Sample records for 16-cell stage transition

  1. Determinants of forward stage transitions : a Delphi study

    De Vet, E; Brug, J; De Nooijer, J; Dijkstra, A; De Vries, NK


    Insight into stage transition determinants is necessary to develop and evaluate stage-tailored health-promoting interventions. A three-round Delphi study among stages of change researchers was conducted to make an inventory of opinions and examine agreement on determinants of forward transitions bet

  2. Dynamics of Sleep Stage Transitions in Health and Disease

    Kishi, Akifumi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu


    Sleep dynamics emerges from complex interactions between neuronal populations in many brain regions. Annotated sleep stages from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings could potentially provide a non-invasive way to obtain valuable insights into the mechanisms of these interactions, and ultimately into the very nature of sleep regulation. However, to date, sleep stage analysis has been restricted, only very recently expanding the scope of the traditional descriptive statistics to more dynamical concepts of the duration of and transitions between vigilance states and temporal evaluation of transition probabilities among different stages. Physiological and/or pathological implications of the dynamics of sleep stage transitions have, to date, not been investigated. Here, we study detailed duration and transition statistics among sleep stages in healthy humans and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, known to be associated with disturbed sleep. We find that the durations of waking and non-REM sleep, in particular deep sleep (Stages III and IV), during the nighttime, follow a power-law probability distribution function, while REM sleep durations follow an exponential function, suggestive of complex underlying mechanisms governing the onset of light sleep. We also find a substantial number of REM to non-REM transitions in humans, while this transition is reported to be virtually non-existent in rats. Interestingly, the probability of this REM to non-REM transition is significantly lower in the patients than in controls, resulting in a significantly greater REM to awake, together with Stage I to awake, transition probability. This might potentially account for the reported poor sleep quality in the patients because the normal continuation of sleep after either the lightest or REM sleep is disrupted. We conclude that the dynamical transition analysis of sleep stages is useful for elucidating yet-to-be-determined human sleep regulation mechanisms with a

  3. "A Two-Stage Prediction Model for Web Page Transition"

    Makoto Abe


    Utilizing data from a log file, a two-stage model for step-ahead web page prediction that permits adaptive page customization in real-time is proposed. The first stage predicts the next page of a viewer based on a variant of a Markov transition matrix computed from page sequences of other visitors who read the same pages as that viewer did thus far. The second stage re-analyzes the incorrect exit/continuation predictions of the first stage through data mining, incorporating the visitor's view...

  4. Stages of Change or Changes of Stage? Predicting Transitions in Transtheoretical Model Stages in Relation to Healthy Food Choice

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Sheeran, Paschal; Conner, Mark; Arden, Madelynne A.


    Relatively little research has examined factors that account for transitions between transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change. The present study (N=787) used sociodemographic, TTM, and theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables, as well as theory-driven interventions to predict changes in stage. Longitudinal analyses revealed that…

  5. On the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage

    Ghosh, Debapi K.; Wang, Dingbao; Zhu, Tingju


    This paper is focused on the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage. The volume flow rate that takes place when such a transition occurs is identified for each of the twenty-three recession events observed at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW) in Georgia, USA, using a newly developed cumulative regression analysis method. Meanwhile, the flow at the watershed outlet, which was recorded when the discharge at the perennial stream head diminishes to zero, is identified for each recession event. As evidenced by a correlation coefficient of 0.90, these two characteristic flows are found to be highly correlated, suggesting a fundamental linkage between the transition of base flow recession from early stage to late stage and the drying up of ephemeral streams. During the early stage, the contraction of ephemeral streams largely controls the recession behavior, whereas in the late stage when perennial streams dominate the flowing streams, the contraction of flowing streams is minimal and groundwater hydraulics governs the recession behavior.

  6. Asymmetry and Basic Pathways in Sleep-Stage Transitions.

    Lo, Chung-Chuan; Bartsch, Ronny P; Ivanov, Plamen Ch


    We study dynamical aspects of sleep micro-architecture. We find that sleep dynamics exhibits a high degree of asymmetry, and that the entire class of sleep-stage transition pathways underlying the complexity of sleep dynamics throughout the night can be characterized by two independent asymmetric transition paths. These basic pathways remain stable under sleep disorders, even though the degree of asymmetry is significantly reduced. Our findings indicate an intriguing temporal organization in sleep dynamics at short time scales that is typical for physical systems exhibiting self-organized criticality (SOC). PMID:24653582

  7. Translational regulation during stage transitions in malaria parasites.

    Cui, Liwang; Lindner, Scott; Miao, Jun


    The complicated life cycle of the malaria parasite involves a vertebrate host and a mosquito vector, and translational regulation plays a prominent role in orchestrating the developmental events in the two transition stages: gametocytes and sporozoites. Translational regulation is executed in both global and transcript-specific manners. Plasmodium uses a conserved mechanism involving phosphorylation of eIF2α to repress global protein synthesis during the latent period of sporozoite development in the mosquito salivary glands. Transcript-specific translational regulation is achieved by a network of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), among which the Dhh1 RNA helicase DOZI and Puf family RBPs are by far the best studied in Plasmodium. While the DOZI complex defines a new P granule with a role in protecting certain gametocyte mRNAs from degradation, the Puf proteins appear to repress expression of mRNAs in both gametocytes and sporozoites. These examples underscore the significance of translational regulation in Plasmodium development. PMID:25387887

  8. A Study of the Transition from the Foundation Stage to Key Stage 1. Research Report: SSU/2005/FR/013

    Sanders, Dawn; White, Gabrielle; Burge, Bethan; Sharp, Caroline; Eames, Anna; McEune, Rhona; Grayson, Hilary


    This study set out to provide an evidence base concerning the effectiveness of the transition from the Foundation Stage (which applies to children aged three to five years) and Year 1 (for children aged five to six). The study had two main aims: (1) to provide a solid evidence base about the effectiveness of the transition from the Foundation…

  9. Staging transition: the Oresteia in post-apartheid South Africa

    Weyenberg, van, S.J.B.; Bal, M; Hernández-Navarro, M.Á.


    Aeschylus' Oresteia dramatizes the meaning and political deployment of justice, concluding with the transformation of justice as vengeance into the legal justice of Athens's new democracy. In this essay, I examine two dramatic texts that draw on the Oresteia within another context of transitional justice: post-apartheid South Africa. In Mark Fleishman's In the City of Paradise and Yael Farber's Molora the distorted family relations within the house of Atreus come to represent the distorted re...

  10. Household Life-Cycle Stages, Transitions, and Product Expenditures.

    Wilkes, Robert E


    Data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Expenditure Survey provide empirical verification of changes in household spending across a wide variety of products as households pass from one stage of the household life cycle to another. Three spending patterns emerged: (1) a generalized inverted U pattern, with spending rising sharply as households shift from young single to young married, then remaining relatively high, and falling sharply at the older married and/or older single s...

  11. Emotional and Motivational Engagement at School Transition: A Qualitative Stage-Environment Fit Study

    Symonds, Jennifer; Hargreaves, Linda


    Adolescents typically like school less after making age-graded school transitions. Stage-environment fit theory (Eccles & Midgley, 1989) attributes this to a mismatch between developmental needs and new school environments. Our in vivo study provides a basis for future quantitative designs by uncovering the most prevalent stage-environment…

  12. Transition from the preoperational stage of thinking to the concrete logical stage

    Polanc, Ana


    In the theoretical part, I focused on the method and cognitive development theory of Jean Piaget, I presented the factors of cognitive development and described the course of development based on four specific stages of the development of thinking. I compared the mental operations (conservation, serration and egocentrism) and the differences between the answers that children provided, according to the level of thinking at which the child is. I also listed some critiques of Piaget's theory. ...

  13. Massive Shift in Gene Expression during Transitions between Developmental Stages of the Gall Midge, Mayetiola Destructor

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Sanzhen; Wang, Haiyan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Whitworth, R. Jeff


    Mayetiola destructor is a destructive pest of wheat and has six developmental stages. Molecular mechanisms controlling the transition between developmental stages remain unknown. Here we analyzed genes that were expressed differentially between two successive developmental stages, including larvae at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, pupae, and adults. A total of 17,344 genes were expressed during one or more of these studied stages. Among the expressed genes, 38–68% were differently expressed between two successive stages, with roughly equal percentages of up- and down-regulated genes. Analysis of the functions of the differentially expressed genes revealed that each developmental stage had some unique types of expressed genes that are characteristic of the physiology at that stage. This is the first genome-wide analysis of genes differentially expressed in different stages in a gall midge. The large dataset of up- and down-regulated genes in each stage of the insect shall be very useful for future research to elucidate mechanisms regulating insect development and other biological processes. PMID:27224654

  14. Diet and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stages in the nutrition transition

    Steyn Nelia P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last century we have seen wide-reaching changes in diet, nutritional status and life expectancy. The change in diet and physical activity patterns has become known as the nutrition transition. At any given time, a country or region within a country may be at different stages within this transition. This paper examines a range of nutrition-related indicators for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and attempts to develop a typical model of a country in transition. Methods Based on the availability of data, 40 countries in SSA were selected for analysis. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation, Demographic and Health Surveys and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA was used to explore the determinants of infant mortality. A six point score was developed to identify each country's stage in the nutrition transition. Results MLRA showed that underweight-for-age, protein and the percentage of exclusively breastfed infants were associated with the infant mortality rate (IMR. The majority of countries (n = 26 used in the analysis had nutrition transition scores of zero and one. Most of them had a high prevalence of infant mortality, children that were stunted or underweight-for-age, small percentages of women that were overweight and obese, and low intakes of energy, protein, and fat. Countries with the highest scores include South Africa, Ghana, Gabon, Cape Verde and Senegal which had relatively low IMRs, high levels of obesity/overweight, and low levels of underweight in women, as well as high intakes of energy and fat. These countries display classic signs of a population well established in the nutrition-related non-communicable disease phase of the nutrition transition. Conclusions Countries in SSA are clearly undergoing a nutrition transition. More than half of them are still in the early stage, while a few have reached a point where

  15. Sleep-stage transitions during polysomnographic recordings as diagnostic features of type 1 narcolepsy

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Carrillo, Oscar; Leary, Eileen B.; Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, Poul; Mignot, Emmanuel


    extracted from PSGs. The first 15 min of sleep were excluded when a nocturnal SOREMP was recorded. F0.1 measures and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify specific (≥98%) features. A data set of 136 patients and 510 sex- and age-matched controls was used for the training. A data set......Objective: Type 1 narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep fragmentation, and cataplexy. Short rapid eye movement (REM) latency (≤15 min) during nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) or during naps of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) defines a sleep......-onset REM sleep period (SOREMP), a diagnostic hallmark. We hypothesized that abnormal sleep transitions other than SOREMPs can be identified in type 1 narcolepsy. Methods: Sleep-stage transitions (one to 10 epochs to one to five epochs of any other stage) and bout length features (one to 10 epochs) were...

  16. Nucleation kinetics and crystal growth with fluctuating rates at the intermediate stage of phase transitions

    Crystal growth kinetics accompanied by particle growth with fluctuating rates at the intermediate stage of phase transitions is analyzed theoretically. The integro-differential model of governing equations is solved analytically for size-independent growth rates and arbitrary dependences of the nucleation frequency on supercooling/supersaturation. Two important cases of Weber–Volmer–Frenkel–Zel'dovich and Mier nucleation kinetics are detailed. A Fokker–Plank type equation for the crystal-size density distribution function is solved explicitly. (paper)

  17. Environmental correlates of peatland carbon fluxes in a thawing landscape: do transitional thaw stages matter?

    A. Malhotra


    Full Text Available Peatlands in discontinuous permafrost regions occur as a mosaic of wetland types, each with variable sensitivity to climate change. Permafrost thaw further increases the spatial heterogeneity in ecosystem structure and function in peatlands. Carbon (C fluxes are well characterized in end-member thaw stages such as fully intact or fully thawed permafrost but remain unconstrained for transitional stages that cover a significant area of thawing peatlands. Furthermore, changes in the environmental correlates of C fluxes, due to thaw are not well described: a requirement for modeling future changes to C storage of permafrost peatlands. We investigated C fluxes and their correlates in end-member and a number of transitional thaw stages in a sub-arctic peatland. Across peatland lumped CH4 and CO2 flux data had significant correlations with expected correlates such as water table depth, thaw depth, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation and vascular green area. Within individual thaw states, bivariate correlations as well as multiple regressions between C flux and environmental factors changed variably with increasing thaw. The variability in directions and magnitudes of correlates reflects the range of structural conditions that could be present along a thaw gradient. These structural changes correspond to changes in C flux controls, such as temperature and moisture, and their interactions. Temperature sensitivity of CH4 increased with increasing thaw in bivariate analyses, but lack of this trend in multiple regression analyses suggested cofounding effects of substrate or water limitation on the apparent temperature sensitivity. Our results emphasize the importance of incorporating transitional stages of thaw in landscape level C budgets and highlight that end-member or adjacent thaw stages do not adequately describe the variability in structure-function relationships present along a thaw gradient.

  18. Transitions in Physiologic Coupling: Sleep Stage and Age Dependence of Cardio-respiratory Phase Synchronization

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.


    Recent studies have focused on various features of cardiac and respiratory dynamics with the aim to better understand key aspects of the underlying neural control of these systems. We investigate how sleep influences cardio-respiratory coupling, and how the degree of this coupling changes with transitions across sleep stages in healthy young and elderly subjects. We analyze full night polysomnographic recordings of 189 healthy subjects (age range: 20 to 90 years). To probe cardio-respiratory coupling, we apply a novel phase synchronization analysis method to quantify the adjustment of rhythms between heartbeat and breathing signals. We investigate how cardio-respiratory synchronization changes with sleep-stage transitions and under healthy aging. We find a statistically significant difference in the degree of cardio-respiratory synchronization during different sleep stages for both young and elderly subjects and a significant decline of synchronization with age. This is a first evidence of how sleep regulation and aging influence a key nonlinear mechanism of physiologic coupling as quantified by the degree of phase synchronization between the cardiac and respiratory systems, which is of importance to develop adequate modeling approaches.

  19. Gads-deficient thymocytes are blocked at the transitional single positive CD4+ stage

    Dalheimer, Stacy L.; Zeng, Ling; Draves, Kevin E.; Hassaballa, Ashraf; Jiwa, Nasheena N.; Parrish, Torrey D.; Edward A Clark; Yankee, Thomas M.


    Positive selection of T cell precursors is the process by which a diverse T cell repertoire is established. Positive selection begins at the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) stage of development and involves at least two steps. First, DP thymocytes downregulate CD8 to become transitional single positive (TSP) CD4+ thymocytes. Then, cells are selected to become either mature SP CD4+ or mature SP CD8+ thymocytes. We sought to define the function of Gads during the two steps of positive selection b...

  20. Estimating transition probabilities for stage-based population projection matrices using capture-recapture data

    Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Hestbeck, J.B.


    In stage-based demography, animals are often categorized into size (or mass) classes, and size-based probabilities of surviving and changing mass classes must be estimated before demographic analyses can be conducted. In this paper, we develop two procedures for the estimation of mass transition probabilities from capture-recapture data. The first approach uses a multistate capture-recapture model that is parameterized directly with the transition probabilities of interest. Maximum likelihood estimates are then obtained numerically using program SURVIV. The second approach involves a modification of Pollock's robust design. Estimation proceeds by conditioning on animals caught in a particualr class at time i, and then using closed models to estimate the number of these that are alive in other classes at i + 1. Both methods are illustrated by application to meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus, capture-recapture data. The two methods produced reasonable estimates that were similar. Advantages of these two approaches include the directness of estimation, the absence of need for restrictive assumptions about the independence of survival and growth, the testability of assumptions, and the testability of related hypotheses of ecological interest (e.g., the hypothesis of temporal variation in transition probabilities).

  1. Disruption of transitional stages in 24-h blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    Marcelo E Katz


    Full Text Available Patients with kidney replacement exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms. Most studies measuring blood pressure use the dipper/non-dipper classification, which does not consider analysis of transitional stages between low and high blood pressure, confidence intervals nor shifts in the time of peak, while assuming subjective onsets of night and day phases. In order to better understand the nature of daily variation of blood pressure in these patients, we analyzed 24h recordings from 41 renal transplant recipients using the non-symmetrical double-logistic fitting assessment which does not assume abruptness nor symmetry in ascending and descending stages of the blood pressure profile, and a cosine best-fitting regression method (Cosinor. Compared with matched controls, double-logistic fitting showed that the times for most of transitional stages (ascending systolic and descending systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure had a wider distribution along the 24 h. The proportion of individuals without daily blood pressure rhythm in the transplanted group was larger only for systolic arterial pressure, and the amplitude showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the transplant recipient group had a less pronounced slope in descending systolic and ascending mean blood pressure. Cosinor analysis confirmed the phase related changes, showing a wider distribution of times of peak (acrophases. We conclude that daily disruptions in renal transplant recipients can be explained not only by absence in diurnal variation, but also in changes in waveform-related parameters of the rhythm, and that distortions in the phase of the rhythm are the most consistent finding for the patients.

  2. Permafrost Thaw Induces Methane Oxidation in Transitional Thaw Stages in a Subarctic Peatland

    Perryman, C. R.; Kashi, N. N.; Malhotra, A.; McCalley, C. K.; Varner, R. K.


    Rising temperatures in the subarctic are accelerating permafrost thaw and increasing methane (CH4) emissions from subarctic peatlands. Methanotrophs in these peatlands can consume/oxidize CH4, potentially mitigating CH4 emissions in these peatlands. Oxidation rates can exceed 90% of CH4 production in some settings, depending on O2 and CH4 availability and environmental conditions. Malhotra and Roulet identified 10 thaw stages in Stordalen Mire near Abisko, Sweden (68°21'N,18°49'E ) with variable vegetation, environmental conditions, and associated CH4 emissions. We investigated potential methane oxidation rates across these thaw stages. Peat cores were extracted from two depths at each stage and incubated in 350ml glass jars at in situ temperatures and CH4 concentrations. Headspace samples were collected from each incubation jar over a 48-hour period and analyzed for CH4 concentration using flame ionization detection gas chromatography (GC-FID). Oxidation rates ranged from <0.1 to 17 μg of CH4 per gram of dry biomass per day. Water table depth and pore water pH were the strongest environmental correlates of oxidation (sample size = 56, p < 0.001). The highest potential oxidation rates were observed in collapsing palsa sites and recently collapsed sedge-dominated open water sites near palsa mounds. Our results suggest that permafrost thaw induces high CH4 oxidation rates by creating conditions ideal for both methanogenic and methanotrophic microbial communities. Our results also reinforce the importance of incorporating transitional thaw stages in landscape level carbon budgets of thawing peatlands emphasized by Malhotra and Roulet. Forthcoming microbial analysis and stable isotope analysis will further elucidate the factors controlling methane oxidation rates at Stordalen Mire.

  3. Successive stages and the role of natural vortex dislocations in three-dimensional wake transition

    Braza, M.; Faghani, D.; Persillon, H.


    The time-history of the development of the three-dimensional transition features in a nominally two-dimensional flow configuration is established for Reynolds number 220 in a cylinder wake. The identification of the successive stages that evolve very fast during experiments is possible by means of direct numerical simulation. The physical processes related to the creation of streamwise and vertical vorticity components and their impact on the spanwise waviness of the main von Kármán vortex filaments are analysed by means of the Craik Leibovich shearing instability mechanism and a comparative discussion is given with respect to the elliptic stability theory. This study proves the existence of a further stage in the three-dimensional transition, which substantially modifies the regular spanwise undulation. This is a systematic and repetitive development of natural vortex dislocations in the near wake. The definition of this kind of structure is provided, as well as its properties related to a drastic reduction of the fundamental frequency and to the selection of a lower path in the Strouhal Reynolds number relation. The induced amplitude modulation of the flow properties along the span is also evaluated. Quantification of these properties is carried out by using wavelet analysis and autoregressive modelling of the time series. The reasons for the development of natural vortex dislocations are analysed and related to specific modulations of the spanwise structure of the longitudinal velocity upstream separation. From this part of the study an optimum shape for the spanwise distribution of this component can be specified, able to trigger the vortex dislocations in wake flows and therefore useful to apply in the context of stability theory analyses and in further DNS studies.

  4. America's Next Great Ship: Space Launch System Core Stage Transitioning from Design to Manufacturing

    Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy


    The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.

  5. Stage-specific histone modification profiles reveal global transitions in the Xenopus embryonic epigenome.

    Tobias D Schneider

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryos are derived from a transitory pool of pluripotent cells. By the process of embryonic induction, these precursor cells are assigned to specific fates and differentiation programs. Histone post-translational modifications are thought to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of stable gene expression patterns underlying these processes. While on gene level histone modifications are known to change during differentiation, very little is known about the quantitative fluctuations in bulk histone modifications during development. To investigate this issue we analysed histones isolated from four different developmental stages of Xenopus laevis by mass spectrometry. In toto, we quantified 59 modification states on core histones H3 and H4 from blastula to tadpole stages. During this developmental period, we observed in general an increase in the unmodified states, and a shift from histone modifications associated with transcriptional activity to transcriptionally repressive histone marks. We also compared these naturally occurring patterns with the histone modifications of murine ES cells, detecting large differences in the methylation patterns of histone H3 lysines 27 and 36 between pluripotent ES cells and pluripotent cells from Xenopus blastulae. By combining all detected modification transitions we could cluster their patterns according to their embryonic origin, defining specific histone modification profiles (HMPs for each developmental stage. To our knowledge, this data set represents the first compendium of covalent histone modifications and their quantitative flux during normogenesis in a vertebrate model organism. The HMPs indicate a stepwise maturation of the embryonic epigenome, which may be causal to the progressing restriction of cellular potency during development.

  6. Survey of experimental and theoretical electron-impact ionization cross sections for transition metal ions in low stages of ionization

    Electron-ion crossed beams measurements and distorted-wave theory have been employed to make a study of electron-impact ionization for transition metal ions in low stages of ionization. The atomic ions Ti+, Ti2+, Ti3+, Fe+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Fe4+, Ni+, Ni2+, Ni3+, Cu+, Cu2+, and Cu3+ are examined

  7. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.


    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation, a very important post-translational modification, influences the biological activity of proteins. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by glycoprotein-specific fluorescence staining and mass spectrometry with the goal of identifying glycosylation pattern changes during larval settlement and metamorphosis in barnacles, bryozoans, and polychaetes. Our results revealed substantial changes in the protein glycosylation patterns from larval to juvenile stages. Before metamorphosis, the degree of protein glycosylation was high in the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa, whereas it increased after metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. We identified 19 abundant and differentially glycosylated proteins in these three species. Among the proteins, cellular stress- and metabolism-related proteins exhibited distinct glycosylation in B. amphitrite and B. neritina, whereas fatty acid metabolism-related proteins were abundantly glycosylated in P. vexillosa. Furthermore, the protein and gene expression analysis of some selected glycoproteins revealed that the degree of protein glycosylation did not always complement with transcriptional and translational changes associated with the larval-juvenile transition. The current study provides preliminary information on protein glycosylation in marine invertebrates that will serve as a solid basis for future comprehensive analysis of glycobiology during larval settlement and metamorphosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. River Stage Influences on Uranium Transport in a Hydrologically Dynamic Groundwater-Surface Water Transition Zone

    Zachara, John M.; Chen, Xingyuan; Murray, Christopher J.; Hammond, Glenn


    A tightly spaced well-field within a groundwater uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a three year period for groundwater elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from mountain snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trends for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal well-to well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common temporal behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Concentration hot spots were observed in groundwater that varied in location with increasing water table elevation. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While uranium time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year to year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of the river water intrusion event.

  9. Multiphasic multidetector-row CT (MDCT) in detection and staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the upper urinary tract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of multiphasic multidetector-row CT (MDCT) in the detection and staging of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the upper urinary tract. We performed a retrospective chart review of 39 consecutive patients with 41 histologically verified TCC of the renal pelvis and/or the ureter. The urinary tract was examined using MDCT performing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced scans during the corticomedullary (CMP), nephrographic (NP) and pyelographic phase (PP). Tumors were staged according to the TNM classification. MDCT and histopathological findings were correlated. The attenuation of the lesions was documented in Hounsfield units (HU). In MDCT, all 41 TCC - including two multicentric TCC - were detected. TCC confined to the organ (stage 0a-II) was correctly staged in 28/29 tumors (96.6%). Stage III-IV tumors were correctly staged in 8/12 patients (66.6%). Overall, MDCT was accurate in predicting pathologic TNM stage in 36/41 upper urinary tract TCC (87.8%). There was no significant difference of mean attenuation of TCC between CMP, NP and PP (P>0.05). MDCT with its high spatial and temporal resolution is an accurate tool for detection TCC of the upper urinary tract, with 87.8% accuracy in predicting its stage. (orig.)

  10. Resonant Modes in a 1.6 Cells RF Gun

    Ferrario, Massimo; Ronsivalle, Concetta


    The SPARC photoinjector RF gun consists in the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell structure designed to resonate at 2856 MHz in the π mode. It will be demonstrated by a numerical modelization based on SUPERFISH code combined with the LC-circuit analysis that the two oscillating modes of the system usually indicated as 0-mode and π-mode (the operating mode) are in reality a π/3-mode-like and a π-mode-like. The consequences on the definition of the coupling coefficient and on the use of mode-separation based RF measurements are described.

  11. The big five personality traits and individual job performance growth trajectories in maintenance and transitional job stages.

    Thoresen, Carl J; Bradley, Jill C; Bliese, Paul D; Thoresen, Joseph D


    This study extends the literature on personality and job performance through the use of random coefficient modeling to test the validity of the Big Five personality traits in predicting overall sales performance and sales performance trajectories--or systematic patterns of performance growth--in 2 samples of pharmaceutical sales representatives at maintenance and transitional job stages (K. R. Murphy, 1989). In the maintenance sample, conscientiousness and extraversion were positively associated with between-person differences in total sales, whereas only conscientiousness predicted performance growth. In the transitional sample, agreeableness and openness to experience predicted overall performance differences and performance trends. All effects remained significant with job tenure statistically controlled. Possible explanations for these findings are offered, and theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:15506864

  12. Dewetting transition induced by surfactants in sessile droplets at the early evaporation stage.

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei


    As surfactants are employed to control the wettability of solutions, we observe that the sessile droplet dewetting induced by autophobing exhibits a unique relation with the surfactant concentration. Below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, the autophobic effect makes the droplet go through a rapid depinning at first (Phase 1) and then a relatively slower shrinkage (Phase 2). Unexpectedly, the rapid velocity of the three-phase contact line in Phase 1 shows a transition as the surfactant concentration increases above 0.043 cmc, while such a transition is absent for the velocity in Phase 2. The spreading of the sessile droplets as they form before retraction, the maximum contact angle led by dewetting, and the droplet lifetime are regularly sensitive to the surfactant concentration as well. These phenomena are correlated with the assembling structure and the adsorbed amount at different interfaces with the loading of surfactant inventory. PMID:26482037

  13. From cohabitation to marriage : couples' perceptions of the transition stage II of the family life cycle

    Kleinhen, Rachel M.


    Cohabitation, as a relationship form, is becoming much more common in the United States. Approximately half of the persons currently in their 30s cohabit prior to marriage and more than half of all recent marriages were preceded by cohabitation between those marrying. Through the use of in-depth interviews I studied the transition between this new form of "dating" and the traditional course of marriage. Couples who cohabited with each other prior to their marriage were inter...

  14. Lost in transition? Celtic language revitalization in Scotland and Wales: the primary to secondary school stage

    O'Hanlon, Fiona Malcolm


    The development of education through the medium of Celtic languages (here specifically Welsh and Scottish Gaelic) is often placed within a language planning framework in which Celtic-medium education is viewed as a means of sustaining a threatened language in the context of levels of intergenerational transmission which are insufficient to maintain speaker numbers. The primary to secondary school stage is a critical juncture from such a perspective, as language revitalization r...

  15. A transition-constrained discrete hidden Markov model for automatic sleep staging

    Pan Shing-Tai


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of the human lifespan is spent sleeping. To diagnose sleep problems, all-night polysomnographic (PSG recordings including electroencephalograms (EEGs, electrooculograms (EOGs and electromyograms (EMGs, are usually acquired from the patient and scored by a well-trained expert according to Rechtschaffen & Kales (R&K rules. Visual sleep scoring is a time-consuming and subjective process. Therefore, the development of an automatic sleep scoring method is desirable. Method The EEG, EOG and EMG signals from twenty subjects were measured. In addition to selecting sleep characteristics based on the 1968 R&K rules, features utilized in other research were collected. Thirteen features were utilized including temporal and spectrum analyses of the EEG, EOG and EMG signals, and a total of 158 hours of sleep data were recorded. Ten subjects were used to train the Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM, and the remaining ten were tested by the trained DHMM for recognition. Furthermore, the 2-fold cross validation was performed during this experiment. Results Overall agreement between the expert and the results presented is 85.29%. With the exception of S1, the sensitivities of each stage were more than 81%. The most accurate stage was SWS (94.9%, and the least-accurately classified stage was S1 ( Conclusion The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed method significantly enhances the recognition rate when compared with prior studies.

  16. Dispersed cells represent a distinct stage in the transition from bacterial biofilm to planktonic lifestyles

    Chua, Song Lin; Liu, Yang; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong;


    Bacteria assume distinct lifestyles during the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. Increased levels of the intracellular messenger c-di-GMP determine the transition from planktonic to biofilm growth, while a reduction causes biofilm dispersal. It is generally assumed that cells dispersed from...... biofilms immediately go into the planktonic growth phase. Here we use single-nucleotide resolution transcriptomic analysis to show that the physiology of dispersed cells from Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is highly different from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. In dispersed cells, the expression...... of the small regulatory RNAs RsmY and RsmZ is downregulated, whereas secretion genes are induced. Dispersed cells are highly virulent against macrophages and Caenorhabditis elegans compared with planktonic cells. In addition, they are highly sensitive towards iron stress, and the combination of a...

  17. N-glycan transition of the early developmental stage in Oryza sativa.

    Horiuchi, Risa; Hirotsu, Naoki; Miyanishi, Nobumitsu


    N-Glycosylation is one of the post-translational modifications. In animals, N-glycans linked to proteins function in cell-cell recognition, sorting, transport, and other biological phenomena. However, in plants, N-glycan-mediated biological functions remain obscure. In a previous study, we showed that the main type of N-glycan transition is from the paucimannosidic to complex type before and after germination in Oryza sativa, suggesting that transitions of N-glycan, including those of glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases, are closely associated with plant growth. To further elucidate the relationship between N-glycan structure and plant growth, we analyzed the structures of N-glycans expressed in O. sativa seedlings grown under light conditions and performed comparative analyses of the structures in the shoot and root. The analyses show that fundamental N-glycan structures are common to the shoot and root, whereas paucimannosidic-type N-glycans dramatically decreased in the root grown under light conditions. Further, to investigate the effects of light on N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings, we analyzed N-glycan structures in O. sativa seedlings grown in the dark. Understandably, N-glycan expression in the root was almost unaffected by light. However, despite a marked difference in phenotype, N-glycan expression in the shoot was also unaffected by light. This result suggests that the shoot and root of O. sativa have different glycoproteins and distinct N-glycan synthetic systems. Thus, we propose that the N-glycan synthetic system of the O. sativa shoot is almost unaffected by light conditions and that many photosynthesis-related proteins are not modified by N-glycans. PMID:27320861

  18. Phase equilibrium in argon films stabilized by homogeneous surfaces and thermodynamics of two-stage melting transition

    Freezing of gases adsorbed on open surfaces (e.g., graphite) and in narrow pores is a widespread phenomenon which is a subject of a large number of publications. Modeling of the gas/liquid–solid transition is usually accomplished with a molecular simulation technique. However, quantitative analysis of the gas/liquid–solid coexistence and thermodynamic properties of the solid layer still encounters serious difficulties. This is mainly due to the effect of simulation box size on the lattice constant. Since the lattice constant is a function of loading and temperature, once the ordering transition has occurred, the simulation box size must be corrected in the course of simulation according to the Gibbs–Duhem equation. A significant problem is also associated with accurate prediction of the two-dimensional liquid–solid coexistence because of a small difference in densities of coexisting phases. The aim of this study is thermodynamic analysis of the two-dimensional phase coexistence in systems involving crystal-like free of defects layers in narrow slit pores. A special attention was paid to the determination of triple point temperatures. It is shown that intrinsic properties of argon monolayer adsorbed on the graphite surface are similar to those of isolated monolayer accommodated in the slit pore having width of two argon collision diameters. Analysis of the latter system is shown to be clearer and less time-consuming than the former one, which has allowed for explanation of the experimentally observed two-stage melting transition of argon monolayer on graphite without invoking the periodic surface potential modulation and orientational transition

  19. Ostwald's rule of stages governs structural transitions and morphology of dipeptide supramolecular polymers.

    Levin, Aviad; Mason, Thomas O; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Buell, Alexander K; Meisl, George; Galvagnion, Celine; Bram, Yaron; Stratford, Samuel A; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Gazit, Ehud


    The self-assembly of molecular building blocks into nano- and micro-scale supramolecular architectures has opened up new frontiers in polymer science. Such supramolecular species not only possess a rich set of dynamic features as a consequence of the non-covalent nature of their core interactions, but also afford unique structural characteristics. Although much is now known about the manner in which such structures adopt their morphologies and size distributions in response to external stimuli, the kinetic and thermodynamic driving forces that lead to their transformation from soluble monomeric species into ordered supramolecular entities have remained elusive. Here we focus on Boc-diphenylalanine, an archetypical example of a peptide with a high propensity towards supramolecular self-organization, and describe the pathway through which it forms a range of nano-assemblies with different structural characteristics. Our results reveal that the nucleation process is multi-step in nature and proceeds by Ostwald's step rule through which coalescence of soluble monomers leads to the formation of nanospheres, which then undergo ripening and structural conversions to form the final supramolecular assemblies. We characterize the structures and thermodynamics of the different phases involved in this process and reveal the intricate nature of the transitions that can occur between discrete structural states of this class of supramolecular polymers. PMID:25391268

  20. Ostwald’s rule of stages governs structural transitions and morphology of dipeptide supramolecular polymers

    Levin, Aviad; Mason, Thomas O.; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Buell, Alexander K.; Meisl, George; Galvagnion, Celine; Bram, Yaron; Stratford, Samuel A.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Gazit, Ehud


    The self-assembly of molecular building blocks into nano- and micro-scale supramolecular architectures has opened up new frontiers in polymer science. Such supramolecular species not only possess a rich set of dynamic features as a consequence of the non-covalent nature of their core interactions, but also afford unique structural characteristics. Although much is now known about the manner in which such structures adopt their morphologies and size distributions in response to external stimuli, the kinetic and thermodynamic driving forces that lead to their transformation from soluble monomeric species into ordered supramolecular entities have remained elusive. Here we focus on Boc-diphenylalanine, an archetypical example of a peptide with a high propensity towards supramolecular self-organization, and describe the pathway through which it forms a range of nano-assemblies with different structural characteristics. Our results reveal that the nucleation process is multi-step in nature and proceeds by Ostwald’s step rule through which coalescence of soluble monomers leads to the formation of nanospheres, which then undergo ripening and structural conversions to form the final supramolecular assemblies. We characterize the structures and thermodynamics of the different phases involved in this process and reveal the intricate nature of the transitions that can occur between discrete structural states of this class of supramolecular polymers.

  1. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Joseph L Baker


    Full Text Available Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon

  2. Navigated Early Survivorship Transition in Improving Survivorship Care Planning in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I-III Breast, Lung, Prostate, or Colorectal Cancer and Their Caregivers


    Cancer Survivor; Caregiver; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage III Lung Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  3. 1.2 V constant-gm rail-to-rail CMOS Op-Amp input stage with new overlapped transition regions technique for ECG amplifier.

    Lee, Boram; Higman, Ted


    The conventional technique of overlapped transition regions for producing a constant transconductance rail to rail Op-Amp input stage can only tolerate a limited amount of voltage shifting. This is limited by the minimum Vgs required for active mode operation of transistors. In this paper, we present a novel overlapped transition regions technique that overcomes the limitation of the conventional technique. This new overlapped transition regions technique has no voltage shifting limit. For both N-type and P-type conventional complementary differential input pairs, one source follower and one MOSFET are added to control the saturation point of current of input pairs. For 1.2 V single supply voltage, simulation results demonstrate ±3.71% of overall transconductance variation. Cadence SPECTRE simulator and TSMC 0.25-µm CMOS technology are used to layout and simulate this work. PMID:24110471

  4. Beyond the adoption/ non-adoption dichotomy: the impact of innovation characteristics on potential adopters' transition through adoption process stages

    Frambach, R T; Agarwal, M.K.; Nijssen, E.J.


    Research on innovation adoption has suffered from a bias towards understanding the factors that affect the dichotomous adoption/non-adoption decision. Much less attention is devoted to the question why potential adopters fail to progress to the adoption stage from earlier stages in the decision making process. Such knowledge is essential to understand what factors actually underlie the non-adoption of an innovation. As perceived innovation characteristics have been found to influence adoption...

  5. The Earliest Stage of Planet Formation: Disk-Planet Interactions in Protoplanetary Disks and Observations of Transitional Disks

    Dong, Ruobing; Rafikov, R.; Stone, J. M.; Hartmann, L. W.; SEEDS Team


    I will first talk about numerical simulations of disk-planet interactions in protoplanetary disks. Particularly, I’ll discuss the damping of the density waves excited by planets due to the nonlinearity in their propagation, which can result in gap opening in a low viscosity disk by low mass planets. I'll also discuss the effects of various numerical algorithms and parameters in simulations of disk-planet interaction, and address the question of how to produce correct simulations. Then I’ll move on to recent Subaru observations of transitional disks, which are protoplanetary disks with central depleted regions (cavities). Several ideas on the formation of transitional disks have been proposed, including gaps opened by planet(s). Recently, Subaru directly imaged a number of such disks at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (the SEEDS project) with high spatial resolution and small inner working angles. Using radiative transfer simulations, we study the structure of transitional disks by modeling the NIR images, the SED, and the sub-mm observations from literature (whenever available) simultaneously. We obtain physical disk+cavity structures, and constrain the spatial distribution of the dust grains, particularly inside the cavity and at the cavity edge. Interestingly, we find that in some cases cavities are not present in the scattered light. In such cases we present a new transitional disk model to simultaneously account for all observations. Decoupling between the sub-um-sized and mm-sized grains inside the cavity is required, which may necessitate the dust filtration mechanism. For another group of transitional disks in which Subaru does reveal the cavities at NIR, we focus on whether grains at different sizes have the same spatial distribution or not. We use our modeling results to constrain transitional disk formation theories, particularly to comment on their possible planets origin.




  7. Transition of plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein pumilio

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.; Braks, Joanna; Prudêncio, Miguel; Carret, Céline; Gomes, Ana Rita; Pain, Arnab; Feltwell, Theresa; Khan, Shahid; Waters, Andrew; Janse, Chris,; Gunnar R. Mair; Mota, Maria M.


    Author Summary Injection of Plasmodium sporozoites by Anopheles mosquitoes into the human host initiates malaria infection. Generation of blood stage parasites leading to the onset of disease relies on the successful development of the sporozoite into merozoites in the liver. Here we show that in the rodent malaria model Plasmodium berghei these developmental transformations are controlled by the RNA binding protein Pumilio 2 (Puf2). In the absence of Puf2, sporozoites, while still in the mos...

  8. Transition of Plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein Pumilio.

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S S; Braks, Joanna; Prudêncio, Miguel; Carret, Céline; Gomes, Ana Rita; Pain, Arnab; Feltwell, Theresa; Khan, Shahid; Waters, Andrew; Janse, Chris; Mair, Gunnar R; Mota, Maria M


    Many eukaryotic developmental and cell fate decisions that are effected post-transcriptionally involve RNA binding proteins as regulators of translation of key mRNAs. In malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), the development of round, non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from the mosquito vector to the vertebrate host. Here we identify a Plasmodium member of the RNA binding protein family PUF as a key regulator of this transformation. In the absence of Pumilio-2 (Puf2) sporozoites initiate EEF development inside mosquito salivary glands independently of the normal transmission-associated environmental cues. Puf2- sporozoites exhibit genome-wide transcriptional changes that result in loss of gliding motility, cell traversal ability and reduction in infectivity, and, moreover, trigger metamorphosis typical of early Plasmodium intra-hepatic development. These data demonstrate that Puf2 is a key player in regulating sporozoite developmental control, and imply that transformation of salivary gland-resident sporozoites into liver stage-like parasites is regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism. PMID:21625527

  9. Transition of Plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein Pumilio

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.


    Many eukaryotic developmental and cell fate decisions that are effected post-transcriptionally involve RNA binding proteins as regulators of translation of key mRNAs. In malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), the development of round, non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from the mosquito vector to the vertebrate host. Here we identify a Plasmodium member of the RNA binding protein family PUF as a key regulator of this transformation. In the absence of Pumilio-2 (Puf2) sporozoites initiate EEF development inside mosquito salivary glands independently of the normal transmission-associated environmental cues. Puf2- sporozoites exhibit genome-wide transcriptional changes that result in loss of gliding motility, cell traversal ability and reduction in infectivity, and, moreover, trigger metamorphosis typical of early Plasmodium intra-hepatic development. These data demonstrate that Puf2 is a key player in regulating sporozoite developmental control, and imply that transformation of salivary gland-resident sporozoites into liver stage-like parasites is regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism. 2011 Gomes-Santos et al.

  10. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Murakami, Noboru, E-mail: [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)


    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  11. Structural characteristics of transition-iron-carbide precipitates formed during the first stage of tempering in 4340 steel

    Microstructural and crystallographic characteristics of fine-scale transition-iron-carbide precipitates formed in martensite during tempering of 4340 steel at 200 °C for 3.6 ks were studied via transmission electron microscopy. Precipitates of near-equiaxed shapes and about 10 nm in size were observed, and rows of closely spaced precipitates were aligned predominantly along < 100 > martensite directions. Aggregates of aligned precipitates were up to 150 nm in length, although occasional kinks were present that disrupted the alignment, and some of the adjacent precipitates possessed somewhat different crystallographic orientations. Electron-diffraction results were analyzed in detail and found to be consistent with both epsilon-carbide and eta-carbide phases. Similarities between these two phases were highlighted and discussed. Experimental electron-diffraction data were compared with data from five different unit cells, and each was found to be consistent within uncertainty ranges of ± 0.003 nm for interplanar spacings, ± 2° for angles between plane normals, and a few degrees for the orientation relationship between precipitates and the matrix

  12. FTIR/PCA study of propanol in argon matrix: the initial stage of clustering and conformational transitions

    FTIR spectra of 1-propanol in an argon matrix were studied in the range 11 to 30 K. Principal component analysis of dynamic FTIR spectra and nonlinear band shape fitting has been carried out. The peaks of monomer, open dimer, mixed propanol-water dimer and those of higher H-bond clusters have been resolved and analyzed. The attribution of certain FTIR peaks has been supported by proper density functional theory calculations. Analyzing dependences of the integral band intensities of various aggregates on temperature it has been deduced that in the initial stage of clustering monomers and dimers are the basic building blocks forming higher H-bond clusters. The peaks assigned to two conformers of monomers and mixed propanol-water dimers were investigated processing the temperature dependences of their integral intensities in Arrhenius plot. The obtained values of 0.18 kJ.mol-1 for propanol monomer and 0.26 kJ.mol-1 for mixed dimer are well comparable with the energy differences between the global minimum conformation of 1-propanol (Gt) and some other energetically higher structures (Tt or Tg).

  13. Evidence of a critical film thickness for the early growth stage transition in YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    YBa2 Cu3 O7-δ thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on (100) SrTiO3 substrates with 0 and 5 deg. miscut angles along the [010] direction to observe and manipulate the growth at the early stages. For films on 0 deg miscut substrates, the first 30 A of growth was by island nucleation, and the areal density of nuclei increased with the film thickness. The transition from island nucleation to growth was between 30 and 60 A. Islands grew larger with the film thickness for films thicker than 30 A while the areal density was dramatically reduced. For the films on 5 deg. miscut substrates, the step-flow growth and island nucleation competed with each other for film thicknesses up to 30 A. When the film thickness increased above 60 A, the step-flow mode was dominant and no islands were observed. (author)

  14. Molecular candidates for early-stage flower-to-fruit transition in stenospermocarpic table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences ascribed by differential transcriptome and metabolome profiles.

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F


    Flower-to-fruit transition depends of nutrient availability and regulation at the molecular level by sugar and hormone signalling crosstalk. However, in most species, the identities of fruit initiation regulators and their targets are largely unknown. To ascertain the main pathways involved in stenospermocarpic table grape fruit set, comprehensive transcriptional and metabolomic analyses were conducted specifically targeting the early phase of this developmental stage in 'Thompson Seedless'. The high-throughput analyses performed disclosed the involvement of 496 differentially expressed genes and 28 differently accumulated metabolites in the sampled inflorescences. Our data show broad transcriptome reprogramming of molecule transporters, globally down-regulating gene expression, and suggest that regulation of sugar- and hormone-mediated pathways determines the downstream activation of berry development. The most affected gene was the SWEET14 sugar transporter. Hormone-related transcription changes were observed associated with increased indole-3-acetic acid, stimulation of ethylene and gibberellin metabolisms and cytokinin degradation, and regulation of MADS-box and AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor expression. Secondary metabolism, the most representative biological process at transcriptome level, was predominantly repressed. The results add to the knowledge of molecular events occurring in grapevine inflorescence fruit set and provide a list of candidates, paving the way for genetic manipulation aimed at model research and plant breeding. PMID:26810452

  15. Emittance Studies of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 Cell Photocathode RF Gun

    Palmer, D.T.; /SLAC; Wang, X.J.; /Brookhaven; Miller, R.H.; /SLAC; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; /Brookhaven; Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA; Sheehan, J.; Skaritka, J.; /Brookhaven; Winick, H.; /SLAC; Woodle, M.; Yakimenko, V.; /Brookhaven


    The symmetrized 1.6 cell S-band photocathode gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration is in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). A novel emittance compensation solenoid magnet has also been designed, built and is in operation at the ATF. These two subsystems form an emittance compensated photoinjector used for beam dynamics, advanced acceleration and free electron laser experiments at the ATF. The highest acceleration field achieved on the copper cathode is 150 MV/m, and the guns normal operating field is 130 MV/m. The maximum rf pulse length is 3 {mu}s. The transverse emittance of the photoelectron beam were measured for various injection parameters. The 1 nC emittance results are presented along with electron bunch length measurements that indicated that at above the 400 pC, space charge bunch lengthening is occurring. The thermal emittance, {epsilon}{sub o}, of the copper cathode has been measured.

  16. Microwave measurements of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell photocathode rf gun

    The longitudinal accelerating field E. has been measured as a function of azimuthal angle in the full cell of the cold test model for the 1.6 cell BNL/SLAC/UCLA number-sign 3 S-band RF Gun using a needle rotation/frequency perturbation technique. These measurements were conducted before and after symmetrizing the full cell with a vacuum pump out port and an adjustable short. Two different waveguide to full cell coupling schemes were studied. The dipole mode of the full cell is an order of magnitude less severe before symmetrization for the 0θ-coupling scheme. The multi-pole contribution to the longitudinal field asymmetry are calculated using standard Fourier series techniques. The Panofsky-Wenzel theorem is used in estimating the transverse emittance due to the multipole components of Ex

  17. Altered snowfall and soil disturbance influence the early life stage transitions and recruitment of a native and invasive grass in a cold desert.

    Gornish, Elise S; Aanderud, Zachary T; Sheley, Roger L; Rinella, Mathew J; Svejcar, Tony; Englund, Suzanne D; James, Jeremy J


    Climate change effects on plants are expected to be primarily mediated through early life stage transitions. Snowfall variability, in particular, may have profound impacts on seedling recruitment, structuring plant populations and communities, especially in mid-latitude systems. These water-limited and frequently invaded environments experience tremendous variation in snowfall, and species in these systems must contend with harsh winter conditions and frequent disturbance. In this study, we examined the mechanisms driving the effects of snowpack depth and soil disturbance on the germination, emergence, and establishment of the native Pseudoroegnaria spicata and the invasive Bromus tectorum, two grass species that are widely distributed across the cold deserts of North America. The absence of snow in winter exposed seeds to an increased frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles and greater fungal pathogen infection. A shallower snowpack promoted the formation of a frozen surface crust, reducing the emergence of both species (more so for P. spicata). Conversely, a deeper snowpack recharged the soil and improved seedling establishment of both species by creating higher and more stable levels of soil moisture availability following spring thaw. Across several snow treatments, experimental disturbance served to decrease the cumulative survival of both species. Furthermore, we observed that, regardless of snowpack treatment, most seed mortality (70-80%) occurred between seed germination and seedling emergence (November-March), suggesting that other wintertime factors or just winter conditions in general limited survival. Our results suggest that snowpack variation and legacy effects of the snowpack influence emergence and establishment but might not facilitate invasion of cold deserts. PMID:25539620

  18. The regional genomic instability induced by 60Co γ-rays in B16 cells transfected by GFP

    Objective: To detect the regional genomic instability of B16 cells treated with 60Co γ-rays by a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-based genomic instability reporting system. Methods: Three groups were employed as non-transfection group, vector control group and transfection group. The GFP-marked reporter construct pCMV-EGFP2XhoI for regional genomic instability was successfully transfected into B16 cells using liposome. B16 cells were selected by screening of G418 with a series of concentrations and limiting dilution cultures to yield a single colony. B16 cells with the genomic instability report system were then irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at doses of 0, 2 and 4 Gy. The regional genomic instability of B16 cells was quantified by counting the number of cells with GFP expression. Results: B-16 cell strain steadily expressing the GFP-based genomic instability reporting system was established successfully. GFP-positive B16 cells were observed at 1 d after irradiation with 60Co γ-rays at doses of 2 and 4 Gy. Positive correlations between fluorescence intensity and dose and fluorescence intensity and time were also observed. The positive expression rate of GFP followed the increased of dose (F=36.55, 36.76, P<0.05) and time (t=-3.27, -3.16, -4.26, -6.11, -7.17, P<0.05), and differences between groups were significant. The positive expression rate of GFP increased significantly at 3 d, and maximum expression was observed at 5 d (2.46 ± 0.24 and 3.82 ± 0.35). The level was tending towards stability. Spontaneous GFP expression at a ratio of 1/600000 was observed in 0 Gy group after 2 weeks of culture. Conclusions: The regional genomic instability of B16 cells induced by 60Co γ-rays can be detected using a GFP-labelled genomic instability reporter system. (authors)

  19. Palaeoenvironmental turnover across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition at the Agost section, Southastern Spain: In search of a marker event to define the Stratotype for the base of the Lutetian Stage

    Ortiz, S.; Gonzalvo, C.; Eustoquio, M.; Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.; Uchman, A; Vandenberghe, N.; Zeelmaekers, E.


    Marker events to define the stratotype for the base of the Lutetian Stage are poorly defined. To elucidate such markers and characterize palaeoenvironmental turnovers, we conducted an integrated study of the Ypresian–Lutetian (Y–L; early-middle Eocene) transition at the continuous Agost section (southeastern Spain). This 115-m-thick section, which consists of hemipelagic marls intercalated with hemipelagic limestones and turbidity sandstones, spans from planktic foraminiferal Zones P9 to P12 ...

  20. Acetaminophen inhibits NF-kappaB activation by interfering with the oxidant signal in murine Hepa 1-6 cells.

    Boulares, A H; Giardina, C; Inan, M S; Khairallah, E A; Cohen, S D


    A toxic dose of acetaminophen (APAP) reduces the activity of NF-kappaB in mouse liver. NF-kappaB inactivation may be important for APAP toxicity, as this transcription factor can play a central role in maintaining hepatic viability. We recently reported that APAP likewise inhibits serum growth factor activation of NF-kappaB in a mouse hepatoma cell line (Hepa 1-6 cells). Here we present evidence that APAP's antioxidant activity may be involved in this NF-kappaB inhibition in Hepa 1-6 cells. Like the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), APAP was found to suppress the H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of an intracellular reactive oxygen species probe (dihydrodichlorofluorescein) in Hepa 1-6 cells. Treatment of Hepa 1-6 cells with H(2)O(2) was sufficient for NF-kappaB activation and IkappaBalpha degradation, and APAP was able to block both of these events. The APAP inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by serum growth factors may also be due to APAP's antioxidant activity, as the antioxidants NAC and PDTC likewise inhibit this activation. The potential role of NF-kappaB and oxidant-based growth factor signal transduction in APAP toxicity is discussed. PMID:10828269

  1. Effect of selenium compounds on murine B16 melanoma cells and pigmented cloned pB16 cells

    The effects of selenium compounds such as sodium selenite, sodium selenate, seleno-DL-cystine and seleno-DL-methionine (100 μM and 10 μM) on B16 and pigmented cloned pB 16 murine melanoma cells were investigated in vitro. At the tested concentrations, B16 cells showed a greater sensitivity to the toxic effects of sodium selenite and seleno-DL-cystine than pB 16 cells, whereas no decrease of B 16 and pB 16 cell number was observed after incubation with sodium selenate or seleno-DL-methionine. Glutathione (GSH) percentages were strongly decreased only by selenite and seleno-DL-cystine; it was marked more in B 16 than in pB 16 cells. The pretreatment of B 16 cells with a GSH depleting agent (10 μM buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine) did not significantly influence the cytotoxic effects of selenite and seleno-DL-cystine. On both cell populations. GSH preincubation (50 μM) enhanced the cytotoxicity of selenite whereas the survival of seleno-DL-cystine treated cells was increased. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in B 16 cells was more sensitive than in pB 16 cells to the activating effect of selenite, and particularly of seleno-DL-cystine; however, cell-free controls indicated that activation was mainly due to glutathione reductase. The rate of 75Se (as sodium selenite) uptake in both cell populations was maximal within the first hour of incubation, with a preferential accumulation in the cytosol; after 24 h of incubation, the amount of 75Se in cytosol and pellet was approximately the same. Gel filtration chromatography of lysed cells after incubation for 6 h with 10 μM 75Se-selenite showed that the radioactivity was eluted as two peaks corresponding to low (4-9 kDa) and high (280-320 kDa) molecular weights. Possible toxicological mechanisms are discussed at molecular level. (orig./MG)

  2. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K


    immunoreactivity was determined with antibody PAB 1801. RESULTS: The study comprised 143 patients including 31 (22%) with stage T1a disease, 60 (42%) with stage T1b and 52 (36%) with stage T1c. Mean patient age was 67 years (range 38 to 92) and mean followup was 4.7 years (range 2.4 to 9.7). Tumor grade related...... in stages T1b and T1c compared with T1a disease. Of the patients 115 were treated with transurethral resection alone and 28 underwent radical cystectomy. Overall survival was 60.1%. Age was the only independent predictor of survival in patients older than 75 years. For patients up to 75 years old survival...... patients with stage T1b disease, particularly those with tumors expressing p53 nuclear reactivity and with dysplasia in the random mucosal biopsies....

  3. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: A novel quantitative model of multiple discrete stage transitions applied to crustacean larval development

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the holding temperatures and developmental stages of larvae of red and blue king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus and P. platypus) reared to...

  4. Construction of Egr-IFN γ and it's expression in B16 cells induced by ionizing irradiation

    Mouse IFN γ cDNA was ligated to downstream of Egr-1 promoter to construct Egr-IFN γ plasmid. The recombined plasmids were transfected into B16 cells with liposome, then the expression of IFN γ after different doses of X-ray irradiation and the time course of expression were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the expression levels in experimental groups were higher than that in the control group obviously (p<0.01); 6h after 2 Gy X-ray irradiation, the expression of IFN γ was highest (p<0.01); The B16 cells transfected were given 2 Gy X-ray irradiation every 24h, the expression level was highest after first irradiation (p<0.01) and then decrease gradually. The results indicated that ionizing irradiation can activate the Egr-IFN γ recombined plasmid and regulate the expression of IFN γ gene in B16 cells. The observation may be of potential significance in tumor therapy

  5. Observed degradation stages of ring-mold craters (RMC): Geomorphic evidence for modification of ice-rich deposits in the transitions zone between Elysium and Utopia Basin, Mars

    Pedersen, Gro Birkefeldt Møller

    Deposits with pits, depressions and RMCs observed north of Elysium rise are interpreted as degraded mixtures of ice and clastic material (CCF, LVF and LDA). Degradation stages of RMCs are an important tool for mapping dusty, deflated ice-rich units....

  6. The "Romsas in Motion" Community Intervention: Mediating Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Forward Transition in the Stages of Change in Physical Activity

    Lorentzen, Catherine; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Jenum, Anne Karen; Holme, Ingar


    This study examines whether a community-based physical activity intervention influenced movement in stages of change in physical activity in an adult population, whether any such effect was mediated by psychosocial influences, and whether any such mediations were moderated by sociodemographic or anthropometric factors. The 3-year-long…

  7. Staging Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.

    lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that...

  8. A Three-section Algorithm of Dynamic Programming Based on Three-stage Decomposition System Model for Grade Transition Trajectory Optimization Problems

    Yujie Wei; Yongheng Jiang; Dexian Huang⁎


    This paper introduces a practical solving scheme of gradetransition trajectory optimization (GTTO) problems under typical certificate-checking–updating framework. Due to complicated kinetics of polymerization, differential/algebraic equations (DAEs) always cause great computational burden and system non-linearity usual y makes GTTO non-convex bearing multiple optima. Therefore, coupled with the three-stage decomposi-tion model, a three-section algorithm of dynamic programming (TSDP) is proposed based on the general iteration mechanism of iterative programming (IDP) and incorporated with adaptivegrid allocation scheme and heuristic modifications. The algorithm iteratively performs dynamic programming with heuristic modifications under constant calculation loads and adaptively allocates the valued computational resources to the regions that can further improve the optimality under the guidance of local error estimates. TSDP is finally compared with IDP and interior point method (IP) to verify its efficiency of computation.

  9. Inhibitory effect of Cucumis sativus on melanin production in melanoma B16 cells by downregulation of tyrosinase expression.

    Kai, Hisahiro; Baba, Masaki; Okuyama, Toru


    We compared the inhibitory effects on melanogenesis of six plant parts (leaves, stems, roots, whole fruits, calyxes, and fruits without calyxes) of Cucumis sativus. MeOH extracts of leaves and stems inhibited melanin production in B16 cells. These extracts did not affect the activity of mushroom tyrosinase or crude enzyme lysate from B16 cells. However, the extracts decreased tyrosinase expression at the protein level. These results suggest that the depigmenting mechanism of extracts from leaves and stems of C. SATIVUS involves the expression of tyrosinase. Of eight compounds isolated from the leaves, lutein ( 1) (IC (50) = 170.7 microM) and (+)-(1 R,2 S,5 R,6 S)-2,6-di-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane ( 2) (IC (50) = 270.8 microM) were found to suppress melanogenesis. Whereas 1 was found to markedly decrease the expression levels of tyrosinase, 2 only weakly reduced tyrosinase expression. This suggests that 1 is an active component in the leaves of C. sativus and is a potentially useful skin-whitening agent. PMID:19009501

  10. Trading stages

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim;


    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  11. Expression of target genes of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 in the liver of dairy cows in the transition period and at different stages of lactation.

    Gessner, D K; Schlegel, G; Keller, J; Schwarz, F J; Ringseis, R; Eder, K


    factor responsible for upregulation of those genes in the liver during early lactation. In conclusion, this study provides additional evidence that the periparturient phase in dairy cows is associated with a proinflammatory condition in the liver. Moreover, it is shown for the first time that the transition from pregnancy to lactation leads to a strong upregulation of Nrf2 target genes with antioxidative or cytoprotective properties, which might be another physiologic means to prevent the liver against damage by the inflammation process and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23245956

  12. The influence of zero-mode on beam properties at 1.6 cell photocathode RF gun

    Recently, due to multi-bunch laser injection, it is worried that 0 mode, which is not considerable with single-bunch injection, could be excited by beam loading and would degrade the beam properties. Then, we evaluated the influence in a BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell photocathode RF gun, which is made use of widely, by using particle tracking simulations. We assumed the charge in a bunch was 1 nC, and the frequency of the laser injection was the same as that of RF electric field (2856 MHz). As a result, the electric field of the 0 mode became larger and its phase changed by nearly 180deg compared with the case without beam loading. Hence, the influence of the 0 mode on the beam properties, i.e. energy spread, transverse emittance, and bunch length, showed the opposite behavior to the single-bunch injection scheme. The change in energy spread by 0 mode at 10deg laser injection phase was about -20% without beam loading and +40% with beam loading. (author)

  13. Development of brazing technique for a 1.6 cell BNL/SLAC/UCLA type photocathode guns by hydrogen brazing

    Two prototypes of a 1.6 cell BNL/SLAC/UCLA type RF photocathode gun, a precision machined RF structure capable of supporting gradients in excess of 80 MV/m, have been successfully brazed and leak rates of 10-10 mbar l/s have been achieved. Brazing, is carried out in two steps in a hydrogen furnace, it involves joining of two RF cavities, 6 cylindrical ports, one rectangular waveguide and one seal plate. The cavities and waveguide are made of copper and the ports and seal plate are of stainless steel. Fixtures were designed and fabricated indigenously to maintain the required assembly tolerances during brazing. This was important for brazing of ports, two of which are brazed to one cavity at an angle of 22.50 at diametrically opposite locations, and the remaining four are brazed to the other cavity in mutually perpendicular orientations. All joints were brazed using copper-silver eutectic (72-28) alloy in foil and wire forms. This paper discusses the brazing requirement, design of fixtures, and the procedure adopted for brazing of the photocathode gun. The paper also discusses results of the tests carried out to qualify the brazed joints. (author)

  14. Zinc ionophore activity of quercetin and epigallocatechin-gallate: from Hepa 1-6 cells to a liposome model.

    Dabbagh-Bazarbachi, Husam; Clergeaud, Gael; Quesada, Isabel M; Ortiz, Mayreli; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Fernández-Larrea, Juan B


    Labile zinc, a tiny fraction of total intracellular zinc that is loosely bound to proteins and easily interchangeable, modulates the activity of numerous signaling and metabolic pathways. Dietary plant polyphenols such as the flavonoids quercetin (QCT) and epigallocatechin-gallate act as antioxidants and as signaling molecules. Remarkably, the activities of numerous enzymes that are targeted by polyphenols are dependent on zinc. We have previously shown that these polyphenols chelate zinc cations and hypothesized that these flavonoids might be also acting as zinc ionophores, transporting zinc cations through the plasma membrane. To prove this hypothesis, herein, we have demonstrated the capacity of QCT and epigallocatechin-gallate to rapidly increase labile zinc in mouse hepatocarcinoma Hepa 1-6 cells as well as, for the first time, in liposomes. In order to confirm that the polyphenols transport zinc cations across the plasma membrane independently of plasma membrane zinc transporters, QCT, epigallocatechin-gallate, or clioquinol (CQ), alone and combined with zinc, were added to unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphocholine/cholesterol liposomes loaded with membrane-impermeant FluoZin-3. Only the combinations of the chelators with zinc triggered a rapid increase of FluoZin-3 fluorescence within the liposomes, thus demonstrating the ionophore action of QCT, epigallocatechin-gallate, and CQ on lipid membrane systems. The ionophore activity of dietary polyphenols may underlay the raising of labile zinc levels triggered in cells by polyphenols and thus many of their biological actions. PMID:25050823

  15. Staging atmospheres

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr


    . Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  16. Paths of lateral gene transfer of lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with a unique evolutionary transition stage of prokaryotes coding for class I and II varieties by the same organisms

    Nussinov Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the premise that lateral gene transfer (LGT is a dominant evolutionary force is still in considerable dispute, the case for widespread LGT in the family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS is no longer contentious. aaRSs are ancient enzymes, guarding the fidelity of the genetic code. They are clustered in two structurally unrelated classes. Only lysine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS is found both as a class 1 and a class 2 enzyme (LysRS1-2. Remarkably, in several extant prokaryotes both classes of the enzyme coexist, a unique phenomenon that has yet to receive its due attention. Results We applied a phylogenetic approach for determining the extent and origin of LGT in prokaryotic LysRS. Reconstructing species trees for Archaea and Bacteria, and inferring that their last common ancestors encoded LysRS1 and LysRS2, respectively, we studied the gains and losses of both classes. A complex pattern of LGT events emerged. In specific groups of organisms LysRS1 was replaced by LysRS2 (and vice versa. In one occasion, within the alpha proteobacteria, a LysRS2 to LysRS1 LGT was followed by reversal to LysRS2. After establishing the most likely LGT paths, we studied the possible origins of the laterally transferred genes. To this end, we reconstructed LysRS gene trees and evaluated the likely origins of the laterally transferred genes. While the sources of LysRS1 LGTs were readily identified, those for LysRS2 remain, for now, uncertain. The replacement of one LysRS by another apparently transits through a stage simultaneously coding for both synthetases, probably conferring a selective advantage to the affected organisms. Conclusion The family of LysRSs features complex LGT events. The currently available data were sufficient for identifying unambiguously the origins of LysRS1 but not of LysRS2 gene transfers. A selective advantage is suggested to organisms encoding simultaneously LysRS1-2.

  17. Transition Planning

    Statfeld, Jenna L.


    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  18. High Power Beam Test and Measurement of Emittance Evolution of a 1.6-Cell Photocathode RF Gun at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory

    Park, Jang-Ho; Park, Sung-Ju; Kim, Changbum; Parc, Yong-Woon; Hong, Ju-Ho; Huang, Jung-Yun; Xiang, Dao; Wang, Xijie; Ko, In Soo


    A Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) GUN-IV type photocathode rf gun has been fabricated to use in femtosecond electron diffraction (FED), femtosecond far infrared radiation (fs-FIR) facility, and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). The gun consists of a 1.6-cell cavity with a copper cathode, a solenoid magnet, beam diagnostic components and auxiliary systems. We report here the measurement of the basic beam parameters which confirm a successful fabrication of the photocathode RF gun system. The emittance evolution is measured by an emittance meter and compared with the PARMELA simulation, which shows a good agreement.

  19. CT staging of renal pelvis tumor

    To assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative staging of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the renal pelvis. We retrospectively evaluated the CT TNM staging of 38 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis who had undergone preoperative abdominal CT examination between January 1990 and January 1998. In CT staging for differentiation between early-stage (T0-2) and advanced-stage disease (T3-T4), three criteria were used, namely the presence or obliteration of the renal sinus fat layer, the smoothness or irregularity of margin between the tumor and renal parenchyma, and the presence or absence of hydronephrosis proximal to the tumor. CT staging was performed by two genitourinary radiologists blinded to the pathologic results, and was compared with pathologic staging. Pathologic results revealed 19 cases of early stage disease (T0=8, T1=9, T2=2) and 19 of advanced stage (T3=12, T4=7). Overall CT staging accuracy was 82%(31/38) ; four cases were overstaged and three were understaged. In early-stage disease, sensitivity and specificity were 79%, and 84%, and in advanced stage disease were 83% and 80%. Three of four overstaged cases showed hydronephrosis proximal to the tumor. In the second CT staging, using proximal hydronephrosis of the tumor as a criterion for early-stage disease, the sensitivity and specificity of early-stage disease were 95% and 75%, respectively, and the specificity of advanced-stage disease was 95%. When hydronephrosis proximal to a tumor was considered to be a sign of early stage disease, the CT staging of renal pelvic TCC was highly accurate

  20. Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, and Urologic Cancers


    Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Urethral Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal

  1. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    Rice, Thomas W.


    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer.

  2. Staging in oesophageal cancer

    Plukker, J. Th. M.


    Accurate staging defines groups for stage-specific treatment, minimising inappropriate treatment. Application of dedicated staging methods - including 16-64 multidetector computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and positron emission tomography (PET)

  3. Early-Stage Caregiving

    ... the Diagnosis Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search by state Get Weekly E-News Stay up-to-date on Alzheimer's treatments and care. First ...

  4. Prostate cancer staging

    ... this page: // Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC View/Download: Small: 734x648 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC ...

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IV View/Download: Small: 576x641 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV ...

  7. Beam dynamics enhancement due to accelerating field symmetrization in the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell S-band photocathode RF gun

    A 1.6 cell photocathode S-Band gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration is now in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). One of the main features of this RF gun is the symmetrization of the RF coupling iris with an identical vacuum pumping port located in the full cell. The effects of the asymmetry caused by the RF coupling iris were experimentally investigated by positioning a metallic plunger at the back wall of the vacuum port iris. The higher order modes produced were studied using electron beamlets with 8-fold symmetry. The 8-fold beamlets were produced by masking the laser beam. These experimental results indicate that the integrated electrical center and the geometrical center of the gun are within 175 microm. Which is within the laser alignment tolerance of 250 microm

  8. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer


    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Penurunan Aktivitas Tirosinase dan Jumlah Melanin oleh Fraksi Etil Asetat Buah Malaka (Phyllantus emblica pada Mouse Melanoma B16 Cell-Line

    Reti Hindritiani


    Full Text Available Melanin accumulation can lead to hyperpigmentation, and if it occurs on the face can cause psychosocial problem. Depigmenting agents derived from plants are increasingly utilized. Agents being developed have to be effective in inhibiting melanin synthesis and should not be toxic to melanocyte. This study aimed was to examine the effect of ethyl acetate fraction from Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica fruit, also known as malaka fruit, towards melanine synthesis, which was measured from the melanin amount and tyrosinase activity, the key regulatory enzyme in melanin synthesis, spectrophotometrically towards melanocytes of mouse melanoma B16 cell-line. The cytotoxic effect towards melanocytes was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. This study was conducted on November−December 2009 in Department of Biochemistry and Diabetes Research Centre, Chonbuk National University Medical School, South Korea. The result of this study showed that tyrosinase activity and melanin amount decreased in a dose-dependent manner towards various concentrations of ethyl acetate fraction of P. emblica fruit with inhibition concentration (IC 50=95.63 and 16.90 μg/mL, respectively and lethal dose (LD 50 concentration 106.64 μg/mL. In conclusion, ethyl acetate fraction of P. emblica fruit is a potential depigmenting agent, since it can reduce melanin synthesis by inhibition of tyrosinase activity.

  10. Breast cancer staging

    ... this page: // Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  11. Stages of Adolescence

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  13. Staging of Lung Cancer

    ... which therapy (or therapies) should be used. Second, lung cancer staging tells how much your cancer has spread. Knowing ... your body. How good are these tests at staging lung cancer? If your biopsy finds cancer cells, this is ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  15. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  16. Dynamic Stage Design

    Florian von Hofen[GER


    Concepts and methods for dynamic stage designs were introduced ranging from different ifelds of TV live shows, exhibitions and theatre performances, and a special emphasis was put on solution to the theatre stage design.

  17. Transition joint

    A transition joint is disclosed for joining together tubular pieces formed respectively from a low alloy or carbon steel and a high temperature alloy composition having substantially different characteristics such as coefficient of thermal expansion, the transition joint including a plurality of tubular parts interconnected with each other by means of friction weld joints formed at an angle of 900 to the axis of the transition joint, the tubular parts at opposite ends of the transition joint being selected to facilitate in situ welding to the low alloy or carbon steel and high temperature alloy respectively. This friction welded transition joint can be used whenever different tubular pieces need to be joined together so that the joint can withstand high temperatures, for instance in heat exchangers and the such like. (Auth.)

  18. Staging Bipolar Disorder.

    Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Reinares, M.; Rosa, A. R.


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence supporting a staging model for bipolar disorder. The authors conducted an extensive Medline and Pubmed search of the published literature using a variety of search terms (staging, bipolar disorder, early intervention) to find relevant articles, which were reviewed in detail. Only recently specific proposals have been made to apply clinical staging to bipolar disorder. The staging model in bipolar disorder suggests a progression from prodro...

  19. Two-Stage Bandits

    Clayton, Murray K.; Witmer, Jeffrey A.


    Two stochastic processes, or "arms," that yield dichotomous responses are available for use in a two-stage decision problem. During the first stage, arms are chosen sequentially; the resulting observations are discounted by a fixed value $\\beta$. A single arm must be used in the second stage, in which observations are not discounted. The decision to end the first stage is based on the data obtained. Optimal strategies are considered in the presence of the random discount sequence that arises ...

  20. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Whitney, Ruth


    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  1. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.


    people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility is...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  3. Wetting transitions

    When a liquid droplet is put onto a surface, two situations distinguishable by the contact angle may result. If the contact angle is zero, the droplet spreads across the surface, a situation referred to as complete wetting. On the other hand, if the contact angle is between 0 deg. and 180 deg., the droplet does not spread, a situation called partial wetting. A wetting transition is a surface phase transition from partial wetting to complete wetting. We review the key experimental findings on this transition, together with simple theoretical models that account for the experiments. The wetting transition is generally first order (discontinuous), implying a discontinuity in the first derivative of the surface free energy. In this case, if one measures the thickness of the adsorbed film beside the droplet, at the wetting transition a discontinuous jump in film thickness occurs from a microscopically thin to a thick film. We show that this can lead to the observation of metastable surface states and an accompanying hysteresis. The observed hysteresis poses, in turn, a number of questions concerning the nucleation of wetting films that we also consider here. In addition, we consider the equilibrium wetting film thickness that results from a competition between the long-range van der Waals forces and gravity. Finally, the first-order character of the wetting transition can lead to a similar transition even when the phase that does the wetting is not (yet) stable in the bulk. For such prewetting transitions, a discontinuous thin-to-thick film transition occurs off bulk coexistence. We show that, for the large variety of systems for which prewetting transitions have been observed, the behaviour is surprisingly uniform, and can be mapped onto a simple generic phase diagram. The second part of the review deals with the exceptions to the first-order nature of the wetting transition. Two different types of continuous or critical wetting transition have been reported, for which

  4. Phase transitions

    Solé, Ricard V


    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o

  5. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar


    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  6. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye


    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  7. The Institutional Foundations of China's Market Transition

    Yingyi Qian


    April 1999 This paper intends to properly account for China's two decades of market transition by examining its institutional foundations. The journey of transition is analyzed as a two-stage process. In the first stage (1978-93), the system was reformed to unleash the standard forces of incentives, hard budget constraints, and competition, but the underlying institutional forms and mechanisms are far from conventional: reforming government through regional decentralization; entry and expansi...

  8. Multiple stage railgun

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  9. The other stage

    Anderson, Christopher Stephen Williamson


    An interactive electroacoustic music composition and solo mixed-media performance realized as an alternatively-staged one-night concert event. This project examines the tradition of staging live electronic music and the role of a solo computer music composer-performer. It is a four-movement interactive work with an appended generative music system performed solo within an alternative stage layout. It is derived from an interdisciplinary practice of combining electroacoustic music and electro...

  10. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G


    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  11. Monetary Policy Rules in Some Transition Economies

    Mohamed El-Hodiri; Bulat Mukhamediyev


    In this paper we examine the question of whither monetary rules or ad hoc monetary policies were followed during the early stages of transition and in response to the global financial crisis. We study Eastern European countries and thee CIS countries. We find that during the early of transition, both developed economies and economies in transition used the monetary base, as well as the interest rate, as the main tools for monetary policy. However, in response to the global cris...

  12. Multiple Stages 2

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations......Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  13. Stages of Melanoma

    ... melanoma cells. The disease is metastatic melanoma, not lung cancer. The method used to stage melanoma is based mainly on the thickness of the tumor and whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. The staging of melanoma depends on the following: The thickness ...

  14. The Analysis, Optimization, and Simulation of a Two-Stage Tandem Queueing Model with Hyperexponential Service Time at Second Stage

    Vedat Sağlam


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a tandem queueing model with two stages. The arrivals to the first stage are Poisson stream and the service time at this stage is exponential. There is no waiting room at first stage. The service time is hyperexponential and no waiting is allowed at second stage. The transition probabilities and loss probabilities of this model are obtained. In addition, the loss probability at second stage is optimized. Performance measures and the variance of the numbers of customers of this tandem queueing model are found. It is seen that the numbers of customers in first stage and second stage are dependent. Finally we have simulated this queueing model. For different values of parameters, exact values, simulated values, and optimal values of obtained performance measures of this model are numerically shown in tables and graphs.

  15. Transitional Shelter

    Shiozaki, Yoshimitsu; TANAKA, Yasuo; Hokugo, Akihiko; Bettencourt, Sofia


    Transitional shelter can play a crucial role in housing reconstruction following a mega disaster. Reconstruction of permanent housing cannot move forward until a number of complex issues are settled, such as relocation planning and removal of debris. Even after plans are agreed on and reconstruction begins, it may take several years for permanent housing to be completed. In this context, a...

  16. Geometric interpretation of phyllotaxis transition

    Okabe, Takuya


    The original problem of phyllotaxis was focused on the regular arrangements of leaves on mature stems represented by common fractions such as 1/2, 1/3, 2/5, 3/8, 5/13, etc. The phyllotaxis fraction is not fixed for each plant but it may undergo stepwise transitions during ontogeny, despite contrasting observation that the arrangement of leaf primordia at shoot apical meristems changes continuously. No explanation has been given so far for the mechanism of the phyllotaxis transition, excepting suggestion resorting to genetic programs operating at some specific stages. Here it is pointed out that varying length of the leaf trace acts as an important factor to control the transition by analyzing Larson's diagram of the procambial system of young cottonwood plants. The transition is interpreted as a necessary consequence of geometric constraints that the leaf traces cannot be fitted into a fractional pattern unless their length is shorter than the denominator times the internode.

  17. Prostate cancer staging

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  18. Dynamical transition of heat transport in a physical gel near the sol-gel transition

    Kobayashi, Kazuya U.; Noriko Oikawa; Rei Kurita


    We experimentally study heat transport in a gelatin solution near a reversible sol-gel transition point where viscosity strongly depends on temperature. We visualize the temperature field and velocity field using thermochromic liquid crystals and polystyrene latex particles, respectively. During the initial stages of heating, we find that heat transport undergoes a dynamical transition from conductive to convective. Subsequently, during later stages, we observe that the transport dynamics are...

  19. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy


    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  20. [Humanitarian transition].

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie


    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  1. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer


    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  2. Optical control of multi-stage thin film solar cell production

    Li, Jian; Levi, Dean H.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Scharf, John


    Embodiments include methods of depositing and controlling the deposition of a film in multiple stages. The disclosed deposition and deposition control methods include the optical monitoring of a deposition matrix to determine a time when at least one transition point occurs. In certain embodiments, the transition point or transition points are a stoichiometry point. Methods may also include controlling the length of time in which material is deposited during a deposition stage or controlling the amount of the first, second or subsequent materials deposited during any deposition stage in response to a determination of the time when a selected transition point occurs.

  3. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E


    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  4. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  5. New School Stages for Old.

    Miller, James Hull

    A new and dynamic approach to auditorium stage design is presented. Contents include--(1) modified proscenium stage plan--a definition, (2) benefits of a modified proscenium stage plan, and (3) details of a modified proscenium stage plan--basic concepts, a typical layout, projection systems, and scenic design for space stage. (RH)

  6. Transit space

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  7. Composers on stage

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning...... Rønsholdt’s Documentary Concert (2013) and Johannes Kreidler Fremdarbeit (2009)....

  8. Staging interrail mobilities

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.


    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous stud...

  9. World Stage Design


    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  10. Stages of Pregnancy

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Childbirth and beyond Mom-to-be tools Government in action on pregnancy Pregnancy in Spanish ( en español ) Subscribe to Stages of pregnancy email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Pregnancy > You're pregnant: Now what? Pregnancy This ...

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  12. Stages of economic growth

    Kejak, Michal

    Detroit : Macmillan Reference USA, 2008 - (Darity, W.), s. 79-82 ISBN 978-0-02-865973-2. - (International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Vol. 8) R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : economic growth * stages * political consequencies Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  13. Multi-stage magnetic induction mass accelerator

    The magnetic induction method of mass acceleration readily lends itself to multi-staging. In the limit of many stages, such an accelerator approaches a distributed energy source system where only closing switches are necessary. We describe the design and performance of a three-stage accelerator, each driven by a separate capacitor bank. This system was modeled using a previously reported computer code. In order to do this the code was modified to calculate projectile acceleration through a succession of driver coils: Thermal conductivity and surface melting models were also added. The former is necessary due to the extended transit time through many stages. The latter is needed in anticipation of the more extreme ohmic heating when the capacitor banks are replaced by explosive-driven, magnetic flux compression generators. The performance goal of this system is to at least double the kinetic energy of a 0.3 kgm copperclad, steel projectile injected at a velocity of 300 m/sec from an explosive-driven gun. We then plan to test the system at the thermal and mechanical limit by using explosive-driven, magnetic flux compression generators as energy sources. We envision a six-stage system driven by three generators

  14. An Observational Perspective of Transitional Disks

    Espaillat, Catherine; Najita, Joan; Andrews, Sean; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Calvet, Nuria; Kraus, Stefan; Hashimoto, Jun; Kraus, Adam; D'Alessio, Paola


    Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about...

  15. Sustainable Transition

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent


    agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable......What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration of...... including the perspective of structural changes (transition of socio-technical systems and social practices) and Design as metadesign; an reflexivity on contextual framework of the design practice (regimes/design spaces)....

  16. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian


    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  17. Painting Tableau Stage

    Derby, Moyra; Elliot, Stuart; Finch, Mark; Harland, Beth


    The central visual core of Painting Tableau Stage comprised of paintings by four contemporary artists from the United Kingdom, Moyra Derby, Stuart Elliot, Mick Finch, