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Sample records for 1607-f1 sanitary sewer

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Forms 2004-130 and 2005-004

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Forms 2004-130 and 2005-004

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  4. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  5. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  6. NORTH PORTAL-SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No.5006

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the sanitary sewer line serving the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  7. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  8. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  9. Risk assessment of radionuclide discharges to sanitary sewers

    This presentation describes the basic approach and conduct of a study of the possible risks and consequences of radionuclide discharges into a sewage treatment system. The study's objective was to determine if there were any possible significant exposures to either WSSC workers or the public form the discharge of radioactive material into the sewer system. The conduct of this study included a review of applicable regulations, and a case study of some past contamination events. The evaluation of potential occupational exposures involved measurements in the collection system were selected based on their location relative to potential dischargers. Measurement points at the treatment works were selected at points where biosolids might accumulate. Both passive, (TLD) and active, (scintillation detector) measurements were made. A limited number of samples were taken and analyzed. Potential doses to the public were estimated based on the possible pathways to man. Due both to limited resources and other project constraints several assumptions and bounding calculations were necessary to meet the objective. Although the study concluded that there were no present significant health concerns, followup evaluations were recommended. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  12. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  13. Septic systems, but not sanitary sewer lines, are associated with elevated estradiol in male frog metamorphs from suburban ponds.

    Lambert, Max R; Giller, Geoffrey S J; Skelly, David K; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    Suburban neighborhoods are a dominant type of human land use. Many housing regions globally rely on septic systems, rather than sanitary sewers, for wastewater management. There is evidence that septic systems may contaminate waterbodies more than sewer lines. There is also mounting evidence that human activities contaminate waterways with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which alter wildlife sexual development. While endocrine disruption is often associated with intense activities such as agriculture or wastewater treatment plant discharges, recent evidence indicates that endocrine disruption is pervasive in frogs from suburban neighborhoods. In conjunction with other putative EDC sources, one hypothesis is that wastewater is contaminating suburban waterways with EDCs derived from pharmaceuticals or personal care products. Here, we measure estradiol (E2) in metamorphosing green frogs (Rana clamitans) from forested ponds and suburban ponds adjacent to either septic tanks or sanitary sewers. We show that E2 is highest in male frogs from septic neighborhoods and that E2 concentrations are significantly lower in male frogs from forested ponds and from ponds near sewers. These results indicate that septic tanks may be contaminating aquatic ecosystems differently than sewer lines. This pattern contrasts prior work showing no difference in EDC contamination or morphological endocrine disruption between septic and sewer neighborhoods, implying that suburbanization may have varying effects at multiple biological scales like physiology and anatomy. PMID:26795918

  14. Reconcentration of radioactive material released to sanitary sewers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 20

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in accordance with 10 CFR 20, and agreement states, in accordance with state regulations, regulates the discharge of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. A one-year study was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the NRC to assess whether radioactive materials that are dischared to sanitary sewer systems undergo significant reconcentration within the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and to determine the physical and/or chemical processes that may result in radionuclide reconcentration within the WWTPs. The study objectives were addressed by collecting information and data on wastewater treatment, relevant geochemical processes, and individual radionuclide behavior in WWTPs from the open literature, NRC reports, EPA surveys, and interviews with NRC licensees and staff of WWTPs that may be impacted by these discharges. Radionuclide mass balance and removal efficiencies were calculated for WWTPs at Oak Ridge, TN; and Erwin, TN, but were not shown to be reliable since the licensee release data generally underestimated the mass of radionuclide that was ultimately found in the sludge. This disparity may be due, in part, to the fact that data available for use in this study were collected to address regulatory concerns and not to perform mass balance calculations. A limited modeling study showed some promise for predicting radionuclide behavior in WWTPS, however, the general applicability of using these empirical models remains uncertain. With the data and models currently available, it is not possible to quantitatively determine the physical and chemical processes that cause reconcentration or to calculate, a priori, reconcentration factors for specific WWTP unit processes or WWTPs in general

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:9, 1607-F2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-029

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-29

    The 100-F-26:9 underground pipeline subsite consists of the sanitary sewers servicing the 105-F, 108-F, 184-F, 185-F, and 190-F buildings, and the 1700-F administration and service buildings (1704-F, 1707-F, 1707-FA, 1713-F, 1717-F, 1719-F, and 1722-F). In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:9, 1607-F2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-029

    The 100-F-26:9 underground pipeline subsite consists of the sanitary sewers servicing the 105-F, 108-F, 184-F, 185-F, and 190-F buildings, and the 1700-F administration and service buildings (1704-F, 1707-F, 1707-FA, 1713-F, 1717-F, 1719-F, and 1722-F). In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  5. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System using Green Infrastructure - abstract

    In 2009, the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) submitted an Integrated Overflow Abatement Plan (IOAP) addressing combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows. Many of the solutions involve gray infrastructure, such as large, end-of...

  6. NRC's sewer discharge recommendations

    The paper very briefly discusses the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations for disposal of radioactive materials to sanitary sewer systems. Approximately 10 cases of reconcentration of radioactive material in sewer systems prompted the NRC to revise the regulations to prohibit the discharge of insoluble materials, with the exception of biological materials. Studies initiated by the NRC indicate that prediction of reconcentration is not currently possible, and that advanced waste water treatment technologies may cause the reconcentration of soluble and insolube radioactive materials. Consequently, licensee compliance with NRC sewer discharge regulations may not ensure the continued availability of this waste disposal option. Responses to an NRC request for information and suggestions on revisions to sewer discharge regulations are briefly described

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2066-055 and 2004-006

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively canceled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  8. Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET)

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The investment in sanitary sewer collection system represent a major component of $20 trillion of U.S. investment in civil infrastructure systems. Sewer Scanner and Evaluation Technology (SSET) will overcome weaknesses of the closed circuit television and provide the engineer with more and higher quality information for rehabilitation decision making process by utilizing optical scanner and gyroscope technology.

  9. Sewer Processes

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...... revisions of chapters from the previous edition, adds three new chapters, and presents extensive study questions. • Presents new modeling tools for the design and operation of sewer networks • Establishes sewer processes as a key element in preserving water quality • Includes greatly expanded coverage...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  11. Methane emission from sewers.

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that sewer systems produce and emit a significant amount of methane. Methanogens produce methane under anaerobic conditions in sewer biofilms and sediments, and the stratification of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria may explain the simultaneous production of methane and sulfide in sewers. No significant methane sinks or methanotrophic activities have been identified in sewers to date. Therefore, most of the methane would be emitted at the interface between sewage and atmosphere in gravity sewers, pumping stations, and inlets of wastewater treatment plants, although oxidation of methane in the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment plant has been reported recently. Online measurements have also revealed highly dynamic temporal and spatial variations in methane production caused by factors such as hydraulic retention time, area-to-volume ratio, temperature, and concentration of organic matter in sewage. Both mechanistic and empirical models have been proposed to predict methane production in sewers. Due to the sensitivity of methanogens to environmental conditions, most of the chemicals effective in controlling sulfide in sewers also suppress or diminish methane production. In this paper, we review the recent studies on methane emission from sewers, including the production mechanisms, quantification, modeling, and mitigation. PMID:25889543

  12. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage. PMID:26379202

  13. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  14. Modelling total suspended solids, E. coli and carbamazepine, a tracer of wastewater contamination from combined sewer overflows

    Pongmala, Khemngeun; Autixier, Laurène; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Fuamba, Musandji; Galarneau, Martine; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Urban source water protection requires knowledge of sources of fecal contamination upstream of drinking water intakes. Combined and sanitary sewer overflows (CSOs and SSOs) are primary sources of microbiological contamination and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) in urban water supplies. To quantify the impact of sewer overflows, predictive simulation models are required and have not been widely applied for microbial contaminants such as fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in urban drainage networks. The objective of this study was to apply a simulation model to estimate the dynamics of three contaminants in sewer overflows - total suspended solids, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and carbamazepine, a WWMP. A mixed combined and pseudo-sanitary drainage network in Québec, Canada was studied and modelled for a total of 7 events for which water quality data were available. Model results were significantly correlated with field water quality data. The model confirmed that the contributions of E. coli from runoff and sewer deposits were minor and their dominant source was from sewage. In contrast, the main sources of total suspended solids were stormwater runoff and sewer resuspension. Given that it is not present in stormwater, carbamazepine was found to be a useful stable tracer of sewage contributions to total contaminant loads and also provided an indication of the fraction of total suspended solids originating from sewer deposits because of its similar response to increasing flowrates.

  15. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Trichococcus populations dominate the microbial community within urban sewer infrastructure

    VandeWalle, J. L.; Goetz, G.W.; Huse, S.M.; Morrison, H. G.; Sogin, M L; Hoffmann, R.G.; Yan, K.; McLellan, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the dominant community members within sewage influent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Milwaukee, WI. We generated >1.1M bacterial pyrotag sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes from 38 influent samples and two samples taken upstream in the sanitary sewer system. Only a small fraction of pyrotags from influent samples (~15%) matched sequences from human fecal samples. The fecal components of th...

  16. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  17. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  18. Effects of Climate and Sewer Condition on Virus Transport to Groundwater.

    Gotkowitz, Madeline B; Bradbury, Kenneth R; Borchardt, Mark A; Zhu, Jun; Spencer, Susan K

    2016-08-16

    Pathogen contamination from leaky sanitary sewers poses a threat to groundwater quality in urban areas, yet the spatial and temporal dimensions of this contamination are not well understood. In this study, 16 monitoring wells and six municipal wells were repeatedly sampled for human enteric viruses. Viruses were detected infrequently, in 17 of 455 samples, compared to previous sampling at these wells. Thirteen of the 22 wells sampled were virus-positive at least once. While the highest virus concentrations occurred in shallower wells, shallow and deep wells were virus-positive at similar rates. Virus presence in groundwater was temporally coincident, with 16 of 17 virus-positive samples collected in a six-month period. Detections were associated with precipitation and occurred infrequently during a prolonged drought. The study purposely included sites with sewers of differing age and material. The rates of virus detections in groundwater were similar at all study sites during this study. However, a relationship between sewer age and virus detections emerged when compared to data from an earlier study, conducted during high precipitation conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that sewer condition and climate affect urban groundwater contamination by human enteric viruses. PMID:27434550

  19. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  20. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealing...

  1. Experimental studies of sewer exfiltration.

    Ellis, J B; Revitt, D M; Lister, P; Willgress, C; Buckley, A

    2003-01-01

    The effects of joint openings and in-pipe sediment on exfiltration losses in an experimental sewer are reported and the influence of flow and head on loss rates are also evaluated. Exfiltration rates tend to be exponential with changes in head for clean-water tests but exhibit power functions when the pipe is subject to sedimentation. In-pipe sediment leads to an effective sealing of joints especially if the invert deposits are both organic in nature and contain saturated adhesive material such as shredded toilet tissue. Simple tracer techniques are described to quantify exfiltration losses and the potential effects of tracer adsorption by pipe solids are evaluated. PMID:12666802

  2. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  3. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane Loft;

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flows and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems. The...... definition of an optimal performance was carried out by through a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow, given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied...

  4. Comparison of vacuum sewers and gravity sewers in the village Ponikve

    Klemenčič, Miha

    2013-01-01

    The thesis proposes two types of sewer systems, that are built in Slovenia. These are the so-called negative pressure or vacuum sewerages and gravity sewerages. I compare the costs of constructing each of the selected sewer systems to make findings about the investition. I present the process of dimensioning gravity sewer, where the sewage is discharged by gravity lows in the appropriate longitudinal falls and through intermediate pumping stations, that are necessary because of the roughne...

  5. Information use in Dutch sewer assest management

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are capital-intensive infrastructures, requiring appropriate asset management to safeguard serviceability. In the Netherlands, effective sewer asset management is described by De Leeuw’s control paradigm. Reliable data and information are key elements in decision-making for rehabilitation and renewal of the assets. Rehabilitation is often based on limited asset condition information. Although various sources described procedures for guiding decision-making for rehabilitation, it...

  6. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  7. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    2011-06-16

    ... wastewater treatment plants must manage these high flows to ensure continued operation of the treatment...'' section of EPA's notice announcing the 2010 Listening Sessions at 75 FR 30395 (June 1, 2010) and to... weather discharges. See 75 FR 30395 (June 1, 2010). Participants in the sessions offered both verbal...

  8. On Hydraulic and Pollution Effects of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    systems to become serviced with separate sewer systems decreases the volumes of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant and discharged as combined sewer overflow. This happens at the expense of an increase in volumes of storm water and pollutant loads diverted to local...

