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Sample records for 16th century

  1. [Physicians' households in the 16th century].

    Walter, Tilmann

    2008-01-01

    16th-century's medicine was marked by a wave of professionalization: besides scientific influences--evident by new ambitious texts on botany, anatomy, and chemiatry--functions of medical expertise for political purposes were an important factor. Based on findings made in my DFG-funded project "Arztliche Autorität in der Frühen Neuzeit" (medical authority in early modem times) is discussed how these influences altered the professional conditions for physicians. "Haushalt" (household) can be understood as a social community as well as a monetary budget in this context: physicians earned their money with a lot of different ventures beside medical practice, as commerce, farming, banking, or mining etc. Expenses for houses, gardens, interior etc. were based on needs of everyday life but could also be signs of luxury. Thus the physicians demonstrated the high social status they had acquired, and some of them thereby placed themselves at one social level with the nobility. Even scientific books can be estimated as a special case of such a conspicuous consumption for in most cases publishing made high investments without monetary benefit necessary. Thus scientific reputation was to some degree foreseeable: epoch-making books like above all Andreas Vesalius' "De humani Corporis fabrica libri septem" (Basel 1543) had to be financed out of the assets of the family (in Vesalius' case: a high-standing family in the emperor's services). Other sources show clearly that many doctors were not able to afford publishing comparable elaborated and expensive books. PMID:19830955

  2. The Other Josquin - Enhanced Editions of 16th century music

    Berchum van, Marnix (DANS)

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting and doubtful composer attributions are a common phenomenon in early musical repertories, but the problem is particularly acute with the output of Josquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521), the foremost musical authority figure of the 16th century. The matter is far from unambiguous; the problems of determining which pieces really are authentic is a veritable scholarly minefield in which academic opinion changes constantly. The Other Josquin has two goals: to contribute to musicological rese...

  3. The Heidelberg Catechism: A 16th century quest for unity

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution the view is presented that the Heidelberg Catechism should be regarded as an attempt to promote unity between 16th century reformers and churches in the Palatinate. This, to some extent, determined the content of the Catechism resulting in some controversial issues receiving less attention. This in turn not only made the Catechism acceptable to a wide spectrum of Reformed Christianity, but also resulted in a creative and unique contribution to Reformed theology, almost a ...

  4. Flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries

    Babkova Nadiya Vyacheslavivna

    2015-01-01

    The present article is devoted to creation and development of flags of the Ukrainian Cossacks in the 16th – 18th centuries. Several preserved documentations show the key motives of the Cossack flags. In the process of analyzing the Cossack flags we can highlight both autochthonous and borrowed heraldic elements.

  5. Catalan farmhouses and farming families in Catalonia between the 16th and early 20th centuries

    Assumpta Serra

    2016-01-01

    The masia (translated here as the Catalan farmhouse), or the building where people reside on a farming estate, is the outcome of the landscape where it is located. It underwent major changes from its origins in the 11th century until the 16th century, when its evolution peaked and a prototype was reached for Catalonia as a whole. For this reason, in the subsequent centuries the model did not change, but building elements were added to it in order to adapt the home to the times. Catalan far...

  6. The Slavic books in the 16th century: between manuscripts and printings

    Neža Zajc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The article explores the Slavic typography in the Renaissance with special emphasis on the Cyrillic incunabula and on the complex process of building national languages in the Slavic regions, which are also related to the position of Christian theology (Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant of that time.Methodology/approach: The analysis of primary resources i.e. manuscripts and incunabula was used for the presentation of the complexity position of the Slavic languages in the 16th century.Results: It was difficult to separate the orthodox texts from the apocryphal contents of Christian texts.Research limitation: This study presents the general review and analysis of specific cases and as such it represents a basic introduction in to a more sophisticated research.Originality/practical implications: The study shows that the language disunity (the instability of the linguistic forms could be one the reasons for difficulties in printing the Slavic texts in 16th century.

  7. Geographical Names on 16th and 17th Century Maps of Croatia

    Josip Faričić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with geographical names (toponyms on maps of Croatia published during the 16th and 17th century. Since this is a very complex problem area, only a few basic problems concerning the historical development of toponyms on old maps have been emphasized. As a result of the general development in cartography and "crystallization" of geographical knowledge about Croatia in the 16th century, these maps have become a valuable source of toponyms. Although Latin, Italian and German toponyms were still dominant, more and more Croatian toponyms can be found, especially on maps made by Croatian authors or the authors who were familiar with Croatian regions. Toponymy on old maps of Croatia considerably reflects the significance of Croatian regions in trading and geo-strategic system in Europe at the time. 

  8. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    Jurado, V.; Porca, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Pastrana, M.P. [Centro de Conservacion y Restauracion de Bienes Culturales, Junta de Castilla y Leon, Simancas (Spain); Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Saiz-Jimenez, C., E-mail: saiz@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  9. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  10. [Did a 16th century Christian missionary observe that the Japanese were collectivists?].

    Takano, Yohtaro; Ito, Gen

    2016-02-01

    Volpi (2004) pointed out that Alessandro Valignano, a 16th century Christian missionary, had considered the Japanese extreme collectivists. According to Volpi, his remark was based on Valignano's reports (1583, 1592) edited by Alvares-Taladriz (1954). However, it is highly questionable whether Volpi examined these texts directly because the information about them provided by Volpi involved many serious errors. A thorough inspection of Valignano's translated reports found no mention of Japanese collectivism. On the contrary, he had actually reported exceedingly individualistic behaviors of Japanese warriors. Such behaviors are consistent with what is widely known about the 16th century Civil Wars in Japan. It has thus turned out that no reliable evidence is present for the alleged observation by Valignano. PMID:26964373

  11. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  12. Two cases of 16th century head injuries managed in royal European families.

    Dowling, Kamilah A; Goodrich, James Tait

    2016-07-01

    In Europe, during the 16th century, there were a number of prominent general surgeons adventurous enough to consider operating on the brain for head injuries. From the time of Hippocrates, operating on the skull and brain was considered both treacherous and too dangerous to be undertaken except on rare occasions. Operating on a member of a royal court was considered even more exceptional because if the outcome was poor, the surgeon could lose a hand or limb, or, even worse, be beheaded. The authors present two interesting cases of royal family members who underwent surgery for head injuries that were quite severe. The surgeons involved, Ambroise Paré, Andreas Vesalius, and Berengario da Carpi, were among the most prominent surgeons in Europe. Despite very challenging political situations, all were willing to undertake a complex surgical intervention on the member of a prominent royal family. The individuals involved, both royal and medical, plus the neurosurgical injuries are discussed. PMID:27364255

  13. Patterns of Hospitality: Aspects of Institutionalisation in 15th & 16th Centuries Nuremberg Healthcare

    Fritz Dross

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with poor relief and health care provision by hospitals and hospital-like institutions in the imperial city of Nuremberg in 15th and 16th centuries southern Germany. It concentrates on the interplay and the functional connections of different types of charity. Thus, it is hoped to gain a more reliable base for analysing processes of differentiation in early modern health care provision than looking for the developments only in one prominent hospital alone. Special attention is paid to a charity caring for foreign lepers and thus prima facie contradicting the general trend of excluding lepers as well as foreigners from benevolence within the city's walls. In addition to analyse the hospitals' regulations and the patients' motiviation to get into a hospital this paper suggests to take a look for the ecomical and administrative conditions which force the inmates to leave hospitals and thus accelerating the development of temporarily care.

  14. Medieval Victoria-Gasteiz Interaction between virtual and augmented reality in the 16th century

    Ainhoa Pérez-Valle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Vitoria-Gasteiz’s game provides information about the history and lifestyle of this town in the 16th century, which has been rebuilt through procedural software. This interactive application allows you to enjoy an experience that merges the virtual party with an ‘in situ’ visit to the city’s streets nowadays, enabling travel through time. The game becomes a competition in which users have to overcome challenges and could enjoy Augmented Reality’s benefits. The main goal of the project is the cultural heritage transmission. And this is done through one of the best ways to do this, in a funny way. Learn “playing”. Being education and tourism the main application fields.

  15. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  16. Precipitations and floods in the central Iberian Peninsula in the late 16th century

    Bullón, T.

    2010-09-01

    Documental sources provided information to historically reconstruct the relationship among precipitation, drought and floods during the last 50 years of the 16th century in the Jarama-Tajo river system. The study area is located in the central Iberian Peninsula in the autonomous region of Madrid and is associated with a continental Mediterranean climate Periodic flooding of the fluvial shore and channel bed displacement in the Jarama-Tajo system conditioned land use during the historical period chosen for this study. Centuries ago, land use was well adapted to this river system and produced water intensive crops and pastureland despite the area’s relatively arid continental climate. Today, the river dynamics that once characterized the area, and are referred to in historical documents, have been replaced by permanent channels with stable courses on the flood plain due to the construction of regulating reservoirs and widespread gravel extraction. The data culled from the historical documents consulted for this study made it possible to detect and characterize the floods, and to relate them to yearly or seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature in the late 16th century. As a result, it was possible to define the interaction and time span between precipitation, droughts and floods; to provide a more accurate characterization of the climate at the end of the 16th century in accordance with earlier publications on the topic; and to define the fluvial dynamics of the rivers that form this system. These dynamics, although typical of Mediterranean regions, are often difficult to characterize since alterations in the area make it impossible to obtain direct data. The administrative records of royal estates located south of Madrid contained the most solid data, and was enhanced by accounts of incidents occurring in property located in groves or flood plains in the study area that was managed by religious orders or townships. The archives consulted included the

  17. Images of the Other in the German Travel Accounts of the 16th and 17th Century

    Andreja Bole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the image of the Russian in the selected German travel accounts of the 16th and 17th century, through the eyes of the West European well-educated legate seen as a savage, boorish Barbarian. The image of the Russian illustrates the importance of the relationship between the one’s own, civilized (here German and the other, often barbaric (here Russian cultural reality. Key words: Images of the Other / Travel Account / Herberstein, Olearius / Russia of the 16th and 17th Century.

  18. Ottoman Hunting Organization of Silistra Sanjak in The 16th Century

    Mustafa ALKAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While hunting in traditional societies, was most commonly practised as a profession, for food, sports or entertainment, it was fully a part of Ottoman State organization as a military exercise or war game. From the first Ottoman rulers, there has been hunting institution in the palace. An organized hunting institution, regular hunting practices and the number of hunted animals had been perceived as the symbols of power of the ruler. Hunting organization was instrumental in identifying the situations of the country and people, inspecting government officials and listening to people’s problems. In this respect, the meaning of hunting ceremony gains great importance. Hunting bird-growing organization in Ottoman Empire palace had been institutionalized since early years. Its provincial administration was created for particular sanjaks. The structure of provincial hunting organization was organized in the form of taşra doğancıları (provincial falconers or hawkers, sayyad (hunters, yavrucu (fledgeling careres, yuvacı (nest carers, kayacı (carer of nest rocks, görenceci (bird observers, tuzakçı (bird catchers. There are records in Ottoman archives about this units concerning their organization, numbers, how they were spread and how the duties were passed from father to son. In this study, in the 16th century provincial Ottoman hunting organization and services in Silistra has been throughly examined, using archive documents.

  19. Handheld XRF analysis of a 16th century Mexican Feather Headdress

    The 16th century feather headdress in the Weltmuseum Wien (WMW), an affiliated institution of the Kunsthistorisches Museum (KHM) in Vienna, is the most renowned of the few remaining pre-Columbian “Arte Plumaria” artefacts, which were made by feather artisans (Amantecas) using traditional techniques in the territory of present day Mexico. The recorded history of the headdress begins in 1596, when it is first mentioned in the estate inventory of the art collection of Archduke Ferdinand II of Tyrol at Ambras Castle. Due to its age, the variety of materials used, its history and former restoration treatments, the artefact is today one of the most sensitive and demanding care objects of the museum. Despite the object’s long history, very little documentation on past interventions exists. From 2010-2012, a binational research project between Mexico (Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia) and Austria (Weltmuseum Wien) performed a systematic investigation focused on the identification of manufacturing techniques and the various materials, the old restoration measures and its conservation. Handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers are extremely useful for the study of art works in museum collections. The possibility of bringing the instrument to inspect the objects on-site facilitates the study of artefacts that cannot be moved either due to their extreme fragility or due to their large size and/or weight. In addition, non-destructive analysis constitutes a preferred alternative to invasive sampling techniques, which are usually not allowed in the study of unique or extremely valuable objects. The aim of the XRF analysis was twofold: to investigate the possible presence of inorganic toxic elements that could be associated to the use of pesticides in past conservation interventions and; to characterize the chemical composition of the authentic gold and the gilded brass ornaments, which were added in the 19th century. The results of the XRF analytical

  20. Image , Ritual and Urban Form: Porto in the 16th Century

    José Ferrão Afonso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 17th Century, the Spanish painter Francisco Pacheco railed against his apprentices, telling them that the image should stand out of the picture. The topic was the one most debated in the art of the Counter-Reformation, whose main directives, outlined in the Council of Trent, would be put in motion simultaneously with urban "Christianisation". They presupposed a social contract, established between producer and receiver, implying maximum clarity of the message, which involved an ambiguous grey area that would be reserved for the outside of the focus. In painting, which sacrificed everything that was incidental or extraneous to the story, showing the essential and neglecting the accessory, the binary radicalism of the concept became more explicit, through the Caravaggian illumination or in the case above, the Spanish tenebrism of Velásquez, to whom Pacheco's admonition was addressed. In our Doctoral Thesis presented at the School of Architecture in Barcelona2 , we sought to demonstrate that the Plastic Arts were not the only field for the application of Luminist principles. In this article we aim to summarise this thesis by exposing the important relationships between image, ritual and urban form in 16th Century Porto, after a time, therefore, the late Middle Ages, which Huizinga classified as deeply iconophile , in which image and ritual were put at the service of the reformulation of a State becoming increasingly centralised and interventionist, whose action extended to the sphere of the Church: with King João II, and especially King Manuel I, the Crown was an active sponsor of religious reform that was pursued with redoubled energy and systematisation, from the reign of "the Pious", then already within the political system of close bilateral cooperation that was designated the Confessional State. We therefore believe that this type of approach to anthropological and symbolic components, which seeks to take into account the

  1. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO2. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  2. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  3. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th-16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Facon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century

  4. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  5. [Medical books printed in the 16th century in Dalmatian libraries].

    Dujmovic, Dubravka

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to search for medical books in monasteries, museums and university libraries in Split, Omi's, Zaostrog, Ciovo (near Trogir) and Sinj. Medical books from the 17th century were rare. When we compare this research with previous ones, one can conclude that very little of such sort of literature in Dalmatian libraries is still existing. Among preserved literary works we found works by Galenus, Oribasius, Valverde and others. The explanation for the little number of medical books is to be seeked in hard historical and educational conditions, destruction and damage to library stock in the past. PMID:17152192

  6. Ice lubrication for moving heavy stones to the Forbidden City in 15th- and 16th-century China.

    Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A

    2013-12-10

    Lubrication plays a crucial role in reducing friction for transporting heavy objects, from moving a 60-ton statue in ancient Egypt to relocating a 15,000-ton building in modern society. Although in China spoked wheels appeared ca. 1500 B.C., in the 15th and 16th centuries sliding sledges were still used in transporting huge stones to the Forbidden City in Beijing. We show that an ice lubrication technique of water-lubricated wood-on-ice sliding was used instead of the common ancient approaches, such as wood-on-wood sliding or the use of log rollers. The technique took full advantage of the natural properties of ice, such as sufficient hardness, flatness, and low friction with a water film. This ice-assisted movement is more efficient for such heavy-load and low-speed transportation necessary for the stones of the Forbidden City. The transportation of the huge stones provides an early example of ice lubrication and complements current studies of the high-speed regime relevant to competitive ice sports. PMID:24191029

  7. Reconstructing Jewish Identity on the Foundations of Hellenistic History: Azariah de' Rossi's Me'or 'Enayim in Late 16th Century Northern Italy

    Rosenberg-Wohl, David Michael

    2014-01-01

    AbstractReconstructing Jewish Identity on the Foundations of Hellenistic History:Azariah de' Rossi's Me'or `Enayim in Late 16th Century Northern ItalybyDavid Michael Rosenberg-WohlDoctor of Philosophy in Jewish Studiesandthe Graduate Theological UnionProfessor Erich S. Gruen, ChairMe'or `Enayim is conventionally considered to be early modern Jewish history. Recent scholarship tends to consider the work Renaissance historiography, Counter-Reformation apology or some combination of the two. The...

  8. ‘Let us distribute lands fairly and deservedly’: land distribution system establishment in russia in the 15th–16th centuries

    Bentsianov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The author studies the establishment of the land distribution system in the Russian state between the 15th and mid-16th centuries. Referring to a vast variety of sources (cadastre books, gentry military lists, letters patent, legislative acts, etc.) the author analyzes the appearance and further development of the system of land distribution. Comparing materials from different parts of the country, the author describes the complexity and ambiguity behind the creation of the said system. Its b...

  9. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16th – early 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

    Dmitry Vladímirovich LISÉYTSEV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes. It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the organs of estate representation. Meanwhile, the analysis of historical sources does not allow to assume that during this period the Zemsky Sobors played a greater role than they did previously. Even the most studied Zemsky Sobors – the elective Sobors of 1598 and 1613 – were held with serious violations of election procedures, and the provinces were not represented to the extent it was described in the official documents. The question of the place of the Zemsky Sobors in the political system of Muscovite state at the beginning of the 17th century requires further analysis.

  10. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  11. From a market economy to a government monopoly precious metals of Serbia and Bosnia between Venice and the Ottoman empire (15th-16th century

    Bojović Boško I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of precious metals in the Balkans reached its climax in the 15th century. It was exported mostly by Ragusa, basically for the Venice Mint. According to the available documents it can be estimated that the traffic of such metals carried out via Ragusa was between 11060 kg in 1425, and an optimum estimation of 25 tons annually for the first half of the century. The Ottoman occupation of Serbia and Bosnia in the middle of the century marks the end of the exportation of raw materials indispensable to the European monetary economy, which lacked precious metals for mints. The production as well as the coining of the Balkan precious metals took place within the closed circuit of the Ottoman economic autarchy. Notwithstanding all the efforts of the central administration, including a highly developed legislation, and in spite of the development of a big mining centre of Siderokapsia (Eastern Macedonia, the production of precious metals continued to decline in the 15th century. This economic phenomenon led to the financial crash that marked the beginning of the recurring financial and economic crises in the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 16th century. The contribution of the precious metals from the Balkans to the European monetary economy at the end of the Middle Ages has not been sufficiently studied by the specialists in economic history, and it has not been taken into account regarding the spectacular decline of the Ottoman economy and power.

  12. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

    Albinas Mocevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  13. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2011-11-01

    The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  14. A History of Guelaguetza in Zapotec Communities of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, 16th Century to the Present

    Flores-Marcial, Xochitl Marina

    2015-01-01

    My project traces the evolution of the Zapotec cultural practice of guelaguetza, an indigenous sharing system of collaboration and exchange in Mexico, from pre-Columbian and colonial times to the present. Ironically, the term "guelaguetza" was appropriated by the Mexican government in the twentieth century to promote an annual dance festival in the city of Oaxaca that has little to do with the actual meaning of the indigenous tradition. My analysis of Zapotec-language alphabetic sources fro...

  15. [Dietary prescriptions for the elites of the kingdom of Navarre in the 16th century: the cases of Juan Rena and Juan de Alarcón].

    Serrano Larráyoz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present and analyse four dietary prescriptions from the 16th century prepared for Juan Rena, a cleric of Venetian origin, and his servant Juan de Alarcón, which are kept at the Archivo General de Navarra. These documents demonstrate the interest of the patients and physicians in dietetics, understood as a group of health and hygienic measures based on the Galenic res naturales and res non naturales. These four prescriptions are closely related to the ad personam or consilia health regimens, which represent a genre of medical literature whose significance in Renaissance Spain has received little attention. The cases studied reveal the high esteem in which the elites held the possession of therapeutic resources adapted to their individual needs, which were compiled and copied for personal use. PMID:24987786

  16. Compendium of European Vocal Music in the 16th Century%概述16世纪欧洲声乐艺术

    戴雄

    2001-01-01

    16世纪的欧洲声乐艺术从内质上得到了空前的发展。合唱艺术,特别是无伴奏合唱围绕着复调音乐这个轴心,已达到相当的高度。宗教声乐通过改革与世俗声乐共同发展,交相辉映;学校声乐教育体系也初步形成。歌唱技法得到进一步重视并趋于科学化。声乐技法的发展,促进了作曲家、歌唱家的创作欲望与热情。在16世纪末产生的新型歌唱样式--歌剧,便成为作曲家、歌唱家文化内涵及歌唱技巧展示的重要舞台。%European vocal music in the 16th century developed from its essence. Chorus art, especiallyacappella unacconpanied chorus enclosed the axis of counter point music, reached the fairly high height,religious and carnal vocal music developed and influenced each other through reforming. Vocal music education system in the school had originally shaped. Singing technic was thought highly of and trended scientifically been raised, and trained aimly in the teaching practice. The developing of vocal music, promoted composing desire and enthusiasm of composers and singers. In the end of 16th century, a new singing style-opera had been born, it was the important stage for the composers and singers to show the culture connotation and singing technic.

  17. Iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" in Books of Hours of 15th and 16th Century

    Elsa Guyot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of biblical exegesis and medieval literature, this paper proposes an iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" as it appears in Books of Hours. From the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, pictorial representations of this Old Testament scene experienced a boom justified by the underlying eroticism of this episode in which David surprises Bathsheba as she is performing a ritual purification bath. The illuminations that we study reflect the encounter between the Christian tradition and humanistic culture.

  18. A Versatile Scholar of 16th Century Ottoman Society: Beşiktaşlı Yahya Efendi

    ŞAHİN, HAŞİM

    2014-01-01

    Yahya Efendi, whose mother is Afife Hatun and father is Şami Ömer Efendi, a member of İlmiye, was born in Trabzon in 1495. He was one of the leading intellectuals of XVI. century Ottoman society. As his mother was also the milkmother of Kanûnî Sultan Suleyman, he established close relations with the Ottoman administrators since childhood. After having started in Trabzon, he completed his education in Istanbul under the supervision of Zenbilli Ali Efendi and then he worked as a muderris in som...

  19. [Andres Vesalio, Francisco Díaz, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and the birth of urology in the 16th Century].

    Carrillo Esper, Raúl; Carrillo Córdova, Luis Daniel; Carrillo Córdova, Dulce María; Carrillo Córdova, Carlos Alberto; Carrillo Córdova, Jorge Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In the sixteenth century there were great advances in science, literature, and the arts. During this century, urology as a specialty was conceived, thanks to the contributions of Andreas Vesalius, anatomist and leading physician to the court of Charles V, and Dr. Francisco Diaz, a native of Alcala de Henares, surgeon and clinician. Dr. Diaz had a close relationship with Miguel de Cervantes, who at one point in his life suffered from renal colic. In his masterpiece "Re-Printed Treaty of all diseases of the kidneys, bladder and wattles of the Cock and Urina, divided into three books," of which the first book of urology is the History of Medicine, describes in detail the clinical and therapeutic aspects of urological diseases, known as the "bad stone" and urethral strictures known as "wattles", in addition to describing the different surgical techniques and the development of new instruments for urological procedures, which include the cisorio instrument and the Speculum pudendi. For the above, Dr. Francisco Diaz is considered the father of urology. PMID:26290034

  20. Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

    2009-07-01

    Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

  1. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  2. A reference to altar paintings in the Kotor archives of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries: Madonna di Misericordia and Immaculata Concepitone

    Živković Valentina

    2004-01-01

    of charity and as bequests. The information in the wills testifies to the fact that, at the very beginning of the 16th century, a chapel of the Immaculate Conception existed in Kotor that housed a much venerated painting of the Immaculata Conceptione, a theme especially supported by the Franciscans in their debates in medieval times. The possibility that a developed iconographies form of the Immaculata Conceptione existed is confirmed by the icon of Our Lady of Škrpjel, created about half a century prior to any mention of the painting in the Franciscan chapel, whose iconography already contained the elements of the Immaculata Conceptione.

  3. A XANES study of cobalt speciation state in blue-and-white glazes from 16th to 17th century Chinese porcelains

    Figueiredo, M.O., E-mail: ondina.figueiredo@lneg.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); Silva, T.P. [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Veiga, J.P. [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation of cobalt in ancient Chinese porcelain glazes studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue pigmenting role of tetrahedral Co{sup 2+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties in deducing a formal valence state for cobalt ions from the edge energy. - Abstract: The composition of cobalt blue pigments used in ancient blue-and-white Chinese glazes is known to have changed between the 14th and the 17th century and ratios of some main chemical components plus trace elements are relevant guide-lines to establish the porcelain manufacture period. Once archaeological findings of Chinese porcelains can contribute to set up dating processes, a study of blue-and-white porcelain shards recovered during recent excavations in Lisbon Old-City was carried out by non-destructive laboratory X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for chemical characterization, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation to ascertain the formal valence and coordination of pigmenting cobalt ions. Following a preliminary extended X-ray absorption fine-structure study that revealed a coordination of divalent cobalt ions slightly above four, a detailed analysis of the near-edge region of Co 1s X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) was carried out on the blue-and-white glazes from those archaeological Chinese porcelain fragments. Pre-edge features and edge details are discussed in comparison with XANES spectra obtained from model compounds with well known crystal structure - Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, plus a cobalt-based blue pigment (cerulean). Present chemical data validate the manufacture period of studied Chinese porcelains advanced by Art Historians on the single basis of stylistic features (late 16th and medium 17th century). Spectroscopic results confirm a coordination environment of pigmenting Co{sup 2+} ions close to tetrahedral and

  4. Die Gesichter der Prostitution im Hanseraum des 12. bis 16. Jahrhunderts The Faces of Prostitution in the Hanseatic Area from the 12th to the 16th Century

    Eileen Lachmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Am Beispiel der Städte Lübeck, Helsingør und Bergen wird fachlich fundiert und sehr umfassend die Prostitution im Hanseraum des 12. bis 16. Jahrhunderts untersucht. Die Autorin Dagmar Hemmie befasst sich in 20 Kapiteln mit unterschiedlichen relevanten Aspekten der Prostitution, so etwa mit den rechtlichen und wirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen in den Städten, dem sozialen Milieu und der gesellschaftlichen Position der Frauen, der gesundheitlichen Fürsorge und Kontrolle sowie dem Schicksal unehelicher Kinder. Ausführlich beschäftigt sie sich mit den Gründen für den Einstieg in die Prostitution. Lebenswege einzelner Frauen werden – soweit möglich – nachgezeichnet. Zahlreiche in den Text eingearbeitete beziehungsweise im Anhang verfügbare Fälle, Quellen und Stadtpläne sowie ein unkomplizierter Schreibstil verleihen dem Buch eine große Authentizität, Lebendigkeit und Plastizität. (Geschichts-Interessierten ist dieses Werk durchweg zu empfehlen.The book provides a factually based and very comprehensive examination of prostitution in the Hanseatic Area between the 12th and the 16th Century using as an example the cities of Lübeck, Helsingør, and Bergen. The author Dagmar Hemmie approaches different relevant aspects of prostitution in 20 chapters, including for example the legal and economic conditions in the cities, the social milieu and societal position of the women, care for health matters, and the control as well as fates of illegitimate children. She concerns herself extensively with the different reasons for entering into prostitution. She also attempts to sketch—in as far as possible—the lives of individual women. Numerous cases, sources, and city maps are integrated into the text or are available as an appendix. These features as well as a straightforward style of writing provide the book with great authenticity, liveliness, and plasticity. This work is absolutely a recommended read for those who are (historically

  5. An analytical comparison of two commercial consolidating products applied to eocene sandstones from 16th and 19th century monuments in San Sehastián, northern Spain

    García-Garmilla, F.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of buildings in the Basque Country made of Eocene sandstone is somewhat problematical, because this type of rock is relatively unstable. This instability is due to the variable content of carbonate cement (0-28% and the presence of K-feldspar grains (1-13% which appear to have been dissolved by both diagenetic and environmental processes. We have compared the results of the application of two commercial consolidating products: Sicof SM 296 (product A and Consistone FS-hA (product B, both ethylsilicates, on Eocene sandstones of the Oquendo Admiral House (16th century and the Gipuzkoa Provincial Government Palace (19th century, which are both located in the city of San Sebastián (Province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Northern Spain. On the basis of different chemical and physical laboratory tests, together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis, product A seems to be more efficient in consolidating such Eocene sandstone materials, since it penetrates into the first 8 mm of the rock, occupies very homogeneously even the smallest pore spaces and leaves a certain degree of remaining porosity which allows ventilation of the rock. In contrast, product B seems to be more appropriate for larger pore-sized rocks, because it only penetrates into the first 3 mm of the Eocene sandstone samples due to the thin pores of the matter. Our results demonstrate that the suitability of a commercial product depends not only on its own chemical composition, but also on the textural and lithological features of the rock material upon which it is to be applied.

    La conservación de los edificios del País Vasco construidos con areniscas del Eoceno es problemática porque este tipo de roca es relativamente inestable debido a su contenido variable en cemento carbonatado (0-28% y a la presencia de granos de feldespato potásico (1-13% disueltos tanto por procesos diagenéticos como ambientales. Hemos aplicado dos consolidantes comerciales

  6. Study of a unique 16th century Antwerp majolica floor in the Rameyenhof castle's chapel by means of X-ray fluorescence and portable Raman analytical instrumentation

    The most unique and only known 16th century Antwerp majolica tile floor in Belgium is situated in a tower of the Rameyenhof castle (Gestel, Belgium). This exceptional work of art has recently been investigated in situ by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy in order to study the material characteristics. This study reports on the result of the analyses based on the novel combination of non-destructive and portable instrumentation, including a handheld XRF spectrometer for obtaining elemental information and a mobile Raman spectrometer for retrieving structural and molecular information on the floor tiles in the Rameyenhof castle and on a second, similar medallion, which is stored in the Rubens House museum in Antwerp (Belgium). The investigated material, majolica, is a type of ceramic, which fascinated many people and potters throughout history by its beauty and colourful appearance. In this study the characteristic major/minor and trace element signature of 16th century Antwerp majolica is determined and the pigments used for the colourful paintings present on the floor are identified. Furthermore, based on the elemental fingerprint of the white glaze, and in particular on the presence of zinc in the tiles – an element that was not used for making 16th century majolica – valuable information about the originality of the chapel floor and the two central medallions is acquired. - Highlights: • In situ, non-destructive investigation of a unique Antwerp majolica floor • Multi-methodological approach: make use of a mobile Raman and X-ray spectrometer • Obtaining information about layered structure of Antwerp majolica • The used pigments in the majolica floor in Rameyenhof castle are characterized. • The verification of the authenticity of the floor and two central medallions are performed

  7. Study of a unique 16th century Antwerp majolica floor in the Rameyenhof castle's chapel by means of X-ray fluorescence and portable Raman analytical instrumentation

    Van de Voorde, Lien, E-mail: lien.vandevoorde@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandevijvere, Melissa [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Conservation Studies, Centre for Conservation Research (CCR), Blindestraat 9, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, X-ray and Instrumentation Lab (AXI2L), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vekemans, Bart [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Pevenage, Jolien [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Caen, Joost [University of Antwerp, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Conservation Studies, Centre for Conservation Research (CCR), Blindestraat 9, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Vandenabeele, Peter [Ghent University, Department of Archaeology, Archaeometry Research Group, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Espen, Piet [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, X-ray and Instrumentation Lab (AXI2L), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Vincze, Laszlo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, X-Ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Research Group, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-12-01

    The most unique and only known 16th century Antwerp majolica tile floor in Belgium is situated in a tower of the Rameyenhof castle (Gestel, Belgium). This exceptional work of art has recently been investigated in situ by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy in order to study the material characteristics. This study reports on the result of the analyses based on the novel combination of non-destructive and portable instrumentation, including a handheld XRF spectrometer for obtaining elemental information and a mobile Raman spectrometer for retrieving structural and molecular information on the floor tiles in the Rameyenhof castle and on a second, similar medallion, which is stored in the Rubens House museum in Antwerp (Belgium). The investigated material, majolica, is a type of ceramic, which fascinated many people and potters throughout history by its beauty and colourful appearance. In this study the characteristic major/minor and trace element signature of 16th century Antwerp majolica is determined and the pigments used for the colourful paintings present on the floor are identified. Furthermore, based on the elemental fingerprint of the white glaze, and in particular on the presence of zinc in the tiles – an element that was not used for making 16th century majolica – valuable information about the originality of the chapel floor and the two central medallions is acquired. - Highlights: • In situ, non-destructive investigation of a unique Antwerp majolica floor • Multi-methodological approach: make use of a mobile Raman and X-ray spectrometer • Obtaining information about layered structure of Antwerp majolica • The used pigments in the majolica floor in Rameyenhof castle are characterized. • The verification of the authenticity of the floor and two central medallions are performed.

  8. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life. PMID:22552996

  9. THE MURMAN COAST AND THE NORTHERN-DVINA DELTA AS ENGLISH AND DUTCH COMMERCIAL DESTINATIONS IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES

    VELUWENKAMP, JW

    1995-01-01

    In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Murman coast trade and the Northern Dvina trade were two clearly distinct branches of Western European commerce. The Murman coast trade involved the commerce with the regional economy of the Kola Peninsula, and the Northern Dvina trade coincided with t

  10. Preliminary Anthropological Research on the Medieval Population of the Iasi City (Necropolis of the ”Sf. Nicolae” Church – Ciurchi Street, the 16th – 18th Centuries

    Vasilica-Monica Groza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The osteological material discovered in the medieval necropolis (16th – 18th centuries of the “Sf. Nicolae Church” situated in Ciurchi Street in Iaşi consists of over 500 human skeletons exhumed of about 300 inhumation graves. The preliminary anthropological analysis performed on only 28 skeletons (12 male and 16 female adult skeletons having belonged to persons over older than 20 years shows a hypsicranic and metriocranic population with high waist, metriometopic (medium or eurimetopic (broad forehead and medium-sized occipital bone. Male skeletons are characterized by dolicochranian (long heads and female skeletons by brachicranian. The face is mesene, the eye sockets are mesoconch or hypsiconch and the nose leptorin or mesorine. The skeletons discovered belong to the Mediterranean – Dynaric type, but several elements of the Nordoid, Alpine and East-Europoid types were evidenced, as well.

  11. Frequency and duration of historical droughts from the 16th to the 19th centuries in the Mexican Maya lands, Yucatan Peninsula

    Mendoza, B.; Velasco, V.; Jauregui, E.; Diaz-Sandoval, R. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Acosta, V. [Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia Social, Juarez 87, 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    Using unprecedented catalogues of past severe drought data for the Yucatan Peninsula between 1502 and 1900 coming from historical written documentation, we identified five conspicuous time lapses with no droughts between 1577-1647, 1662-1724, 1728-1764, 1774-1799 and 1855-1880, as well as time epochs with most frequent droughts between 1800 and 1850. Moreover, the most prominent periodicity of the historical drought time series was that of 40 years. Using the Palmer Drought Severity Index for the Yucatan Peninsula for the period 1921-1987 we found prominent negative phases between 1942-1946 and 1949-1952, 1923-1924, 1928-1929, 1935-1936, 1962-1963, 1971-1972 and 1986-1987. Two prominent periodicities clearly appear at 5 and 10 years. Most modern and historical severe droughts lasted 1 year, and share a quasi-decadal frequency. Also, in the first 66 years of the twentieth century the frequency of occurrence of severe drought has been lower compared with the nineteenth century. Some of the major effects and impacts of the most severe droughts in the Yucatan region are examined. We also studied the relation between historical and modern droughts and several large scale climate phenomena represented by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Our results indicate that historical droughts and the cold phase of the AMO coincide, while the influence of the SOI is less clear. The strongest coherence between historical droughts and AMO occurred at periodicities of 40 years. For modern droughts the coherence of a drought indicator (the Palmer Drought Severity Index) is similar with AMO and SOI, although it seems more sustained with the AMO. They are strongest at 10 years and very clearly with the AMO cold phase. Concerning the solar activity proxies and historical droughts, the coherence with a record of beryllium isotope Be10, which is a good proxy of cosmic rays, is higher than with Total Solar Irradiance. We notice that the

  12. Crisis and reform of religious life between 14th and 16th centuries and its impact on the Dominican monastery in Łęczyca

    Tomasz Stolarczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although to a lesser degree, the 14th century crisis of religious life also embraced Mendicant Orders, including the Order of Preachers. Dominican brothers were obliged to respect the principles written down in the rule of St Augustine as well as in the constitution of the order which regulated the life of the Order as well as defined the Order’s organizational structure. Friars however, sometimes gave in to temptation and broke the rules of their communities. The convents’ style of life with characteristic disregard for the notion of religious community in the order and omnipresent individualism in every field was in conflict with the spirit and content of the rules and constitution of the Dominican, and was referred to as conventualism. The call to initiate a thorough reform of the law in the Order was given by Master General Raymond of Capua. At his command in every Dominican province within one year one monastery with at least 12 brothers was required to introduce the rule of regular observance – the renewal of relations from the period of the formation of the Order and strict adherence (observare to the Order’s rules. The basic condition of the observance was enclosure. Observant Convents were excluded from the authority of the Provincial and subjected to the power of vicars designated by the Master General. This led to the creation of separate congregations sometimes uniting reformed monasteries from different provinces and countries. In the Polish province the observant reform officially began on 30 July 1432 in the Wroclaw monastery of St. Adalbert. The success of the reform was confirmed by Chelmno Chapter in 1519 only in the orders in Glogow, Legnica, Krosno (part of Silesia province as well as in part of Mazovia province, whereas the entire division of the province of Greater Poland together with the Łęczyca monastery was subjected to special care of Andrew from Parczew. The same chapter tells Vicar General of the province

  13. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  14. INDIGENISMOS Y NIVELACION LÉXICA DEL ESPAÑOL AMERICANO EN LOS SIGLOS XVI Y XVII Indianisms and lexical leveling of the American Spanish in the 16th and 17th centuries

    Cristina Tabernero Sala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los indigenismos empleados en ocho crónicas de Indias pertenecientes a los siglos XVI y XVII. El rastreo documental de estas voces y la búsqueda de su historia lexicográfica arrojan datos cuantitativos que permiten afirmar para las primeras centurias del español en América la existencia de elementos léxicos diferenciales respecto del español peninsular. Estas voces prueban además la diferente nivelación que se produjo en el proceso de criollización por el que se configuraron las variedades del nuevo continente.This article examines the Indianisms used in eight chronicles of Indies from the 16th and 17th centuries. The quantitative data have been obtained through documentary research and lexicographical history. These data allow us to acknowledge the existence of different words in Peninsular and American Spanish during the first centuries of this language in this new continent, which prove the leveling produced in the process of criollization of American varieties.

  15. New anthropological research on the urban population inhabiting the city of Iaşi during the medieval age. The necropolis of the Banu Church (16th-19th centuries

    Vasilica-Monica Groza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors present the results of a bioanthropological research conducted upon a small osteological series (67 skeletons unearthed from the necropolis of the old Banu Church, called at the time “The Falling Asleep of the Virgin Mary” Church. According to the information provided by those in charge of the digging (Stela Cheptea, PhD and C.S.I archaeologist and her collaborators, the necropolis was used from the first half of the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century. The unearthed osteological material is mostly derived from reinhumation tombs and includes 67 skeletons or skeletal remains, of which 18 children (0-14 years: approximately 27%, three adolescents (14-20 years: approximately 4%, two adults, 40 matures (approximately 60% and four seniles. The average life span, both for the entire series (0-x years and by gender (20-x years is similar to that of the late medieval populations who inhabited the Central Moldavian Plateau. The analysis of the conformative and morphoscopic biometric features revealed typological elements which indicate a Dinaric-Mediterranean-Alpine background, with rare Nordoid or East-Europoid influences. The Alpine elements give a distinctive mark to this population group.

  16. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia, 16th to 17th Century.

    António Teixeira

    Full Text Available The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia. Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  17. 16th semi annual report

    The 16th semi-annual report 1979/2 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the second six month of 1979 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departments and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics: work performed, results obtained, plans for future work. (orig.)

  18. Cosmological ideas in the 16th century

    Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena

    Olomouc : Univerzita Palackého, 2003 - (Nejeschleba, T.), s. 83-92 [Philosophy of Giordano Bruno. Olomouc (CZ), 06.11.2000-08.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA405/00/1543; GA ČR GA405/03/0232; GA MŠk LN00A041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Kepler -Olbers' paradox * history of astronomy * history of science Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Alteraciones del paisaje ecológico araucano por la asimilación mapuche de la agroganadería hispano-mediterránea (siglos XVI y XVII Araucanian ecological landscape disturbances by the mapuche assimilation of the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming (16th and 17th centuries

    FERNANDO TORREJÓN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características biogeográficas de la América templada favorecieron la introducción y propagación de especies animales y vegetales que sustentaron al modelo agroganadero hispano-mediterráneo. Los efectos de este fenómeno generaron alteraciones ecológicas, especialmente en los territorios habitados por aborígenes carentes de actividades productivas intensivas, como fue el caso de la Araucanía. Mediante un análisis histórico documental, la presente investigación reconoció las principales características del proceso de alteración del paisaje ecológico araucano entre los siglos XVI y XVII: (i en el siglo XVI, la introducción de especies exóticas desarticuló el sistema económico mapuche, (ii tanto la relativa pristinidad de la Araucanía como el proceso bélico de los siglos XVI y XVII, favorecieron la introducción y propagación de las nuevas especies, (iii durante el siglo XVI coexistieron especies nativas e introducidas, sin embargo, durante el siglo XVII preponderaron las exóticas, y (iv este predominio habría generado la extinción local de especies animales y vegetales nativas, alterando definitivamente el paisaje ecológico araucanoThe bio-geographic characteristics of the temperate America favored the introduction and spreading of exotic plant and animal species that supported the Hispanic-Mediterranean farming model. The effects of this situation produced ecological alterations on the territories inhabited by Indians without intense productive systems; as the Araucanía case. Through a historical and documental analysis this paper reports the main characteristics of the Araucanian ecological landscape disruption process during the 16th and 17th centuries: (i during the 16th century, the introduction of exotic species dislocated the Mapuche economic system, (ii both the relative Araucanía pristine conditions and the warlike process, occurred between the 16th and 17th centuries, favored the introduction and

  20. 16th International Symposium of Robotic Research

    Corke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of papers presented at the 16th International Symposium of Robotic Research (ISRR). ISRR is the biennial meeting of the International Foundation of Robotic Research (IFRR) and its 16th edition took place in Singapore over the period 16th to 19th December 2013. The ISRR is the longest running series of robotics research meetings and dates back to the very earliest days of robotics as a research discipline. This 16th ISRR meeting was held in the 30th anniversary year of the very first meeting which took place in Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, USA) in August 1983., and represents thirty years at the forefront of ideas in robotics research. As for the previous symposia, ISRR 2013 followed up on the successful concept of a mixture of invited contributions and open submissions. 16 of the contributions were invited contributions from outstanding researchers selected by the IFRR officers and the program committee, and the other contributions were chosen among the open submissions afte...

  1. João Calvino (1509-1564 e a educação no século XVI = John Calvin (1509-1564 and education in the 16th century

    Cézar de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Além de suas contribuições no campo da fé, os teólogos da Reforma do século XVI incentivaram também a educação popular. A Reforma precisou da educação para divulgar a Palavra de Deus, ensinar o novo catecismo e formar novos pastores para suas igrejas. João Calvino (1509-1564 não fugiu à regra, pois em seu modelo de fé a educação passou a ter um papel fundamental, sem a qual não sobreviveria o Calvinismo. A partir do estudo de sua obra-prima, Instituição da Religião Cristã (Christianae Religionis Institutio de 1536, percebemos que a educação foi um elemento onipresente e implícito em toda obra de Calvino.Besides their contributions to faith, the sixteenth century Reformation theologians also encouraged popular education. The Reformation made use of education to: a divulge God’s word; b teach the new catechism; and c train ministers for the churches. This was not different with John Calvin (1509-1564. In his faith model, education had a fundamental role and without it Calvinism would not have survived. According to the study of Calvin’s masterpiece (Christianae Religionis Institutio, published in 1536, we can realize that education was an omnipresent and implicit element in Calvin’s work as a whole.

  2. Proceedings of the 16th Mustelid Colloquium

    Madsen, A. B.; Asferg, T.; Elmeros, M.;

    areas with the most competent mustelid researchers and management biologists from most parts of Europe. It is the aim of these colloquiums and the included workshop sessions to stimulate communication between the various research groups and scientists working on current or newly finished projects......Abstract The Mustelid Colloquiums are held as a scientific forum to exchange recent research, ideas and conservation strategies concerning European mustelid species. The Mustelid Colloquiums are also of a relatively informal form and offer special attention to students through discussion of problem....... These proceedings reflect the variety of presentations and discussions at the 16th Mustelid Colloquium: reports from finished research projects, preliminary results of ongoing investigations, short stories on unusual animal behaviour and presentations of upcoming studies. No presentations or abstracts have been...

  3. Dance music of the 16th-18th Centuries

    Freemanová, Michaela

    Praha: Národní galerie v Praze, 2008 - (Rousová, A.), s. 91-99 ISBN 978-80-7035-395-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : dance * festivities * music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. The Beginnings of Slavic Literacy and Cultural Awareness as Revealed on Manuscripts and Printed Materials in 16th c

    Neža Zajc

    2014-01-01

    The Beginnings of Slavic Literacy and Cultural Awareness as Revealed on Manuscripts and Printed Materials in the Period from 9th to the First Half of 16th CenturyExtended abstractOn the basis of manuscripts and printed sources the paper deals with the period between 9th and 16th century which could be determined as a period of an intensive formation and development of Slavic literacy. The theoretical framework gives a brief presentation of the activity of the saints Constantine and Methodius,...

  5. 16th Carbonyl Metabolism Meeting: from enzymology to genomics

    Maser Edmund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 16th International Meeting on the Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Carbonyl Metabolism, Castle of Ploen (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, July 10–15, 2012, covered all aspects of NAD(P-dependent oxido-reductases that are involved in the general metabolism of xenobiotic and physiological carbonyl compounds. Starting 30 years ago with enzyme purification, structure elucidation and enzyme kinetics, the Carbonyl Society members have meanwhile established internationally recognized enzyme nomenclature systems and now consider aspects of enzyme genomics and enzyme evolution along with their roles in diseases. The 16th international meeting included lectures from international speakers from all over the world.

  6. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  7. La idea de usura en la España del siglo XVI: consideración especial de los cambios, juros y asientos = The idea of usury in the Spain of the 16th century: special consideration of exchanges, juros and asientos

    José María González Ferrando

    2012-07-01

    aspecto de deuda emitida por la Real Hacienda, infundieron sospechas sobre su licitud, pero en general eran aceptados por razón del emisor y de que muchas veces su colocación había sido forzosa, como es el caso de las remesas de metales preciosos de Indias secuestradas por la Corona a los mercaderes y pagadas en juros; sin embargo su transmisión entre particulares hace surgir la sospecha de que si no se respetaba el justo precio se podía caer en usura. Sobre los asientos, las opiniones son más divergentes, pues hay doctores que los consideran como cambios extranjeros que serían lícitos si se cumpliera la condición de la distancia loci y el justo precio, en tanto que para otros son ilícitos porque en muchos casos no sólo encierran usuras sino incluso retroventas.Por último, conscientes los teólogos de que una interpretación demasiado estricta de la ilicitud del concepto de usura=interés podía dificultar el desarrollo económico, llegaron a aceptar en ocasiones que lo que era considerado lícito por un gran número de honrados cristianos no podía ser reprobado y con ello dañar a todo el mundo.The concept of usury, coincident in practice with the current meaning of money interest, hardly it has changed with the passage of time until the 18th century, when to be replaced by the new name of interest, became to be regarded only as interest excessive or abusive; but from the outset its application to commercial and financial operations in the Western world was generally rejected by the ecclesiastical authorities, certain that with some hesitation derived from a gradual admission of the lucrum cessans, while civilian authorities tended to be more permissive, but impose limits on the rates of usury=interest.In order to get to know the idea that it was about the usury in the Spain of the 16th century, review is passed on: the criterion of contemporary authors of works of arithmetic which deal with commercial calculation; resolution of inquiries made by the

  8. 16th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    2016-01-01

    Topical conference on Strangeness and Heavy Flavor production in Heavy-Ion Collisions The conference will focus on new experimental and theoretical developments on the role of strange and heavy-flavour quarks in proton-proton and in heavy-ion collisions, and in astrophysical phenomena. New results are expected, from the LHC, from RHIC and from other experimental programs. The 16th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter, follows the recent events of 2015 in Dubna, 2013 in Birmingham, and 2011 in Cracow.

  9. Cinema and the Crossing of Frontiers, 16th SERCIA Conference

    Assouly, Julie; Kac-Vergne, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The SERCIA (Société d’Etudes et de Recherche sur le Cinéma Anglophone), founded in 1993 to gather researchers of English-speaking film and to promote their work, held its 16th conference in September 2011 at the University of Bath. The conference was organized by Wendy Everett, Reader in French and Film at the University of Bath, Nina Parish, Lecturer in Contemporary French Studies at the University of Bath, Peter Wagstaff, Senior Lecturer in French at the University of Bath, and Melvyn Stoke...

  10. 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization

    Korytowski, Adam; Maurer, Helmut; Szymkat, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This book contains extended, in-depth presentations of the plenary talks from the 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization, held in Kraków, Poland in 2013. Each chapter in this book exhibits a comprehensive look at new theoretical and/or application-oriented results in mathematical modeling, optimization, and optimal control. Students and researchers involved in image processing, partial differential inclusions, shape optimization, or optimal control theory and its applications to medical and rehabilitation technology, will find this book valuable. The first chapter by Martin Burger provides an overview of recent developments related to Bregman distances, which is an important tool in inverse problems and image processing. The chapter by Piotr Kalita studies the operator version of a first order in time partial differential inclusion and its time discretization. In the chapter by Günter Leugering, Jan Sokołowski and Antoni Żochowski, nonsmooth shape optimization problems for variational inequa...

  11. La culture juridique des hommes d’Église en Anjou et dans le Maine (XIVe – début XVIe siècles - The Legal Culture of the Clergy in Anjou and Maine (from the 14th to the Early 16th Centuries

    MATZ, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with the legal culture of the clergymen in the late Middle Ages, this study aims to comprehend the coincidence between the spread of a particular type of intellectual training and the consciousness that a social group could have to build its own identity. Three topics are successively discussed. The first part considers the legal studies, especially at the University of Angers where law schools were organized from the 13th century. The second section focuses on the careers of the clergy (university teaching, service of Church and States. The last part is devoted to the study of the private and institutional libraries (abbeys and cathedrals.

  12. EDITORIAL: 16th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2005)

    Enoksson, Professor Peter

    2006-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 16th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2005), which was held in Göteborg, Sweden, at the Chalmers Conference Centre on the premises of Chalmers University of Technology, 4-6 September 2005. Göteborg is the second largest city in Sweden and is situated on the beautiful south-west coast. With its relaxed and friendly atmosphere Göteborg proudly lives up to its reputation of having the charm of a small town with all the opportunities of a big city. The MME workshop is a well recognized and established European event for creating microsensors and microactuators in the field of micromachining, microengineering and technology. The very first workshop was held at Twente University, The Netherlands, in 1989. Scientists and people from industry who are interested in the field gather annually for this event. The goals are stimulation and improvement of know-how in the field, as well as establishing cooperation and friendship between delegates. Thus MME is arranged so that people can meet in a friendly and informal atmosphere. That is why the accent is on mutual discussions around poster presentations rather than on formal oral presentations. The contributions, which came from 21 countries, were presented in four sessions and five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 24 high-quality papers from MME 2005 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. Each paper passed a rigorous peer review process. May I take this opportunity to thank those authors who contributed their research to this special issue, which I hope gives an excellent overview of topics discussed at the workshop. I would also like to express my gratitude to Professor Robert Puers for advising on the selection of papers and to Dr Anke Sanz-Velasco for helping to coordinate the special issue with the Institute of Physics Publishing office at the start. I hope you

  13. João Calvino (1509-1564 e a educação no século XVI - DOI: 10.4025/actascihumansoc.v28i2.151 John Calvin (1509-1564 and education in the 16th century

    Paulo Henrique Vieira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Além de suas contribuições no campo da fé, os teólogos da Reforma do século XVI incentivaram também a educação popular. A Reforma precisou da educação para divulgar a Palavra de Deus, ensinar o novo catecismo e formar novos pastores para suas igrejas. João Calvino (1509-1564 não fugiu à regra, pois em seu modelo de fé a educação passou a ter um papel fundamental, sem a qual não sobreviveria o Calvinismo. A partir do estudo de sua obra-prima, Instituição da Religião Cristã (Christianae Religionis Institutio de 1536, percebemos que a educação foi um elemento onipresente e implícito em toda obra de Calvino.Besides their contributions to faith, the sixteenth century Reformation theologians also encouraged popular education. The Reformation made use of education to: a divulge God’s word; b teach the new catechism; and c train ministers for the churches. This was not different with John Calvin (1509-1564. In his faith model, education had a fundamental role and without it Calvinism would not have survived. According to the study of Calvin’s masterpiece (Christianae Religionis Institutio, published in 1536, we can realize that education was an omnipresent and implicit element in Calvin’s work as a whole.

  14. 16 yy Çağatay Edebıyatında Yesevilik Geleneği (Şeybânî ve Ubeydî Örneği Tradition Of Yassawism In 16th Century Uzbek Literature (Examples Of Shaybani And Ubaydi

    Nadirhan HASAN (Nodirkhon Khasanov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As is known, for centuries, the Turkish world Hodja Ahmad Yassawi important person leaves a mark on a deep spiritual life. The expansion of Islam in Central Asia, the establishment of the Turkish Sufi sect and thought leadership in initiating the tradition of Sufi Wisdom of Turkish poetry, culture, art and literature, which occupies a great figure in history. Although the intervening centuries past are still revered his blessed name, are visiting the tomb of its services are introduced, read the works. Current speed in the later periods as well as the death of the ideas and opinions of Hodja Ahmad Yassawi has been in great demand. In fact, many mystic writers Hodja Ahmad Yassawi life on the one hand, ideas, opinions, and written works on followers took, the second largest on the one hand the members of the Pir's wisdom sofas Yassawi by typing in "Diwan-i Hikmat" to devise a name, add it to the works of various magazines. Thus, maintains the vitality of moral values left by the Pir-i Turkestan.Area while the Shah dynasty of Turkestan Shaybanid 16 unique tufa rock formations, and the poet repeatedly ruled Shaybanî Khan and rode Ubaydullah Khan. They are competitors, such as the Timurid sultan of culture, art, history, literature and music, giving value, assemblies held in the palace of poetry. This period, the most important aspect of the process of literary writing to encourage Shaybanî Turkish rulers, and especially Ahmad Yassawi was recreating the tradition of Wisdom. In this paper, Shaybanî Khan and Ahmad Yassawi Ubaydullah Khan some thoughts about the wisdom of supply we would like to be affected. Bilindiği üzere Hoca Ahmed Yesevî asırlardır Türk dünyasının manevi hayatında derin iz bırakan önemli simadır. Orta Asya’da İslamiyetin yayılması, ilk Türk Tasavvuf tarikatının kurulması ve Tasavvufî Türk şiirindeki Hikmet geleneğinin başlatılmasındaki öncülüğüyle düşünce, kültür, sanat ve edebiyat

  15. The Beginnings of Slavic Literacy and Cultural Awareness as Revealed on Manuscripts and Printed Materials in 16th c

    Neža Zajc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beginnings of Slavic Literacy and Cultural Awareness as Revealed on Manuscripts and Printed Materials in the Period from 9th to the First Half of 16th CenturyExtended abstractOn the basis of manuscripts and printed sources the paper deals with the period between 9th and 16th century which could be determined as a period of an intensive formation and development of Slavic literacy. The theoretical framework gives a brief presentation of the activity of the saints Constantine and Methodius, who systematically introduced a new liturgical language in Pannonia and Great Moravia in 9th century thus establishing a new Christian language as the fourth of the world's languages. The paper highlights the liturgical conception of Cyrillo-Methodian activity which was not very different from the long-established practice in the Byzantine Church, with special emphasis on the liturgical conception of the first holy texts translated into the Slavic liturgical language. Furthermore, the paper gives a brief overview of the Slavic and Byzantine manuscript writing. As the geographical-historical territory dealt with includes the territory of the present Slovenia, some attention is given to the question of the existence of the Old Church Slavic language even before the Cyrillo-Methodian mission, too. Parallels between Brižinski spomeniki and the beginnings of the Old Church Slavic literacy are presented with connection to the Jernej Kopitar’s research and contribution to the development of scientific Slavic studies in the first half of 19th century. A typological overview of some Old Church Slavic documents (Glagolitic and Cyrillic is given not focusing only on linguistic characteristics but trying to present the artistic design and other special features related to the historico-political circumstances of an individual codex. In addition, the theoretical background is underlined by the results of researching Slavic manuscripts in situ. Studying some

  16. Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual Alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain

    Tausiet, María

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main obsessions of the Early Modern Era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and the unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of re ligion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Engracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making «silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins».

    Una de las principales obsesiones de la Edad Moderna consistió en determinar las nociones de verdadero y falso para aplicarlas a los distintos campos del saber y, de ese modo, fundamentar la separación entre lo lícito y lo prohibido. Dicha tendencia iba a afectar especialmente a los terrenos de la religión y la ciencia, haciéndose necesario distinguir no sólo verdaderos y falsos espíritus, reliquias o milagros, sino también verdaderos y falsos astrólogos y alquimistas. Situada a caballo entre el idealismo y el materialismo, la alquimia ejemplificaba especialmente dichas tensiones, como se comprobará a través del proceso incoado en 1593 contra un fraile del monasterio jerónimo de Santa Engracia de Zaragoza, a quien su prior acusó de fabricar «plata de humo y joyas de trasgos».

