7 mK as 225.56(6), 130.9(1), 98.17(4), 136.6(4), 1007.0(3) and 58.43(3) MHz, respectively. With the known g-factors of g(186Re, 1-) = 1.739(3) and g(203Pb, 5/2-) = 0.27456(20), the following hyperfine fields were deduced: BHF(186ReNi) = -103.05(35) kG; BHF(186ReFe) = -759.7(13) kG; BHF(203PbFe) = +279.18(25) kG. Taking hyperfine anomalies into account, the g-factor of 183Re was deduced as vertical strokeg(183Re, 5/2+)vertical stroke = 1.267(6). With the assumption of Knight shift factor K = 0, the g-factors of 182Re and 187W and the hyperfine field of 187WFe were determined as vertical strokeg(182Re, 2+)vertical stroke = 1.63(5), vertical strokeg(187W, 3/2-)vertical stroke = 0.414(10) and BHF(187WFe) = -714(18) kG. The large hyperfine anomaly was deduced to be 183W Δ 187W = -0.124(22). (orig.)

  9. Dosimetry for the treatment of cystic craniopharyngioma through radiocolloids with 186 Re

    The cystic craniopharyngioma (CQ) are histologically benign tumors that can affect important organs, as the hypothalamus or the optic nerve. They are treated introducing, inside the cyst, a radioactive colloid. The wall constitutes the white volume and the dosimetry is usually carried out starting from analytic formulas that only are valid in the case of an homogeneous media, uniform and infinite. In this work it is studied the dosimetry of the CQ by means of Monte Carlo simulation (MC), taking in account the different materials and interfaces that conform them. We present the obtained results for the radionuclide 186 Re. We have used the Monte Carlo code Penelope and we follow 5x106 histories in each simulation. We supposed a size of CQ of 1.75 cm of radio and a wall thickness of 1 mm and we have varied the constituent materials of the interior of the cyst and of the wall. The analytic calculations that we carry out show an excellent agreement with the MC results for an unique media (water), as much for the beta radiation as for those originated of the Rhenium disintegration. However, when it takes in account the gel that is introduced in the tumor for the treatment and we vary the constituent material of the wall, we find important differences. Of the analysis of our results we can conclude that the dosimetry for the treatment of CQ based in the usual analytic formulas overestimates the doses really deposited in the wall of the CQ. (Author)

  10. True absorption and scattering of 50 MeV pions

    The inclusive pion inelastic scattering and true absorption cross sections at 50 MeV were measured for π+ on natural Li, C, Fe, Nb, Bi and for π- on C, Fe, Bi. The results show that π- cross sections are much larger than π+, the difference being significantly larger than expected from a simple Coulomb calculation. In particular, in 12C the absorption of negative pions is about twice that of positive pions

  11. Radiochemical studies and pharmacological behaviour of 186Re complexes of phosphonate ligands

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of phosphonic acid derivatives and their radiochemical studies with 186Re for the development of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals. These ligands, when tagged with therapeutic radionuclides such as 186Re, 188Re could localize in the bone selectively. A series of α-aminomethyl phosphonic acid derivatives were synthesized by a Mannich type reaction. All the ligands were crystallized to solid derivatives and subsequently characterized using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The ligands were complexed with 186Re having a specific activity of ∼40 mCi/mg (∼1.5 GBq). Complexes with RC purity 95% and above could be prepared by varying the reaction conditions. By carefully optimizing the reaction and storage conditions, complexes which were stable for over 3-8 days could be prepared. Biodistribution studies carried out in rats revealed varying uptake (18-28% skeletal uptake at 3 h post injection) for these 186Re complexes. (author)

  12. Stability of 186Re- and 188Re-DMSAs and removal of impurity in the product

    Complex compound of 186Re- and 188Re with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is expected to be effective against cancerous disease. This compound is synthesized with high radiochemical yield by use of SnCl2 as reducing reagent. However, the product contains a large amount of SnCl2 which is harmful to humans body. The removal of tin impurity was tested with cation exchange resin. 186Re-DMSA complex was also obtained with high radiochemical yield by use of other harmless reducing agents (L-ascorbic acid, Na2-SO3, H3PO3). Synthesized 186Re-DMSA by use of SnCl2 was stable in sodium acetate buffer for 5 hours, while survival amount of 186Re-DMSA synthesized by other reducing agents decreased in a short time. (author)

  13. Preliminary study on a compact MeV focused ion nanobeam system

    A compact MeV focused ion nanobeam system has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a MeV focused ion beam lens system combining keV double acceleration lenses and an acceleration tube. The double acceleration lenses were developed to form keV gaseous ion nanobeam at JAEA. Lens parameters of the acceleration tube were estimated by a calculation code because its tube functions as a part of a focusing lens system. The magnification of a MeV lens system with the acceleration lenses and the acceleration tube was subsequently calculated using the lens parameters. The capability of the 2 MeV focused ion beam with 100 nm in diameter was demonstrated from the beam size calculation using the magnification. (author)

  14. Design study for the conversion of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron from an energy constant of K=90 to K=300 MeV

    A possible method of achieving a K = 300 MeV cyclotron by increasing the average magnetic field of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) from 18.6 to 33.9 kG with superconducting coils was investigated. (K is defined by the equation E/u = K(Q/A)2, where E/u is the energy per nucleon, Q is the ion charge, and A the atomic mass.) (U.S.)

  15. Neutron scattering and reactions on 59Co from 1 to 20 MeV

    The paper presents a complete analysis of all the interactions of neutrons with 59Co in the energy range 1-20 meV, excluding the resonance region at very low energies. Optical model calculations, compound nucleus calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing calculations are given. (U.K.)

  16. The fusion-fission process in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W near the interaction barrier

    Harca, I. M. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna, Russia and Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest - P.O. Box MG 11, RO 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna (Russian Federation); Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Chubarian, G. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Hanappe, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Bruxelles (Belgium); Piot, J.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Trzaska, W. H. [Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä (JYFL), Jyväskylä (Finland); Vardaci, E. [Dipartamento di Scienze Fisiche and INFN (INFN-Na), Napoli (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    The reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W at E{sub lab}=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF–γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ – γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  17. Capture cross section measurements of 186,187,188Os at n-TOF: the resolved resonance region

    The neutron capture cross sections of 186,187,188Os have been measured at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility, n-TOF, in the neutron energy range from 1 eV up to 1 MeV. In this contribution, we report the results of the analysis of the resolved resonance region (RRR). Resonance parameters have been extracted from a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields with the SAMMY code. A statistical analysis has been performed and the related average resonance parameters are derived. This information is crucial for a complete understanding and modeling in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model of the capture and inelastic reaction channels, required for the evaluation of the stellar reaction rates of these isotopes. Maxwellian average cross sections for the range of temperatures relevant for s-process nucleosynthesis have been derived from the combined information of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. A brief account of the implications of this analysis in the estimation of the s-process component of the 187Os abundance and the related impact on the estimates of the time-duration of the galactic nucleosynthesis through the Re/Os clock is given. (authors)

  18. Capture cross section measurements of {sup 186,187,188}Os at n-TOF: the resolved resonance region

    Fujii, K.; Mosconi, M.; Milazzo, P.M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Kappeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; A lvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, H.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Moreau, C.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K

    2008-07-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os have been measured at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility, n-TOF, in the neutron energy range from 1 eV up to 1 MeV. In this contribution, we report the results of the analysis of the resolved resonance region (RRR). Resonance parameters have been extracted from a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields with the SAMMY code. A statistical analysis has been performed and the related average resonance parameters are derived. This information is crucial for a complete understanding and modeling in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model of the capture and inelastic reaction channels, required for the evaluation of the stellar reaction rates of these isotopes. Maxwellian average cross sections for the range of temperatures relevant for s-process nucleosynthesis have been derived from the combined information of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. A brief account of the implications of this analysis in the estimation of the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the estimates of the time-duration of the galactic nucleosynthesis through the Re/Os clock is given. (authors)

  19. Carrier effect on radiolabeling the polynuclear pentavalent rhenium-186 complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid at alkaline pH: 186Re(V)-DMS

    Radiolabeling with rhenium (Re-186, Re-188), a tumor agent to resemble the pentavalent polynuclear technetium complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc[V]-DMS) has been reported for radiotherapeutical use. Nevertheless, despite the periodic analogies between both radiometals, differences in the redox potential and the carrier concentration have made the radiolabeling of the rhenium counterpart difficult. In the present study, the effect of the carrier contained in the reactor-produced Re-186 was estimated as an important factor relevant to the Re-186 radiolabeling of DMS at an alkaline pH. Great effect of the carrier Re with an inverse correlation with the stannous ion was an interesting phenomenon relevant for an assumption on the Sn participation in the complex . Under strict control of various labeling parameters, the 186Re(V)-DMS was made available with high yield (93-97%) at an alkaline pH and at room temperature. The great effect of carrier offers support to the polymeric or polynuclear nature of the rhenium complex of DMS as depicted in the drug design basis of its parent Tc(V)-DMS. The biodistribution studies of Re(V)-DMS showed mimetic characteristics with its parent Tc(V)-DMS drug

  20. Challenges associated with Re-186: from 'carrier-free' 99mTc(V)-DMS to 'carrier' containing 186Re(V)-DMS

    Efforts on radiolabeling with rhenium (Re-186, Re-188), a tumor agent to resemble the pentavalent polynuclear technetium complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid [99mTc(V)-DMS] have been reported, for radiotherapeutical use. Nevertheless, in spite of the periodic analogies between both radiometals, differences in the redox potential and the carrier concentration have made the radiolabelling of the rhenium counterpart difficult. Based on the drug-design bases set for the Tc-complex, the present work is centred on the study of the carrier effect on the radiolabelling of the pentavalent DMS complex of both radiometals at an alkaline pH. Gathered data indicated very interesting effect of the carrier present in either the Tc-99m eluate or the reactor produced Re-186; although no effect of the carrier present in the generator eluate on the Tc-complex radiolabelling was detected, the great dependence of ligand and reducing agent on the Re amount present (two to four order higher than Tc) as carrier was noticeable in the Re-complex labelling. Under a good control of the above parameters, 186Re(V)-DMS was liable to be labeled with high yield (93-97%) at alkaline pH and room temperature. The mice biodistribution (Ehrlich Ascites Tumor bearing animals) of 186Re(V)-DMS superimposed that of 99mTc(V)-DMS in most tissue except the excretory organs. The interesting effect of radiometal carrier on the biological behavior of 99mTc(V)-DMS and 186Re(V)-DMS will be discussed. (author)

  1. Polarization observables in deuteron photodisintegration below 360 MeV

    Glister, Jacqueline; Lee, Byungwuek; Gilman, R; Sarty, Adam; Strauch, Steffen; Higinbotham, Douglas; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Allada, Kalyan; Armstrong, Whitney; Arrington, John; Beck, Arie; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Berman, Barry; Boeglin, Werner; Brash, Edward; Camsonne, Alexandre; Calarco, John; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Coman, Luminita; Craver, Brandon; Cusanno, Francesco; Dumas, Jonathan; Dutta, Chiranjib; Feuerbach, Robert; Freyberger, Arne; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Holmstrom, Timothy; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim, Hassan; Ilieva, Yordanka; De Jager, Cornelis; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Kang, Hoyoung; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Markowitz, Pete; Beck, S. May-Tal; McCullough, Emily; Meekins, David; Meziane, Mehdi; Meziane, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yongseok; Olson, Michael; Paolone, Michael; Paschke, Kent; Perdrisat, Charles; Potokar, Milan; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Pomerantz, Ishay; Puckett, Andrew; Punjabi, Vina; Qian, Xin; Qiang, Yi; Ransome, Ronald; Reyhand, Meral; Roche, Julie; Rousseau, Yannick; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Shneor, R; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Song, JeongSeog; Sparks, Rachel; Subedi, Ramesh; Urciuoli, Guido; Wang, Kebin; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, Xinhu; Yao, Huan; Zhan, Xiaohui

    2011-03-01

    High precision measurements of induced and transferred recoil proton polarization in d(polarized gamma, polarized p})n have been performed for photon energies of 277--357 MeV and theta_cm = 20 degrees -- 120 degrees. The measurements were motivated by a longstanding discrepancy between meson-baryon model calculations and data at higher energies. At the low energies of this experiment, theory continues to fail to reproduce the data, indicating that either something is missing in the calculations and/or there is a problem with the accuracy of the nucleon-nucleon potential being used.

  2. Dose determination of 600 MeV proton irradiated specimens

    The calculation method for the experimental determination of the atomic production cross section from the γ activity measurements are presented. This method is used for the determination of some isotope production cross sections for 600 MeV proton irradition in MANET steel, copper, tungsten, gold and titanium. The results are compared with some calculation. These values are used to determine the dose of specimens irradiated in the PIREX II facility. The results are discussed in terms of the irradiation parameters. A guide for the use of the production cross section determined in the dosimetry experiment are given. (author) tabs., refs

  3. Polarization Observables in Deuteron Photodisintegration below 360 MeV

    Glister, J; Lee, B W; Gilman, R; Sarty, A J; Strauch, S; Higinbotham, D W; Piasetzky, E; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Beck, A; Benmokhtar, F; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Calarco, J; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dumas, J; Dutta, C; Feuerbach, R; Freyberger, A; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Hansen, J -0; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Ilieva, Y; de Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; Beck, S May-Tal; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B E; Oh, Y; Olson, M; Paolone, M; Paschke, K; Perdrisat, C F; Potokar, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Pomerantz, I; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R; Reyhan, M; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shneor, R; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Song, J; Sparks, R; Subedi, R; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhu, X

    2010-01-01

    High precision measurements of induced and transferred recoil proton polarization in d(polarized gamma, polarized p})n have been performed for photon energies of 277--357 MeV and theta_cm = 20 degrees -- 120 degrees. The measurements were motivated by a longstanding discrepancy between meson-baryon model calculations and data at higher energies. At the low energies of this experiment, theory continues to fail to reproduce the data, indicating that either something is missing in the calculations and/or there is a problem with the accuracy of the nucleon-nucleon potential being used.

  4. Further Analysis of Neutron Double-Differential Cross Section of n + 16O at 14.1 MeV and 18 MeV

    DUAN Jun-Feng; YAN Yu-Liang; WANG Ji-Min; SUN Xiao-Jun; ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2005-01-01

    By using a new reaction model for light nuclei, the double-differential cross section of total outgoing neutron with LUNF code for n + 16O reactions at En = 14.1 MeV and 18 MeV have been calculated and analyzed. In this paper the opened reaction channels, which have contribution to emitting the neutrons, are listed in detail. To improve the fitting results the direct inelastic scattering mechanism is involved. The calculating results agree fairly well with the experimental data at En = 14.1 MeV and the deviation from calculated results and experimental data in low energy region at En = 18 MeV has been analyzed. Since the possibility of 5He has been affirmed theoretically [J.S. Zhang,Sci. Chin. G 47 (2004) 137], so 5He emission from n + 16O reaction is taken into account, which plays an important role at the region of the outgoing neutron energy εn < 3 MeV in total outgoing neutron energy-angular spectrum. The calculated results indicate that the pre-equilibrium mechanism dominates the whole reaction processes, and the recoil effect in light nuclear reactions is essentially important.

  5. Production of the omega meson in the pd --> 3He omega reaction at 1450 MeV and 1360 MeV

    Schonning, K; Bashkanov, M; Berlowski, M; Bogoslawsky, D; Calén, H; Clement, H; Demirors, L; Ekström, C; Fransson, K; Geren, L; Gustafsson, L; Höistad, B; Ivanov, G; Jacewicz, M; Jiganov, E; Johansson, T; Keleta, S; Khakimova, O; Khemchandani, K P; Kren, F; Kullander, Sven; Kupsc, A; Kuzmin, A; Lindberg, K; Marciniewski, P; Morosov, B; Oelert, W; Pauly, C; Petren, H; Petukhov, Yu P; Povtorejko, A; Ruber, R J M Y; Scobel, W; Shafigullin, R; Shwartz, B; Skorodko, T; Sopov, V; Stepaniak, J; Tegner, P -E; Engblom, P Thorngren; Tikhomirov, V; Turowiecki, A; Wagner, G J; Wilkin, C; Wolke, M; Zabierowski, J; Zartova, I; Zlomanczuk, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The production of $\\omega$ mesons in the $pd \\to{}^3$He$ \\omega$ reaction has been studied at two energies near the kinematic threshold, $T_p=1450$ MeV and $T_p=1360$ MeV. The differential cross section was measured as a function of the $\\omega$ cm angle at both energies over the whole angular range. Whereas the results at 1360 MeV are consistent with isotropy, strong rises are observed near both the forward and backward directions at 1450 MeV. Calculations made using a two-step model with an intermediate pion fail to reproduce the shapes of the measured angular distributions and also underestimate the total cross sections.