  9. The Effect of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2011-01-01

    separate sewer catchments decreases the amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) or as combined sewer overflows (CSO). But this happens at the expense of an increase in amounts of storm water and pollutants diverted to local receiving waters when detention......The overall objective of this paper is to contribute to the standing debate concerning the advantages of separate sewer systems compared to traditional combined sewers. By a case study this investigation reveals that a transformation of one fourth of a given total area from being combined to become...... ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. If a total catchment area transformation – instead of only one fourth – is put through, the consequences could be fatal for receiving waters if no retention of pollutants is integrated in such a transformation....

  10. Groundwater intrusion into leaky sewer systems.

    Wittenberg, H; Aksoy, H

    2010-01-01

    Vast volumes of groundwater are drained by urban sewer systems. This unwanted flow component intrudes into sewer systems through leaky joints or connected house drains. However, unlike urban storm drainage, it has a high seasonal variation corresponding to groundwater storage and long slow recessions similar to baseflow in rivers also fed by shallow groundwater exfiltrating into the surface waters. By applying the nonlinear reservoir algorithm as used for baseflow separation from total flow in a river, groundwater flow is separated from daily measured influents to treatment plants in Lower Saxony and Baden-Württemberg, Germany and in the Terkos Lake watershed near Istanbul, Turkey. While waste water flows vary only moderately within a year, separated intruded groundwater flows show recessions and seasonal variations correlated to baseflow in neighbouring rivers. It is possible to conclude that recession characteristics of treatment plant influents allow quantification and prediction of groundwater intrusion into sewer systems. PMID:20595758

  11. 40 CFR 35.2024 - Combined sewer overflows.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined sewer overflows. 35.2024... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2024 Combined sewer... from the State allotment for correction of combined sewer overflows provided that the project is on...

  12. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers. PMID:26841228

  13. 40 CFR 35.2130 - Sewer use ordinance.

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2130 Sewer use ordinance. The sewer use ordinance (see also §§ 35.2122 and 35.2208) or other legally binding document shall prohibit... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance. 35.2130 Section...

  14. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential for...... simulations of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish...

  15. Wastewater micropollutants as tracers of sewage contamination: analysis of combined sewer overflow and stream sediments.

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Aboulfadl, K; Darwano, H; Madoux-Humery, A-S; Guérineau, H; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Dorner, S

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive method was developed to measure the sediment concentration of 10 wastewater micropollutants selected as potential sanitary tracers of sewage contamination and include: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (acetaminophen - ACE and diclofenac - DIC), an anti-epileptic drug (carbamazepine - CBZ), a β-blocker (atenolol - ATL), a stimulant (caffeine - CAF), a bronchodilator (theophylline - THEO), steroid hormones (progesterone - PRO and medroxyprogesterone - MedP), an artificial sweetener (aspartame - APM) and personal care products (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide - DEET). Natural sediments (combined sewer overflow and stream sediments) were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by solid-phase extraction. Analyses were performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation in positive mode (APCI+) with a total analysis time of 4.5 min. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.01 to 15 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for the compounds of interest, with recoveries ranging from 75% to 156%. Matrix effects were observed for some compounds, never exceeding |±18%|. All results displayed a good degree of reproducibility and repeatability, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 23% for all compounds. The method was applied to an investigation of stream and combined sewer overflow sediment samples that differed in organic carbon contents and particle size distributions. Acetaminophen, caffeine and theophylline (as confounded with paraxanthine) were ubiquitously detected at 0.13-22 ng g(-1) dw in stream bed sediment samples and 98-427 ng g(-1) dw in combined sewer overflow sediment samples. Atenolol (80.5 ng g(-1) dw) and carbamazepine (54 ng g(-1) dw) were quantified only in combined sewer overflow sediment samples. The highest concentrations were recorded for DEET (14 ng g(-1) dw) and progesterone (11.5 ng g(-1) dw) in stream bed and combined

  16. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Sulfide buildup in sewer networks is associated with several problems, including health impacts, corrosion of sewer structures and odor nuisance. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks have been made. This paper...... summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  17. Agile Design of Sewer System Control

    Van Nooijen, R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.; Van Leeuwen, P.E.R.M.; Van Velzen, E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first part of an attempt to include stakeholder participation in the design of a central automatic controller for a sewer system in a small pilot project (five subcatchments) and present lessons learned so far. The pilot is part of a project aimed at the improvement of water quality

  18. Self-optimising control of sewer systems

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, I.; Mollerup, Ane Loft;

    2013-01-01

    Self-optimising control is a useful concept to select optimal controlled variables from a set of candidate measurements in a systematic manner. In this study, use self-optimizing control tools and apply them to the specific features of sewer systems, e.g. the continuously transient dynamics, the ...

  19. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative importanc

  20. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  1. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank

  2. [Identifying dry-weather flow and pollution load sources of separate storm sewer systems with different degrees of illicit discharge].

    Meng, Ying-ying; Feng, Cang; Li, Tian; Wang, Ling

    2009-12-01

    Dry-weather flow quantity and quality of three representative separate storm sewer systems in Shanghai-H, G, N were studied. Based on survey of operating status of the pumping stations as well as characteristics of the drainage systems, it was obtained that the interception sewage volumes per unit area in the three systems were 3610 m3/(km2 x d), 1550 m3/(km2 x d), 2970 m3/(km2 x d) respectively; the sanitary wastewater included accounted for 25%, 85% and 71% respectively; the interception volume of H was mainly composed of infiltrated underground water, so the dry-weather flow pollution was slighter, and the interception volumes of G, N were both mainly composed of sanitary wastewater, so the dry-weather which were flow pollution was relatively serious. The water characteristics of potential illicit discharge sources of dry-weather which were flow-grey water, black water and underground water were preliminarily explored, so that treating three parameters-LAS/ NH4+ -N, NH4+ -N/K, Mg/K as tracer parameters of grey water, black water and underground water was put forward. Moreover, the water characteristics of grey water and sanitary wastewater including black water were summarized: the feature of grey water was LAS/NH4+ -N > 0.2, NH4+ -N/K 1. Based on the above, the applications of flow chart method and CMBM method in dry-weather flow detection of monitored storm systems were preliminarily discussed, and the results were basically same as that obtained in flow quantity and quality comprehensive analysis. The research results and methods can provide guidance for analysis and diagnosis of dry-weather flow sources and subsequent reconstruction projects in similar separate storm sewer systems at home. PMID:20187382

  3. Science in Sanitary and Phytosanitary Dispute Resolution

    Powell, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The World Trade Organization Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (SPS Agreement) relies heavily on science and expert organizations to avoid and resolve trade disputes over measures enacted under the rationale of food safety or plant and animal health protection. However, the state of science for sanitary and phytosanitary risk analysis is highly uncertain, and the SPS Agreement leaves many science policy issues unsettled. The international agencies charged under the SPS Agreement with harmo...

  4. Impact of in-sewer transformation on 43 pharmaceuticals in a pressurized sewer under anaerobic conditions.

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damia; Gutierrez, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of 43 pharmaceuticals and 2 metabolites of ibuprofen was evaluated at the inlet and the outlet of a pressure sewer pipe in order to asses if in-sewer processes affect the pharmaceutical concentrations during their pass through the pipe. The target compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few μg/L, which are in the range commonly found in municipal wastewater of the studied area. The changes in concentrations between two sampling points were negligible for most compounds, i.e. from -10 to 10%. A higher decrease in concentrations (25-60 %) during the pass through the pipe was observed for diltiazem, citalopram, clarithromycin, bezafibrate and amlodipine. Negative removal was calculated for sulfamethoxazole (-66 ± 15%) and irbesartan (-58 ± 25%), which may be due to the conversion of conjugates back to their parent compounds in the sewer. The results show that microbial transformation of pharmaceuticals begins in sewer, albeit to different extents for different compounds. Therefore, the in-sewer transformation of pharmaceuticals should be assessed especially when their concentrations are used to estimate and refine the estimation of their per capita consumption in a catchment of interest in the sewage epidemiology approach. PMID:25462720

  5. Sewer Alligators: Urban Legends as Cognitive Maps

    Ljubomir Hristić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the reports of sewer alligators in the 1930s, the story has built up over the decades and become a bona fide urban legend. These (reports are based upon stories of alligator, and other wild animal sightings in rather unorthodox locations, particularly urban enclaves. Many have questioned the extent of truth in the original stories, suggesting it to be fiction and that certain creative minds may have contributed to the tales and its variations. However, the story of the 'Sewer Gator' in New York City is paradigmatic and various versions have been told. In the following text we will not question the validity of the myth itself, but atempt to deconstruct the legend proving it to be a series of cognitive maps.

  6. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    and novel model set-up, which simulates the interaction between groundwater and sewer flow. The study area has a separate waste water sewer system, but the discharged volumes from the system are approximately twice the volumes from a tight system without infiltration. The model set-up makes use of two...... commercial models: mike she for simulation of groundwater transport and mike urban (mouse) [DHI, Hørsholm, Denmark] for simulation of sewer flow. By simulating the groundwater level and calibrating infiltration coefficients against sewer flow measurements, it has been possible to estimate the average...... infiltration to the sewer system with satisfying results. The infiltration processes are indeed complicated and to a large degree heterogeneous throughout the sewer system. The paper shows contribution from both saturated and unsaturated groundwater zones, which makes the modelling process complex. Copyright...

  7. Biofilm growth and hydraulic conditions in sewers

    Larrarte, Frédérique; France, X.; Pons, Marie Noëlle

    2011-01-01

    Coupons have been set in three sewers (Nantes, Nancy) in order to monitor the biofilm development on the walls depending upon flow conditions. The biofilm development is assessed via opacity and dry weight measurements. The data are discussed in function of the duration of immersion into the wastewater. The number of days of immersion is calculated from the position of the coupon and the water height which is continuously monitored near the coupons.

  8. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential for the structural design of pipelines and for the planning of the proper function of the systems.The text is written by Torben Larsen, who is a professor of environmental hydraulics at the Department ...

  9. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  10. Lymphatic Lipid Transport: Sewer or Subway?

    Dixon, J. Brandon

    2010-01-01

    The lymphatics began receiving attention in the scientific community as early as 1622, when Gasparo Aselli noted the appearance of milky white vessels in the mesentery of a well-fed dog. Since this time, the lymphatic system has been historically regarded as the sewer of the vasculature, passively draining fluid and proteins from the interstitial spaces (along with lipid from the gut) into the blood. Recent reports, however, suggest that the lymphatic role in lipid transport is an active and ...

  11. Biofilm growth and hydraulic conditions in sewers

    Larrarte, Frédérique; Pons, Marie Noëlle

    2011-01-01

    The development of biofilm in sewers has been monitored using glass coupons placed on the walls. Two experimental sites, differing in terms of the particulate pollution transported by the wastewater and the wastewater velocity, were tested. The biofilm growth, measured by opacity and dry weight, is a function of the number of days the coupons have been really immersed in the wastewater. However the linear correlations which have been obtained between the amount of biofilm and the number of da...

  12. COMBINED AND STORM SEWER NETWORK MONITORING

    Justyna Synowiecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the drainage networks is an extremely important tool used to understand the phenomena occurring in them. In an era of urbanization and increased run-off, at the expense of natural retention in the catchment, it helps to minimize the risk of local flooding and pollution. In its scope includes measurement of the amount of rainfall, with the use of rain gauges, and their measure in the sewer network, in matter of flows and channel filling, with the help of flow meters. An indispensable part in this step is their proper calibration calibration. In addition to ongoing monitoring of the sewer system, periodic inspections by the qualified employees of Water and Sewage Company should be done. The following article reviews measurement devices, their calibration methods, as well as the phenomena that occur during operation in the sewer network. It provides a solution for monitoring and control based on the experience of the Municipal Water and Sewage Company in Wroclaw, describing common operational problems, their causes, prevention methods and a network operation walkthrough with the improve of performance indicators KPI (Key Performance Indicators according the ECB (European Benchmarking Co-operation.

  13. The Historical Development of Sewers Worldwide

    Giovanni De Feo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence of surface-based storm drainage systems in early Babylonian and Mesopotamian Empires in Iraq (ca. 4000–2500 BC, it is not until after ca. 3000 BC that we find evidence of the well organized and operated sewer and drainage systems of the Minoans and Harappans in Crete and the Indus valley, respectively. The Minoans and Indus valley civilizations originally, and the Hellenes and Romans thereafter, are considered pioneers in developing basic sewerage and drainage technologies, with emphasis on sanitation in the urban environment. The Hellenes and Romans further developed these techniques and greatly increased the scale of these systems. Although other ancient civilizations also contributed, notably some of the Chinese dynasties, very little progress was made during the Dark ages from ca. 300 AD through to the middle of the 18th century. It was only from 1850 onwards that that modern sewerage was “reborn”, but many of the principles grasped by the ancients are still in use today. This paper traces the development of the sewer from those earliest of civilizations through to the present day and beyond. A 6000 year technological history is a powerful validation of the vital contribution of sewers to human history.

  14. Impact of in-sewer transformation on 43 pharmaceuticals in a pressurized sewer under anaerobic conditions

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Rodríguez Mozaz, Sara; Barceló i Cullerés, Damià; Gutiérrez Garcia-Moreno, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of 43 pharmaceuticals and 2 metabolites of ibuprofen was evaluated at the inlet and the outlet of a pressure sewer pipe in order to asses if in-sewer processes affect the pharmaceutical concentrations during their pass through the pipe. The target compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from low ng/L to a few μg/L, which are in the range commonly found in municipal wastewater of the studied area. The changes in concentrations between two sampling points were negligibl...

  15. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild;

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes major findings of a long-term study of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) adsorption and oxidation on concrete and plastic sewer pipe surfaces. The processes have been studied using a pilot-scale setup designed to replicate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a force...

  16. EVALUATION OF TRENCHLESS SEWER CONSTRUCTION AT SOUTH BETHANY BEACH, DELAWARE

    The purpose of this project was to determine whether the trenchless method of sewer construction had inherent cost, safety and other advantages over conventional methods of sewer construction. Under similar site conditions, the trenchless method was more cost effective than conve...

  17. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying ventilation in sewer systems is a prerequisite to predict transport of odorous and corrosive gasses within the system as well as their interaction with the urban atmosphere. This paper studies ventilation in sewer systems quantified by measurements of the natural...

  18. 40 CFR 35.927-4 - Sewer use ordinance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance. 35.927-4 Section... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-4 Sewer use ordinance. Each applicant for grant assistance for a step 2 or step 3 project...

  19. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model i...... being developed as a part of a study being carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden. The project is funded by the Swedish Water and Waste Water Works Association and the Nordic Industrial Foundation....

  20. Prediction of sulphide build-up in filled sewer pipes.

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Tee, Kong Fah

    2014-08-01

    Millions of dollars are being spent worldwide on the repair and maintenance of sewer networks and wastewater treatment plants. The production and emission of hydrogen sulphide has been identified as a major cause of corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. Accurate prediction of sulphide build-up in a sewer system helps engineers and asset managers to appropriately formulate strategies for optimal sewer management and reliability analysis. This paper presents a novel methodology to model and predict the sulphide build-up for steady state condition in filled sewer pipes. The proposed model is developed using a novel data-driven technique called evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR) and it involves the most effective parameters in the sulphide build-up problem. EPR is a hybrid technique, combining genetic algorithm and least square. It is shown that the proposed model can provide a better prediction for the sulphide build-up as compared with conventional models. PMID:24956763

  1. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  2. Identifiability analysis in conceptual sewer modelling.

    Kleidorfer, M; Leonhardt, G; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    For a sufficient calibration of an environmental model not only parameter sensitivity but also parameter identifiability is an important issue. In identifiability analysis it is possible to analyse whether changes in one parameter can be compensated by appropriate changes of the other ones within a given uncertainty range. Parameter identifiability is conditional to the information content of the calibration data and consequently conditional to a certain measurement layout (i.e. types of measurements, number and location of measurement sites, temporal resolution of measurements etc.). Hence the influence of number and location of measurement sites on the number of identifiable parameters can be investigated. In the present study identifiability analysis is applied to a conceptual model of a combined sewer system aiming to predict the combined sewer overflow emissions. Different measurement layouts are tested and it can be shown that only 13 of the most sensitive catchment areas (represented by the model parameter 'effective impervious area') can be identified when overflow measurements of the 20 highest overflows and the runoff to the waste water treatment plant are used for calibration. The main advantage of this method is very low computational costs as the number of required model runs equals the total number of model parameters. Hence, this method is a valuable tool when analysing large models with a long runtime and many parameters. PMID:22864432

  3. Satellite Sanitary Systems in Kampala, Uganda

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite sewage collection and treatment systems have been independently developed and managed in East African cities outside the centrally planned and sewered areas. A satellite approach is a promising provisioning option parallel to public sewerage for middle- and high-income residential areas, endowed institutions, and government facilities. Although the studied satellite systems offer localized solutions that fit the situation of Kampala, better treatment and management arrangements are ...

  4. Monitoring the Startup of a Sacrificial Concrete Sewer for Odor Control

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    The use of a sacrificial concrete sewer for controlling sulphide-related odour downstream of a pressure sewer was investigated in this study. The investigated sewer is located in a rural catchment and is intended to alleviate odour problems downstream of a small diameter pressure sewer with exten...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2122 - Approval of user charge system and proposed sewer use ordinance.

    2010-07-01

    ... Treatment Works § 35.2122 Approval of user charge system and proposed sewer use ordinance. If the project is... proposed sewer use ordinance. 35.2122 Section 35.2122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... existing) sewer use ordinance § 35.2130). If the applicant has a sewer use ordinance or user charge...

  6. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...... radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promising results, and show large potentials, exploiting the existing water infrastructure in future climate...

  7. Transport of large solids in sewer pipes.

    Walski, Thomas; Edwards, Bryce; Helfer, Emil; Whitman, Brian E

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the conditions under which large solids (i.e., solids with a vertical dimension greater than the depth of water) are able to move in a pipe. Depending on the value of a dimensionless number [s(d/y) - 1], where s = specific gravity of the solids, d = water depth, and y = height of solids, motion will occur if a sufficient velocity (also reported as a Froude number or modified "solids" Froude number) is exceeded. Flume experiments were used to determine the coefficients to be used in the design. The velocity required to reach fluid movement was approximately 0.6 to 1.0 m/s (2 to 3 ft/s), which is consistent, although slightly higher than values generally used in conventional sewer design practice. However, it was demonstrated that increasing the pipe slope to achieve a higher velocity does not ensure that the solid will move. PMID:19691252

  8. Romanian sanitary system assisted by knowledge management

    Daniel. O. Costache; Cosmin Dobrin; Ruxandra Dinulescu; Laura Voicu; Raluca S. Costache

    2015-01-01

    As the medical sciences advances, so does the volume of information which becomes more and more consistent. The health care system is one of the most complex systems encountered in our society. Today, knowledge management practices have been adopted in many Romanian business sectors. However, Romanian health care system is slowly adopting such principles and concepts. This fact is created mainly because of the organizational culture. In the sanitary industry, this barrier is ...

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in § 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21...

  10. INTEGRATED CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER REGULATORS USING WEATHER RADAR

    Integrated operation was simulated of ten dynamic combined sewer regulators on a Montreal interceptor. Detailed review of digital recording weather radar capabilities indicated that it is potentially the best rainfall estimation means for accomplishing the runoff prediction that ...

  11. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  12. SEWER NETWORK DISCHARGE OPTIMIZATION USING THE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Viorel MINZU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to adopt an optimal control that allows an efficient usage of the existing sewer networks, in order to avoid the building of new retention facilities. The main objective of the control action is to minimize the overflow volume of a sewer network. This paper proposes a method to apply a solution obtained by discrete dynamic programming through a realistic closed loop system.

  13. Efficacy of alpha-chlorhydrin in sewer rat control.

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    A single application of the male chemosterilant, alpha-chlorhydrin, to a problem sewer rat infestation resulted in reductions of rat numbers and distribution which was comparable to effects of warfarin baiting methods. Rat numbers were reduced by more than 85% by both methods. More rapid mortality and recruitment were evident for warfarin effects; the alpha-chlorhydrin treated population had a longer lag phase of growth so that reinfestation of sewer habitat to pre-treatment numbers, and dist...

  14. Utilities:Water:Sewer Line Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:sewer_node)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents sewer line nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  15. Living without Sanitary Sewers in Latin America : The Business of Collecting Fecal Sludge in Four Latin American Cities

    Rojas Ortuste, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The present report spotlights the major challenges and the opportunities that lie ahead in fecal sludge management and summarizes the findings from four case studies that describe the current and potential market for sludge removal, collection, and disposal in peri-urban areas. These areas, inhabited by a variety of ethnic, religious, and cultural groups, typically struggle with high popul...

  16. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  17. Application of Flushing Devices in Sewer Systems (Toepassing van systemen voor de spoeling van sedimenten in rioleringen)

    Haji Seyed Mohammad Shirazi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of sewer sediment accumulation, which can cause major sewer operational problems, is imperative and has been an immense concern for sewer designers. So far, researchers have mostly attempted to investigate the conditions where sewer systems can operate under self-cleansing condition, this way neglecting the essential attention that has to be addressed to sediment deposition patterns which occur in sewer reaches under various sewer geometrical and hydraulic conditions. To account fo...

  18. Romanian sanitary system assisted by knowledge management

    Daniel. O. Costache

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the medical sciences advances, so does the volume of information which becomes more and more consistent. The health care system is one of the most complex systems encountered in our society. Today, knowledge management practices have been adopted in many Romanian business sectors. However, Romanian health care system is slowly adopting such principles and concepts. This fact is created mainly because of the organizational culture. In the sanitary industry, this barrier is composed both from an organizational perspective and also, from an individual perspective. Through the knowledge management practices, doctors could benefit from the amount of data spread in different geographical regions.

  19. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments

    Yanchen Liu; Chen Wu; Xiaohong Zhou; David Z.Zhu; Hanchang Shi

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards,and requires expensive programs for its prevention.The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments.The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated.The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment.The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide)ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions ofefficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss.The opth-nal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems.

  20. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  1. Numerical Modelling of Separation Efficiency of Sediments in a Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO)

    Wilhelmsen, Berit Bye

    2012-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a part of the combined storm water and foul sewer system. CSOs should protect the downstream sewer system against overloading during heavy rainfall and snow melting. This report investigates how three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be applied to evaluate the quality performance of combined sewer overflows (CSOs).Separation efficiency is a performance indicator defined as the fraction of sediments that are treated and not overflowing. Emi...

  2. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  3. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  4. A methodological approach to designing sewer system control

    Mollerup, Ane Loft

    this thesis was therefore the wish for a methodological approach to sewer system control design. Using a case study the following research hypothesis was tested in this thesis: Using classical and modern control theory, a methodological approach can be derived for designing sewer system control. This...... can aid urban drainage planner and other professionals in the planning phase of sewer system con-trol design and effectively contribute to find novel control solution. It was investigated if the established methodology used in classic control the-ory for process control design can be applied...... limited, it is not necessarily the best option to implement advanced optimisation based control systems. Therefore it is also advisable to approach the design of a control system in a methodological manner, where the design and evaluation can be done step by step. Based on the experiences gained from...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  6. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  7. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, Dines;

    2015-01-01

    case study area of Copenhagen. The analysis effectively reduces the number of potential controlled variables, by considering the sensitivity of the measurements towards changes in the manipulated variables. Several potential pairings are generated and the best alternative is chosen for closed......-loop testing. The methodology is a promising tool for systematic generation of solutions for sewer system control....

  8. Radiation sterilization and effective utilization of sewer sludge

    The treatment and disposal of the sludge that is generated in sewage treatment plants in large quantity have become a social problem. At present it is disposed mostly by landfill or reclamation. The research and development of the effective utilization of sewer sludge as fertilizer after sterilizing it by radiation have been carried out since relatively long ago. In this report, the technology of the sterilization and effective utilization of sludge by using radiation is introduced, centering around the research carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The general treatment process for sewage in Japan is explained. Sewer sludge is a useful resource, but when it is used for farmland as fertilizer, the problems are the possibility of the contamination with high concentration heavy metals, the possibility of the contamination by pathogenic bacteria and parasites and the bad smell of sludge. The radiation sterilization of sewer sludge, the electron sterilization of sewer sludge, the basic test and the pilot plant test on making compost, the effect of applying electron beam-sterilized sludge compost, and the economical efficiency of this process are reported. Accompanying recent environment pollution, small amount of harmful substances have become to be mixed in sludge, and it becomes the obstacle to the effective use of sludge. (K.I.)

  9. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act... transportation and treatment for each defined source of infiltration/inflow. (b) A report shall summarize the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey....

  10. Deterministic Versus Stochastic Interpretation of Continuously Monitored Sewer Systems

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    1994-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the uncertainty of input parameters to deterministic models for sewer systems. The analysis reveals a very significant uncertainty, which can be decreased, but not eliminated and has to be considered for engineering application. Stochastic models have a potential for ...

  11. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems.

    Auguet, O; Pijuan, M; Batista, J; Borrego, C M; Gutierrez, O

    2015-10-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7±72.3 mg S-H2S liter(-1) day(-1)), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9±15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6±16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter(-1) day(-1)), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  12. SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS

    Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

  13. Sanitary harmlessness of food-stuffs being processed by radiation

    This study was aimed at evaluating the sanitary harmlessness of radiation-treated food products. The procedure used involved biological and microbiological tests, physicochemical analyses, and organoleptic studies. (E.T.)

  14. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment pl...

  15. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

    2001-02-01

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  16. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    Starr, R.C.; Green, T.S.; Hull, L.C.

    2001-02-28

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  17. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results. PMID:22395957

  18. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C1C4 hydrocarbons; the C5-C10 normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials

  19. Sanitary Status of Croatian Native Grapevine Varieties

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Many grapevine cultivars are grown in Croatia, most of which are considered to be autochthonous. Mass positive selection together with sanitary selection of 15 economically important cultivars was initiated. To this aim, visual observations were made for the presence of virus-induced symptoms. Samples of dormant canes were collected from vines with positive agronomic traits and no visible symptoms of virus infection. The presence of four economically important viruses was evaluated using ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: two nepoviruses, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV and two closteroviruses Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1 and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3. The Survey of virus diseases in commercial vineyards of different vinegrowing regions of Croatia disclosed a widespread presence of viruses and a low occurrence of non-infected vines. Th is is true especially for the coastal region where not a single healthy plant could be found for certain cultivars. Although no visible symptoms were observed, it was not rare to detect multiple infections by two or even three viruses. The most widespread virus in Dalmatia was GFLaV- 3 with approximately 80 % of vines infected. In the northern regions almost half of the analysed plants were negative in ELISA and the most represented virus was GLRaV-1. The presence of both nepoviruses is rather low, especially ArMV (only 1 % of vines infected.

  20. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  1. Following a drop of water from the cloud, throughout the sewer system, into the receiving water - Model predictive control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari;

    This article presents selected examples of model-based prediction and control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems, developed within the framework of the Storm- and Wastewater Informatics project (SWI). By exploiting all the available on-line information (e.g. radar based rainfall...... of combined sewer networks and wastewater treatment plants....

  2. A software-based sensor for combined sewer overflows.

    Leonhardt, G; Fach, S; Engelhard, C; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    A new methodology for online estimation of excess flow from combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures based on simulation models is presented. If sufficient flow and water level data from the sewer system is available, no rainfall data are needed to run the model. An inverse rainfall-runoff model was developed to simulate net rainfall based on flow and water level data. Excess flow at all CSO structures in a catchment can then be simulated with a rainfall-runoff model. The method is applied to a case study and results show that the inverse rainfall-runoff model can be used instead of missing rain gauges. Online operation is ensured by software providing an interface to the SCADA-system of the operator and controlling the model. A water quality model could be included to simulate also pollutant concentrations in the excess flow. PMID:22864433

  3. Airflow in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient.

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian Kilsgaard; Vollertsen, Jes; Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2016-03-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient was found. PMID:26931535

  4. Radiation exposure of sewer workers associated with radioactive discharges from hospitals

    Models have been developed to estimate the dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the sewer system serving a hospital where nuclear medicine and other techniques are used, and to assess the radiation doses to sewer workers and maintenance staff who may be exposed to these discharges. The dispersion model has been tested in a practical situation for the radionuclide 131I. For a typical combination of hospital and sewer works, the estimated critical group doses arising from discharges of four selected radionuclides, 32P, 99mTc, 125I and 131I, are 30 μSv y-1 and 20 μSv y-1 respectively for a worker at the sewer works and for a sewer maintenance worker exposed for prolonged periods in the region of the sewer system adjacent to the hospital discharge point. (author)

  5. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS. PMID:25839834

  6. Model-based analysis of control performance in sewer systems

    Mollerup, Ane Høyer; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Johansen, N.B.; Thornberg, D.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Sin, Gürkan

    Design and assessment of control in wastewater systems has to be tackled at all levels, including supervisory and regulatory level. We present here an integrated approach to assessment of control in sewer systems based on modelling and the use of process control tools to assess the controllability...... of the process. A case study of a subcatchment area in Copenhagen (Denmark) is used to illustrate the combined approach in modelling of the system and control assessment....

  7. Measurements and Computations of Transients in Pumped Sewer Plastic Mains

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of pressure and flow in a number of pumped plastic sewer mains have been carried out in order to compare the actual observed transients with computations. Primarily the situation following pump run-down has been studied. The investigation covered pipelines with steadily rising length...... profiles as well as pipelines with one or more high points. The comparisons emphasize the effects of cavitation and air pockets....

  8. South Davis Sewer District Pump Station Hydraulic Capacity Evaluation

    Dixon, James W

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, South Davis Sewer District (SDSD) determined that possible hydraulic problems existed in their various pump stations operating within their treatment plants. A hydraulic analysis was conducted for the pump stations to diagnose the problems and provide possible alternative solutions. This analysis was conducted by using hydraulic minor loss equations to determine the amount of flow that the pumps were capable of producing and then comparing those results to the required demands in the...

  9. The sewer collection system, the first treatment step

    'Full text:' The Civil Engineering Research Foundation's (CERF) Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC) conducted an evaluation of a microbial treatment additive that converts the entire sewer collection system into an efficient high-speed treatment step. The technology claims to reduce total suspended solids (TSS) by > 60% and carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD), simultaneously by > 30% before it reaches the treatment plant. The technology uses pump station wet wells as the network nodes to add the microbial treatment to the waste water collection system This process uses the natural retention time in the sewer coupled with the addition of an extremely concentrated mixture of select, symbiotic, facultative microbes, which degrade the waste en route to the treatment plant. These bacteria do not produce odorous compounds and they replace the sulfur-reducing-bacteria (SRB) in the biomass on the walls of the force mains and on the wet perimeter of the gravity sewer piping by 'competitive exclusion.' This microbial substitution is achieved by the high quantity of organisms injected into the collection system. This reduces the sulfides in the wastewater thereby reducing the odor, along with greatly reducing the corrosion elements, which attack the piping in a sewer collection system. The objective of EvTEC evaluation was to verify the performance and reliability of such a microbial additive to treat wastewater and reduce plant 'sludges,' or biosolids. Among other performance issues, the evaluation addressed the technology's ability to treat domestic wastewater flows over an extended time period (i.e., greater than 3 months, 6 months, 12 months..., etc.) and to see if the benefits are improved during particular times of year. The benefits to using the additive include reducing the biosolids produced at the treatment plant and increasing the treatment plant's efficiency and capacity. This in turn helped reduce operating costs without requiring a large

  10. Flow knowledge - tools for sewer operation and targeting renewal

    Flow monitoring in gravity sewer systems poses challenges of complexity and interpretation of data. The success of sewer renewal work needs objective measures to determine effectiveness of I/I removal, overflow abatement, and customer service. The value of sewer renewal has been underestimated in many cases because the initial loading of I/I was underestimated due to misinterpretation of data. This paper will explain how to avoid these errors, and how to develop baseline relationships between I/I and rainfall. Case histories for Nashville and Jackson demonstrate that improved interpretation enabled designers to identify instances when upsizing was not needed. Analysis of the data 'signature' showed that correction of downstream blockages would recover the required capacity. The US-EPA's national CMOM initiative will require flow monitoring for documenting municipal program performance. A common strategy for deploying temporary meters is to use two consecutive months between September and April. During a year of flow monitoring in a North Carolina community, only one of the seven possible combinations of two 'wet' months would have replicated the correct estimate of annual I/I with that strategy. Analysis of 12 individual months resulted in projections of annual I/I that varied from -49%, to +85% compared to the total I/I for that location in one calendar year. Permanent flow monitoring conducted for periods greater than a year will help increase the reliability of projected sewer system characteristics. However, annual variations must still be considered based on variations observed in system characteristics during a study of four permanent monitoring sites over a period of three years in Nashville. (author)

  11. Model adaptation in a central controller for a sewer system

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla; Mol, Bart

    2013-04-01

    For small sewer systems that combine foul water and storm water sewer functions in flat terrain, central control of the sewer system may have problems during dry weather. These systems are a combination of local gravity flow networks connected by pumps. Under those conditions the level in the wet well (local storage at the pumping station) should be kept below the entrance pipe but above the top of the intake of the pump. The pumps are dimensioned to cope with the combined flow of foul water and precipitation run off so their capacity is relatively large when compared wityh the volume available in the wet well. Under local control this is not a major problem because the effective controller time step is very short. For central control the control time step can become a problem. Especially when there is uncertainty about the relation between level and volume in the wet well. In this paper we describe a way to dynamically adapt the level to volume relation based on dry weather behaviour. This is important because a better estimate of this volume will reduce the number of on/off cycles for the pumps. It will also allow detection and correction for changes in pump performance due to aging.

  12. Implementation of flushing tanks in combined sewer networks to comply with optimal self-cleansing properties

    Haji Seyed Mohammad Shirazi, Reza; Bouteligier, Raf; Willems, Patrick; Berlamont, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Combined sewer networks are designed to collect and transport the aqueous and solid wastes originating from domestic, industrial and catchment surfaces for treatment and disposal. One of the problems that arise is sedimentation of the particles within the collected water while flowing throughout such networks. In fact, many sewer pipes in combined sewer systems experience considerable fluctuations in flows, ranging from high flow during short-term storm events to longer periods of much lower ...

  13. Mechanism and kinetics of biofilm growth process influenced by shear stress in sewers.

    Ai, Hainan; Xu, Jingwei; Huang, Wei; He, Qiang; Ni, Bingjie; Wang, Yinliang

    2016-01-01

    Sewer biofilms play an important role in the biotransformation of substances for methane and sulfide emission in sewer networks. The dynamic flows and the particular shear stress in sewers are the key factors determining the growth of the sewer biofilm. In this work, the development of sewer biofilm with varying shear stress is specifically investigated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the sewer biofilm dynamics. Sewer biofilms were cultivated in laboratory-scale gravity sewers under different hydraulic conditions with the corresponding shell stresses are 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively. The evolution of the biofilm thickness were monitored using microelectrodes, and the variation in total solids (TS) and extracellular polymer substance (EPS) levels in the biofilm were also measured. The results showed that the steady-state biofilm thickness were highly related to the corresponding shear stresses with the biofilm thickness of 2.4 ± 0.1 mm, 2.7 ± 0.1 mm and 2.2 ± 0.1 mm at shear stresses of 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively, which the chemical oxygen demand concentration is 400 mg/L approximately. Based on these observations, a kinetic model for describing the development of sewer biofilms was developed and demonstrated to be capable of reproducing all the experimental data. PMID:27054728

  14. Design and performance evaluation of a simplified dynamic model for combined sewer overflows in pumped sewer systems

    van Daal-Rombouts, Petra; Sun, Siao; Langeveld, Jeroen; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Clemens, François

    2016-07-01

    Optimisation or real time control (RTC) studies in wastewater systems increasingly require rapid simulations of sewer systems in extensive catchments. To reduce the simulation time calibrated simplified models are applied, with the performance generally based on the goodness of fit of the calibration. In this research the performance of three simplified and a full hydrodynamic (FH) model for two catchments are compared based on the correct determination of CSO event occurrences and of the total discharged volumes to the surface water. Simplified model M1 consists of a rainfall runoff outflow (RRO) model only. M2 combines the RRO model with a static reservoir model for the sewer behaviour. M3 comprises the RRO model and a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir characteristics were derived from FH model simulations. It was found that M2 and M3 are able to describe the sewer behaviour of the catchments, contrary to M1. The preferred model structure depends on the quality of the information (geometrical database and monitoring data) available for the design and calibration of the model. Finally, calibrated simplified models are shown to be preferable to uncalibrated FH models when performing optimisation or RTC studies.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  18. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  19. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  20. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Systems: Utilizing a Distributed Lag Model

    Combined sewer systems collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These combined sewer over...

  1. Influence of Sewer Sediments on Flow Friction and Shear Stress Distribution

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    Most sewers contain more or less deposited sediments. The paper discusses the distribution of the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with such deposited sediments. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical...

  2. Flood Grouting for Infiltration Reduction on Private Side Sewers (WERF Report INFR5R11)

    The sewers in Seattle’s Broadview neighborhood, built in the 1950s, experience significant inflow and infiltration. Intense wet weather events have resulted in sewer overflows into private residences and the environment and previous work indicates that the majority of this excess...

  3. The Characteristics of Waste Water Flow in a Danish Combined Sewer

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    have been analysed in order to extract some of their characteristics. Furthermore it is emphasised that the presence of a self-cleansing capacity of a combined sewer system is of vital importance in order to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows on receiving waters. Whether or not the pipelines...

  4. Principles and approaches for numerical modelling of sediment transport in sewers

    Mark, Ole; Larsen, Torben; Appelgren, Cecilia

    1994-01-01

    A study has been carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden with the objectives to describe the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A results of the study is a mathematical m...

  5. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance and evaluation... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The...

  6. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control

    Maurico-Iglesias, Miguel; Castro, Ignacio Montero; Mollerup, Ane Loft;

    2015-01-01

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems...

  7. Assessment areas for the implementation of sewer lines

    Kaiser, Primož

    2010-01-01

    The inspiration for the title of my diploma I got from my work. I am employed at a construction company, were we work a lot with sewerage. I divided my diploma into two parts. The first part of diploma I started out with a description of the process before the actual construction of sewer is done, from site preparation, review of project documentation, to go see the construction site, time and operational plan, financial plan and cost estimation, elaborate work safety, the authorization and p...

  8. Quantitative assessment of the groundwater-sewer network interaction in Bucharest city (Romania)

    Boukhemacha, M. A.; Diaconescu, A.; Bica, I.; Gogu, C. R.; Gaitanaru, D.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater management in urban area must take account of every possible and relevant phenomena arising from the complex interaction between subsurface water, surface water, and urban infrastructure. In Bucharest, the need of the sewer system rehabilitation initiated a study of the interaction between groundwater and the sewer network. Recent conclusions show that the sewer network acts mainly like a drainage system for the groundwater. However, it could be easily proven that several sewer segments located mainly in the unsaturated zone contaminate the groundwater by leakage. The groundwater infiltration in the sewer conduits can cause the decrease of the groundwater level leading to structures instability problems as well as to the increase flow-rates of the sewer system. The last one affects seriously the wastewater treatment plants efficiency. The sewer network leakage cause groundwater pollution and locally could increase the groundwater level triggering buildings instability or other urban operational problems. The current study focuses on the consequences of sealing a part of the sewer system and so disturbing the existing groundwater behavior which may lead to serious consequences. In this framework, the analysis results of a groundwater flow model used to quantify the interaction between the groundwater and the sewer network are presented. The two-layers groundwater flow model simulating the Colentina and Mostistea overlaid sedimentary aquifers covers about 75 km2. Its conceptual model relies on a 3D geological model made by using 23 accurate geological cross-sections of the studied domain. The model set-up and its calibration are done using pumping tests data, groundwater hydraulic heads, and water levels of the sewer system. Infiltration rates into sewers are modeled by applying a modified form of Darcy's law that uses the notion of infiltration factor. This last encompasses the hydraulic conductivity of the clogging layer, the infiltration area and the

  9. Flooding in urban drainage systems: Coupling hyperbolic conservation laws for sewer systems and surface flow

    Borsche, Raul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for a sewer network coupled to surface flow and investigate it numerically. In particular, we present a new model for the manholes in storm sewer systems. It is derived using the balance of the total energy in the complete network. The resulting system of equations contains, aside from hyperbolic conservation laws for the sewer network and algebraic relations for the coupling conditions, a system of ODEs governing the flow in the manholes. The manholes provide natural points for the interaction of the sewer system and the run off on the urban surface modelled by shallow water equations. Finally, a numerical method for the coupled system is presented. In several numerical tests we study the influence of the manhole model on the sewer system and the coupling with 2D surface flow.

  10. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    2010-04-01

    ... food-packaging materials, or for employee sanitary facilities. (b) Plumbing. Plumbing shall be of... understandable signs directing employees handling unproteced food, unprotected food-packaging materials, of food... posted in the processing room(s) and in all other areas where employees may handle such food,...

  11. MORBIDITY PROFILE OF SANITARY WORKERS IN THRISSUR CORPORATION, KERALA

    Prabhakumari; Sudhiraj; Arya

    2015-01-01

    Sanitation workers responsibilities in Corporation area are street sweeping & drain cleaning. These workers are exposed to dirt, infective organisms, hazardous chemicals, sharp objects while working. OBJECTIVES: To study the morbidity profile of sanitary workers in Thrissur Corporation, Kerala. To study the treatment seeking behavior in these persons. To study their practices regarding personnel protective measures. MATERIALS & METHODS: cross sectional morbidity study ...

  12. RECTANGULAR STORM SEWER DESIGN UNDER EQUAL SEDIMENT MOBILITY

    Jaber Almedeij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular storm sewers are conduits delivering water to outfall locations and have sizes that are typically larger than standard pipes, by which they become subject to more sediment deposits during operation and thus require higher flow strengths to maintain the bed clean. This study suggests a design procedure of self-cleansing rectangular sewers based on maintaining a lower limit of Shields stress and an upper limit of dimensionless bedload transport capacity. The lower limit of Shields stress is proposed under two considerations: to sustain equal sediment mobility at the channel bottom instead of selective transport and to avoid progressive deposition of finer grains due to low and reducing flows. The upper dimensionless bedload capacity is determined rationally and confirmed by using experimental data obtained from the literature. An existing bedload transport equation developed under equal sediment mobility is modified to provide a basis for the design method. It is shown that the proposed design procedure can practically be applied for a channel to estimate sediment concentrations by setting the required flow strength of Shields tress and particle size. Charts are given as an example for determining explicitly the channel design parameters. The study demonstrates that despite the high flows imposed, the design specifications determined according to this criterion can reasonably be achieved in practice for a given project.

  13. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse. PMID:22097068

  14. Management of sewer overflow structure in the FRG

    Due to the geological morphology of the south and west of Germany, combined sewer systems are used to drain sewage and rain water in urban areas. In this system, industrial and domestic sewage as well as rain water flowing off areas with sealed surfaces are discharged into one pipe. Size and structure of this sewer system are designed to fulfil the criterium, that the total amount of water, stemming from rain events of an intensity not to be exceeded more than once a year, can be drained without flooding any part of the area considered. In the past, construction costs were reduced by building overflow structures at suitable sites; these structures discharge a volume of water exceeding five times the amount of water produced during dry weather in a most directly way in the outlet channel. In the sewage treatment plant, only two fifths of this remaining water volume was treated mechanically and biologically. Three fifths were discharged into the natural waters after mechanical treatment only

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Five Odor Reducing Agents for Sewer System Odors Using an On-Line Total Reduced Sulfur Analyzer

    Hyunook Kim; Joungdu Shin; Hyunjoo Lee; Il Choi

    2012-01-01

    Sewer odors have been a concern to citizens of the Metropolitan Seoul region, which has installed combined sewer systems (CSSs) in 86% of its area. Although a variety of odorants are released from sewers, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) have been recognized as major ones. A number of technologies have been proposed to monitor or control odors from sewers. One of the most popular strategies adopted for the control of sewage odor is by applying a commercial odor-reducing agent into the sewer. ...

  16. Stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure alter sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    M. J. Pennino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P shift in response to differences in stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure. We compared a restored stream with 3 unrestored streams draining urban development and stormwater management over a 3 year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower monthly peak runoff (9.4 ± 1.0 mm d−1 compared with two urban unrestored streams (ranging from 44.9 ± 4.5 to 55.4 ± 5.8 mm d−1 draining higher impervious surface cover. Peak runoff in the restored stream was more similar to a less developed stream draining extensive stormwater management (13.2 ± 1.9 mm d−1. Interestingly, the restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads at relatively lower streamflow than the 2 more urban streams, which exported most of their loads at higher and less frequent streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha−1 yr−1, total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha−1 yr−1, and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 g ha−1 yr−1 were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban unrestored streams (p < 0.05 and similar to the stream draining stormwater management. Although stream restoration appeared to potentially influence hydrology to some degree, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow, similar to the unrestored streams. Longitudinal synoptic surveys of water and nitrate isotopes along all 4 watersheds suggested the importance of urban groundwater contamination from leaky piped

  17. Determination of the flow rate in sewers with the aid of radioactive tracers

    When sewage treatment plants for liquid industrial wastes are planned, the mass flow in complex sewer systems with usually hardly accessible sewers must be calculated. The most suitable method is the dilution method using radioactive tracers which can be carried out in all kinds of sewers. The article outlines the principle and the implementation of the measurements and gives information concerning the tracers (24Na, 51Cr, 169Yb), the dosage of the tracer solution, the sampling and the measurement of the samples as well as on some aspects of radiation protection. (orig./AK)

  18. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1995 annual report

    Bagwell, L.

    1996-04-24

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled biannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500- 1120 (formerly DWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane was elevated in one downgradient and one sidegradient well during 1995. Barium, 1, 1- dichloroethylene, specific conductance, and zinc exceeded standards in one well each. The elevated level of 1, 1-dichloroethylene occurred in a downgradient well. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 190 ft/year during first quarter 1995 and 150 ft/yr during third quarter 1995.

  19. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  20. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  1. Marketing Specialization in the Sanitary-Veterinary Field

    Mihaela Cornelia Prejmerean

    2006-01-01

    Public health and food safety are main consumer rights in the European Union. Sanitary standards related to animal health, animal welfare, food production are developed and standardizEditura The objective is to detect, diagnose and control animal diseases and to have a safe food chain. Although the input of the animal health industry is low in the agricultural production, it allows European farmers to produce high quality meat and dairy products, minimise environmental impact. Romania as a fu...

  2. Parsimonious hydrological modeling of urban sewer and river catchments

    Coutu, Sylvain; Del Giudice, Dario; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryA parsimonious model of flow capable of simulating flow in natural/engineered catchments and at WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant) inlets was developed. The model considers three interacting, dynamic storages that account for transfer of water within the system. One storage describes the “flashy” response of impervious surfaces, another pervious areas and finally one storage describes subsurface flow. The sewerage pipe network is considered as an impervious surface and is thus included in the impervious surface storage. In addition, the model assumes that water discharged from several CSOs (combined sewer overflows) can be accounted for using a single, characteristic CSO. The model was calibrated on, and validated for, the Vidy Bay WWTP, which receives effluent from Lausanne, Switzerland (population about 200,000), as well as for an overlapping urban river basin. The results indicate that a relatively simple approach is suitable for predicting the responses of interacting engineered and natural hydrosystems.

  3. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  4. Areas with access to municipal sewer service in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent areas that had access to municipal sewer service in the Pacific Northwest region...

  5. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Sewer Treatment Plant, Published in 2008, City of Elizabeth City.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Sewer Treatment Plant'. Data by...

  6. Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    Today it is common practice - in the major part of Europe - to base design of sewer systems in urban areas on recommended minimum values of flooding frequencies related to either pipe top level, basement level in buildings or level of road surfaces. Thus storm water runoff in sewer systems is only...... proceeding in an acceptable manner, if flooding of these levels is having an average return period bigger than a predefined value. This practice is also often used in functional analysis of existing sewer systems. If a sewer system can fulfil recommended flooding frequencies or not, can only be verified by...... corresponding extreme event statistics. This paper illustrates this problem in a case study with two different values of one input parameter - the hydrological reduction factor - in two otherwise identical operations of the MOUSE LTS model. The use of a long historical rainfall time series makes it possible to...

  7. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment

    Petit, Anna; Sanjuan Delmás, David; Martínez Gasol, Carles; Villalba Mendez, Gara; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Rieradevall, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  8. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  9. Indirect sulfur reduction via polysulfide contributes to serious odor problem in a sewer receiving nitrate dosage.

    Liang, Shuang; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Nitrate dosing is commonly used to control hydrogen sulfide production in sewer systems. However, quick rebound of the sulfide concentration after nitrate depletion has been observed and results in more serious odor and corrosion problem. To investigate the mechanism of sulfide regeneration in the nitrate-free period, a laboratory-scale sewer reactor was run for 30 days to simulate sulfide production and oxidation with intermittent nitrate addition. The results show that nitrate addition substantially reduced the sulfide concentration, but the produced elemental sulfur was then quickly reduced back to sulfide in nitrate-free periods. This induced more and more sulfide production in the sewer reactor. Elemental sulfur and polysulfide reductions were found in the sewage in nitrate-free periods, showing their contributions to the sulfide regeneration. Through batch tests, polysulfide was confirmed as the key intermediate for accelerating sulfur reduction during the nitrate-free period in the sewer. Sulfide production rates significantly increased by 65% and 59% in the presences of tetrasulfide and sulfur with sulfide, respectively, at the beginning of the test. While polysulfide formation was prevented by the ferrous chloride addition, the sulfur reduction rate remarkably decreased from 12.8 mgS/L-h to 1.8 mgS/L-h. This indicates that direct sulfur reduction was significantly slower than the indirect sulfur reduction via polysulfide; the latter process could be the cause for the quick rebound of the sulfide concentration in the sewer with intermittent nitrate dosing. Thus, the pathways of sulfur transformations in a sewer, both in the presence and absence of nitrate, were proposed. Microbial community analysis results reveal that some common sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera in sewer sediment were possible sulfur reducers. According to this finding, the effect and strategy of nitrate dosing for hydrogen sulfide control in sewers should be re-evaluated and re

  10. Long-Term Economic Impacts of USDAWater and Sewer Infrastructure Investments in Oklahoma

    Janeski, Ivica; Whitacre, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    One of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Development’s most popular programs is the funding for public water and sewer infrastructure projects in rural communities. This article reviews the water and sewer infrastructure projects funded in the state of Oklahoma between 1990 and 2000 and evaluates their impact on different measures of economic growth over both the short (one to 10 years) and long (10 to 20 years) term. Evaluation techniques include multivariate regression and average ...

  11. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems

    Risch, E.; Gutierrez, O; ROUX, P.; Boutin, C.; Corominas, L

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with ...

  12. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS IN THE ASPECT OF THEIR IMPACT ON A RECEIVER

    Agnieszka Brzezińska

    2016-01-01

    Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to ...

  13. Experimental and numerical investigations of influence of the turbulent shear stress on the sedimentation in sewers

    JAUMOUILLIE, P; Larrarte, F.

    2003-01-01

    Theoretically, a sewer is made to conveyed waste waters to the treatment plant but sewer systems have existed for many centuries in European countries and most of the old channels receive both domestic waste waters and rain water. As a consequence, the hydraulic situation in the flume changes drastically :during dry periods there are slow water velocities and the pollutant conveyed by the water may happen to sediment ; during wet periods there are fast water velocities and the sediments are f...

  14. Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method

    Alani, Amir M.; Asaad Faramarzi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is prese...

  15. Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    Today it is common practice - in the major part of Europe - to base design of sewer systems in urban areas on recommended minimum values of flooding frequencies related to either pipe top level, basement level in buildings or level of road surfaces. Thus storm water runoff in sewer systems is only proceeding in an acceptable manner, if flooding of these levels is having an average return period bigger than a predefined value. This practice is also often used in functional analysis of existing...

  16. A solvent-free approach to extract the lipid fraction from sewer grease for biodiesel production.

    Tu, Qingshi; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Mingming; Brougham, Andrew; Lu, Ting

    2016-08-01

    Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are the number one cause of sewer pipe blockage and have been mostly disposed of as a waste until recently. This study investigated a low cost and environmentally friendly approach to extract the lipid fraction (fatty acids and glycerides for biodiesel production) from sewer grease (SG), i.e., FOGs obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The lipid fraction of the sewer grease was primarily in the form of free fatty acid (FFA), at 20.7wt%. An innovative solvent-free extraction approach was developed using waste cooking oil (WCO) to overcome the challenges of emulsion, impurities and high moisture content of the sewer grease. A 95% extraction yield of sewer grease was achieved under the optimum operating condition of 3.2:1 WCO-SG ratio (wt/wt), 70°C and 240min. In addition, the reusability of the WCO was also investigated. WCO can be used two to three times for sewer grease extraction with more than 90% extraction efficiency. PMID:27256783

  17. Multivariate probability distribution for sewer system vulnerability assessment under data-limited conditions.

    Del Giudice, G; Padulano, R; Siciliano, D

    2016-01-01

    The lack of geometrical and hydraulic information about sewer networks often excludes the adoption of in-deep modeling tools to obtain prioritization strategies for funds management. The present paper describes a novel statistical procedure for defining the prioritization scheme for preventive maintenance strategies based on a small sample of failure data collected by the Sewer Office of the Municipality of Naples (IT). Novelty issues involve, among others, considering sewer parameters as continuous statistical variables and accounting for their interdependences. After a statistical analysis of maintenance interventions, the most important available factors affecting the process are selected and their mutual correlations identified. Then, after a Box-Cox transformation of the original variables, a methodology is provided for the evaluation of a vulnerability map of the sewer network by adopting a joint multivariate normal distribution with different parameter sets. The goodness-of-fit is eventually tested for each distribution by means of a multivariate plotting position. The developed methodology is expected to assist municipal engineers in identifying critical sewers, prioritizing sewer inspections in order to fulfill rehabilitation requirements. PMID:26901717

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Sewerage Treatment Plants, Treatment plants included in sanitary sewer layer above, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Sewerage Pumping Stations, Pumping stations included in sanitary sewer system data above, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  5. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    Dae-Hee Park; Tae-Hwan Lee; Bo-Mi Lee; Jin Hur

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the es...

  6. Fate of cocaine drug biomarkers in sewer system: the role of suspended solids in biotransformation and sorption

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio; Causanilles Llanes, Ana; Emke, Erik; De Voogt, Pim; Plósz, Benedek G.

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical processes determining the fate of micropollutants in wastewater are not limited to treatment plants (WWTPs), occurring also in sewer systems after discharge by excretion. In-sewer processes are associated mainly to the presence of biofilm attached on pipelines and suspended solids in raw sewage. Among existing micropollutants, in-sewer fate assessment is specifically relevant to illicit drugs, impacting the calculation of consumption levels in catchments according to the wastewate...

  7. Characterization of microflora and transformation of organic matters in urban sewer system.

    Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Bin; Jiao, Ding; Sun, Guangxi; Wang, Baobao; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted using a pilot sewer system consisting of 35 sequential sections, totalling 1200 m of gravity pipe. Urban sewage flowed into the sewer system at a constant flow rate until it reached physical and microbiological steady states. Microflora in the biofilm that attached to the inner surface along the pipe length were analysed. The organic compositions in both the liquid and gaseous phases of the sewer system were monitored. The results showed that typical fermentation bacteria, such as bacteroidetes and bacillus, were abundant in the system, indicating that the anoxic environment (DO = 0.3 mg/L) was suitable for fermentative bacterial growth. This resulted in a substantial reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) along the pipe length and an increase of the biodegradable oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) ratio from 0.68 at the beginning of the sewer system to 0.84 at the end of the sewer system; this was an indication of a transformation of organic matters from less-biodegradable to more-biodegradable products. Via molecular weight (MW) analysis, it was further identified that the larger organic molecules (MW > 10,000 Da) were transformed into products with smaller molecular weights. Regarding the fermentation products, the concentrations of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) increased dramatically in the initial 600-m sections and then remained constant for the later sections except for the end section of the sewer; acetic acid was found to be the primary product of the VFAs. Gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were found to increase along the length of the sewer system, whereas the concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen (H2) were high at the beginning of the sewer and then decreased in the rear sections of the sewer system. It could thus be concluded that in an urban wastewater sewer system, fermentative microflora could perform important roles in contributing to organic matter removal and

  8. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  9. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  10. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  11. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  12. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  13. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  14. Chemical pretreatment of combined sewer overflows for improved UV disinfection.

    Gibson, J; Farnood, R; Seto, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand chemical pre-treatment of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) for subsequent ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Approximately 200 jar tests were completed. Alum (Al2(S04)3·12H2O) resulted in a higher UV light transmission (UVT), and equivalent total suspended solids (TSS) removal, than ferric chloride (FeCl3). An alum dose of 20 mg/L increased the UVT of the raw CSO from 30 to 60% after settling. The addition of 100 mg/L of alum maximized UVT reaching approximately 85%. Flocculation did not increase UVT. However, it did improve the removal of TSS. Cationic polymers worked quickly compared with metal coagulants, but only reached a UVT of 60%. A high positive charge density on the polymer improved the removal of turbidity when compared with low charge, but did not affect UVT. If the goal is to maximise UVT, a very high alum dose may be preferred. If the goal is to minimize coagulant dose with moderate UV performance, cationic polymer at approximately 3 mg/L is recommended. PMID:26819393

  15. Treatment of combined sewer overflows using ferrate (VI).

    Gandhi, Rohan; Ray, Ajay K; Sharma, Virender K; Nakhla, George

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted on the treatment of combined sewer overflows using ferrate (VI) [Fe (VI)]. At a Fe (VI) dose of 0.24 mg/L, total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total biochemical oxygen demand (TBOD5), soluble biochemical oxygen demand (SBOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and soluble TN removal efficiencies of 71, 75, 69, 68, 72, 83, 64, 38, and 36%, respectively, were achieved. Kinetic studies revealed that a contact time of only 15 minutes is sufficient to achieve secondary effluent criteria. An innovative technique of using primary sludge (PS) and thickened waste activated sludge as a source for the in situ synthesis of ferrate was developed. A comparative study of treatment efficiencies achieved by Fe (VI) generated from different sources was done. At 0.1 mg/L dose of Fe (VI) synthesized from PS, TCOD, SCOD, TSS, VSS, TP, and TN removal efficiencies of 60, 62, 63, 67, 30, and 25%, respectively, were achieved. PMID:25509525

  16. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  17. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  18. Sanitary quality of castor bean seeds (cv. IAC-226

    Andréia Márcia Santos de Souza David

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungicides efficacy on the castor seeds IAC-226 sanitary quality. The seeds were treated with two doses of the fungicides captan (250 and 300 g ai 100 kg-1 seed, thiophanate-methyl (100 and 150 g ai 100 kg-1 seed and thiabendazole (100 and 150 g kg ai 100 seeds. Seeds without fungicide treatment were the control. The seeds sanitary quality was evaluated by sanity test, using 10 replications of 20 seeds per treatment/lot, superficially sterilized (sodium hypochlorite and placed in plastic boxes (gerbox with filter paper and sterilized distilled water, under controlled temperature 25°C for 20 days. Seeds were examinated individually using a stereoscopic microscope and optical microscope. The results were expressed as percentage of infected seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (2 x 7, two lots and seven treatments, with ten repetitions. The fungicides captan, tiabendazol and tiofanato-metílico reduced the incidence of fungi, being recommended for the castor seeds IAC-226 treatment. There was a predominance of fungi Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Bipolar, Botrytis ricini, Curvularia sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.

  19. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    2011-06-13

    ... Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC... 21st, 2011. During the enforcement period, Entry into, transiting, mooring, laying-up or...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1712-6 - Underground sanitary facilities; installation and maintenance.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; installation..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-6 Underground sanitary facilities; installation and maintenance. (a) Except as...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1712-7 - Underground sanitary facilities; waiver of requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; waiver of... OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-7 Underground sanitary facilities; waiver of requirements. If it has been determined by...

  2. 30 CFR 71.500 - Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... with a hinged lid and a toilet paper holder together with an adequate supply of toilet tissue. (d) Only... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work... SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of...

  3. Extra strength sewer surcharges in Ontario : do they reduce pollutant loadings?

    Some municipalities use a form of contaminant charge to recover costs of treating extra strength industrial waste water effluents in sewage treatment plants. In some cases the charge is used to encourage sewer users to pretreat their waste effluents, thereby reducing the pollution loadings to municipalities. Extra strength sewer surcharges (ESSS) involve the use of surcharge rates to the portion of the target pollutant or loadings that exceed the local by-law limits. Economists are interested in ESSSs because they pose a practical use for the contaminant charge system. This paper examined the degree to which ESSSs provide incentives to sewer uses to reduce pollution discharges. This was done by reviewing the literature on systems in different jurisdictions, mostly in the United States. Relevant data from two Canadian surveys was also analyzed. The following modifications to ESSS designs were recommended: (1) prohibit the use of increased flows to adjust effluent concentrations, (2) apply charges to any amount of pollutants discharged, not just to discharge with concentrations above by-law limits, (3) apply charge rates to any pollutant or chemical which the municipality views as causing problems to the sewer system, treatment plant or receiving waters, (4) define absolute minimum allowable effluent concentrations or loading limits for specific chargeable pollutants and for waste water flows in the municipal by-law, and (5) set charge rates that are high enough to encourage sewer users to reduce loading and flows with the promise of rate reductions when concentrations reach pre-established targets

  4. Sewage flow optimization algorithm for large-scale urban sewer networks based on network community division

    Lihui CEN; Yugeng XI

    2008-01-01

    By considering the flow control of urban sewer networks to minimize the electricity consumption of pumping stations.a decomposition-coordination strategy for energy savings based on network community division is developed in this paper. A mathematical model characterizing the smady-state flow of urball sewer networks is first constructed,consisting of a set of algebraic equations with the structure transportation capacities captured as constraints.Since the sewer networks have no apparent natural hierarchical structure in general.it is very difficult to identify the clustered groups.A fast network division approach through calculating the betweenness of each edge is successfully applied to identify the groups and a sewer network with arbitrary configuration could be then decomposed into subnetworks.By integrating the coupling constraints of the subnetworks.the original problem is separated into N optimization subproblems in accordance with the network decomposition.Each subproblem is solved locally and the solutions to the subproblems are coordinated to form an appropriate global solution.Finally,an application to a specified large-scale sewer network is also investigated to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Biogenic acids produced on epoxy linings installed in sewer crown and tidal zones.

    Valix, M; Shanmugarajah, K

    2015-09-01

    In this study the biogenic acids generated by microbes on the surface of Bisphenol A epoxy mortar coupons were investigated for up to 30 months. The epoxy coupons were installed in six sewers in three city locations, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth. Coupons were installed in both the crown and the tidal zones of the sewers to capture the effect of location within the pipe on acid production. The coupons were retrieved approximately every 6 months to provide a dynamic analysis of the biogenic acid production. Our results reveal the colonisation of epoxy mortar by the more aggressive acidophilic bacteria occurred within six months to two years of their installation in the sewer pipes. Biogenic acid generation appear to occur homogeneously from the tidal zone to the crown of the sewer pipes. The reduction in the surface pH of the epoxy lining was supported by the successive growth of microbes beginning with fungi followed be neutrophilic and heterotrophic bacteria and finally by the acidophilic bacteria and the corresponding accumulation of organic and sulphuric acids attributed to these organisms. This study also revealed the potential inhibiting effects on the microbes induced by the accumulation of metabolic products on the epoxy surface. The accumulation of organic acids and H2S coincided with the growth and metabolism inhibition of fungi and acidophilic bacteria. These results provide insights into the microbial interaction and biogenic acids production that contribute to lining degradation and corrosion of concrete in sewer pipes. PMID:26005783

  6. On professional and official requirements to physicians in radiation health by sectoral sanitary and epidemiological stations

    Professional and official requirements (POR) to sanitary physician, which deals with radiation hygiene at the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES), are considered. These requirements determine minimum of professional skills and abilities in the field of radiation hygiene. Physician should contribute to the improvement of radiation safety and health indices for personnel and population, and in this case, his activity should not impede the further usage of ionizing radiation sources in the national economy. Sanitary physician, dealing with a actain branch of industry, concerning the problems of radiation hygiene should know the principles of deontology, aims and functions of SES establishment and departments in the field of radiation hygiene, legal principles of radiation safety is basic tasks are as follows: 1) State sanitary inspection of sanitary-hygienic measures for the environmental protection and radiation protection of population; 2) organizational and methodological activity; 3) activity in medical civil defense

  7. PRIORITIZATION OF SANITARY RESTRICATIONS FACING U.S. EXPORTS OF BOVINE, PORCINE, AND OVINE FOR DETERMINATION OF SURVEILLANCE NEEDS

    Paarlberg, Philip L.; Lee, John G.; Ann Hillberg Seitzinger; Haley, Mildred M.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses databases of sanitary regulations facing U.S. livestock exports to examine the frequency and cost of sanitary barriers. Many sanitary regulations potentially face livestock exports; however, relatively few apply to most animals. As a share of the export unit value, regulations costs for cattle and bovine semen exports are smaller than those for swine and sheep. Most of the sanitary regulations appear justified from an animal health standpoint. While the cost savings from re...

  8. The role of iron in sulfide induced corrosion of sewer concrete.

    Jiang, Guangming; Wightman, Elaine; Donose, Bogdan C; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L; Keller, Jurg

    2014-02-01

    The sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete sewer is a widespread and expensive problem for water utilities worldwide. Fundamental knowledge of the initiation and propagation of sewer corrosion, especially the interactions between chemical reactions and physical structure changes, is still largely unknown. Advanced mineral analytical techniques were applied to identify the distribution of corrosion products and the micro-cracking that developed along the corrosion boundary. It was found that sewer concrete corrosion caused by reactions with sulfuric acid progressed uniformly in the cement of concrete. In contrast to conventional knowledge, iron rust rather than gypsum and ettringite was likely the factor responsible for cracking ahead of the corrosion front. The analysis also allowed quantitative determination of the major corrosion products, i.e., gypsum and ettringite, with the latter found closer to the corrosion front. The conceptual model based on these findings clearly demonstrated the complex interactions among different chemical reactions, diffusion, and micro-structure changes. PMID:24326021

  9. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of environmental decision support systems.

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse; Suñer, David; Malgrat, Pere; Poch, Manel

    2016-04-15

    During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems. In this paper an environmental decision support system (EDSS), based on the integration of mathematical modeling and knowledge-based systems, has been developed for the coordinated management of urban wastewater systems (UWS) to control and minimize uncontrolled wastewater spills. Effectiveness of the EDSS has been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS can be very effective tools to improve the management and prevent the system from possible uncontrolled wastewater discharges. PMID:26820929

  10. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated. PMID:25616115

  11. Phyto sanitary Treatment at SINAGAMA: Experience Sharing and Challenge

    After more than 22 years involved in sterilization and decontamination of products like medical devices, foods and herbs, Sinagama with the cooperation of SSDL, BAB, MARDI and Malaysia Department of Agriculture has make another step ahead by helping the local fruits farmers on phyto sanitary treatment in order to help them exporting their crops to United States. This report was prepared to discuss the challenges that have been faced by Sinagama during registration and certification process from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The challenges that Sinagama have to faced include Minimum Irradiation Dose, Dose Mapping Process, Biological Control, Training Records, Working Procedures and requirements that needed by Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Officer. All these challenged has been faced by Sinagama in order to make sure the ambition of our nation to help farming sector become reality. (author)

  12. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  13. Treatment and detoxification of a sanitary landfill leachate.

    Silva, A C; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2004-04-01

    The leachate from an old sanitary landfill (Gramacho Metropolitan Landfill, Rio de Janeiro) was characterized and submitted to coagulation and flocculation treatment followed by ozonation and ammonia stripping. The performance of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the removal of organic matter (COD and TOC), ammonium nitrogen and metals. Detoxification was assessed by determining acute toxicity, using the following organisms: Vibrio fisheri, Daphnia similis, Artemia salina and Brachydanio rerio. Membrane fractionation was employed to infer the range of molecular masses of the pollutants found in the effluent, as well as the toxicity associated to these fractions. Of the techniques under investigation, coagulation and flocculation followed by ammonia stripping were the most effective for toxicity and ammonium nitrogen removal. Membrane fractionation was effective for COD removal; however, acute toxicity was almost the same in all the fractionated samples. Ozonation was moderately effective for COD removal, but significant toxicity removal was only attained when high ozone doses were used. PMID:14761693

  14. Shape Measurement of a Sewer Pipe Using a Mobile Robot with Computer Vision

    Kikuhito Kawasue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile robot equipped with two lasers and a CCD camera for pipe inspection is proposed. Circular laser streaks that appeared on the inner surface of the pipe reveal the shape of the pipe. The 3D shape of a sewer pipe can be reconstructed considering the movement of the mobile robot along the pipe. Since the tilt of the mobile robot with respect to the axis of the pipe appears as the deformation between two circular streaks, the shape of a sewer pipe can be measured accurately, regardless of the tilt of the robot.

  15. Vertical flow constructed wetlands for combined sewer overflow treatment - Design optimization using computational tools

    Olivier, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the work done on the experimental monitoring of vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow in order to develop a software to help dimensioning this structure. The goal of my internship at Irstea Lyon-Villeurbanne was to monitor a full-scale site of vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow to make a first calibration of the model based on the field data. A sensitivity analysis was realized to identify parameters which...

  16. Microbiologically Induced Corrosion of Concrete and Protective Coatings in Gravity Sewers

    Marjorie Valix; Diyana Zamri; Hiro Mineyama; Wai Hung Cheung; Jeffrey Shi; Heri Bustamante

    2012-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion of concrete (MICC) and its protective coatings has a high eco-nomic impact on sewer maintenance and rehabilitation. A better understanding of the micro-organisms and the bio- genie acids that are generated in the sewer is essential in controlling the corrosion of concrete pipes and protective coatings. The role of succession of micro-organisms growth in the corrosion of concrete and protective coatings was evaluated in this study. Examination of various sewer pipe materials exhibiting various extents of degradation, including concrete, cement based and epoxy based coating revealed the presence of both organic and biogenic sulphuric acids. This reflects the activity of fungi and the thiobacilli strains. Organism growth and metabolism were strongly related to the substrate pH. Fungi were found to grow and metabolise organic acids at pH from 2.0-8.0. Whilst the thiobacilli strains grew and generated sulohuric acids at oH below 3.0. The successive growth of the organisms provides an impgrtant bearing in deyeloping improved strateegies.to better manage sewers.

  17. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks.

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-01

    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice. PMID:27124127

  18. Phosphate dynamics in an urban sewer: a case study of Nancy, France.

    Houhou, J; Lartiges, B S; Hofmann, A; Frappier, G; Ghanbaja, J; Temgoua, A

    2009-03-01

    The nature of phosphate phases present in suspended matter, biofilm, and sediment of Greater Nancy sewer system was investigated over a period of two years. The phosphate speciation was determined by two approaches: a direct identification of phosphorus mineral phases was conducted by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), whereas a chemical extraction of samples provided an estimate of phosphorus pools defined by the fractionation scheme. Quantitative analysis of 1340 individual particles by TEM-EDXS allowed to draw a picture of phosphate species distributions along the sewer system and over time. Amorphous Ca-phosphates (brushite, whitlockite, octacalcium phosphate, Mg-brushite, hydroxyapatite and carbapatite) were ubiquitous although brushite dominated upstream, and octacalcium phosphate and apatite prevailed downstream and in sediments. Al-Ca-phosphate minerals such as foggite, bearthite, gatumbaite, and crandallite appeared downstream and in biofilms. Ca-phosphate phase assemblages in the different locations of the sewer system were dependent on phase transformations from brushite to hydroxyapatite that were shown to be kinetically driven. The restriction of Al-Ca-phosphates to downstream of the sewer system was most probably related to the lower pHs measured at these sites. The pH dependency was confirmed by stability calculations. Chemical extractions were not reliable. TEM examination of extraction residues revealed the presence of neoformed Al-Ca-phosphate species that invalidated the fractionation scheme. Nonetheless, it confirmed that phosphate phases may undergo significant geochemical changes over a short time scale. PMID:19131087

  19. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1, respectiv

  20. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System Using Green Infrastructure

    A green infrastructure (GI) design approach was used in CSO Basin #130, a 17-acre sewershed in the Butchertown section of Louisville, Kentucky, to reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs). For the design year, the modeled design was expected to reduce the CSO frequency from 34 to ...

  1. Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method

    Amir M. Alani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed SFEM in evaluating the effects of the contributing parameters upon the probability of failure of cementitious sewer pipes. The developed SFEM offers many advantages over traditional probabilistic techniques since it does not use any empirical equations in order to determine failure of pipes. The results of the SFEM can help the concerning industry (e.g., water companies to better plan their resources by providing accurate prediction for the remaining safe life of cementitious sewer pipes.

  2. Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method.

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed SFEM in evaluating the effects of the contributing parameters upon the probability of failure of cementitious sewer pipes. The developed SFEM offers many advantages over traditional probabilistic techniques since it does not use any empirical equations in order to determine failure of pipes. The results of the SFEM can help the concerning industry (e.g., water companies) to better plan their resources by providing accurate prediction for the remaining safe life of cementitious sewer pipes. PMID:26068092

  3. Assessment of pollutant load emission from combined sewer overflows based on the online monitoring.

    Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek; Sakson, Grażyna

    2016-09-01

    Cities equipped with combined sewer systems discharge during wet weather a lot of pollutants into receiving waters by combined storm overflows (CSOs). According to the Polish legislation, CSOs should be activated no more than ten times per year, but in Lodz, most of the 18 existing CSOs operate much more frequently. To assess the pollutant load emitted by one of the existing CSOs, the sensors for measuring the concentration of total suspended solids (SOLITAX sc) and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (UVAS plus) installed in the overflow chamber as well as two flowmeters placed in the outflow sewer were used. In order to check the data from sensors, laboratory tests of combined wastewater quality were conducted simultaneously. For the analysis of the total pollutant load emitted from the overflow, the raw data was denoised using the Savitzky-Golay method. Comparing the load calculated from the analytical results to online smoothed measurements, negligible differences were found, which confirms the usefulness of applying the sensors in the combined sewer system. Online monitoring of the quantity and quality of wastewater emitted by the combined sewer overflows to water receivers, provides a considerable amount of data very useful for combined sewerage upgrading based on computer modelling, and allows for a significant reduction of laboratory analysis. PMID:27488195

  4. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik;

    1998-01-01

    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants. The...

  5. A review of best practice in relation to iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer

    This report was produced by Enviros Consulting Ltd under contract to the RPII. It presents a review of best practice in relation to the management of iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer and recommends a waste management strategy that could be adopted in the Republic of Ireland

  6. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.kaegi@eawag.ch [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zuleeg, Steffen [KUSTER + HAGER Group, Oberstrasse 222, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Michael [HSR University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag{sub 2}S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag{sub 2}S. Ag{sub 2}S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag{sub 2}S already occurred during 30-min transport in the

  7. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag2S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag2S. Ag2S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L−1) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag2S already occurred during 30-min transport in the sewer system. • Newly formed

  8. Control of sulfide and methane production in anaerobic sewer systems by means of Downstream Nitrite Dosage.

    Auguet, Olga; Pijuan, Maite; Borrego, Carles M; Gutierrez, Oriol

    2016-04-15

    Bioproduction of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) under anaerobic conditions in sewer pipes causes detrimental effects on both sewer facilities and surrounding environment. Among the strategies used to mitigate the production of both compounds, the addition of nitrite (NO2(-)) has shown a greater long-term inhibitory effect compared with other oxidants such as nitrate or oxygen. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a new method, the Downstream Nitrite Dosage strategy (DNO2D), to control H2S and CH4 emissions in sewers. Treatment effectiveness was assessed on H2S and CH4 abatement on the effluent of a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer. The experiment was divided in three different periods: system setup (period 1), nitrite addition (period 2) and system recovery (period 3). Different process and molecular methods were combined to investigate the impact of NO2(-) addition on H2S and CH4 production. Results showed that H2S load was reduced completely during nitrite addition when compared to period 1 due to H2S oxidation but increased immediately after nitrite addition stopped. The H2S overproduction during recovery period was associated with the bacterial reduction of different sulfur species (elemental sulfur/thiosulfate/sulfite) accumulated within the sewer biofilm matrix. Oxidation of CH4 was also detected during period 2 but, contrary to sulfide production, re-establishment of methanogenesis was not immediate after stopping nitrite dosing. The analysis of bulk and active microbial communities along experimental treatment showed compositional changes that agreed with the observed dynamics of chemical processes. Results of this study show that DNO2D strategy could significantly reduce H2S and CH4 emissions from sewers during the addition period but also suggest that microbial agents involved in such processes show a high resilience towards chemical stressors, thus favoring the re

  9. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e differenziazioni giuridiche: il caso dei trattamenti sanitari

    Giancarlo Anello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e trattamenti sanitari - 3. Alcune problematiche del cd. testamento biologico in una prospettiva interculturale - 4. Conclusioni.

  10. Gamma field characterization within building area of new sanitary check point

    Results of angular distribution, gamma spectra and exposure dose rate measurements at different height from earth surface within building site of new sanitary check point are submitted. Analysis of data collected is made

  11. Sanitary and hygienic state estimation of population determined by cancer morbidity level

    The European recommendations of Cancer Register elaboration are presented in this paper. A short literature review about sanitary and hygienic estimation status of population thru determination of cancer morbidity level also has been performed. (authors)

  12. Problems of sanitary-hygienic arrangements in case of emergency situations

    The planning and carrying out sanitary-hygienic arrangements in emergency situation are based on scientific-research, organizing-methodical and practical trends of activities including: the necessity of taking into consideration the risk of sanitary-hygienic complications as a result of emergency situation; elaboration of criteria and classification of hazards potential danger of industrial plants and territories; the establishment of system of providing sanitary-hygienic measures in emergency situation; working out prophylactic measures for prevention, localization and liquidation of sanitary-hygienic after-effects of emergency situation; development of the system of control and express-analysis of hazardous factors; elaboration of rating-methodical base and arrangements aimed at protection of health and life of people. 5 refs

  13. Getting the max out of past investments in sewer systems by using RTC

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; van Loenen, Arnejan; van Leeuwen, Elgard; van Nooyen, Ronald; van Velzen, Edwin

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a project in which water quality improvements of surface waters are realised by replacing local control of sewer pumps by central control. The paper focuses on the effect of implementation of real-time control in a specific group of sewer systems in the Netherlands, namely the systems that have been upgraded in the past as a result of new standards. Since these upgrades were often solely based on straightforward so-called upgrade rules and theoretical simulation studies, a thorough analysis of the real life systems by means of measurements to study the system performance or calibrate the models was rarely performed. As a result the potential of many systems is not used to the full. Because of the structure of these systems, (suboptimal distribution of storage and pump capacities) the effect of RTC is much larger than would be expected in the case of a completely new design. But because of implementation of RTC, it was required to do this thorough analysis of the sewer systems. This study focuses on the estimation of this additional RTC effect. RTC both improves the return on past investments and provides the benefits of central information and control. The project considered the sewer systems in the Hoeksche Waard area, south of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Three RTC improvements have been implemented whereby the abovementioned effects have been achieved. There were many technological challenges to overcome during the project, such as relatively high rates of data communication needed for in systems with relatively small storage capacities, connections to multiple types of SCADA and information systems, the integration of meteo forecasts and the RTC backup architecture based on the use of multiple control modes. The potential of the RTC has been proved as such in the HoekscheWaard area. On the basis of this implementation in a typical dutch sewer system, we expect RTC to have the same potential at a national scale.

  14. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services

    Jozi Fagundes de Mello; Laura Braga da Rocha; Ester Souza Lopes; Jeverson Frazzon; Marisa da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The ...

  15. Effect of a manager training program on sanitary conditions in restaurants.

    Cotterchio, M.; Gunn, J; Coffill, T; Tormey, P; Barry, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a food manager training and certification program in increasing compliance with restaurant sanitary codes. METHODS: Using routine sanitary inspection records, the authors compared pre- and post-training inspection scores for 94 restaurants falling into three groups: a "mandatory" group (managers' attendance was mandated for these restaurants); a "voluntary" group (managers attended the training voluntarily); and a control group (no staff attended th...

  16. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  17. [Incidence of intestinal parasites in municipal sanitary workers in Malatya].

    Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem; Yoloğlu, Saim; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of intestinal parasites is closely related to such factors as the socio-economic level of the society, nutritional and hygienic habits, climate, environmental conditions, infrastructure and degree of literacy. In this study, the municipal sanitary workers who are regarded as a high risk group in Malatya were examined for intestinal parasites. Cellophane slides and fecal samples from 241 workers were examined and intestinal parasites were found in 93 (39.0%). The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (34). Other parasites detected include Enterobius vermicularis (32), Giardia intestinalis (22), Blastocystis hominis (8), Iodamoeba butschlii (5), Entamoeba histolytica (2), Taenia sp. (2), Chilomastix mesnili (2), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), Entamoeba hartmanni (1), Trichomonas intestinalis (1) Hymenolepis nana (1), and Ascaris lumbricoides (1). A training seminary was conducted in order to inform all the workers about means of protection. The workers were given suitable treatment and were called for control after a month. The examinations revealed a significant decrease in the incidence rate of parasites (qui-square test in dependent samples P<0.05). It was concluded that offering training seminaries for certain occupational groups under risk is efficient in terms of protection. PMID:17160847

  18. Assessing antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in sanitary sewage.

    Kaeseberg, Thomas; Blumensaat, Frank; Zhang, Jin; Krebs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The release of antimicrobial substances into surface waters is of growing concern due to direct toxic effects on all trophic levels and the promotion of antibiotic resistance through sub-inhibitory concentration levels. This study showcases (1) the variation of antibiotics in sanitary sewage depending on different timescales and (2) a method to assess the antibiotic resistance based on an inhibition test. The test is based on the measurement of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in wastewater samples with increasing concentrations of the selected antibiotic agents. The following antibiotics were analysed in the present study: clarithromycin (CLA) was selected due to its high toxicity to many microorganisms (low EC50), ciprofloxacin (CIP) which is used to generally fight all bacteria concerning interstitial infections and doxycyclin (DOX) having a broad spectrum efficacy. Results show that CLA inhibited the OUR by approximately 50% at a concentration of about 10 mg L⁻¹, because Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli are resistant, whereas CIP inhibited about 90% of the OUR at a concentration equal to or greater than 10 mg L⁻¹. In the case of DOX, a moderate inhibition of about 38% at a concentration of 10 mg L⁻¹ was identified, indicating a significant antibiotic resistance. The results are consistent with the corresponding findings from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Thus, the presented inhibition test provides a simple but robust alternative method to assess antibiotic resistance in biofilms instead of more complex clinical tests. PMID:25633938

  19. MORBIDITY PROFILE OF SANITARY WORKERS IN THRISSUR CORPORATION, KERALA

    Prabhakumari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation workers responsibilities in Corporation area are street sweeping & drain cleaning. These workers are exposed to dirt, infective organisms, hazardous chemicals, sharp objects while working. OBJECTIVES: To study the morbidity profile of sanitary workers in Thrissur Corporation, Kerala. To study the treatment seeking behavior in these persons. To study their practices regarding personnel protective measures. MATERIALS & METHODS: cross sectional morbidity study was conducted among all sanitation workers corporation area. They were interviewed using pre tested structured schedule. Workers were interviewed after obtaining informed consent. RESULTS: Among 601 workers 53.6% were males. 34.4% workers presented with one acute illness and only 79.2% soughed medical help. 43.26% had chronic morbidities and 83.86 % opted modern medicine. 53.9% of the workers were provided with personal protective equipments and regular use was seen in 18%. CONCLUSION: Acute illness had significant association with male gender, low education status, large family size, absence of provision of personal protective equipments. Chronic morbidities were associated with males, youlderly group and daily wage workers.

  20. Occupational health hazards in sewage and sanitary workers

    Tiwari Rajnarayan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 1.2 million scavengers in the country are involved in the sanitation of our surroundings. The working conditions of these sanitary workers have remained virtually unchanged for over a century. Apart from the social atrocities that these workers face, they are exposed to certain health problems by virtue of their occupation. These health hazards include exposure to harmful gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide, cardiovascular degeneration, musculoskeletal disorders like osteoarthritic changes and intervertebral disc herniation, infections like hepatitis, leptospirosis and helicobacter, skin problems, respiratory system problems and altered pulmonary function parameters. This can be prevented through engineering, medical and legislative measures. While the engineering measures will help in protecting against exposures, the medical measures will help in early detection of the effects of these exposures. This can be partly achieved by developing an effective occupational health service for this group of workers. Also, regular awareness programs should be conducted to impart education regarding safer work procedures and use of personal protective devices.

  1. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    . Therefore a project for studying resistance levels in sewer rats was undertaken in an urban area of a municipality in southern Zealand from where surface rats had been tested during the foregoing years. Rats resistant to difenacoum represented the highest level of resistance in the municipality. Rats were...... primarily tested for possible resistance to coumatetralyl, bromadiolone and difenacoum by Blood Clotting Response tests. Feeding test was used in tests for resistance to difethialone. A total of 24 rats trapped in sewers at 15 locations were tested. Resistance to bromadiolone was found among rats from all...... sewer rat locations and resistance to difenacoum was found in rats from 11. No rats were found resistant to difethialone. The findings of rats resistant to difenacoum in a majority of the sewer locations clearly indicate that use of bromadiolone is insufficient for an effective control. Rodenticides...

  2. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Facilities: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    Background: Combined sewer systems (CSS) collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These c...

  3. FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, COUNTY DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 6. COUNTIES: LAKE, LEE, LEON, LEVY, LIBERTY, MADISON, MANATEE, MARION

    The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

  4. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers.

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2015-09-01

    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  5. A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems

    Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

    2009-04-01

    During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The

  6. Impacts and managerial implications for sewer systems due to recent changes to inputs in domestic wastewater - A review.

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Ashley, Richard M; Viklander, Maria

    2015-09-15

    Ever since the advent of major sewer construction in the 1850s, the issue of increased solids deposition in sewers due to changes in domestic wastewater inputs has been frequently debated. Three recent changes considered here are the introduction of kitchen sink food waste disposers (FWDs); rising levels of inputs of fat, oil and grease (FOG); and the installation of low-flush toilets (LFTs). In this review these changes have been examined with regard to potential solids depositional impacts on sewer systems and the managerial implications. The review indicates that each of the changes has the potential to cause an increase in solids deposition in sewers and this is likely to be more pronounced for the upstream reaches of networks that serve fewer households than the downstream parts and for specific sewer features such as sags. The review has highlighted the importance of educational campaigns directed to the public to mitigate deposition as many of the observed problems have been linked to domestic behaviour in regard to FOGs, FWDs and toilet flushing. A standardized monitoring procedure of repeat sewer blockage locations can also be a means to identify depositional hot-spots. Interactions between the various changes in inputs in the studies reviewed here indicated an increased potential for blockage formation, but this would need to be further substantiated. As the precise nature of these changes in inputs have been found to be variable, depending on lifestyles and type of installation, the additional problems that may arise pose particular challenges to sewer operators and managers because of the difficulty in generalizing the nature of the changes, particularly where retrofitting projects in households are being considered. The three types of changes to inputs reviewed here highlight the need to consider whether or not more or less solid waste from households should be diverted into sewers. PMID:26182992

  7. Influence and interaction of temperature, H2S and pH on concrete sewer pipe corrosion

    Romanova, Anna; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Alani, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. ...

  8. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Wendong Tao; James S. Bays; Daniel Meyer; Richard C. Smardon; Zeno F. Levy

    2014-01-01

    As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This ...

  9. Constructed wetlands for treatment of combined sewer overflow in the US: a review of design challenges and application status

    Tao, W; Bays, J.S.; Meyer, D.; Smardon, R.C.; Levy, Z.F.

    2014-01-01

    International audience As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of c...

  10. Municipal sewer networks as sources of nitrous oxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide emissions : a review and case studies

    Eijo Rio, Elena; Petit, Anna; Villalba Mendez, Gara; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier; Marín, Desirée; Amores, Maria José; Aldea, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Sewers are known as longitudinal reactors where gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and hydrogen sulphide can be produced. However, gaseous emissions have been mainly assessed in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This article presents a critical review of studies that quantify the generation of these gases in sewers and aims to identify the existing research gaps. Differences in sampling methods and site selection, as well as a limited number of studies, result in incoherent comparisons. T...