  17. Denominational alternatives to the development of standard Czech in the 16th century

    Vykypělová, Taťána

    Vol. 13. München : Otto Sagner, 2010 - (Fischer, K.; Krumbholz, G.; Lazar, M.; Rabiega-Wiśniewska, J.), s. 272-275 ISBN 978-3-86688-084-9. - (Die Welt der Slaven. Sammelbände/Sborniki. 40). [Polyslav /13./. Hamburg (DE), 25.09.2009-27.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA405/09/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : Czech studies * history of standard language Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  18. The Effects of the 16th Century Price Revolution and the Ottoman-Iran

    Afsin Sahin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the two basic issues affected the Ottoman silk industry. The first one is the global Price Revolution; the second is the wars between Ottoman and Iran. The silk industry in Bursa which was the most important silk center of Ottoman had been affected negatively from these events. The non-tariff barriers had been created by the Iran wars also weakened the relations borne from the silk trade among these two countries. The diminished trade volume decreased the tax revenues; consequently both countries had been affected unfavorably.

  19. Ports and maritime activities of Orissa (16th to 19th centuries)

    Tripati, S.

    and diaries of European travellers, contemporary Indian accounts and exploration reports. The paper also highlights description of ports and their contact with European countries, trade in goods and economic condition of Orissa (India)....

  20. The influence of new world species on the botany of the 16th century

    Ubrizsy Savoia, Andrea

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about how some New World species, not as widespread as tomato, tobacco, etc. were introduced in the botanical European knowledge, with special reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. His herbal, his inconographic collections and manuscripts containing lists of seeds, woods and other matrials, are conserved in his Museum and grown in the Botanical Garden of Bologna.

    El presente trabajo analiza cómo algunas especies botánicas del Nuevo mundo, no tan difundidas como el tomate, el tabaco, etc., formaron parte del conocimiento botánico europeo, haciendo especial referencia a la de obra de Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605. Su herbario, sus colecciones iconográficas y manuscritos que contienen listas de semillas, maderas y otros materiales, se conservan en su Museo y algunas de las especies crecen en el Jardín Botánico de Bolonia.

  1. The influence of new world species on the botany of the 16th century

    Ubrizsy Savoia, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    This paper is about how some New World species, not as widespread as tomato, tobacco, etc. were introduced in the botanical European knowledge, with special reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605). His herbal, his inconographic collections and manuscripts containing lists of seeds, woods and other matrials, are conserved in his Museum and grown in the Botanical Garden of Bologna.

    El presente trabajo analiza cómo algunas especies botánicas del Nuevo mundo, no tan difundid...

  2. [Development of European medicine to the time of Vesalius (16th century)].

    Smrcka, V; Nádvorník, P

    1999-01-25

    Mythical Greece, Egyptian Alexandria and ancient Rome were the cradle of ancient medicine where the beginnings of anatomy and physiology were combined with nature philosophy of great personalities such as Hippocrates and Galen. A modern contribution i.e. medical chemistry, to European medicine was made by Arab physicians Rhazes and Avicena. Only when clerical dogmatism was overcome, after the discovery of the New world and the development of universities the road to scientific progress ws opened on which started the great surgeon and physician Andreas Vesalius. PMID:10376393

  3. 16thCentury Bohemian Old Prints in the Tschammer Library in Cieszyn

    Šícha, Vojtěch

    Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2014 - (Kiedroń, S.; Rimm, A.), s. 111-124 ISBN 978-83-229-3473-9. [Seminar "Early Modern Print Culture in Central Europe". Wrocław (PL), 20130816] Institutional support: RVO:67985971 Keywords : book culture * Bibliography of Foreign-Language Printed Bohemica 1501–1599 * bohemical prints * old prints * church libraries * Central Europe * Poland * Cieszyn Subject RIV: AB - History

  4. Share and Strife - The Strait of Melaka and the Portuguese (16th and 17th centuries)

    Pinto, Paulo Jorge de Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The Strait of Melaka is the longest strait in the world, stretching for about 800 km from the northern tip of Sumatra to Singapore. It exhibits a dual character like no other, being simultaneously a privileged linking passage of two seas and two knots of human civilization – India and China – and a »bottleneck« that constrains the maritime connections between them. Today, the latter aspect is globally dominant. The strait is considered and analysed mostly as an obstacle rath...

  5. Ottoman Hunting Organization of Silistra Sanjak in The 16th Century

    Mustafa ALKAN; GÖKBUĞA, Ferdi

    2015-01-01

    While hunting in traditional societies, was most commonly practised as a profession, for food, sports or entertainment, it was fully a part of Ottoman State organization as a military exercise or war game. From the first Ottoman rulers, there has been hunting institution in the palace. An organized hunting institution, regular hunting practices and the number of hunted animals had been perceived as the symbols of power of the ruler. Hunting organization was instrumental in identif...

  6. Understanding the 16th century coastal watchtowers: Material characterisation of Torre Gregoriana (Italy)

    Cacciotti, Riccardo; Petráňová, Veronika; Frankeová, Dita

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 93, September (2015), s. 608-619. ISSN 0950-0618 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : coastal watchtower * military engineering * historic mortar * material analysis * glass powder Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.296, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061815006947

  7. [Equivocal quintessence. Spiritual alchemy and counterfeit money in 16th-century Spain].

    Tausiet, María

    2011-01-01

    One of the main obsessions of the early modern era was that of determining the notions of true and false, in order to apply them to various fields of knowledge and thus establish the divide between the lawful and unlawful. This trend was to have a particular impact on the fields of religion and science, where it became necessary to distinguish not only between true and false spirits, relics or miracles, but also between genuine and fake astrologers and alchemists. Situated in the middle ground between idealism and materialism, alchemy was prime territory for such tensions, as was demonstrated by a trial held in 1593 at the Jeronymite monastery of Santa Enracia in Saragossa, whose prior accused a friar of making "silver out of smoke and jewels from goblins". PMID:22368801

  8. Brazilian landscape perception through literary sources (16th-18th centuries)

    Rodrigues, Ana Duarte

    2015-01-01

    This study is focused on the visual perceptions of Brazilian landscapes since Pêro Vaz de Caminha first described it until 1800, based on some texts and manuscripts held at the National Library of Portugal. A comparative methodology was used: descriptions of natural and cultivated landscapes found in these texts were compared with the descriptions of some of the most famous and studied texts and with iconographic sources of the same period. The different travellers evaluated and described the...

  9. Four trepanned skull from 5th and 16th century in Spain. Surgery or ritual?

    Campillo, Domènec; Safont, Santiago; Malagosa, Assumpció; Puchalt, Francisco José

    1999-01-01

    We have reviewed therapeutic cranial surgery from these epochs, evaluating the anatomical and physiological knowledge and the indications that made this therapy advisable and we have not found any reasons to include them in those criteria. We have compared them with the prehistoric trepanations practised in prehistoric populations and with those currently performed in existing primitive cultures. We followed the evolution of the «scientific trepanation» in historical populations until de appa...

  10. New insight on the underdrawing of 16th Flemish-Portuguese easel paintings by combined surface analysis and microanalytical techniques.

    Valadas, S; Freire, R; Cardoso, A; Mirão, J; Vandenabeele, P; Caetano, J O; Candeias, A

    2016-06-01

    This paper focusses on the study of the underdrawings of 16th century easel paintings attributed to the workshop of the Portuguese-Flemish Master Frei Carlos. This investigation encompasses multidisciplinary research that relates the results of surface exams (infrared reflectography, standard light photography and infrared photography) with analytical investigations. The surface analysis of Frei Carlos' underdrawings by infrared reflectography has shown heterogeneous work, revealing two different situations: (1) an abundant and expressive underdrawing, revealing a Flemish influence and (2) a simple and outlined underdrawing. This preliminary research raised an important question related to this Portuguese-Flemish workshop and to the analytical approach: Is the underdrawing's heterogeneity, as observed in the reflectograms, related to different artists or is this rather an effect that is produced due to the use of different materials in the underdrawing's execution? Consequently, if different materials were used, how can we have access to the hidden underdrawings? In order to understand the reasons for this dissemblance, chemical analysis of micro-samples collected in underdrawing areas and representing both situations were carried out by optical microscopy, micro Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-Raman). Taking into account the different possibilities and practical and theoretical limitations of surface and punctual examinations in the study of easel painting underdrawings, the methodology of research was adjusted, sometimes resulting in a re-analysis of experimental results. This research shows the importance of combining multispectral surface exams and chemical analysis in the understanding of the artistic creative processes of 16th century easel paintings. PMID:27031057

  11. Organization of the 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop by Stanford University

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hogan, Mark [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Essentially all we know today and will learn in the future about the fundamental nature of matter is derived from probing it with directed beams of particles such as electrons, protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and photons. The resulting ability to “see” the building blocks of matter has had an immense impact on society and our standard of living. Over the last century, particle accelerators have changed the way we look at nature and the universe we live in and have become an integral part of the Nation’s technical infrastructure. Today, particle accelerators are essential tools of modern science and technology. The cost and capabilities of accelerators would be greatly enhanced by breakthroughs in acceleration methods and technology. For the last 32 years, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) Workshop has acted as the focal point for discussion and development of the most promising acceleration physics and technology. It is a particularly effective forum where the discussion is leveraged and promoted by the unique and demanding feature of the AAC Workshop: the working group structure, in which participants are asked to consider their contributions in terms of even larger problems to be solved. The 16th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC2014) Workshop was organized by Stanford University from July 13 - 18, 2014 at the Dolce Hays Mansion in San Jose, California. The conference had a record 282 attendees including 62 students. Attendees came from 11 countries representing 66 different institutions. The workshop format consisted of plenary sessions in the morning with topical leaders from around the world presenting the latest breakthroughs to the entire workshop. In the late morning and afternoons attendees broke out into eight different working groups for more detailed presentations and discussions that were summarized on the final day of the workshop. In addition, there were student tutorial presentations on two afternoons to provide in depth education and

  12. Franciscan missions to China and the Czech Crown lands (from the 16th century to the 18th century)

    Liščák, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2014), s. 529-541. ISSN 0044-8699 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Catholic missionaries * Franciscan missions * the Czech Crown lands * Bohemian Franciscan Province * China Subject RIV: AB - History

  13. Workshop on Small-Scale Fisheries. Kavala, Greece 12th -16th September 2005

    2005-01-01

    The workshop on Small-Scale Fisheries took place in Kavala, Greece, from the 12th until the 16th of September 2005. Representatives of 12 countries attended the meeting. Priory to the workshop a discussion was held on “Fleet based approach for the Mediterranean Small Scale Fisheries according to the conclusions of the last Mediterranean coordination meeting in Athens”.

  14. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Centruy Alghero, Sardinia

    2013-10-28

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ historical Review, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th -Centruy Alghero, Sardinia.  Created: 10/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/30/2013.

  15. "Treatises on Earthquakes" in late Renaissance (16th-17th cent), at the roots of historical seismology

    Albini, P.

    2009-04-01

    It was soon after the damaging November 1570 earthquake at Ferrara, Northern Italy, that the academic Stefano Breventano from Pavia, a small town in Northern Italy as well, started to compose his "Treatise on the earthquake". Completed by September 1576, this 250-page manuscript was to remain unpublished for centuries. The critical edition recently appeared (Albini, 2007) was a due tribute to the remarkable amount of information put together by Breventano, an otherwise "obscure" literate who, before getting involved with earthquakes, had published a history of the antiquities and remarkable events at his hometown Pavia (1570). Indeed, he was not the first Renaissance author to pursue the goal of checking into the historical sources of the previous centuries in search of earthquakes and other natural phenomena. What is outstanding in his "Treatise" is that he suceeded in retrieving information on more than two hundred earthquakes, along two thousand years, between 504 B.C. and 1575 A.D., covering the whole Euro-Mediterranean region, and the West Indies in early 16th century. Breventano's essay is here presented, together with a comparison between his style and amount of information with those included in the work by the contemporary British author Stephen Batman, "The Doome warning all men to the Judgement" (1581). A later treatise is presented also, the work by Marcello Bonito (1690) "Terra Tremante [Trembling Earth]", which could easily be defined as a worldwide list of earthquakes. In structure and content, Bonito's work goes along the same lines of Breventano, and could be considered a precursor of today descriptive catalogues, because of his outstandingly modern approach that paved the way to modern historical seismology.

  16. Proceedings of the 16th Young Geomorphologists Day (Nantes, 29-30 January 2015)

    Decaulne, Armelle; Mercier, Denis

    2016-01-01

    On January 29-30 2015 the 16th Youth Geomorphologists Day (JJG 2015) took place in the premises of the Institute of Geography and Regional Planning at the University of Nantes. Organized by the laboratory LETG-CNRS UMR 6554 Nantes-Géolittomer on behalf of the French Group of Geomorphology, the event gathered 55 participants and presented 24 oral communications and three posters. The first day was devoted to scientific presentations on key themes of the discipline: hydrological dynamics, paleo...

  17. Laparotomic Myomectomy in the 16th Week of Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Lavinia Domenici; Violante Di Donato; Maria Luisa Gasparri; Francesca Lecce; Jlenia Caccetta; Pierluigi Benedetti Panici

    2014-01-01

    Myomectomy is rarely performed during an ongoing pregnancy because of fear of miscarriage and the risk of an uncontrolled haemorrhage necessitating a hysterectomy. In cases where myomectomy is undertaken, most are performed at the time of cesarean section or with a laparoscopic approach. We report a case of a successful laparotomic myomectomy in the 16th week of pregnancy. A 35-year-old primigravida was admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain and hydronephrosis (serum creatinine ...

  18. 16 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEPENDABILITY AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT ICDQM-2013 (PROCCEDINGS REVIEW)

    ПОКОРНИ СЛАВКО Й.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the basic information about overal results, significance, international programme committee and working areas of the 16 th International Conference on Dependability and Quality Management ICDQM-2013 and 4 th International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering and Management, held under the same acronym ICDQM-2013. This year conference has had the biggest number of papers so far. The number and structure of papers of both conferences are given, as well as a review of the pa...

  19. 16th edition IEE wiring regulations design and verification of electrical installations

    Scaddan, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This book builds on the basic knowledge and techniques covered in 16th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, providing the information and revision materials needed for the City & Guilds 2400 (Design, Erection and Verification ofElectrical Installations) exam. All Qualifying Managers will be required to gain this qualification, and Brian Scaddan's book is the ideal text for all students undertaking C&G 2400 courses.

  20. The 16th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16)

    Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hagelstein, M.; Rothe, J.

    2016-05-01

    This preface of the proceedings volume of the 16th International Conference on X- ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) gives a glance on the five days of cutting-edge X-ray science which were held in Karlsruhe, Germany, August 23 - 28, 2015. In addition, several satellite meetings took place in Hamburg, Berlin and Stuttgart, a Sino-German workshop, three data analysis tutorials as well as special symposia on industrial catalysis and XFELs were held at the conference venue.

  1. Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming

    Danvy, Olivier

    research papers, 8 functional pearls, and 12 experience reports. The Program Committee selected 33 research papers (1/3), 2 functional pearls (1/4), and 3 experience reports (1/4). Out of the 112 submissions, 8 were "forces majeures" (acts of God) related to the earthquake in Japan. Among those, 4 were......Welcome to the 16th ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming -- ICFP'11. The picture, on the front cover, is of Mount Fuji, seen from the 20th floor of the National Institute of Informatics (NII). It was taken by Sebastian Fischer in January 2011. In Japanese, the characters...

  2. Dominação, resistencia e autonomia no extremo sul do Vice-reinado do Peru (Séculos XVI e XVII - 10.4025/dialogos.v13i2.410 Dominación, resistencia y autonomía en el extremo sur del Virreinato del Perú (siglos XVI y XVII Domination, resistance and autonomy in the far southern Viceroyalty of Peru (16th and 17th centuries - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i2.410

    Beatriz Bixio

    2010-08-01

    dealing with their respective positions within the system. With that objective, the practices of indigenous resistance are analyzed, as well as the changes in them between the late 16th and late 17th centuries. Special attention is given to micro-actions or “weakness tactics”, understood as small operations undertaken from the place of the other and scarcely planned. These tactics were not articulated nor were inserted in a global resistance project, but were nevertheless able to shake the pillars of power.

  3. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions

  4. Laparotomic myomectomy in the 16th week of pregnancy: a case report.

    Domenici, Lavinia; Di Donato, Violante; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Lecce, Francesca; Caccetta, Jlenia; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti

    2014-01-01

    Myomectomy is rarely performed during an ongoing pregnancy because of fear of miscarriage and the risk of an uncontrolled haemorrhage necessitating a hysterectomy. In cases where myomectomy is undertaken, most are performed at the time of cesarean section or with a laparoscopic approach. We report a case of a successful laparotomic myomectomy in the 16th week of pregnancy. A 35-year-old primigravida was admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain and hydronephrosis (serum creatinine 1.6 mg/dL). Imaging revealed a large implant myoma compressing the bladder, ureters, rectus, and gestational chamber and causing hydronephrosis. Laparotomic myomectomy was successfully performed and pregnancy continued uneventfully until the 38th week when a cesarean section was performed. Surgical management of myomas during pregnancy is worth evaluating in well-selected and highly symptomatic cases. PMID:24716028

  5. 16th international conference on dependability and quality management ICDQM-2013 (proccedings review

    Slavko J. Pokorni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic information about overal results, significance, international programme committee and working areas of the 16th International Conference on Dependability and Quality Management ICDQM-2013 and 4th International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering and Management, held under the same acronym ICDQM-2013. This year conference has had the biggest number of papers so far. The number and structure of papers of both conferences are given, as well as a review of the papers presented only by the participants from the Armed forces and the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Serbia as plenary lectures and in Sections: Quality Engineering, Reliability Engineering, Concurrent Engineering, Systems Engineering and Military Engineering.

  6. Laparotomic Myomectomy in the 16th Week of Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Lavinia Domenici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myomectomy is rarely performed during an ongoing pregnancy because of fear of miscarriage and the risk of an uncontrolled haemorrhage necessitating a hysterectomy. In cases where myomectomy is undertaken, most are performed at the time of cesarean section or with a laparoscopic approach. We report a case of a successful laparotomic myomectomy in the 16th week of pregnancy. A 35-year-old primigravida was admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain and hydronephrosis (serum creatinine 1.6 mg/dL. Imaging revealed a large implant myoma compressing the bladder, ureters, rectus, and gestational chamber and causing hydronephrosis. Laparotomic myomectomy was successfully performed and pregnancy continued uneventfully until the 38th week when a cesarean section was performed. Surgical management of myomas during pregnancy is worth evaluating in well-selected and highly symptomatic cases.

  7. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    Vandkilde, Helle

    2014-01-01

    ) and in the northern zone (rock). In a Carpathian crossroad between the Eurasian Steppes, the Aegean world and temperate Europe during this time, a transcultural assemblage coalesced, fusing both tangible and intangible innovations from various different places. Superior warriorhood was coupled to beliefs...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  8. The Legislatio in the Spanish Progymnasmata of 16th Century: from the School Exercise to the Literary Text

    María Violeta Pérez Custodio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This piece of work aims to study in depth the reception of the rhetorical exercise known in Latin as legislatio (confirmation or refutation of a law in Renaissance Spain. The first part of this paper focuses on the difficulties of com- 138 Pérez / La legislatio en los progymnasmata españoles del siglo xvi prehension and interpretation faced by humanists who updated this effective training method. For those scholars the main obstacle in the exegetical process was to find out the structure underlying the model provided by Aphthonius (the refutation of the law punishing adultery with death, as they could easily identify in it a series of contradictiones and solutiones, but not the argumentative topics recommended by the Greek rhetorician. The second part of this paper studies how the theoretical precepts about the legislatio were implemented to generate two different kinds of new texts: school compositions (models intentionally written to furnish progymnasmata handbooks with developed examples which could help students to know how to go from theory to practice and literary texts (a speech by Palmireno and a text about political philosophy by Juan de Mariana. At the end it is concluded that the use of some specific argumentative strategies in literary texts can be explained not as a result of the writer’s inspiration, but as a result of mastering the ancient rhetorical technique to develop the legislatio.

  9. History of the settlement of the Sand Ridges of Kiskunság between the 13th–16th century

    Szabolcs Rosta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract of PhD thesis submitted in 2015 to the Archaeology Doctoral Programme, Doctoral School of History, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest under the supervision of József Laszlovszky.

  10. Ground surface temperature history in Poland in the 16th-20th centuries derived from the inversion of geothermal profiles

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Przybylak, R.; Wójcik, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2004), s. 351-363. ISSN 0033-4553 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Grant ostatní: Scientific Research Committee(PL) 6 P04E 022 16; UNESCO(XX) IGCP No.428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : ground warming history * climatic change * heat flow Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2004

  11. Hebrew typography at non-Jewish Bohemian printing houses during the 16th and 17th centuries

    Veselá, Lenka

    Praha : Academia, 2012 - (Sixtová, O.), s. 165-175 ISBN 978-80-200-2220-2 Institutional support: RVO:67985971 Keywords : Hebrew printing * Bohemia * Moravia Subject RIV: AB - History http://aleph.nkp.cz/F/?func=direct&doc_number=002429538&local_base=NKC

  12. Nassau on horseback: Meaning, form and function of Nassau equestrian imagery in the Netherlands since the 16th century

    Kempers, B.; Rijkens, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    For more than two thousand years authorative men have been portrayed on horseback by way of marble or bronze statues, on coins or medallions, in tapestries and paintings, in print, and recently in film and on television. Much has been written about these objects, though generally the focus has been on their aesthetic qualities, and much less on their meaning and function. Yet it is their function, and particularly of Nassau imagery, that is the central issue of this dissertation. The House of...

  13. Ice lubrication for moving heavy stones to the Forbidden City in 15th- and 16th-century China

    Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    In the history of mechanical engineering, it is commonly believed that transporting huge stones with sliding sledges hauled by men did not occur in ancient China, because there were well-developed wheeled vehicles in China around 1500 B.C. However, some books contain brief remarks that the Large Stone Carving in the Forbidden City in Beijing was pulled to the site with a sledge sliding on an artificial ice path. Here we investigate the Chinese case based on historical documents and modern exp...

  14. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  15. 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities (NUFACT 2014) that was held at the University of Glasgow (Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom) from 25-30 August 2014. This edition of the NUFACT annual meetings, which started in 1999, consisted of 24 plenary and 92 parallel talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 124 delegates. Furthermore, the International Neutrino Summer School 2014 was held from 10-22 August 2014 at St Andrews, Scotland, in the two weeks before NUFACT 2014. It was intended for young scientists with an interest in neutrino physics in such a way that they would be able to participate and contribute to the NUFACT workshop as well. The objectives of the NUFACT workshops are to review progress on different studies for future accelerator-based neutrino oscillation facilities, with the goal to discover the mass hierarchy of neutrinos, CP violation in the leptonic s...

  16. 16th Wildland Shrub Symposium Threats to Shrubland Ecosystem Integrity 2010 May 18-20 Logan, UT

    Monaco, Thomas A; Schupp, Eugene W; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Kitchen, Stanley G; Palacios, Patsy K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The 29 papers in this proceedings are divided into the main organized sessions of the 16th Wildland Shrub Symposium, including the plenary session to introduce the theme of threats to shrubland ecosystem integrity, impacts of energy development and reclamation on ecosystem function, invasive plant ecology. wildlife habitats: impacts and restoration opportunities, historical perspectives in shrublands, ecosystem threats due to fire in the Mojave Desert, and modeling and monitoring of...

  17. Review of physiotherapy records to characterise musculoskeletal injury in Australian soldiers in the 16th Air Defence Regiment

    Rolf Sellentin; Penny Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the types of musculoskeletal injuries, their causes and injury patterns that are sustained by Australian garrison soldiers (a permanent military post or place where troops are stationed). Rigorous physical training, manually emplacing weapon systems and daily military duties carried out by soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment reflect the types of injuries observed in this study. It defines the injury patterns for trained soldiers and addresses t...

  18. Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009

    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as

  19. PREFACE: The 16th International Conference on Positron Annihilation (ICPA-16)

    Alam, Ashraf; Coleman, Paul; Dugdale, Stephen; Roussenova, Mina

    2013-06-01

    The 16th International Conference on Positron Annihilation (ICPA-16) was held at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom during 19-24 August, 2012. This triennial conference is the foremost gathering of the Positron Annihilation Physics community and it was hosted in the UK for the first time since the series of meetings first started back in 1965. The University of Bristol, the Alma Mater of Paul Dirac, is situated at the heart of the city, and it has established a worldwide reputation in research and teaching. Many of the topics which were discussed during ICPA-16 form an integral part of the research themes in the schools of Physics, Chemistry and Engineering of this University. ICPA-16 attracted a diverse audience, both from academic and industrial institutions, with over 200 participants from 29 countries. It continued the long held tradition of showcasing novel research in the field of positron annihilation and a total of 170 papers were presented as talks and posters. The papers reported studies of metallic and semi-conducting solids, polymers and soft matter, porous materials, surfaces and interfaces, as well as advances in experimental, analytical and biomedical applications. The high quality of the presented work, coupled with the enthusiastic exchange of ideas, provided an invaluable forum, especially for younger researchers and postgraduate students. The excellence of student presentations was acknowledged by the award of prizes for the best student posters, which were received by David Billington (University of Bristol, UK), Moussa Sidibe (CEMHTI, France) and Hongxia Xu (Tohoku University, Japan). All papers published in the Conference Proceedings were reviewed by ICPA-16 participants. We are indebted to all reviewers who contributed their time and intellectual resources, allowing the refereeing and editing process to move smoothly toward the compilation of the Proceedings. Our sincere thanks and gratitude go to everyone who contributed to the

  20. 16th international conference on the physics of highly charged ions

    Fritzsche, Stephan; Stöhlker, Thomas; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2013-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 16th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2012) held at the Ruprecht-Karls University in Heidelberg, Germany, 2-7 September 2012 (figure 1). This conference has been part of a biannual conference series that was started in Stockholm in 1982 and, since then, has been organized at various places around the world, with recent venues in Belfast (UK, 2006), Tokyo (Japan, 2008) and Shanghai (China, 2010). The physics of highly charged ions (HCI) is a rapidly developing and attractive field of research with impact upon many other research disciplines. Apart from fundamental studies on the structure and dynamics of matter in extreme fields, or the search for physics beyond the standard model, detailed knowledge about the properties and behavior of HCI is crucial for other areas, from astro- and solar physics to hot plasma and fusion research to extreme ultra-violet and ion lithography, or even to medical research, to name just a few. In fusion research, for example, of whether tokamak, stellarator or confinement fusion facilities, most models and diagnostics deeply rely on the understanding of HCI and the (theoretical) prediction of accurate atomic data for these systems. In life science, moreover, ion therapy or the laser acceleration of ions and electrons may help save and improve the quality of life in the future. Many of these and further topics are addressed in these proceedings. After 30 years, the HCI conference series, and especially the meeting in Heidelberg, is appreciated much as a key forum for bringing together senior experts with students, young researchers and scientists from related disciplines who make use and give back impact upon the research with HCI. More than 250 scientists from 23 countries participated in HCI 2012 and presented the current status of the field. About one third of them were post-graduate students, showing that the field attracts many young and talented

  1. Review of physiotherapy records to characterise musculoskeletal injury in Australian soldiers in the 16th Air Defence Regiment

    Rolf Sellentin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information on the types of musculoskeletal injuries, their causes and injury patterns that are sustained by Australian garrison soldiers (a permanent military post or place where troops are stationed. Rigorous physical training, manually emplacing weapon systems and daily military duties carried out by soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment reflect the types of injuries observed in this study. It defines the injury patterns for trained soldiers and addresses those aspects of injury and mechanism of injury, forming the basis for further research targetted at injury prevention. Purpose: To identify the predominant musculoskeletal injuries sustained by soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment and to explore the relationship between the type of injury and subunit as well as the relationship between type of injury and cause. This is important so that remedial measures can be engaged in an attempt to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal injury to Australian soldiers, to maintain the regimental fighting strength and deployable status and to reduce the financial burden of rehabilitation and compensation borne by the Australian Defence Force and the Federal Government. Materials and Methods: All patients were trained serving soldiers of the 16th Air Defence Regiment and were referred by the Medical Officer for physiotherapy treatment. On conclusion of a course of treatment, a physiotherapy patient discharge summary (PM 528 was written and it is from these summaries that the demographic data for this study was extracted, which included the type of musculoskeletal injury (diagnosis, cause of that injury and the subunit that the soldier belonged to in the 16th Air Defence Regiment during the years 2008 to 2010. Tests of significance based on the chi-square test statistic were carried out at the 0.05 significance level using Minitab 16 statistical software. When the chi-square test of independence was significant, then the

  2. 16th ALMALAUREA REPORT ON ITALIAN UNIVERSITY GRADUATES’ PROFILE Opportunities and Challenges for Higher Education in Italy

    Andrea Cammelli; Giancarlo Gasperoni

    2015-01-01

    The 16th ALMALAUREA Report on Italian University Graduates’ Profile was presented at the Conference in Pollenzo-Bra – hosted by the University of Gastronomic Sciences. The data on which this Report is based refers to 64 universities (out of the 65 which are part of the consortium) which have been part of ALMALAUREA for at least one year, and almost 230 thousand graduates in 2013 – which is almost 80% of students who graduated from Italian universities. This Report devotes particular attention...

  3. 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers

    Sopori, B. L.

    2006-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

  4. Celebrating an island heritage : Malta's world acclaimed sites include its sixteenth-century capital city and the samples of a mysterious neolithic culture

    Rose, Mark

    1997-01-01

    An article describing Malta's world-acclaimed sites, which include its 16th century capital city of Valletta, the Neolithic temple of Ggantija, the Hal Saflieni Hypogeum burial complex and other Megalithic temples of Malta.

  5. Optimization of the power coupling in the MAGPIE 4-way junction using a 1/6th scale model

    A Mega-Ampere Generator for Plasma Implosion Experiments (MAGPIE) is currently under construction in the Plasma Physics group at Imperial College, London. The generator is specifically designed to carry out radiative collapse experiments in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches. In order to achieve this goal, MAGPIE must be capable of delivering in excess of 1.5MA into a 150 mH load in under 200 ns. In the final generator, four 2.4 MV Marx banks charge four 5 ohm, coaxial, 100 ns single transit, water filled pulse forming lines (PFLs). The four PFLs are connected to a single coaxial vertical transfer line via four sychronously triggered trigatron switches. The vertical transfer line has an impedence of 1.25 ohm and therefore represents a matched load to the four PFLs. At the top of the transfer line a graded insulator stack makes up the vacuum-water interface. A magnetically insulated transmission line section then feeds the load. The total energy stored in the banks is 336 kJ making MAGPIE a multi terrawatt, long pulse generator. A necessary feature of the generator is the junction of the four horizontal PFLs to the single vertical transfer line. This paper reports on work being carried out to characterize the power flow through this junction using a 1/6th size scale model

  6. Mobility - the motor of energy consumption. Swiss National Committee in the World Energy Council: Report on the 16th world energy congress in Tokyo in 1995

    Two events at the 16th World Energy Congress focussed on the subject of mobility, which is a determining factor of worldwide mineral oil consumption. The study 'Global transport sector energy demand towards 2020', written by a working group led by the Norwegian Statoil company, served as a basis for the debates. (orig.)

  7. Female body—male body: The valiant Hungarian women of Eger and Szigetvár from the 16th century in historiography, literature, and art

    Julia Papp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether the characteristics of the genders are determined by anatomical, biological, or physiological factors or influenced by society and culture (or perhaps a mixture of the two, in other words whether the masculine and feminine personality traits are inherent or they are shaped by our education and the expectations of our society, is still debated in psychology, sociology, anthropology or, for example, among the researchers of the anatomy of the male and female brains. Throughout history, the theological, philosophical, and historiographical schools had different beliefs about whether the differences or the similarities between the genders are more significant. Both sides used biblical (Old Testament texts to prove their opinion: that Eve was made from Adam’s rib is proof of the secondary role of women, however, the fact that humans (both male and female were created in the image and likeness of God means that they are inherently equal. The egalitarian philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment also denied the psychological differences between men and women, claiming that the soul has no gender.

  8. Conversions and Confessional Memory of Ruthenian Representatives of Political Elites of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th and 17th Centuries

    Liedke, Marzena

    2009-01-01

    XVI a. antroji pusė ir XVII a. pirmoji pusė – tai intensyvių religinių pokyčių laikotarpis Abiejų Tautų Respublikoje, ypatingai tada, kai kalbame apie Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės rusėnus magnatus ir bajorus. Iš pradžių kalvinizmo ir antitrinitarizmo populiarumas, sekęs kartu su Katalikų bažnyčios puolimu, buvo tikėjimo keitimo priežastis. Kartais konfesinė priklausomybė būdavo keičiama net kelis kartus per gyvenimą. LDK rusėnų pozicija tikėjimo klausimais priklausė ir nuo jų teisinės ...

  9. Late prehistoric burial structures, and a burial possibly associated with 16th century Spanish contact at Pamua, Makira, southeast Solomon Islands

    This paper provides an overview of results from surveys and excavations of a series of coral and stone-lined structures at the abandoned village site of Mwanihuki (SB-4-6), located on the island of Makira in the southeast Solomon Islands. It synthesizes data collected from 1971-75 by Green and Kaschko with new data collected by the authors in 2010-11. Preliminary results indicate the majority of the regularly sided coral structures are burial structures containing several different burial types. These are compared to ethnographically and archaeologically recorded examples of burials from adjacent regions. However, an anomalous structure may be associated with the AD 1595 visit to and possible occupation of the area by Spanish colonists associated with the failed Mendana expedition. (author)

  10. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  11. Influence of mercury ore roasting sites from 16th and 17th century on the mercury dispersion in surroundings of Idrija

    Mateja Gosar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first decade of mercury mining in Idrija the ore was roasted in piles. After that the ore was roasted for 150 years, until 1652, in earthen vessels at various sites in the woods around Idrija. Up to present 21 localities of ancient roasting sites were established.From the roasting areas Frbej‘ene trate, lying on a wide dolomitic terrace on the left side of the road from Idrija to ^ekovnik, 3 soil profiles are discussed. In all three profiles in the upper, organic matter rich soil horizon very high mercury contents (from 3 to 4,000mg/kg were found. In two profiles the contents rapidly decrease with depth, to about 10- times lower values already at 0.5 m. Below that, the mercury contents decrease slowly, to reach at the 1.3 m depth a few mg/kg metal. In the third profile the upper humic layer is followed downward by an additional humic layer containing very abundant pottery fragments. In this layer the maximum mercury contents were determined, 7.474 mg/kg Hg. The underlying loamy soil contains between 1000 and 2000 mg/kg mercury. Pšenk is one of the larger localities of roasting vessels fragments. It is located at Lačna voda brook below Hlev{e, above its confluence with the Padar ravine. The most abundant pottery remains are found in the upper western margin of the area, just below the way to Hleviše. The considered geochemical profile P{enk contains at the top a 45 cm thick humic layer with 4,000 to 5,000 mg/kg mercury. Deeper the contents fall to around 100 mg/kg mercury. The alculations result in an estimated amount of 1.4 t mercury still present at the P{enk locality, and in about 40 t of mercury on all roasting sites described up to present.The determined mercury contents in soils at old roasting sites are very high, and they surpass all hitherto described localities at Idrija and in the surroundings.

  12. Demolition of the towers at Jindřichův Hradec Castle during its Renaissance renovation in the late 16th century

    Durdík, Tomáš

    Prague : Archaia, 2012 - (Žegklitz, J.), s. 403-410 ISBN 978-80-904408-1-4. ISSN 1805-0514. - (Studies in Post-Medieval Archaeology. 4). [Forum Archaeologiae Post-Mediaevalis. Praha (CZ), 23.03.2010-24.03.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : castle * castellology * tower * Jindřichův Hradec * medieval archaeology * architecture * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Towards the Chalonge 17th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2013: highlights and conclusions of the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012

    de Vega, H. J.; Falvella, M. C.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    LWDM (Warm Dark Matter) is progressing impressively.The galactic scale crisis and decline of LCDM+baryons are staggering. The 16th Paris Chalonge Colloquium 2012 combined real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach in the LWDM Standard Model. News and reviews from ACT,WMAP,SPT,QUIET,Planck,Herschel,JWST,UFFO,KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, particle and nuclear physics WDM searches, galactic observations, related theory and simulations, with the aim of s...

  14. Gravity wave activity observed in the mesosphere and ionosphere on September 16th 2015 by an all-sky imager and dTEC maps over Brazil

    Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Gobbi, Delano; Buriti, Ricardo; Bageston, José Valentin; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Cosme Alexandre Figueiredo, M.; Takahashi, Hisao; Azambuja, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    All-sky imager was used to observe the wave activity in the mesosphere and a ground network of GPS receivers were used to make detrended Total Electron Content (dTEC) maps to monitor the ionosphere. The wave activity was observed on September 16th 2015 over the southeast region in Brazil. The gravity wave characteristics and the atmospheric conditions for wave propagation will be presented and discussed. The gravity wave source was associated with strong tropospheric convection.

  15. Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria

    Owoeye Oluwatoyosi BA

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredite...

  16. Proceedings of 16th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Energy Future in the Light of the Relations and Integration Processes in Europe

    The 16th Forum discussed the following topics: possible scenarios of development of political, economic and energy relations; technological development in the production, transmission, distribution and consumption of energy; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and scientific, technological, organisational and economic challenges; climate change and greenhouse gases emission reduction; objectives, possibilities and effects; reform of energy sector in the context of institutional, legislative, organisational, and ownership needs and changes in the EU, country members of the Energy Community, Russia and other countries; relations EU - Russia; politics, interests and possible solutions; supranational energy projects; problems and possible solutions

  17. Sixteenth to eightteenth century depictions of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.), turnip (B. rapa L. cultivar group Vegetable turnip) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in Flandres and the present-day Netherlands.

    Zeven, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Cole and neep crops are old crops in the Low Countries. The first archival records date from the 14th century. The crops have been described in herbals of the 16th and 17th century. During the 16th to 18th century they have also been depicted on paintings. In a herbal of 1554 by Dodonaeus white, red and Savoy cabbages, cauliflower and kale have been described. Except for kale these cole crops have been observed in paintings. Some red cabbages are truly red, whereas most are purplish. Some hav...

  18. Evolution of the most common English words and phrases over the centuries

    Perc, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    By determining which were the most common English words and phrases since the beginning of the 16th century, we obtain a unique large-scale view of the evolution of written text. We find that the most common words and phrases in any given year had a much shorter popularity lifespan in the 16th than they had in the 20th century. By measuring how their usage propagated across the years, we show that for the past two centuries the process has been governed by linear preferential attachment. Along with the steady growth of the English lexicon, this provides an empirical explanation for the ubiquity of the Zipf's law in language statistics and confirms that writing, although undoubtedly an expression of art and skill, is not immune to the same influences of self-organization that are known to regulate processes as diverse as the making of new friends and World Wide Web growth.

  19. Quality vaccines for all people: Report on the 16th annual general meeting of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, 05-07th October 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Khomvilai, Sumana

    2016-06-30

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) assembled high-profile leaders from global health organisations and vaccine manufactures for its 16th Annual General Meeting to work towards a common goal: providing quality vaccines for all people. Vaccines contribute to a healthy community and robust health system; the Ebola outbreak has raised awareness of the threat and damage one single infectious disease can make, and it is clear that the world was not prepared. However, more research to better understand emerging infectious agents might lead to suitable vaccines which help prevent future outbreaks. DCVMN members presented their progress in developing novel vaccines against Dengue, HPV, Chikungunya, Cholera, cell-based influenza and other vaccines, demonstrating the commitment towards eliminating and eradicating preventable diseases worldwide through global collaboration and technology transfer. The successful introduction of novel Sabin-IPV and Oral Cholera vaccine in China and Korea respectively in 2015 was highlighted. In order to achieve global immunisation, local authorities and community leaders play an important role in the decision-making in vaccine introduction and uptake, based on the ability of vaccines to protect vaccinated people and protect non-vaccinated in the community through herd immunity. Reducing the risk of vaccine shortages can also be achieved by increasing regulatory convergence at regional and international levels. Combatting preventable diseases remains challenging, and collective efforts for improving multi-centre clinical trials, creating regional vaccine security strategies, fostering developing vaccine markets and procurement, and building trust in vaccines were discussed. PMID:26947496

  20. On the Social Background for the Rise of the Novel in the 18th Century Britain

    剡科斗

    2013-01-01

    England experienced a period of transition from the 16th century to the 18th century. After a series of furious social and economic reformation and revolution, England went into a time of relative stable development. New businesses sprung up and thrived in England, literary genres found their suitable fertile soil to develop. English people had a prosperous economy and tolerat⁃ed multiculturalism. Just in this kind of environment, a new literary genre, novel suddenly emerged and became the most dazzling and noticeable treasure in the 18th century.

  1. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  2. Pre-seismic anomalous geomagnetic signature related to M8.3 earthquake occurred in Chile on September 16-th, 2015

    Armand Stanica, Dragos, ,, Dr.; Stanica, Dumitru, ,, Dr.; Vladimirescu, Nicoleta

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we retrospectively analyzed the geomagnetic data collected, via internet (www.intermagnet.com), on the interval 01 July-30 September 2015 at the observatories Easter Island (IMP) and Pilar (PIL), placed in Chile and Argentina, respectively, to emphasize a possible relationship between the pre-seismic anomalous behavior of the normalized function Bzn and M8.3 earthquake, that occurred in Offshore Coquimbo (Chile) on September 16-th, 2015. The daily mean distributions of the normalized function Bzn=Bz/Bperp (where Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to the geoelectrical strike) and its standard deviation (STDEV) are performed in the ULF frequency range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz by using the FFT band-pass filter analysis. It was demonstrated that in pre-seismic conditions the Bzn has a significant enhancement due to the crustal electrical conductivity changes, possibly associated with the earthquake-induced rupture-processes and high-pressure fluid flow through the faulting system developed inside the foci and its neighboring area. After analyzing the anomalous values of the normalized function Bzn obtained at Easter Island and Pilar observatories, the second one taken as reference, we used a statistical analysis, based on a standardized random variable equation, to identify on 1-2 September 2015 a pre-seismic signature related to the M8.3 earthquake. The lead time was 14 days before the M8.3 earthquake occurrence. The final conclusion is that the proposed geomagnetic methodology might be used to provide suitable information for the extreme earthquake hazard assessment.

  3. Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009 in Nigeria

    Owoeye Oluwatoyosi BA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009. It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4% followed by ligament sprains (22.9%. The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment

  4. Moneychanging and Urban Elites: the Rise of Antonio de Paredes and his Family in Valladolid at the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century

    Carvajal de la Vega, David

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 15th century, Valladolid went through a period of prosperity that strengthened its position as one of the most significant towns in the Crown of Castile during the 16th century. This propitious context, favouring the development of commercial and financial businesses, prompted the appearance of individuals who, alongside their families, began to increase their economic power and to reinforce their social links, leading them to occupy a position among the urban elite. The aim of...

  5. Joint conference of 17th international Toki conference on physics of flows and turbulence in plasmas and 16th international stellarator/heliotron workshop 2007. Proceedings (1)

    The Joint Conference of 16th International Stellarator/Heliotron Workshop (ISHW) and 17th International Toki Conference (ITC) was held in Toki (Japan) October 15-19 2007 and organized by the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). More than 200 experts in stellarator/heliotron research from Australia, Austria, Belgium, Germany, Japan, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Ukraine and the United States of America gathered at the conference. The International Advisory committee chaired by O. Motojima, the International Program Committee (IPC) chaired by C. Hidalgo and the Local Organizing Committee (LOC) chaired by H. Yamada have played the leading role in the elaboration of the scientific programme of the joint conference. This series of Stellarator Workshops is organized biennially in the framework of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on the Stellarator Concept. NIFS has organized the ITC as an annual meeting for fusion related sciences since its establishment in 1989. The IPC arranged 2 plenary talks, 1 review talk, 2 tutorial talks, 23 invited talks in addition to 201 contributed presentations. The driving force behind magnetically confined fusion research is the design of magnetic traps to confine high temperature plasmas of deuterium and tritium in reactor relevant conditions (i.e. to produce self-sustaining fusion reactions to release useful energy). Although next step magnetic confinement devices, such as ITER, will be based on the tokamak idea, it is not clear that a unique magnetic configuration will be the answer to the various possible applications of fusion energy and hence other magnetic confinement concepts should be explored. The stellarator is an alternative magnetic confinement concept, with the specific advantages of an intrinsically steady state magnetic field an disruption free operation. The 3D magnetic field geometry in stellarators needs an elaborate optimization to guarantee confinement properties which meet the basic

  6. Man and energy: Reality versus utopia. Swiss National Committee in the World Energy Council: Report on the 16th world energy congress in Tokyo in 1995

    The future of our environmental and energy problems will be decided next century in today's developing countries, particularly in the large agglomerations of the Third World. It is unlikely that fossil fuels will to any great degree be replaced by renewable energy sources and/or nuclear energy. The excellent efficiency of thermal power plants now achieved in the industrial countries should as fast as possible also be realised in the developing countries, and the process of electrification there should be accelerated. The greatest obstacle to a rapid worldwide spread of efficient energy systems are the political imponderabilities in many developing countries. (orig.)

  7. Einstein's Century

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  8. A 15th–16th century cannon foundry workshop in Buda. Craftsmen and technology of cannon moulding and the transformation of military technology from the Renaissance to the Post Medieval Period

    Károly Belényesy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract of PhD thesis submitted in 2014 to the Archaeology Doctoral Programme, DoctoralSchool of History, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest under the supervision of András Kubinyi and István Feld.

  9. Terrestrial and Aerial Ground-Penetrating Radar in Use for the Architectural Researches: Ancient 16TH Century Water Supply and Drainage at the Monastery of EL Escorial (madrid, Spain)

    Chias, P.; Abad, T.; Echeverria, E.

    2013-07-01

    Remote sensing techniques in Archaeology are increasingly essential components of the methodologies used in archaeological and architectural researches. They allow uncovering unique forgotten data which are unobtainable using traditional excavation techniques, mainly because their precise location is lost. These data are still important since they can help to prevent flood effects inside the ancient building cellars and basements, as it happened periodically in El Escorial. Wide ancient drainage galleries run more than one hundred feet downhill outside the building, ensuring that rainwater and springs were adequately drained. Nowadays their plans are lost, and the lack of documents related both to the ancient water supply and drainage systems become an impediment to solve the stains of damp on the stone masonry walls and vaults, and even other occasional flooding effects. In this case, nondestructive techniques were needed to find the ancient underground passages in order to preserve the integrity of the building and its current activities. At a first stage oblique aerial infrared images taken from a helium barrage balloon helped to find easily, quickly and cheaply the buried masonry structures. Secondly, radar pulses were particularly interesting to image the subsurface as they were valuable means of assessing the presence and amount of both soil water and buried structures. The combination of both techniques proved to be an accurate and low-cost way to find the ancient drainage systems. Finally, results were produced by means of open source software.

  10. 广州第16届亚运会指定餐饮接待单位食品卫生状况分析%Hygienic inspection of foods designated for the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou

    彭志丽; 丛黎达; 林晓华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To inspect the hygienic conditions of foods produced by catering industries designated for the 16th Asian Games and analyze the feasibility of food safety measures during during 16th asian Games. Methods The foods samples produced by catering industries designitated for the 16th Asian Games were randomly selected during 16th Adian Gamex and tested. The results were comparative analyzed. Results Totally 197 samples collected during 16th Asian Game were inspected an d 173 were qualified with a qualification rate of 87.82%,a little higher than that moniilored before the Games,but without significant diffeerence (P= 0.585). The qualification rate of cakes and pastry was the highest (96.15%)and the rates among different kinds of foods were significantly different(P = 0.009). The quaoificatiion rates among different meal ways and among hotels of diffeent stars showed no significant differences (P = 0.253,P =0.674). Conclusion The safeguard measures for food hygiene during the 16th Asian Games are feasible.%目的 了解16届亚运会赛事期间指定餐饮接待单位食品的卫生状况,分析亚运期间食品卫生保障措施的可行性.方法 随机无菌抽取第16届亚运会赛事期间指定餐饮接待单位提供给涉亚人员的直接入口食品,并对其检验结果作比较分析.结果 共抽检食品197宗,合格173宗,合格率为87.82%,稍高于亚运前的监测结果,两者间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);各类食品的合格率以糕点最高,为96.15%,其合格率间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);不同供餐形式(自助餐、盒饭、点餐)食品的合格率间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);不同星级(3星级、4星级、5星级)酒店食品的合格率间差异也无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 16届亚运会的食品卫生保障形式是可行的,但在大型活动供餐中,应尽量减少供应生食水产品等高风险食品.

  11. [Medicinal roles tea--a non-essential beverage--played in forming the Japanese culture during the Japanese middle ages (12th-16th AD)].

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The term "culture" generally refers to practices and customs including clothes, food and housing as well as various arts, ethics, religions, politics and economies that support them, with the more refined formats such as tea ceremony or flower arrangement being more dependent on the maturity of the society at the time. Among these, tea may be especially noteworthy as it has been widely used as a favored beverage in various scenes in daily life, playing an important role in the development of Japanese society. As a medicinal agent, tea has psychotropic functions that activate senses, thoughts or association of ideas, and remove or alleviate drowsiness and fatigue. While alcohol, coffee or narcotics also have mind-altering effects, tea has been more widely accepted, possibly because of its milder effect and its adaptability to cultivation in different climate zones, leaving broad and deep impressions in the forming of the culture. In the fifth century, the rulers in Japan started opening state-run ranches throughout the country to raise horses and cattle, which drove population growth, spurred a commodity economy and gave rise to an associated birth of logistics providers. The ranch administrators, however, gradually built up political and economic power over the years to become samurai, who would eventually come to rule the country. In the Japanese Middle Ages, many merchants who had accumulated wealth in trades, finance, sake breweries or leather industries enjoyed gatherings with tea, which became the very popular tea ceremony. From these occasions, many of the now so-called classic arts with top-class artists were born. The popularity of the tea ceremony eventually produced SADO, the way of tea. Tea thus provided a cradle for many cultural elements as social barriers were often disregarded at such gatherings so that many artists and men of stature were able to emerge regardless of their backgrounds. PMID:20527289

  12. century drying

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  13. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 16th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: Optimizing and Understanding the Role of Coils for Mode Control Selected papers from the 16th Workshop on MHD Stability Control: Optimizing and Understanding the Role of Coils for Mode Control

    La Haye, Rob

    2012-09-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Control Workshop with the theme 'Optimizing and Understanding the Role of Coils for Mode Control' was held at General Atomics (20-22 November 2011) following the 2011 APS-DPP Annual Meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah (14-18 November). This was the 16th in the annual series and was organized jointly by Columbia University, General Atomics, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Program committee participation included representatives from the EU and Japan along with other US laboratory and university institutions. This workshop highlighted the role of applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields from both internal and external coils for control of MHD stability to achieve high performance fusion plasmas. The application of 3D magnetic field offers control of important elements of equilibrium, stability, and transport. The use of active 3D fields to stabilize global instabilities and to correct magnetic field errors is an established tool for achieving high beta configurations. 3D fields also affect transport and plasma momentum, and are shown to be important for the control of edge localized modes (ELMs), resistive wall modes, and optimized stellarator configurations. The format was similar to previous workshops, including 13 invited talks, 21 contributed talks, and this year there were 2 panel discussions ('Error Field Correction' led by Andrew Cole of Columbia University and 'Application of Coils in General' led by Richard Buttery of General Atomics). Ted Strait of General Atomics also gave a summary of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) MHD meeting in Padua, a group for which he is now the leader. In this special section of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) is a sample of the presentations at the workshop, which have been subject to the normal refereeing procedures of the journal. They include a review (A Boozer) and an invited talk (R Fitzpatrick) on error fields, an invited

  14. IN MODEL OF CAMİ’Ü’L-FÜRS PLANT’S MAME IN XVI.st CENTURY / CÂMİ‘Ü’L-FÜRS ÖRNEĞİNDE XVI. YÜZYIL BİTKİ İSİMLERİ

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hatice ŞAHİN

    2007-01-01

    The names of plants are quite rich in Turkish, but this subject is not enoughresearched. Cami’ül-Fürs, which is a translated dictionary from Persian to Turkish, isan important source for Turkish vocabulary of the 16th century. In this article theTurkish plant names are given in list and explained shortly.

  15. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  16. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  17. 16th Edition Breaks New Ground

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Breaking new ground,Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics,successfully closed its doors on October 22nd,2010at the Shanghai New International Exhibition Centre,attracting a record breaking,more than 57,000 buyers.

  18. April 16th : The World Voice Day

    Svec, Jan G.; Behlau, Mara

    2007-01-01

    Although the voice is used as an everyday basis of speech, most people realize its importance only when a voice problem arises. Increasing public awareness of the importance of the voice and alertness to voice problems are the main goals of the World Voice Day, which is celebrated yearly on April 16

  19. The 16th International Young Physicists' Tournament

    Adams, Steve

    2003-09-01

    The UK team from Shrewsbury School performed very well in this year's International Young Physicists' Tournament and learnt a lot of physics in the process. This article describes the format of the competition and the team's approach.

  20. 16th National Conference of the APDIO

    Oliveira, José; Pinto, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents selected contributions by top researchers in the field of operations research, originating from the XVI Congress of APDIO. It provides interesting findings and applications of operations research methods and techniques in a wide variety of problems. The contributions address complex real-world problems, including inventory management with lateral transshipments, sectors and routes in solid-waste collection and production planning for perishable food products. It also discusses the latest techniques, making the volume a valuable tool for researchers, students and practitioners who wish to learn about current trends. Of particular interest are the applications of nonlinear and mixed-integer programming, data envelopment analysis, clustering techniques, hybrid heuristics, supply chain management and lot sizing, as well as job scheduling problems.   This biennial conference, organized by APDIO, the Portuguese Association of Operational Research, held in Bragança, Portugal, in June 2013, pre...

  1. 从第16届亚运会田径比赛剖析亚洲田坛竞争格局%Analysis Of The Asian Track And Field From The 16th Asian Games Athletics competition

    胡小栓; 张松奎; 孙大虎

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the athletics scores and gold distribution situation of the countries and regions in the 16th Asian Games,as well as Chinese athletics from the Asian Games gold medal outlook by using the method of documentation,statistics and logic ana%采用文献资料法、数理统计法和逻辑分析法等研究方法,对第16届亚运会各个国家和地区田径比赛成绩及金牌分布情况进行分析,以及由亚运会金牌走势分析中国田径。结果表明:以巴林为首的西亚国家继续保持着对金牌强劲的冲击力,南亚的印度上升势头强劲,中亚的哈萨克斯坦的实力不容小觑,东亚的日、韩表现平平。亚洲田坛格局出现变化,但新的格局尚未形成。

  2. 第16届亚洲杯足球赛八强球队比赛数据统计分析%The match data statistical analysis about the top eight teams in the 16th Asian cup soccer game

    袁磊; 尚金龙

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法等,对第16届亚洲杯足球赛八强球队参加的所有比赛的传球、对抗、射门情况进行对比研究,分析不同球队在传球、对抗、射门等方面的优势与短板,找出球队之间的差距,旨在为我国足球技术的进一步提升提供参考。%By using the methods of literature, video observation,mathematical statistics to statistics and analysis of the pass, confront, shoot status of all the top eight soccer teams matches in the 16th Asian cup game. This work could contribute to comprehensively understand the technical characterization of the Asian soccer top teams, and then provide date references to further improve the Chinese soccer technique.

  3. Ambroise Paré (1510 to 1590): a surgeon centuries ahead of his time.

    Shen, James T; Weinstein, Michael; Beekley, Alec; Yeo, Charles; Cowan, Scott

    2014-06-01

    In their extensive writings, Hippocrates and Celsus counseled physicians to be knowledgeable in both the medical and surgical management of patient recovery. However, their words fell by the wayside because cutting of the body was forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church. Furthermore, the contemporaneous Arabic medical teachings emphasized tradition and authority over observation and personal experience. This created an ever-growing rift between the schools of surgical and pharmacologic medicine with both groups denying their involvement in the other domain. Surgeons had been plagued by postoperative complications including infection, malnutrition, and muscular wasting for centuries. Surgeons were forced to re-examine how diet and exercise affected outcomes before the advent of microbiology and advances in pharmacology. All of this changed when Ambroise Paré, a 16th century surgeon, revolutionized the medical world with his astute observations of postoperative diet and exercise. PMID:24887788

  4. World Basketball Championships the 16th China Men's Basketball Team's offensive and defensive Power%第16届男篮世锦赛中国男子篮球队的攻防实力研究

    王太付; 李海婷; 杜少武

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the Chinese men's basketball team ( hereinafter referred to as the Chinese men's basketball team) to usurp the role of Asia hegemony, but the best result in the world-class game (world) is 8, and on the world basketball championships in 2010 the Turkish group - five, team did not qualify, result to the bottom and packaged. In order to find out the advantages and disadvantages of the Chinese men's basketball team, and provide theoretical basis for the Chinese men's basketball team return to the world's eight. Using the RSR comprehensive evaluation as the main research methods to the 16th world championships men 's basketball team level of attack and defense of 24 teams for quantitative evaluation.%历来中国男子篮球队(以下简称中国男篮)以亚洲霸主自居,但在世界级比赛(世锦赛)中最好成绩却是8强,而2010年土耳其男篮世锦赛小组赛中一胜五负,小组未出线,以排名垫底而收官。为了找出中国男篮的优势和不足,为中国男篮重返世界8强提供理论依据。运用RSR综合评价为主的研究方法对第16届男篮世锦赛24支球队的攻防水平进行量化评价。

  5. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop. PMID:27146124

  6. Advance of lithium ion batteries: The 16th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries%锂离子电池及材料发展前瞻——第16届国际锂电会议评述

    张剑波; 连芳; 高学平; 李建刚; 范丽珍; 何向明

    2012-01-01

    每两年举行一次的国际锂电会议(IMLB)旨在促进国际合作和交流,为在锂离子电池领域工作的科学家和工程师提供一个讨论锂电基础研究和技术革新的论坛.本文总结了2012年6月17~22日在韩国济州岛召开的第16届国际锂电会议的学术报告情况.具有较好安全性的磷酸铁锂正极材料和具有较高倍率特性和较好循环性能的纳米电极材料依然是研究热点;同时可以看到,富锂锰基材料、钛酸锂材料、5V尖晶石材料和纳米硅负极材料成为新的研究热点;而锂硫电池、锂空气电池和超级电容器等新电池体系正在引起大家的兴趣和关注.%The International Meeting on Lithium Batteries (IMLB), which are held every two years, promotes international collaboration and cooperation and provides a forum for scientists and engineers to discuss fundamentals, innovations and applications in the field of lithium ion batteries. Meanwhile the meeting provides an opportunity for exchanging new ideas and latest results and sharing inspirations. Advance of lithium ion batteries reported in the 16th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries (The IMLB-16, Jeju, Korea, June 17 to 22, 2012) is summarized in this paper. Lithium-rich manganese-based materials, lithium titanate material, 5V spinel materials and nano-silicon anode materials become new hotspots for research. The improvement of silicon anode material and the polymer electrolyte are key areas to further improve safety and energy density of lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-air batteries and super capacitors are research areas of increasing importance.

  7. Nineteenth-Century English

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  8. Traces and echoes of De Architectura by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio in the work of Xu Guangqi in 17th century China

    Cigola, Michela; Fang, Yibing

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role played by Xu Guangqi (1562-1633), minister of the Ming Dynasty, in the development of European scientific and technical knowledge in China between the 16th and 17th centuries by analyzing a book of Western technology that he wrote, namely, Taixi Shuifa ( On Western Hydraulics). Several Western books related to machine knowledge are searched to trace the source of the illustrations in Taixi Shuifa. We found that Archimedes' screw and Ctesibius' machine, which are included in Vitruvius' De Architectura volumes, also appear in the work of Xu Guangqi.

  9. THE 19th CENTURY EDITIONS OF THE LIFE OF ALEXANDER OSHEVENSKY

    Alexander Valerievich Pigin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a classic of the 16th-century north Russian hagiography — The Life of Alexander Oshevensky, which is preserved as a large number of various copies and editions. The 19th-century materials recently found in the Russian archives enabled researchers to raise a question of the late period in the literary history of this Life. Three editions of this piece of writing created in the 1820’s and 1830’s by Tikhvin Monastery’s Archimandrite Hilarion (Kirillov, Alexander Svirsky Monastery’s Archimandrite Barsanuphius (Morev and Archbishop of Olonets Ignatius (Semyonov are in the focus of this paper. The new editions were written with the intention to be published to glorify St. Alexander across Russia, though respective petitions to the Most Holy Synod were not approved. This article detects sources of these editions and shows the pattern of processing of the initial texts. As the text analysis has shown, the 19th-century editions primarily developed the topoi of book learning and relationships between St. Alexander and his family. The Life used to be revised stylistically and compositionally, as well as supplemented with historical information. The published material is of interest for the research in poetics and topics of the Liеves of the Saints and their perception by the church writers of the 19th century.

  10. Mapping Utopia: Cartography and Social Reform in 19th Century Australia

    Matthew Graves

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the 16th century on, the great Southern continent figured in the European literary and political imagination as a field for utopian thought. While we might expect such Arcadian essays to tail off as the colonisation of Australia proceeded apace in the late 18th, early 19th centuries, such was not the case: there are many examples of utopian literature set in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries, and several examples from the 1830s , the period examined in this article. This article explores the utopian elements in the work of three near contemporaries: Edward G. Wakefield (1796-1862, Thomas J. Maslen (1787-1857 and James Vetch (1789-1869 who mapped onto Australia political and social projects that had their origin and rationale in objectives for reform in the mother country. They brought to their self-appointed task underlying assumptions and biases that reveal a range of influences, not least those of colonial expansionism, and an imperial disregard for the realities of the terrain and inhabitants of a country they had never visited. The article undertakes a close reading of the maps, systems of nomenclature and division of territory proposed by two of the three: Maslen and Vetch, and their underlying rationale and function. Both writers sought to redraw the map of Australia in order to advance projects for reform, imposing on an ‘empty land’ principles of division and sub-division claimed to be rational and scientific and yet essentially utopian.

  11. "Mind your p's and q's": or the peregrinations of an apostrophe in 17th Century English

    Piton, Odile

    2010-01-01

    If the use of the apostrophe in contemporary English often marks the Saxon genitive, it may also indicate the omission of one or more let-ters. Some writers (wrongly?) use it to mark the plural in symbols or abbreviations, visual-ised thanks to the isolation of the morpheme "s". This punctuation mark was imported from the Continent in the 16th century. During the 19th century its use was standardised. However the rules of its usage still seem problematic to many, including literate speakers of English. "All too often, the apostrophe is misplaced", or "errant apostrophes are springing up every-where" is a complaint that Internet users fre-quently come across when visiting grammar websites. Many of them detail its various uses and misuses, and attempt to correct the most common mistakes about it, especially its mis-use in the plural, called greengrocers' apostro-phes and humorously misspelled "greengro-cers apostrophe's". While studying English travel accounts published in the seventeenth century, we noticed th...

  12. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    Rasmussen, Knud

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  13. Tartaglia’s science of weights and mechanics in the sixteenth century selections from quesiti et inventioni diverse books VII–VIII

    Pisano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a historical and scientific analysis as historical epistemology of the science of weights and mechanics in the sixteenth century, particularly as developed by Tartaglia in his Quesiti et inventioni diverse, Book VII and Book VIII (1546; 1554). In the early 16th century mechanics was concerned mainly with what is now called statics and was referred to as the Scientia de ponderibus, generally pursued by two very different approaches. The first was usually referred to as Aristotelian, where the equilibrium of bodies was set as a balance of opposite tendencies to motion. The second, usually referred to as Archimedean, identified statics with centrobarica, the theory of centres of gravity based on symmetry considerations. In between the two traditions the Italian scholar Niccolò Fontana, better known as Tartaglia (1500?–1557), wrote the treatise Quesiti et inventioni diverse (1546). This volume consists of three main parts. In the first, a historical excursus regarding Tartaglia’s lifetime,...

  14. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna. PMID:26946818

  15. Statisticians of the centuries

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  16. WHEELING THROUGH THE CENTURIES

    HUO; JIANYING

    2002-01-01

    IN an excavated pit at the side of an expressway in Shandong’s Linzi are visible 2,000-year-old remains of horses and wooden carriages. The horse skeletons are on their side, in an attitude of motion. The pit was discovered in the late 20th century, when the expressway was being built. These early ancestors of modern transport, no longer "road-worthy," are now protected historic artifacts.

  17. A Century of Antivenom

    Lovreček, Dijana; Tomić, Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Because it primarily affects the poor in undeveloped parts of the world where medical care is often inadequate and insufficient, envenomation is considered a neglected public health issue, despite the existence of antivenom therapy for more than a century. This article provides an overview of the epidemiological situation for important venomous animals, together with achievements in the production, control, technological progress and safety of antivenoms since their discovery.

  18. Evolution of forest cover in Portugal:A review of the 12th-20th centu-ries

    Fernando Reboredo; João Pais

    2014-01-01

    Portugal’s forests in the 12th century were dominated by the Fagaceae represented by Quercus and Castanea, and several pine species. From the 12th century onwards, forests underwent changes in their man-agement starting with protection and ultimately leading to intense ex-ploitation. The massive naval construction during the maritime expansion (mainly in the 15th-16th centuries) involved felling of approximately 5 million trees mainly Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and other Quercus species. Cumulative fuel-wood consumption of 959 Mm3 during 1300-1854 was attributed to demographic expansion while the deforesta-tion rate during 1636-1854 accounted for a minimum of 72.6% and a maximum of 96% of total forest cover. The volume of timber used in railway sleepers from 1856 onwards might have reached 0.5 Mm3. The last quarter of the 20th century increased the forest cover of Portugal through the World Bank program of Eucalyptus globulus reforestation.

  19. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  20. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    Alexandre Fernandes; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves; Françoise Bouchet; Carlos Henrique Klein; Takumi Iguchi; Luciana Sianto; Adauto Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde), a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Althou...

  1. Étrange ou ennemi ? Typologie de l’étranger, construction identitaire et circonvolutions du discours dans l’Angleterre des XVIe et XVIIe siècles Monster or Enemy? Types of Strangers, Construction of National Identity, and the Meanderings of Discourse in 16th and 17th century England

    Michèle Vignaux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking Bacon’s and Coke’s definitions of strangers in the Case of the Post-Nati (1605 as a starting point, this article examines the implications of defining English citizens as subjects owing allegiance to the King of England by looking at the various types of allegiance (which may be implicit or explicit, geographically or temporally limited or unlimited. It concludes that the one unbridgeable chasm was with perpetual enemies, that is with infidels, rather than with strangers as such. Ironically, the monstrosities of Mandevillian lore resurfaced with the discovery of the “fourth continent” when in the face of economic “necessity” Christian discourse was trapped into labelling as monstrous, and denying humanity to, those strangers who were to be used as slaves.

  2. Les tombeaux des rois Zāgwē, Yemreḥanna Krestos et Lālibalā (XIIe-XVIe siècle, et leurs évolutions symboliques Tombs of the Zāgwē kings, Yemreḥanna Krestos and Lālibalā (12th-16th century, and their evolving symbolic importance

    Marie-Laure Derat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Les tombeaux de deux saints-rois de la dynastie éthiopienne des Zāgwē, Yemreḥanna Krestos et Lālibalā, sont réputés être situés dans les églises qu’ils auraient fondées. Mais cette information n’apparaît pas dans les premiers textes consacrés aux rois-saints. Cet article tente de reprendre la chronologie des textes et de leur production, et d’identifier les moments où surgissent de nouveaux symboles destinés à authentifier les sépultures des saints-rois ou à modifier la perception de celles-ci en fonction des époques. Il s’agit de s’intéresser aux processus qui ont permis de situer ces tombes et de les considérer comme les tombes de saints, et non plus de rois. Les sépultures de Yemreḥanna Krestos et Lālibalā sont devenues le but de pèlerinages au cours desquels l’intercession de ces rois devenus saints est sollicitée.The tombs of two kings of the Zagwe dynasty, Yemrehanna Krestos and Lālibalā, are said to be located in churches that they founded. However this information does not figure in the first texts written about these Ethiopian saint-kings. The chronology of these texts and their production are presented; and the eras identified when new symbols emerged for authenticating the sepultures of saint-kings or modifying the perception of them. What processes led to identifying the location of these tombs and considering them to be the graves of saints, and no longer of kings? The tombs of these two kings have become places where pilgrims request these saints to intercede on their behalf.

  3. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    Alexandre Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.Este artigo discute os achados de ovos de parasitos em vestígios orgânicos de estruturas medievais do século XVI, escavados no solo, encontrados em Walraversijde, vilarejo atualmente denominado Raversijde, litoral norte da Bélgica. Nestas estruturas encontraram-se numerosos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura, ambos parasitos humanos. Neste trabalho, o diagnóstico dos parasitos serviu para identificar a origem humana do sedimento e as estruturas medievais como latrinas. Encontraram-se outros ovos de parasito identificado como Capillaria sp. e larvas de nematódeos. Embora não tenha sido possível calcular cargas parasitárias, a quantidade de ovos de helmintos intestinais, parasitos de humanos, sugere condições precárias de higiene e altos níveis de infecção.

  4. A Century Apart

    Birgir Hrannar Stefánsson 1982

    2014-01-01

    Iceland and China are two nations situated almost at the opposite side of the globe. In this thesis, I am taking two examples of media coverage on China; the writings of Ólafur Ólafsson are compared with the discussion in Akureyri Vikublað regarding Huang Nubo. Ólafur Ólafsson was a pioneer of intercultural communication between Iceland and China in the early 20th century. Working as a missionary in China he sent home letters published through the magazine Ljósberinn and later on these wr...

  5. New Century, New Prospects

    CHEN XULONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nuclear weapons changed the world of the 20th century. Their powerful force rewrote history. Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan by the United States accelerated the collapse of Japanese militarism and hastened the end of World War Ⅱ. The West led by the United States and the East bloc led by the Soviet Union started a bitter nuclear arms race that mutually assured destruction. The balance of terror between the two blocs stabilized in the Cold War and prevented the world from actual armed conflict, thus maintaining a long-term but occasionally uneasy peace in Europe and the world.

  6. The quantum century

    Physicists often complain that the phrase quantum leap'' is used erroneously, if harmlessly, by people to describe a large jump or change. Yet this month the physics community is celebrating the 100th anniversary of what must count as the beginning of the biggest quantum leap in the history of science, whichever way you define the phrase. On 14 December 1900 Max Planck presented a paper on the radiation emitted by a black body at a meeting of the German Physical Society in Berlin. This event is generally taken to mark the start of the quantum century, though few people realized it at the time - not even Planck himself. (U.K.)

  7. A century of physics

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  8. The management century.

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

  9. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  10. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  11. A century of antenna development

    Olver, A. D.

    The paper describes a century of antenna development as part of a century of radio communications. This historical review examines, chronologically, the pre-Hertz period, Hertz antennas, the microwave optics period, the Marconi era, short waves, theoretical design before and after computers, and radar. Consideration is also given to mobile antennas, microwave comunications, radio astronomy, and satellite comunications.

  12. 21st Century Skills Map

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  13. 16th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings

    Major topics discussed during the Sixteenth DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference were: waste treatment, including volume reduction and storage; system and component response to stress and accident conditions; Three Mile Island accident; iodine adsorption; treatment and storage of noble gas: treatment of offgases from chemical processing; aerosol; behavior; containment venting; laboratory and in-place filter-testing methods; and particulate filtration. Volume I of the Proceedings has 49 papers from the following sessions; HEPA filter test methods; noble gas separation; air cleaning system design; containment venting; iodine adsorption; reprocessing offgas cleaning; critical review; filtration; filter testing; and aerosols. Volume II contains 44 papers from the sessions on: nuclear waste treatment; critical review; noble gas treatment; carbon-14 and tritium; air cleaning system response to stress; nuclear standards and safety; round table; open end; and air cleaning technology at Three Mile Island. Abstracts are provided for all of these papers

  14. Weekly Report for November 12th-16th

    Peter Zong

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the week of November 5th-9th, the indexes of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets went down 8.00% and 7. 56% respectively, in response to the publicly trading of the 4 billion new shares of PetroChina Company Ltd on November 5th. And some analysts thought the deep drop was caused by global stock markets and the US home loan crisis (or the crisis of subprime mortgage loans). The stock price of Hualu-Hengsheng Chemical (SH: 600426) suffered a drop of 39.3% weekly, hit the biggest drop. The stock price of Sinopec Corp. (600028) dropped 18%, ranked the third place.

  15. Generalized Van der Pol equation and Hilbert's 16th problem

    Xenakis Ioakim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the bifurcation of limit cycles from the harmonic oscillator $\\dot{x}=y$, $\\dot{y}=-x$ in the system $$ \\dot{x}=y,\\quad \\dot{y}=-x+\\varepsilon f(y\\big(1-x^2\\big, $$ where $\\varepsilon$ is a small positive parameter tending to 0 and f is an odd polynomial of degree 2n + 1, with n an arbitrary but fixed natural number. We prove that, the above differential system, in the global plane, for particularly chosen odd polynomials f of degree 2n + 1 has exactly n + 1 limit cycles and that this number is an upper bound for the number of limit cycles for every case of an arbitrary odd polynomial f of degree 2n + 1. More specifically, the existence of the limit cycles, which is the first of the main results in this work, is obtained by using the Poincare's method, and the upper bound for the number of limit cycles can be derived from the work of Iliev [4]. We also investigate the possible relative positions of the limit cycles for this differential system, which is the second main problem studying in this work. In particular, we construct differential systems with n given limit cycles and one limit cycle whose position depends on the position of the previous n limit cycles. Finally, we give some examples in order to illustrate the general theory presented in this work.

  16. Final document : 16th session of the Baltic Assembly

    2000-01-01

    Balti Assamblee 16. istungjärgu lõppdokument. Resolutsioonid: meetmed salakaubandusega võitlemiseks, säästvast arengust Balti riikides, olukorrast Valgevenes, laste kaitsmisest narkootikumide eest, turismi arendamisest Balti riikides, pöördumine Balti riikide ringhäälingute nõukogude poole

  17. 16th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings

    Major topics discussed during the Sixteenth DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference were: waste treatment, including volume reduction and storage; system and component response to stress and accident conditions; Three Mile Island accident; iodine adsorption; treatment and storage of noble gas; treatment of offgases from chemical processing; aerosol behavior; containment venting; laboratory and in-place filter-testing methods; and particulate filtration. Volume I of the Proceedings has 49 papers from the following sessions: HEPA filter test methods; noble gas separation; air cleaning system design; containment venting; iodine adsorption; reprocessing offgas cleaning; critical review; filtration, filter testing, and aerosols. Volume II contains 44 papers from the sessions on: nuclear waste treatment; critical review; noble gas treatment; carbon-14 and tritium; air cleaning system response to stress; nuclear standards and safety; round table; open end; and air cleaning technology at Three Mile Island. Abstracts are provided for all of these papers

  18. International Conference on Pattern Recognition: 16th : Quebec: 2002

    Reilly, Richard

    2002-01-01

    PUBLISHED A method for the automatic processing of the electrocardiogram (ECG) for the detection of disordered breathing associated with obstructive sleep apnoea is presented. The method provides a minute-by-minute analysis of night-time single lead ECG recordings. An independently validated database of 35 ECG recordings acquired from normal subjects and subjects with obstructive and mixed sleep apnoea, each of approximately eight hours in duration, was used throughout the study. A wide va...

  19. EDITORIAL: The 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Piilo, Jyrki

    2010-09-01

    This workshop, also known as CEWQO2009, was held in Turku, Finland on 23-27 May 2009. The main location was the new ICT building of the University of Turku. For one day, 25 May, the meeting site was changed to the large ferry boats that travel daily between Turku and Stockholm; the participants spent the morning following plenary talks, then swapped from one boat to another at Mariehamn (Åland islands) and enjoyed the scenic view of the archipelago in the afternoon. There were about 180 participants at the meeting, which proved to be very successful and was apparently enjoyed by all. The CEWQO meetings have a long history, starting from the first held in Bratislava in 1993. Quantum optics has always been a strongly developing research field. This is partly due to the fact that theory and experiments are closely connected in this field of physics, driving each other forward. Also, the distance between fundamental studies and the development of practical applications has always been short. Professor Stig Stenholm had his 70th birthday on 26 February 2009. Thus CEWQO2009 provided a suitable backdrop for celebrating the event, and 26 May was dedicated to Stig. His career in quantum optics, starting from work with Willis Lamb on lasers and continuing today on the fundamental aspects of quantum physics, is an excellent demonstration of the history of quantum optics during the last 40+ years, including laser spectroscopy, cooling and trapping of atoms, short laser pulses, Bose-Einstein condensation and quantum information. The organization of CEWQO2009 was carried out by the quantum optics community at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, assisted by the Congress Office of the University. Financial support came from the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (TSV) and the Turku University Foundation. A separate book of abstracts appeared in the Report Series in Physics L 32, University of Turku. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, for the opportunity to publish the CEWQO2009 proceedings in the journal. Finally, CEWQO2009 was one of the major events that led to the establishment of the Turku Centre for Quantum Physics (TCQP), in Autumn 2009.

  20. THE GOSPEL TEXT IN DESCRIBING THE HISTORY OF THE KIEVAN RULE IN THE 12TH CENTURY (ACCORDING TO THE HEGUMEN MOISEI'S CHRONICLE AND THE NIKON CHRONICLE

    Valentina Alexandrovna Melnichuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the Gospel quotations in the description of the history of the 12th century Kievan rule in two compillations of East Slavic chronicles. An important problem concerning the principles of representing historical reality in a literary and historical narration is studied through the example a 12th century Kiev cronicle (compiled by hegumen Moisei (Moses, which is interpreted as the author's text. Images of the princes created by the purposeful selection of certain literary means by the author, among which the Gospel quotes and reminiscences play the main role, provided moral accents in the stories about different episodes of almost a century-long history of Russia. It was how hegumen Moisei sought to prove legality of inheritance of the grand prince throne by Rurik Rostislavich, the great-grandson of Vladimir of Monomakh, to whom the chronicle is devoted in general. In the Nikon Chronicle, a massive chronicle compilation of the 16th century, images of the same princes as well as the history of the great Kievan rule are presented differently. In some of the plots the Gospel presentations add some strokes to the images of princes, while leading to the loss of “topical character” typical for the hegumen Moisei’s Cronicle.

  1. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  2. 第16届亚运会中国男篮与对手攻防能力对比分析%Comparative Analysis Of Attacking And Defending Capabilities Of Chinese Men's Basketball Team And Its Opponents In The 16th Asian Sport Games

    李永登; 赵亮

    2011-01-01

    The thesis uses the methods of video analysis,documentary,data statistics and comparative to compare and analyse the capacity of offense and defense between China's team and its opponents in the 16th Asian Sport Games.The research shows that on the aspect of offensive,the Chinese team holds more obvious superiority than the opponents in three-point shooting and assists;but there is no difference in two-point shooting,free throw percentage and offensive rebounds.%运用录像观察法、文献资料法、数理统计法和比较法,从攻防两方面对第16届亚运会中国男篮与对手比赛的技术数据进行了对比分析。研究结果表明:在3分球命中率和助攻方面差异显著,中国队占有明显的优势;在2分球命中率、罚球命中率、篮板球和盖帽方面对手与中国不存在差异。

  3. Analysis of the Techniques and Tactics of the “Defeat in Czech” of the Chinese Women's Basketball Team in the 16th World Championships%中国女篮“兵败捷克”的技战术因素分析

    周智星; 郑尚武; 周勇

    2012-01-01

    Through methods of data statisticis, impact analysis and so on, 3-field performances of the group stage of the Chinese women's basketball team in the 16th session of the women's Basketball World Championship were analyzed. The result shows: the principle "sacrificing more, Using less" of the head coach in the player employment, the weakness of players in assisting each other, the out-of-control of re- bounds and the lack of physical fitness are important technical and tactical factors leading to the failure of Chinese women's basketball team. Accordingly, a number of recommendations are made to the Chinese wom- en's basketball team: strengthening the building of reserve forces; strengthening the youth skills training, strengthening physical fitness exercise; building a system of offensive and defensive attack with internal and external balance according to the characteristics of the team.%通过数据统计、影像分析等方法,对参加第16届女篮世锦赛中国女篮的3场小组赛进行分析,结果发现:主教练“弃多、用少”的用人原则.球员助攻能力弱,篮板球失控和体能不足。是导致中国女篮失利的重要技战术因素.据此,对中国女篮提出了一些建议:加强后备力量的建设;强化青少年基本功训练;加强身体素质练习;根据球队特点构建内外平衡的攻防攻体系.

  4. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term conseque......We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...

  5. The Anti-American Century?*

    Krastev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The twentieth century was “the American century.” championing democracy and capitalism, the United States won the cold War and emerged as the only global superpower— not only in military, but also in economic, technological, and even cultural terms. The widening currency of the English language and the continued desire of millions around the world to emigrate to the united States underlined the reality of U.S. predominance. The future, it was said, looked like a country, and that country was ...

  6. Four Centuries of Return Predictability

    Benjamin Golez; Peter Koudijs

    2014-01-01

    We analyze four centuries of stock prices and dividends in the Dutch, English, and U.S. market. With the exception of the post-1945 period, the dividend-to-price ratio is stationary and predicts returns throughout all four centuries. “Excess volatility” is thus a pervasive feature of financial markets. The dividend-to-price ratio also predicts dividend growth rates in all but the most recent period. Cash-flows were therefore much more important for price movements before 1945, and the dominan...

  7. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis P.

    2016-01-01

    natural resource use by analyzing roll call votes over the past century with a Random Utility Model (Manski, 1977) and conclude that economics mattered. So did ideology, but not uniformly. After World War II, the pro-environment vote which had been conservative shifted to being liberal. All these votes...

  8. A century of oil exploration

    The paper speech of the events and decisions that marked the history of the petroleum in Colombia and of Ecopetrol, from the adventure undertaken by some visionary at the beginning of the century X X, until the changes introduced in 1999

  9. 从第16届男篮世锦赛看现代男子篮球运动发展的新趋势%A new trend of development of modern men’s basketball viewed from the perspective of the 16th FIBA World Men’s Basketball Championships

    闫艺; 徐卫东

    2012-01-01

      对第16届世界男子篮球锦标赛的比赛过程和结果进行研究,认为:目前世界男子篮球竞争格局已经形成欧美传统强队衰落,美国和欧洲新势力崛起的局面;欧洲篮球占有主导性地位,美国篮球与欧洲篮球相互融合;攻击性防守盛行,身体对抗成为比赛的主旋律;速度更快、攻守日趋平衡,身高优势不再成为各队的绝对优势;双控卫战术成为各队执行战术的新变化;传统中锋稀缺,影子中锋(大前锋)发挥越来越重要的作用%  The authors studied the competition processes and results of the 16th World Men’s Basketball Champion-ships, and put forward the following opinions: the situation of competition in world men’s basketball has developed into such a situation as that traditional European and American top teams are declining while new forces from the United States and Europe are rising; European basketball has a dominating position, while US basketball and Euro-pean basketball are mutually blending; offensive defense is prevailing, while body contest becomes the theme of competitions; speed becomes faster, offense and defense become ever increasingly balanced, height advantage no longer becomes an absolute advantage of various teams; double point guard tactic becomes a new change in tactic execution by various teams; traditional centers are rare, shadow centers (power forwards) play a more and more important role.

  10. Traffic Organization Methods and Effects of Large-Scale Events Holding on Special Space: Case of 16th Asian Games Opening Ceremony%特殊场地举办大型活动的交通组织方法及效果——第16届亚运会开幕式为例

    邓兴栋; 甘勇华; 李健行; 林圣康

    2012-01-01

    Distinct from traditional gymnasium-inside patterns, the 16th Asian Games opening ceremony was held on the Pearl River Haixinsha island which is water surrounded, and strong opened central business district. Before the start of the opening ceremony, the parade function was conducted on the Pearl River, whose route cross through the whole central district. Because of the special venues and patterns which have not been used in the history of the Olympic and Asian Games, the traffic organization for this opening ceremony faced a real great challenge. Therefore, the organization mechanisms of flexible planning, hierarchical management, static and dynamic binding, time and space separation were applied and other useful methods of large-scale events are taken. The program design of traffic control, parking layout, public transportation organization, and the traffic flow line of approach-leave gymnasium were well developed and implemented, which successfully solved the traffic organization problem for large-scale events opening ceremony holding in CBD open space. Meanwhile, it provided valuable experiences for the traffic organization of large-scale events in the future.%第16届亚运会开幕式打破了在体育馆内举行的传统模式,在城市中央商务区(CBD)、四面环水、开放性强的珠江海心沙岛上举行.开幕仪式前还举行珠江巡游活动,路线穿越了城市中心区,场地和活动形式非常特殊,在奥运和亚运史上尚无先例,给开幕式交通组织带来巨大挑战.亚运会开幕式采用了“弹性规划、分层管理、动静结合、时空分离”等大型活动交通组织机理和方法,制定和实施了交通管控,停车布局,公共交通组织,进散场交通流线设计等方案.实施效果良好,成功解决了CBD开放式场地举办大型赛事开幕式的交通组织难题,为今后举办大型活动的交通组织提供了宝贵经验.

  11. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    Emma L Carroll

    Full Text Available Right whales (Eubalaena spp. were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ and east Australia (EA. Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  12. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  13. A century of poultry genetics

    Tixier-Boichard, M.; Leenstra, F.R.; Flock, D.; Hocking, A D; Weigend, S

    2012-01-01

    The 20th Century saw an astonishing advance in our understanding of genetics and the scientific basis of the genetic improvement of farm animals. The application of genetic principles to chickens in the 1950s and 1960s led to a rapid change in the productivity and efficiency of laying hens and broiler chickens, turkeys and ducks. Subsequently, the application of increasingly powerful computers and sophisticated mathematical algorithms has increased the range of traits that could be successful...

  14. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  15. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  16. Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

    J. Bakker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for southwest Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and environmental change in this important region. Two well dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of vegetation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses, allows for the disentangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on vegetation change. Results show both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics respond accurately to shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on vegetation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late 3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid 7th century shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deterioration as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation developed afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in the study during the mid 10th century AD, coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. An abrupt mid 12th century decrease in agriculture is linked to socio-political change, rather than the onset of the Little Ice Age. Similarly, gradual deforestation occurring from the 16th century onwards has been linked to changes

  17. REVIEW: A CENTURY OF PROTESTS

    Uday Chandra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Arupjyoti Saikia. 2013. A Century of Protests: Peasant Politics in Assam Since 1900. New Delhi and Abingdon: Routledge. Notwithstanding its somewhat misleading subtitle, A Century of Protests is a painstaking reconstruction of the checkered agrarian history of the Brahmaputra Valley between the passage of the Assam Land Revenue Regulation of 1886 and the repeal of the Assam Tenancy Act of 1971 in 1986. The state of Assam in India today, bordering what is now Bangladesh, lies beneath the watchful eyes of the Eastern Himalayas, through which the mighty Brahmaputra gushes and breathes life into the valley. The landscape of the Brahmaputra Valley, historically speaking, has been as much a patchwork of field and forest as of different ethnolinguistic and religious groups, ever fluid and shifting in response to human and non-human vectors of change. The contested relations of power that yoke together owners and cultivators of this complex, variegated landscape in the late colonial and early postcolonial eras is the subject of the book under review.

  18. A CENTURY OF NEWS DISCOURSE

    Allan Bell

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the development of news discourse across the 20th century ihrough a case study ofthe coverage of three expeditions to the South Pole: Captain Scott in 1912, Sir Edmund Hillary in 1958, and Peter Hillary in 1999. The way the news about the three expeditions reached New Zealand media serves as a framework and an illustration to examine three related issues: how technology has changed the time and place dimensions of news delivery; the consequent and concomitant shifts in news presentation; and associated changes in how humans have understood time and place. News values remain the same at a broad level across the century, but different in detail. Nationalism is obtrusive, but its focus shifts. In news practice, the deadline and the scoop drive the news in al1 three periods, but the scooping medium shifts from press to radio to television. The lapse between an event and its reporting shrinks exponentially from months to hours to minutes. The design of newspaper front pages changes radically, and news language compresses. There are social impacts, with newsworthy figures receiving closer exposure and the audience being cast in a more voyeuristic role.

  19. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  20. My Quarter Century with Jan

    Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    A quarter century ago, Jan van Paradijs and I started on a scientific journey, our lives became entwined, and a friendship evolved that shaped both our lives scientifically and in personal matters. To tell our story was very difficult for me. I went through 24 years of notes in my calendars and re-lived more than 8000 days of my own and Jan's life, 20 years of slides, 15 years of e-mail. There were times that I had to stop and leave it alone for a week or more as it became too emotional. Few people know (perhaps only two) what we meant for each other. When Jan died, part of me died.

  1. Countering 21st Century Threats

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U.S. and......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas of...... shared interests pre-crisis. • Establish political agreements and/or intentions with partners to address potential threats. • Establishing mutual trust through Building Partnership Capacity with capable SOF and intelligence organizations....

  2. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  3. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    Work on speech sound and the sound systems of languages can be traced back in the British Isles at least as far as the sixteenth century. It was, however, only in the nineteenth century that the word ‘phonetics' was actually coined, and it was also at this time that a wider interest in the subjec...

  4. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  5. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  6. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  7. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  8. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  9. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  10. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  11. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  12. Drought periods during XXth century

    The drought problem always exists somewhere in the world so that the economy of some nation or nations is always being adversely influenced by this factor. Although drought is a natural component of the climate in arid and semi-arid areas, it can occur in areas, which normally receive adequate precipitation. Available hydro meteorological data indicate droughts have occurred through the last century in Bulgaria and they a part of the climatic cycle on the Balkan Peninsula. The precipitation distribution is one of the basic characteristics of the drought occurrence in a given region. However, the distributions of additional meteorological elements should be also taken into account in order to describe the degree of the climate dryness. For example, the distribution of air temperature is an especially important characteristic for drought classifications. The last years in Bulgaria were drier and warmer than the normals for the period of so-called 'current climate' (1961-1990). Precipitation was approximately 80-85 % less than the normals. Statistical methods were used in order to analyze the long-term variations of precipitation, air temperature. The long-term series of data were smoothed by averages and they were also approximated by means of a polynomial. These methods eliminate the random and short periodical fluctuations of the time series. The Spearman coefficient (r) and the Kendall coefficient (rl) were used in order to investigate the existence of eventual trends. Some quantitative criteria were also used for a comparison of the drought frequency and intensity between different regions and years. As a result of the conducted analysis, the investigated period can be divided to separate sub-periods with duration of 10-15 years. These years are characterized with different moisture conditions. Three periods can be determined during the 20 th century, which are characterized by longer and severe droughts, namely 1902-1913, 1942-1953 and 1982-1994. The drought

  13. Medicine in 21st Century

    YangBinghui

    2001-01-01

    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  14. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    Emma L Carroll

    Full Text Available Right whales (Eubalaena spp. were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ and east Australia (EA. Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  15. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    James Dyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.

  16. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    Azmy, Yousry

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  17. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  18. The century of the Petroleum in Colombia

    A recount of the big changes is made with hydrocarbons in Colombia during the X X century. The X X century it meant everything for Colombia in oil matter. In this century it took off and it consolidated their industry of the hydrocarbons and with her great part of the industrialization process and development of the country. It is undeniable that the petroleum was one of the big main characters of the century X X and Colombia has not been unaware to the sways of a highly changing industry. The creation of the OPEC, the warlike conflicts, the times of high and low prices, the technological advances, the processes of energy integration and the mega coalitions are hardly some of the ingredients that seasoned the Oil Industry in the years 1900

  19. Revolution, Romanticism and the Long Nineteenth Century

    Adriana Craciun

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to consider the future of Victorian literary studies within the long nineteenth century, we must go back to that earlier “period” of the nineteenth century, and the French Revolution of 1789. Drawing on the aesthetic and political innovations of 1790s women's writings, this essay argues that we need to reconceive of nineteenth-century literary studies beyond the period boundaries of Romantic and Victorian. The sexualization of revolutionary Terror, and particularly of Robespierre, in Romantic-era writings by women like Helen Maria Williams, Mary Robinson and Fanny Burney, offers surprising precedents for the feminization of Terror associated with the retrospectives of Victorian writers like Carlyle and Dickens. In this respect, and given many other aesthetic continuities (for example, the crossgender and cross-period appeal of the “poetess” figure, the “Victorian period” appears increasingly unsatisfactory when compared to the merits of a long nineteenth-century model for literary studies.

  20. Fire Disasters in the Twentieth Century

    Cavallini, M.; Papagni, M.F.; F.W. Baruffaldi Preis

    2007-01-01

    In the field of natural and man-made disasters, fire has played a predominant role. A report is presented of fire disasters in the twentieth century, with a chronological analysis of different worldwide typologies.

  1. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  2. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  3. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  4. The influence of the final cause doctrine on anatomists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries concerning selected anatomical structures of the head and neck.

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2012-09-01

    The Doctrine of Final Cause, taken from Aristotle's "causes" and modified by Claudius (Aelius) Galen (of Pergamon) stated that for an anatomical part to exist it must have a "cause," not an end point, but a purpose or goal, natural or divine. This affected the renaissance anatomist's thinking. We explore this doctrine's relationship with human head and neck anatomy from antiquity's Aristotle and Galen, and the leading renaissance anatomists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Their relevant writings were influenced by religious and political beliefs and varied from humanistic to reactionary. Tracing anatomical controversies through these works reveal the humanism of Vesalius and others as paralleling the humanists of art and literature. These controversies illustrate how the body was used to demonstrate function, uses, and causes from higher sources. Humanists advanced the social, philosophical, intellectual, literary, and medical/anatomical thoughts of this period. They stood between the Christian church of the Middle Ages and modern science. Like religion, medicine and anatomy had its own revealed sources of knowledge and had sacred texts like Galen's. Vesalius' the Fabrica and the woodcuts established suddenly the beginning of modern observational science and art as the direct and faithful representation of natural phenomena. They displayed anatomy such that others could understand, including errors of Galen, bringing Vesalius into ecclesiastical conflict. Evolutionary scientists today see mutations as favorable or unfavorable depending on the environment. Mutations are random or directed by divine plan, according to perspectives of this ancient debate. PMID:22806933

  5. Buckley Sgraffito: a study of a 17th century pottery industry in North Wales, its production techniques and design influences

    Christine Longworth

    2004-07-01

    illustrations in the 16th and 17th centuries. The less specific designs such as circles, slashes and zigzags could have been personal expressions of the potters themselves. The sgraffito technique of decoration on pottery spread through trade from east to west, reaching Italy in the 12th and 13th centuries and filtering through to Britain via south-west France and northern Europe. Decorative styles found at Buckley occur in most production areas. These are plants, fish, birds and geometric patterns. Mottoes and inscriptions appear on pieces from four centres, including Buckley. The most common vessel forms throughout Europe are dishes and bowls. No Buckley sgraffito has been found outside Buckley itself, although Buckley black-glazed wares have been tentatively identified in the eastern states of north America and locations around the Irish Sea. The problem with ascribing this provenance is that similar wares were also produced in other areas such as Merseyside and Staffordshire. Further research is required to determine the distribution of all Buckley wares.

  6. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  7. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  8. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2010-01-01

    Energy may be the most important factor that will influence the shape of society in the 21st century. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies, the relationships between nations, and the stability of our environment. What kind of energy do we want to use in our future? Will there be enough? What will be the consequences of our decisions? Everyone has a stake in the answers to these questions and the decisions that are being made to provide energy. ""Energy in the 21st Century"", in its second edition, examines the energy so

  9. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  10. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2013-01-01

    Many events that affect global energy production and consumption have occurred since the second edition of Energy in the 21st Century appeared in 2011. For example, an earthquake and tsunami in Japan led to the disruption of the Fukushima nuclear facility and a global re-examination of the safety of the nuclear industry. Oil and natural gas prices continue to be volatile, and the demand for energy has been affected by the global economy. The third edition updates data and the discussion of recent events.Energy in the 21st Century has been used as the text for an introductory energy course for