  6. Antioxidant MCI-186 inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition pore and upregulates Bcl-2 expression.

    Rajesh, Katare Gopalrao; Sasaguri, Shiro; Suzuki, Ryoko; Maeda, Hironori

    2003-11-01

    Reperfusion after a period of ischemia is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ overload resulting in the opening of a nonspecific pore in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, called the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), leading to cell damage. Although endogenous antioxidants are activated because of oxidative stress following ischemia, their levels are not high enough to prevent reperfusion injury. Hence there is always a need for exogenous supplement of antioxidants, especially after acute ischemia. Here we demonstrated the effects of the antioxidant 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (MCI-186) in preventing reperfusion injury of the heart by inhibition of PTP opening. Ischemia (30 min) by left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and reperfusion (120 min) in Wistar rats after pretreatment with MCI-186 (10 mg/kg iv) infusion starting from 30 min before LCA occlusion resulted in 1) less area of myocardial infarction (19.2% vs. 61.6%), 2) well-maintained myocardial ATP content (P < 0.03 vs. control), 3) decreased mitochondrial swelling and reduced cytochrome c release, 4) increased expression of BCl-2, 5) lower prevalence of apoptotic cells (14.3% vs. 2.9%), and 6) reduced DNA fragmentation in the MCI-186-treated group. These cytoprotective effects of MCI-186 were inhibited on opening PTP before MCI-186 treatment with the PTP activators lonidamine (10 mg/kg iv) or atractyloside (5 mg/kg iv) but failed to inhibit the protective effects exerted by another antioxidant, allopurinol, suggesting that the PTP inhibiting property is specific for MCI-186. These results demonstrate that the radical scavenger MCI-186, by inhibiting the opening of the PTP, prevents necrosis and cytochrome c release and hence pathological apoptosis. PMID:12816747

  7. Shielding measurements for a 230 MeV proton beam

    Energetic secondary neutrons produced as protons interact with accelerator components and patients dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton radiotherapy facilities. Due to the scarcity of data describing neutron production, attenuation, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent values, these parameters were measured for 230 MeV proton bombardment of stopping length Al, Fe, and Pb targets at emission angles of 0 degree, 22 degree, 45 degree, and 90 degree in a thick concrete shield. Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters with volumes ranging from 1 cm3 to 1000 cm3 were used to obtain microdosimetric spectra from which absorbed dose and radiation quality are deduced. Does equivalent values and attenuation lengths determined at depth in the shield were found to vary sharply with angle, but were found to be independent of target material. Neutron dose and radiation length values are compared with Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations performed using the Los Alamos High Energy Transport Code (LAHET). Calculations used 230 MeV protons incident upon an Fe target in a shielding geometry similar to that used in the experiment. LAHET calculations overestimated measured attenuation values at 0 degree, 22 degree, and 45 degree, yet correctly predicted the attenuation length at 90 degree. Comparison of the mean radiation quality estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations with measurements suggest that neutron quality factors should be increased by a factor of 1.4. These results are useful for the shielding design of new facilities as well as for testing neutron production and transport calculations

  8. Progress on theoretical calculation

    The calculation program NPPD-2 of neutron reaction data in the energy region from 10-11 to 20 MeV has been researched with extending the energy from 5 to 20 MeV. In this program, the cascade γ-de-excitations of the compound nucleus and residual nucleus are described by means of the Troubetzkoy's statistical model and the conservation relations of angular momentum and parity are are considered. This program may be used for the calculations of the natural element, with the number of isotopes less than 10. The program has been finished and the calculations for oxygen are being done in order to test the program. The reaction channels in n + 40Ca, which considered in NPPD-2, are presented

  9. Induced photonuclear interaction by Rhodotron-TT200 10 MeV electron beam

    Farshid Tabbakh; Mojtaba Mostajab Aldaavati; Mahdieh Hoseyni; Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee

    2012-02-01

    In this paper the photonuclear interaction induced by 10 MeV electron beam generating high-intensity neutrons is studied. Since the results depend on the target material, the calculations are performed for Pb, Ta and W targets which have high , in a simple geometry. MCNPX code has been used to simulate the whole process. Also, the results of photon generation has been compared with the experimental results to evaluate the reliability of the calculation. The results show that the obtained neutron flux can reach up to 1012 n/cm2 /s with average energies of 0.9 MeV, 0.4 MeV and 0.9 MeV for these three elements respectively with the maximum heat deposited as 3000 W/c3,4500 W/c3 and 6000 W/c3.

  10. Two body photodisintegration of the deuteron from 100 to 800 MeV

    The total and the differential cross sections for the D(γ,p)n reaction have been measured over the photon energy range 100-800 MeV at the 855 MeV MAMI Microtron in Mainz. The data are presented in the form of thirty-five angular distributions at c.m. proton angles between 30 deg-160 deg in 10 deg intervals and at photon energies in steps of 20 MeV. Previous experimental work is reassessed in the light of the present results and the results compared with some recent theoretical calculations. (author)

  11. Reactor calculation benchmark PCA blind test results

    Further improvement in calculational procedures or a combination of calculations and measurements is necessary to attain 10 to 15% (1 sigma) accuracy for neutron exposure parameters (flux greater than 0.1 MeV, flux greater than 1.0 MeV, and dpa). The calculational modeling of power reactors should be benchmarked in an actual LWR plant to provide final uncertainty estimates for end-of-life predictions and limitations for plant operations. 26 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  12. Investigation of 186Re via radiative thermal-neutron capture on 185Re

    Matters, D. A.; Lerch, A. G.; Hurst, A. M.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Carroll, J. J.; Detwiler, B.; Révay, Zs.; McClory, J. W.; McHale, S. R.; Firestone, R. B.; Sleaford, B. W.; Krtička, M.; Belgya, T.

    2016-05-01

    Partial γ -ray production cross sections and the total radiative thermal-neutron capture cross section for the 185Re(n ,γ ) 186Re reaction were measured using the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis facility at the Budapest Research Reactor with an enriched 185Re target. The 186Re cross sections were standardized using well-known 35Cl(n ,γ )36Cl cross sections from irradiation of a stoichiometric natReCl3 target. The resulting cross sections for transitions feeding the 186Re ground state from low-lying levels below a cutoff energy of Ec=746 keV were combined with a modeled probability of ground-state feeding from levels above Ec to arrive at a total cross section of σ0=111 (6 ) b for radiative thermal-neutron capture on 185Re. A comparison of modeled discrete-level populations with measured transition intensities led to proposed revisions for seven tentative spin-parity assignments in the adopted level scheme for 186Re. Additionally, 102 primary γ rays were measured, including 50 previously unknown. A neutron-separation energy of Sn=6179.59 (5 ) keV was determined from a global least-squares fit of the measured γ -ray energies to the known 186Re decay scheme. The total capture cross section and separation energy results are comparable to earlier measurements of these values.

  13. The Pb-208(n,p)Tl-208 reaction at E-n=97 MeV

    Ringbom, A; Hakansson, A; Tibell, G; Zorro, R; Blomgren, J; Conde, H; Rahm, J; Olsson, N; Ramstrom, E; Ronnqvist, T; Jonsson, O; Nilsson, L; Renberg, PU; vanderWerf, SY; Lenske, H

    1997-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections of the Pb-208(n,p) reaction have been measured at 97 MeV in the angular range 0 degrees-30 degrees for excitation energies up to 40 MeV. The experimental proton spectra have been compared with calculated spectra obtained with a statistical multistep direct reaction

  14. The dosimetry of 3 MeV and 14 MeV neutrons with the ferrous sulphate solution

    The aim of the present work is to determine the G value of a standard ferrous sulphate solution for neutrons with mean energies of 3 MeV and 14 MeV. The number of the transformed Fe ions is evaluated by means of a spectrophotometrical procedure and the absorbed energy is determined by applying the ionometrical method. Especial attention is payed to the calculation of the mean total dose in the irradiated sample taking radiation attenuation into account. For this purpose the spatial distribution of absorbed energy within the probe is determined. Further, it is investigated how the fraction of the γ component in the total absorbed dose varies in the sample, in order to evaluate its mean value, which is needed for the final determination of the G value for the neutron component. (orig.)

  15. Developing the 186 Re radiolabelling procedures of peptides and monoclonal antibodies

    Mono and poli-clonal antibodies are the most recent candidate molecules for the radiopharmaceutical preparation used in radioimmunotherapy and radiodiagnostic. Our study presents results in 186 Re direct labelling of HIgG (Human Immunoglobulin G) poli-clonal antibody. The steps in labelling process are: 1. pre-reduction -S-S- bridges of HIgG molecule with ascorbic acid in pH = 3.5 - 4.5; 2. preparation of the reducing system for 186 ReO4 - in presence of Sn2+ ions excess and 3. coupling 186 Re (red) to -SH groups of biomolecules. The specific reactions of each step above are controlled by: incubation time and temperature, pH, molar ratio 186 Re: HIgG. 186 Re-HIgG samples were purified by gel elution chromatography method and the quality control was performed by chromatography techniques. To labelled of HIgG we effected the pre-reduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecules to sulfhydryls using the following reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The pre-reduction reactions are controlled by mass ratios of reduction agent/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation. HIgG was the biomolecule used in the pre-reduction reactions. The specific parameters for each systems are presented. The stannous chloride was used as reducing agent in two systems, SnCl2 : 0.05 N HCl and SnCl2: 20 mg/ml citric acid. The coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule has been controlled by time and incubation temperature and the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecule. 186 Re-HIgG was obtained by: i) incubation at the room temperature, 1 hour time of HIgG in thiol form and 186 Re in reducing form and ii) incubation of HIgG in thiol form, at 37 deg C and 22 hours time, with adding after pre-reduction of SnCl2 and Na 186 ReO4. Quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and gel chromatography) on labelled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was

  16. Separation and identification of new neutron-rich isotope 186Hf

    A new neutron-rich nuclide 186Hf is produced and identified by bombardment of natural tungsten samples with 60 MeV/u 18O beams using rapid radiochemical separation method and γ spectroscopic measurement technique for the first time. The half-life of the new neutron-rich isotope 186Hf is determined to be (2.6 +- 1.2) min by a radioactive series decay analytical program to fit the growth and decay curve. The chemical yield of element hafnium is more than 60% and the decontamination factor of tantalum is higher than 102 in the chemical separation

  17. Scattering of MeV neutrons from elemental iron

    Neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental iron are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV with incident-neutron resolutions of < or approx. = to 50 keV and at incident-neutron energy intervals of < or approx. = to 50 keV. Cross sections for the excitation of observed levels at 0.853, 1.389, 2.097, 2.579, 2.677, 2.974 and 3.152 MeV are determined. The observed elastic- and inelastic-scattering angular distributions fluctuate strongly with incident energy. The experimental results are averaged over broad energy intervals and interpreted in terms of spherical optical-statistical and coupled-channels models including consideration of direct-vibrational excitations. The importance of a comprehensive data base in such energy-averaged interpretations and of the direct-vibrational excitations is stressed. The present measured and calculated results, combined with those reported in the literature, are used to formulate an evaluated scattered-neutron data file in the ENDF format extending from 1.0 to 4.0 MeV. 41 references

  18. Reaction mechanism of light nuclei below 20 MeV

    The light nuclei are the elements in 1p shell. At the incident neutron energies below 20 MeV, the reaction mechanism could be classified as follows: 1. one particle emission, 2. sequential two particles emission, 3. the two cluster separation, when the residual are 8Be, 5He, 5Li, 4. three body break-up process, when the residual nuclei are 10Be, 6He. The Legendre expansion coefficients of the double differential cross section of outgoing particles in each type reaction mechanism are set up for the model calculating. The double differential cross section of secondary particle emission is calculated for light nuclei reaction and calculation formulation is also given. The problem on energy balance in light nuclear reaction is discussed

  19. 14-MeV neutron streaming through shield gaps

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed to determine the neutron streaming through straight and single-bend gaps for three different shield thicknesses. A uniform plane source emitting 14-MeV neutrons with a cosine angular distribution was used in the analyses. The results obtained are discussed in terms of how they might be used in the early stages of a shield design to obtain approximate solutions to design questions. These results have direct implications regarding neutron-streaming problems that will be encountered in the shielding analyses of tokamak fusion reactors which are constructed from pie-shaped shield/vacuum chamber segments

  20. 14MeV facility and research in IPPE

    Review of experimental facility and research, performed at 14MeV incident neutron energy in the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, are given. These studies cover the next topics: double differential neutron emission cross sections (DDX), neutron-gamma coincidence experiments (n, n'γ) and neutron leakage spectra for spherical assemblies (benchmark). The paper contains description and main parameters of pulsed neutron generator KG-0.3, fast neutron time of flight spectrometer, measuring and data reduction procedures, review of experimental data. Results of experiments are compared with other data; evaluated data files BROND-2, ENDF/B6, JENDL-3; basic theoretical and transport model calculations. (author)

  1. A 600 MeV cyclotron for radioactive beam production

    The magnetic field design for a 600 MeV proton cyclotron is described. The cyclotron has a single stage, a normal conducting magnet coil and a 9.8 m outside yoke diameter. It has 8 sectors, with a transition to 4 sectors in the center region. The magnetic field design was done using 1958 Harwell rectangular ridge system measurements and was compared with recent 3-dimensional field calculations with the program TOSCA at NSCL. The center region 4--8 sector transition focussing was also checked with TOSCA

  2. Absorbed dose distributions in patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer treated with Re-186 HEDP

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: intravenous administration of Re-186 hydroxyethylidene-diphosphonate (HEDP) is used for metastatic bone pain palliation in hormone refractory prostate cancer patients. Dosimetry for bone seeking radionuclides is challenging due to the complex structure with osteoblastic, osteolytic and mixed lesions. The aim of this study was to perform image-based patient-specific 3D convolution dosimetry to obtain a distribution of the absorbed doses to each lesion and estimate inter- and intra-patient variations. Materials and methods: 28 patients received a fixed 5 GBq activity of Re-186 HEDP followed by peripheral blood stem cell rescue at 14 days in a phase II trial. A FORTE dual-headed gamma camera was used to acquire sequential Single-Photon-Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) data of the thorax and pelvis area at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours following administration. The projection data were reconstructed using filtered-back projection and were corrected for attenuation and scatter. Voxelised cumulated activity distributions were obtained with two different methods. First, the scans were co-registered and the time-activity curves were obtained on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Second, the clearance curve was obtained from the mean number of counts in each individual lesion and used to scale the uptake distribution taken at 24 hours. The calibration factors required for image quantification were obtained from a phantom experiment. An in-house developed EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used for the calculation of dose voxel kernels for soft-tissue and cortical/trabecular bone used to perform convolution dosimetry. Cumulative dose-volume histograms were produced and mean absorbed doses calculated for each spinal and pelvic lesion. Results: preliminary results show that the lesion mean absorbed doses ranged from 25 to 55 Gy when the medium was soft tissue and decreased by 40% if bone was considered. The use of the cumulated activity distribution

  3. 9 CFR 381.186 - Cooperation of States and other jurisdictions in Federal programs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation of States and other... Cooperation With States and Territories; Certification of State and Territorial Programs as at Least Equal to Federal Program § 381.186 Cooperation of States and other jurisdictions in Federal programs. Under...

  4. Preparation of [186Re]Re-DMSA and its bio-distribution studies

    99mTc(V)-DMSA is widely used for imaging medullary carcinoma and hence 186/188Re(V)-DMSA is suggested as a potential agent for treating medullary carcinoma. In the present paper, we report the work carried out for the preparation of [186Re]Re(V)-DMSA and it's bio-distribution studies in Wistar rats. The complex was prepared by reducing 186Re (100 μg, 0.54 μM, ∼150 MBq) in the presence of DMSA (2 mg, 11 μM) with stannous chloride (0.4 mg, 2.2 μM) in acidic medium at pH 2. The reaction was taken to completion by heating the complex in a boiling water bath for 30 min. Bio-distribution studies carried out revealed that pharmacological behaviour of 186Re(V)-DMSA is similar to that of 99mTc(V)-DMSA except that the kidney uptake is marginally higher. The kidney uptake reduced significantly when the pH of the complex was adjusted to 8 prior to injection. The in vitro stability studies of this complex suggest that the product formed is stable and could be used for clinical trials

  5. 42 CFR 413.186 - Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in pediatric facilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in....186 Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in pediatric facilities. (a) Qualification. To qualify for an exception to the prospective payment rate based on self-dialysis training costs,...

  6. 27 CFR 17.186 - Transfer of distilled spirits to other containers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of distilled... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.186 Transfer of...

  7. Effect of MCI-186 on ischemia-induced changes in monoamine metabolism in rat brain.

    Oishi, R; Itoh, Y; Nishibori, M; Watanabe, T; Nishi, H; Saeki, K

    1989-11-01

    We examined the effects of MCI-186 (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a novel free radical scavenger and an inhibitor of ischemia-induced brain edema, on monoamine metabolism in the brains of both normal and ischemic rats. In normal rats, 3 mg/kg i.v. MCI-186, a dose that prevents ischemic brain edema, had no significant effect on brain concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or their metabolites. After the injection of 5 microliters of 3% polyvinyl acetate into the left internal carotid artery, concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid markedly increased, but that of norepinephrine decreased, in the left telencephalon of embolized rats compared with control rats injected with vehicle; the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid also increased slightly. These effects were maximal 2 hours after embolization. The turnover rate of dopamine between 6 and 8 hours after embolization was significantly higher but that of norepinephrine was slightly lower than that in vehicle-treated rats. When rats were treated with 3 mg/kg i.v. MCI-186 immediately after the injection of polyvinyl acetate, the embolization-induced changes in monoamine metabolism were less marked. Our results suggest that MCI-186 attenuates ischemia-induced changes in brain monoamine metabolism, probably due to its free radical scavenging action, although it has no marked effect in normal rats. PMID:2815191

  8. Neutron Energy Spectra from Neutron Induced Fission of 235U at 0.95 MeV a of 238U at 1.35 and 2.02 MeV

    The shapes of fission neutron spectra are of interest for power reactor calculations. Recently it has been suggested that the neutron induced fission spectrum of 235U may be harder than was earlier assumed. For this reason measurements of the neutron spectra of some fissile isotopes are in progress at our laboratory. This report will present results from studies of the energy spectra of the neutrons emitted in the neutron induced fission of 235U and 238U. The measurements were performed at an incident neutron energy of 0.95 MeV for 235U and at energies of 1.35 and 2.02 MeV for 238U using time-of-flight techniques. The time-of-flight spectra were only analysed at energies higher than those of the incident neutrons and up to about 10 MeV. Corrections for neutron attenuation in the uranium samples were calculated using a Monte Carlo program. The corrected fission neutron spectra were fitted to Maxwellian temperature distributions. For 235U a temperature of 1.27 ± 0.01 MeV gives the best fit to the experimental data and for 238U the corresponding values are 1.29 ± 0.03 MeV at 1.35 MeV and 1.29 ± 0.02 MeV at 2.02 MeV

  9. 12 CFR 303.186 - Exemptions from insurance requirements for a state branch of a foreign bank.

    2010-01-01

    ... manner in which deposits will be solicited; (iv) How the activity will maintain or improve the... state branch of a foreign bank. 303.186 Section 303.186 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE.... A complete letter application shall include the following information: (i) The kinds of...

  10. Three recent TDHF calculations

    Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision 40Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for 16O + 24Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of 86Kr + 139La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed

  11. Inelastic proton scattering at 30--40 MeV from 12C

    Elastic and inelastic proton differential cross sections for excitation of the following levels of 12C: 21+(4.43 MeV), 41+(14.08 MeV), 02+(7.65 MeV), and 31-(9.64 MeV) have been measured at three incident energies between 30 and 40 MeV. The data have been described by coupled channel calculations and form factors obtained by coupling surface vibrations to static deformations. The reproduction of the 02+ state data, if this state is assumed to be a β-vibrational state, requires a quadrupole β-vibrational amplitude which is 57% of the static quadrupole deformation and a mixing of the breathing mode of the nucleus with an amplitude that would correspond to about 1% of the E0 energy weighted sum rule. For the 31- state it is found that the performed calculations are sensitive to the K projection, with the angular distribution of the 31- state being better fitted assuming K/sup π/ = 3- band. Coupled channel calculations using microscopic form factors obtained from wave functions generated using the resonating group method have also been performed and are compared to the experimental data

  12. 大地震的18.6年周期%The 18.6-year periodicity of great earthquakes

    杜品仁; 赵俊猛; 高祥林

    2011-01-01

    Dividing the world into 15 study areas and using the earthquake catalogue of Mw≥7. 0 during 1900~2009, we make a statistical analysis of the relationship between seismicity of each area and the period of lunar nodal motion. The result shows that among the 15 areas, 10 areas exhibit an 18. 6-year cycle of great earthquakes in statistical sense, which consists of a 12. 4-year active section and a 6. 2-year quiet section. In the eastern, northern, southern and western areas of the Circum-Pacific seismic belt, such a periodicity is present and their active sections have certain regularity. In terms of seismic events during the sixth cycle (1991~2009), this study has tested the stability and applicability of the 18. 6-year periodicity derived from earlier five cycles (1900- 1990). It is found that most of periodicities are stable in the regions with such characters. The possible mechanisms of the 18. 6-year periodicity are as follows: (1) Earthquakes are modulated by the 18. 6-year tide via day and half-day tides. (2) Effect of fluid tide in upper mantle (tide within the Earth). And (3) earthquakes are dictated by 18. 6-year tide through variation of Earth rotation.%将全球分为15个研究区,用1900~2009年Mw≥7.0地震目录,统计分析了各区大地震与月球交点运动周期的关系,得出15个研究区中有10个区,大地震存在统计意义上的18.6a周期:活跃段为12.4a,平静段为6.2a;环太平洋地震带北、南、西、东4大区的大地震,不仅有这样的周期,而且其地震活跃段的时间存在一定规律.用第6个18.6 a(1991~2009年)期间的大地震,检验据前5个18.6 a(1900~1990年)地震目录所得18.6 a周期的稳定性和实用性,发现有这种周期的地区多数的周期性是稳定的.大地震18.6 a周期的可能成因有:(1)18.6 a潮波通过调制日潮和半日潮调制大地震;(2)上地幔内流体的潮汐(地内潮)作用;(3)18.6 a潮波通过影响地球自转变化调制大地震.

  13. Palliative effect of Re-186 HEDP in different cancer patients with bone metastases

    The clinical picture of bone metastases is manifested by pain and loss of mechanical stability. Standard treatment options for bone metastases include external beam radiotherapy and the use of analgesics. Due to a large number of lesions in many patients, the use of radionuclide therapy with beta emitters may be preferable. Re-186 hydroxyethydilene diphosphonate (Re-186 HEDP) is one of the radiopharmaceuticals suitable for palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain. The aim of this study was to investigate palliative and side effects of Re-186 HEDP in pts with different type of cancers. Material and method: Thirty one (17 male, 14 female) patients with cancer (10 prostate, 10 breast, 4 rectum, 5 lung, 2 nasopharynx) and bone metastases were included in the study. Therapy was started with a fixed dose of 1295 MBq of Re-186 HEDP. If necessary, the same dose was repeated at least 3 times after an interval of 10-12 weeks A total of 40 standard doses (1295 MBq Re HEDP, Mallinckrodt, Holland) were given; 6 pts received repeated doses (3 doses in 3 pts, 2 doses in 3 pts). The pts with bone marrow suppression were excluded from the study. The pain relief was assessed with ECOG and Karnofsky status index. All pts were evaluated with standard evaluation forms filled daily a maximum of 10 weeks. Results: The respond rate was found as 87.5% in pts with breast and prostate Ca, 75% in pts with rectum Ca, 50% in pts with nasopharynx Ca and 20% in pts with lung Ca. The overall response rate was 67.5%. The palliation period varied between 6 to 10 weeks. The mean palliation period was 8.1 ± 1.3 weeks. Maximal palliation effect was observed between the 3rd and the 7th weeks. Any serious side effects were not seen except mild haematologic toxicity. Discussion and conclusion: It is concluded that Re-186 HEDP is a highly effective agent in the palliation of metastatic bone pain in pts with prostate, breast, rectum cancer, mildly effective in pts with nasopharynx cancer, but not

  14. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  15. MeV fullerene impacts on mica

    Doebeli, M.; Scandella, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ames, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Hillock heights on mica irradiated with MeV C{sub 60} ions have been investigated systematically. Results show that the small range of secondary particles along the track plays a crucial role in defect production. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  16. Proton scattering from 4He at 500 MeV

    We calculate the optical potential for the scattering of 500 MeV protons from 4He using first-order Brueckner theory and compare with experimental data. The real part of the calculated potential has a 'wine bottle' shape in agreement with recent phenomenological analyses. The agreement with experiment is good for scattering angles less than 700. We also analyse the same data using the Dirac equation. The fits to the data over a wide angular range are very good. We find ambiguities in the relativistic potentials as several sets of parameters fit the data almost equally well. In all cases the real vector and scalar potentials exhibit central minima. The 'Schroedinger equivalent' potentials again have 'wine bottle' shapes. We discuss the similarities between the two approaches. (orig.)

  17. {sup 186}Re-Etidronate. Efficacy of palliative radionuclide therapy for painful bone metastases

    Han, S. H.; De Klerk, J. M. H.; Tan, S.; Van Rijk, P. P. [University Medical Center, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, B. A. [University Medical Center, Oncology Section, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Pain palliation with bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is an effective treatment modality in patients with advanced metastatic bone cancer. Several studies have shown encouraging clinical results of palliative therapy using {sup 186}Re-HEDP, with an overall reported response rate of {+-} 71% for painful osseous metastasize prostate and breast cancer patients. {sup 186}Re-HEDP is a very potential isotope with numerous advantageous characteristics for this purpose. Myelosuppressive toxicity is limited and reversible, which makes repetitive treatment safe. However, individual studies are difficult to compare, and are hampered by the numerous and different methods used to assess clinical responses. Standardized clinical response assessment using the objective multi-dimensional pain evaluation model should therefore be implemented.

  18. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    Mairani, A; Valente, M; Battistoni, G; Botta, F; Pedroli, G; Ferrari, A; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Ferrari, M; Fasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ((89)Sr, (90)Y, (131)I, (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (188)Re). Point isotropic...

  19. The 31P(3He,d)32S reactions at 25MeV

    The 31P(3He,d)32S reaction was investigated at 25 MeV incident energy. One hundred and eleven levels up to an excitation energy of 12.5 MeV were observed using a split-pole magnetic spectrograph. The experimental angular distributions were analyzed with the distorted-wave Born approximation. The optical model parameters used in the DWBA calculations were obtained from a fit to elastic 3He scattering data taken on 31P at 25 MeV. Gamov functions were used as form factors for the transfered proton in the case of unbound states. Values of the transfered orbital angular momenta l and spectroscopic strengths were obtained for sixty levels, with many odd-parity levels being observed above 9 MeV excitation. Spin and parity assignments were made upon the basis of the l-values obtained from the shapes of the angular distributions and upon comparison with the results of other reactions. Isospin assignments were made by comparison with 32P levels. Except for the lsub(P)=1, T=0 transfers, most of the observed spectroscopic strength is concentrated into a few levels. The existence of a T-mixed doublet of levels, Jsup(π)=1-, is suggested in the 11 MeV region of excitation. The excitation energies and spectroscopic strengths are compared with results of a recent shell-model calculation

  20. The measurement of (n,2n) cross section for 23Na at 13.3 to 18.5 MeV

    The (n,2n) cross-section for 23Na has been measured by the activation method in the energy range 13.3 to 18.5 MeV. Monoenergitic neutrons were obtained from T(d,n)4He reaction with 2.3 MeV deuteron energy. The induced specific activities were detected by a coincidence counting setup. For comparison existed data and theoretical calculation from 12∼20 MeV are also given

  1. Evaluation of complete neutron data for n + 169Tm reactions below 20 MeV

    A complete set of neutron nuclear data, including cross sections, angular distributions, and secondary neutron spectra, of n+169Tm reactions below 20 MeV were evaluated based on available experimental data and theoretically calculated results. The data are given in ENDF/B-6 format

  2. Energy-dependent phase shift analysis of pion-nucleon scattering below 400 MeV

    An analytic function of energy is fit to the available S, P, and D wave πN phase shifts of various goups below 400 MeV. This global average, which reproduces well most of the experiment cross sections, is anticipated to be useful in pion-nucleus and pion-nucleon interaction calculations

  3. Analyzing power measurements in πd elastic scattering at 50 MeV

    Measurements of the vector analyzing power in πd elastic scattering at 50 MeV are found to agree well with model calculations that include the full πN P11 potential and disagree when this is omitted or suppressed

  4. Analyzing power measurements in πd elastic scattering at 50 MeV

    Measurements of the vector analyzing power in πd elastic scattering at 50 MeV are found to agree well with model calculations that include the full πN P11 potential and disagree when this is omitted or suppressed. (Author) (10 refs., 3 figs.)

  5. The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering angular distribution at 95 MeV

    Mermod, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section has been measured at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, with the Medley setup at TSL in Uppsala. The neutron-proton differential cross section has also been measured for normalization purposes. The data are compared with theoretical calculations to investigate the role of three-nucleon force effects.

  6. The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering angular distribution at 95 MeV

    The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section has been measured at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, with the Medley setup at TSL in Uppsala. The neutron-proton differential cross section has also been measured for normalization purposes. The data are compared with theoretical calculations to investigate the role of three-nucleon force effects

  7. Expression of serine proteinase P186 of Arthrobotrys oligospora and analysis of its nematode-degrading activity.

    Zhao, Hailong; Qiao, Jun; Meng, Qingling; Gong, Shasha; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Tianli; Tian, Lulu; Cai, Xuepeng; Luo, Jianxun; Chen, Chuangfu

    2015-12-01

    The nematode-trapping fungi possess a unique capability of predating and invading nematodes. As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Arthrobotrys oligospora has been widely used to study the interactions between nematode-trapping fungi and their hosts. Serine proteinase is one of the important virulence factors during process of invasion of the nematode-trapping fungi into nematodes. In this study, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we amplified the gene sequence of serine proteinase 186 from A. oligospora, cloned it into pPIC9K vector and expressed it in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The expressed recombinant serine proteinase186 (reP186) was purified via Ni-affinity chromatography. The in vitro nematode-degrading activity of reP186 was analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis revealed that reP186 with molecular weight of 33 kDa was successfully obtained. ReP186 was capable of degrading a series of protein substrates including casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin, denatured collagen and nematode cortical layer. The reP186 exhibited the maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C and was highly sensitive to the inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. Treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus with reP186 for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively, resulted in 62, 88 and 100 % of killing rates for C. elegans, and 52, 65 and 84 % of killing rates for H. contortus, respectively, indicating a relatively strong nematode-degrading bioactivity of reP186. PMID:26419902

  8. Protective effects of MCI-186 on cerebral ischemia: possible involvement of free radical scavenging and antioxidant actions.

    Watanabe, T; Yuki, S; Egawa, M; Nishi, H

    1994-03-01

    The anti-ischemic effects and a possible mechanism of a new antistroke agent, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-pyrazolin-5-one (MCI-186), were studied. Preischemic treatment with MCI-186 (3 mg/kg i.v.) facilitated the recovery of electrocorticographic activity and prolonged survival time in global complete ischemia of rats; MCI-186 (1 and 3 mg/kg i.v.) also mitigated dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier and energy failure in hemispheric embolization of rats. Postischemic treatment with MCI-186 (3 mg/kg i.v.) decreased cortical infarction in focal embolization of rats. MCI-186 (0.6-2.4 mM) inhibited the OH.-induced hydroxylation of salicylate (maximal inhibition, 40.2%), but at 100 microM it did not influence O2- generation. MCI-186 inhibited the formation of linoleic acid-conjugated dienes caused by OH. (IC50 = 32.0 microM). Also, concurrent administration of MCI-186 (3-100 mg/kg i.v.) ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperlipopeoxidemia and degranulation of beta-cells in alloxan (40 mg/kg i.v.)-treated rats. In addition, MCI-186 inhibited iron-dependent peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and mitochondrial homogenates (IC50 = 15.0 and 2.3 microM, respectively) and prevented iron-dependent peroxidative disintegration of mitochondrial membranes (IC50 = 39.0 microM). These findings suggest that MCI-186 has potent anti-ischemic actions and that its mechanism may be closely associated with beneficial antioxidant activities. PMID:8138971

  9. Single Particle Strengths and Mirror States in $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O below 12.0 MeV

    Mertin, C E; Crisp, A M; Keeley, N; Kemper, K W; Momtyuk, O; Roeder, B T; Volya, A

    2014-01-01

    New $^{14}$N(d,p) angular distribution data were taken at a deuteron bombarding energy of 16 MeV to locate all narrow single particle neutron states up to 15 MeV in excitation. A new shell model calculation is able to reproduce all levels in $^{15}$N up to 11.5 MeV and is used to characterize a narrow single particle level at 11.236 MeV and to provide a map of the single particle strengths. The known levels in $^{15}$N are then used to determine their mirrors in the lesser known nucleus $^{15}$O. The 2s$_{1/2}$ and 1d$_{5/2}$ single particle centroid energies are determined for the $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O mirror pair as: $^{15}$N $(\\text{2s}_{1/2}) = 8.08$ MeV, $^{15}$O $(\\text{2s}_{1/2}) = 7.43$ MeV, $^{15}$N $(\\text{1d}_{5/2}) = 7.97$ MeV, and $^{15}$O $(\\text{1d}_{5/2}) = 7.47$ MeV. These results confirm the degeneracy of these orbits and that the $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O nuclei are where the transition between the $\\text{2s}_{1/2}$ lying below the $\\text{1d}_{5/2}$ to lying above it, takes place. The $\\text{1d}_{3/2}$...

  10. 14 MeV proton activation analysis

    A fast nuclear nondestructive method for protein analysis using the 14 MeV proton activation has been developed. The total nitrogen content was measured through the reaction: 14N (p,n) 14O, (Tsub(1/2)=71 s). The 14O activity was detected by means of its characteristic 2.312 MeV gamma-ray line with a NaI(Tl) detector. For a fast determination of a large number of samples a mechanized sistem reacting a rate of one sample per minute has been developed. The laboratory electronics comprises a multichannel analyser, a PDP computer and an electronic module comtroller. Comparison of the results obtained by the method described and the classical Kjeldal technique for samples of various cereal grains (soya bean seads, wheat, barley and corn) showed good correlation. A problem of the analysis of the whole protein region on corn and soya-bean seads, where this region is thicker (0,2 - 2 mm), is mentioned. In this case flour was proposed to be used to obtain a protein homogeneous sample and the irradiaton dose for a sample was about 33,000 Gy, mainly (99%) from protons (27 s x 100 nA x 14 MeV)

  11. Analysis of Neutron Double-Differential Cross Sections for n + 12C Reaction Below 30 MeV

    2007-01-01

    Based on the light nucleus reaction model (Nucl. Sci. Eng. l33 (1999) 218), four aspects (neutron incident energy region, reaction channel analysis, the renewed level schemes and the optical model parameters) of n+12 C reaction are improved to calculate total outgoing neutron double-differential cross sections with modified LUNF code below 30 MeV. The calculated results agree fairly well with the experimental data at En = 14.1 MeV and 18 MeV. The analysis shows that the pre-equilibrium mechanism, which is exactly considered the conservation of energy, momentum and parity, dominates the whole reaction process. The contribution of the neutron emission from 5He to total energyangular spectra is also considered properly. This modified LUNF code will be a useful tool to set up the file of neutron double-differential cross sections below 30 MeV in the neutron evaluation nuclear data library.

  12. Station Black-Out Analysis with MELCOR 1.8.6 Code for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant

    A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  13. Structure of Os - Pt nuclei and g factors of 186-192Os isotopes at low spins

    Employing a pairing + quadrupole model interaction, especially suitable for the Os - Pt region, the ground state structure of these nuclei is investigated following a selfconsistent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) approach. Effects of the inclusion of hexadecapole degrees of freedom in the Hamiltonian are also studied. All the osmium isotopes considered here come out to be prolate in shape in the ground state. 186Pt is triaxial with γ=12 deg. and with the increasing mass number they gradually go over to the oblate shape at A=190 itself. In view of recent experimental data on g factors of osmium isotopes which show interesting variations as a function of mass number as well as spin, we have calculated these following the methods of variation after exact angular momentum projection of axial HFB wave functions and the cranked HFB theory. The observed trend of the variation of g factor at I=2 with the mass number is reproduced with very minor adjustments of the force constants of the Hamiltonian in both the approaches. However, the variation of g factor with spin, which is sensitive to the interplay between collective and the single particle degrees of freedom, can be understood only in the cranking approach. (author). 52 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  14. 人ZP3 186S突变蛋白在毕赤酵母X33细胞中的表达%Expression of human ZP3 186S protein in Pichia pastoris X33

    王弘珺; 李质馨; 田洪艳; 徐冶; 朱辛为; 林冬静; 窦肇华

    2010-01-01

    目的:利用毕赤酵母表达人ZP3 186S蛋白(23~348氨基酸),为临床相关疾病的诊断提供实验材料.方法:经PCR获得编码人ZP3(23~348氨基酸)的基因,构建表达载体pPICZα-hZP3.将ZP3 186位点精氨酸突变为丝氨酸构建pPICZα-hZP3 186S质粒.转染毕赤酵母X33细胞,用高浓度Zeocin筛选转染细胞,甲醇诱导目的蛋白分泌,通过SDS-PAGE和Western blot鉴定人ZP3 186S蛋白.结果:pPICZα-hZP3 186S表达质粒经测序正确,并在毕赤酵母X33中能够高效表达.结论:毕赤酵母能够分泌性表达重组人ZP3 186S蛋白(23~348氨基酸),进一步研究其生物学活性为研制不孕症诊断试剂和免疫避孕疫苗提供实验材料.

  15. Labelling of biorelated compounds and monoclonal antibodies with 188-Re,186-Re and 99mTc

    Some bio-related compounds were labelled with 188Re and 186Re 188Re was obtained from 188W/188Re generator which was produced by neutron irradiation of enriched 186WO3 target (99.79%) in JRR-2 and 186Re was supplied by Production Div., Department of Radioisotopes, JAERI, Japan. Rhenium labelling involved reduction of perrhenate with SnCl2.2H20 in HCI. Bio-related compounds citrate and gluconate were then labelled with reduced rhenium. The labelling yield of labelled compounds as determined by thin-layer chromatography were greater than 98% and 94% for 188Re-citrate and gluconate, respectively. Monoclonal antibodies (mouse,lgG2A and lgG;Fab'2, human lgG2A; anti-hepatoma and IgG) were also successfully labelled with 188Re, 186Re, and 99mTc by direct method using citrate and glucoheptonate as transchelating agents

  16. Biodistribution and Clearance Test 186Re(V) - DMS A in Normal White Rats (A Strain of Wistar)

    186Re(V) - DMS A is a β-emitting radiopharmaceutical for medullary thyroid carcinoma therapy. Biodistribution and clearance tests of 186Re(V) - Dmsa was done by wet destruction method using concentrate liquid of nitric acid in the organ, blood and urine of normal white rats. Biodistribution test showed a smaller accumulation of activity per gram normal organ of the thyroid (1.80 ± 0.58% at 30 minutes after intravenous injection. The higher accumulation of activity was apparent in kidney, and then followed by lung and liver. Clearance test of 186Re(V) - DMS A showed a short enough blood clearance time with 2.75 ± 0.30% of the activity remained in the blood at 30 minutes after injection. The urine clearance of 186Re(V) - DMS A with in 24 hours after injection was 2.29 ± 0.91% of the activity per ml urine

  17. Application of rhenium 186 radiosynovectomy in elbow diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis: Case report with multiple joint involvement

    After surgical therapy of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis (DPVNS), recurrence is seen in almost half of the patients. The effectiveness of radiosynovectomy (RSV)in preventing recurrence and complaints of DPVNS is well known. Elbow involvement in DPVNS is a very rare condition; therefore, RSV in elbow hasn't been experienced widely. The aim of this case report is to show the effectiveness of RSV with rhenium 186 (Re 186)sulfide colloid. We applied Re 186 sulfide colloid to the elbow joint of DPVNS patients six weeks after arthroscopic synovectomy. As a result, the patient did not have any complaints, and our findings are compatible with residue or recurrence on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)in sixth and twentieth month controls after administration. We concluded that Re 186 is an effective adjuvant therapy for the prevention of recurrence and complaints

  18. Application of rhenium 186 radiosynovectomy in elbow diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis: Case report with multiple joint involvement

    Koca, Go Khan; Ozsoy, Ha Kan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Demirel, Koray; Dincel, Veysel Ercan; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2012-09-15

    After surgical therapy of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis (DPVNS), recurrence is seen in almost half of the patients. The effectiveness of radiosynovectomy (RSV)in preventing recurrence and complaints of DPVNS is well known. Elbow involvement in DPVNS is a very rare condition; therefore, RSV in elbow hasn't been experienced widely. The aim of this case report is to show the effectiveness of RSV with rhenium 186 (Re 186)sulfide colloid. We applied Re 186 sulfide colloid to the elbow joint of DPVNS patients six weeks after arthroscopic synovectomy. As a result, the patient did not have any complaints, and our findings are compatible with residue or recurrence on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)in sixth and twentieth month controls after administration. We concluded that Re 186 is an effective adjuvant therapy for the prevention of recurrence and complaints.

  19. Shielding considerations for the 750-MeV electron accelerator at the University of Illinois

    This report summarizes some of the calculations that were carried out to provide shielding data for the 750-MeV electron accelerator under construction at the University of Illinois. All of the results described herein were obtained for a 300-MeV and/or 750-MeV electron beam. All calculations deal with doses produced by the particle beam during operation and do not include secondary radiation sources, i.e., induced radioactivity. The dose equivalents were obtained as a function of shield thickness so that various accident scenatios could be considered, i.e., various percentages of beam loss during operation. The calculated results that were considered included: (1) the earth shielding thickness (and iron door) surrounding the accelerator vault, (2) the earth shielding thickness around the beam transport tunnel, (3) an estimate of the thickness and composition of the movable shielding door in the general purpose electron beam experimental area, (4) the shield thickness around the beam dump in the bremsstrahlung irradiation facility, (5) skyshine dose from some of the experimental areas, and (6) dose rates inside and outside the tagged photon facility. The programs and cross section data bases used in the calculations, as well as the source neutron spectra calculations, are presented. The results of the dose calculations are presented and discussed

  20. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung at 280 MeV

    A proton-proton bremsstrahlung experiment has been carried out at TRIUMF using a 280-MeV polarized proton beam impinging on a liquid-hydrogen target. All three outgoing particles were detected: the higher-energy proton in a magnetic spectrometer, the lower-energy proton with plastic scintillators, and the photon in lead-glass Cherenkov detectors. The experiment shows the first unambiguous evidence for off-shell effects in the free nucleon-nucleon interaction, in that the analyzing powers disagree strongly with the predictions of the soft-photon approximation (which incorporates only on-shell information) but are consistent with the results of calculations using the Bonn and Paris potentials

  1. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  2. Semi-empirical systematics of (n, He-3) cross sections for 14.6 MeV neutrons

    A new semi-empirical formula for the calculation of the (n, He-3) cross section at 14.6 MeV neutron energy is obtained. It is based on the evaporation model. The new formula with three parameters is found to give a better fit to the data than the previous comparable formulae. - Highlights: • We develop a new semi empirical formula, and calculate the (n, He-3) cross section. • The (n, He-3) reaction cross section is calculated for 14.6 MeV neutrons. • This formula is based on Weisskopf and Ewing evaporation statistical model. • The analytical expression is obtained with three free parameters

  3. Extrapolated neutron activation cross sections for dosimetry to 44 MeV

    Thirty-one neutron activation cross sections have been extrapolated to 44 MeV for dosimetry applications at high-energy, accelerator-based neutron sources. All cross sections have undergone integral testing in Be(d,n) fields at E/sub d/ = 14, 16, and 40 MeV. The integral activities for most of the reactions agree within 10% with calculations based on time-of-flight measurements of the flux spectra. Tests show that at least 25 of the cross sections can be used with the SAND II code to unfold neutron spectra with differential errors of 10 to 30% in the neutron energy range from 2 to 30 MeV

  4. Study on nuclear transmutation of nuclear waste by 14 MeV neutrons

    The object of this study is to clarify the possibility of 14 MeV neutrons to decrease the radioactivity of nuclear waste, especially fission products such as Cs, Sr, Tc, and I. Simulations were performed for several fission products by Monte-Carlo code and burnup calculation code. In comparison to the spectra of thermal reactor and fast reactor, it was found that D-T neutron of 14 MeV is preferable and has the possibility to reduce the radioactivity of fission products such as Cs, Sr, Tc, and I with the magnitude of the flux more than 5 × 1015 [no./cm2/sec] for 1000 days irradiation period. This investigation reveals the possibility and the superiority of 14 MeV neutron than thermal and fast neutron spectra to annihilate the fission products. (author)

  5. Mass spectra and fusion cross sections for 20Ne + 24Mg interaction at 55 MeV and 85 MeV

    Inclusive γ-spectra from the 20Ne + 24Mg interaction have been measured using 55 and 85 MeV 20Ne beams accelerated at the CYCLONE cyclotron of Louvain-la-Neuve. The identification of γ lines allows the determination of mass spectra in the region 12<=A<=43. Experimental results are compared with statistical model calculations. The total reaction and fusion cross sections are extracted. Cross sections for inelastic scattering, few nucleon transfers and deep inelastic scattering are estimated. (author)

  6. Equivalent-spherical-shield neutron dose calculations

    Neutron doses through 162-cm-thick spherical shields were calculated to be 1090 and 448 mrem/h for regular and magnetite concrete, respectively. These results bracket the measured data, for reinforced regular concrete, of /approximately/600 mrem/h. The calculated fraction of the high-energy (>20 MeV) dose component also bracketed the experimental data. The measured and calculated doses were for a graphite beam stop bombarded with 100 nA of 800-MeV protons. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. The effectiveness of different interventional methods for partial fallopian tube obstruction: an analysis of 186 cases

    Objective: To evaluate selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy in treating partial fallopian tube obstruction through comparing its clinical effectiveness with that of non-interventional radiology methods. Methods: During the period from January 2008 to October 2010, a total of 186 infertility women with partial fallopian tube obstruction, which was confirmed with hysterosalpingography, were encountered in authors' hospital. This study protocol was approved by our hospital ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. According of different treatment methods, 186 patients were divided into two groups. Patients (n=78) in group A received non-interventional radiology methods, including hydrotubation, enema, laparoscopy, physical therapy and traditional Chinese medication, while patients (n=108) in group B received selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy. All 186 patients were followed up for more than six months. Close observation on the pregnancy incidence after different treatments and fallopian tube patency was carried out. The clinical findings were documented. The results were statistically analyzed by using paired 'x2' test. Results: Half a year after different procedures, in group A the pregnancy rate was 12.82% (n=10), and different degrees of fallopian tube obstruction were found in 31.58% patients. Whereas in group B, during the same period of observation, the pregnancy rate was 58.33% (n=63), and partial occlusion in cornual region was seen in one patient (0.47%). Significant difference in both pregnancy rate and fallopian tube occlusion rate existed between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Because of its minimal invasiveness, high effectiveness and safety, the selective salpingography together with fallopian tube recanalization procedures are well accepted by the patients. The selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy is superior to non-interventional radiology methods in

  8. 186Re-HEDP for metastatic bone pain in breast cancer patients

    Two-thirds of patients with metastatic cancer suffer from pain. Pain originating from skeletal metastases is the most common form of cancer-related pain. Bone pain, often exacerbated by pressure or movement, limits the patient's autonomy and social life. Pain palliation with bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has proven to be an effective treatment modality in patients with metastatic bone pain. These bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are extremely powerful in treating scattered painful bone metastases, for which external beam radiotherapy is impossible because of the large field of irradiation. 186Re-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) is a potentially useful radiopharmaceutical for this purpose, having numerous advantageous characteristics. Bone marrow toxicity is limited and reversible, which makes repetitive treatment safe. Studies have shown encouraging clinical results of palliative therapy using 186Re-HEDP, with an overall response rate of ca. 70% in painful bone metastases. It is effective for fast palliation of painful bone metastases from various tumours and the effect tends to last longer if patients are treated early in the course of their disease. 186Re-HEDP is at least as effective in breast cancer patients with painful bone metastases as in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. It is to be preferred to radiopharmaceuticals with a long physical half-life in this group of patients, who tend to have more extensive haematological toxicity since they have frequently been pretreated with bone marrow suppressive chemotherapy. This systemic form of radionuclide therapy is simple to administer and complements other treatment options. It has been associated with marked pain reduction, improved mobility in many patients, reduced dependence on analgesics, and improved performance status and quality of life. (orig.)

  9. 72 MeV proton cyclotron for boron neutron capture therapy in Slovakia

    A cyclotron complex named CYLAB is being built at the Slovak Institute of Metrology. The main equipment, a cyclotron producing 72 MeV protons and light and heavy ions up to 129Xe20+, will be manufactured by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Medicine, physics, and metrology will be the main CYLAB application fields. The 66 MeV p-Be reaction will be used for fast neutron therapy, the spallation reactions of 72 MeV p on a tungsten target will be used in neutron capture therapy, and 72 MeV, 100 nA protons will be used in eye therapy. The medical applications of CYLAB are described with emphasis on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the gantry built for it, based on the 72 MeV/50 μA proton cyclotron. Theoretical calculations showed that in comparison with the equipment with a conventional configuration of moderators, reflectors, filters and shielding, significant improvements in epithermal neutron production will emerge, leading to a higher RBE dose rate at a 7 cm depth of the brain. (P.A.)

  10. Neutron total and scattering cross sections of 6Li in the few MeV region

    Neutron total cross sections of 6Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx. 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;α)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file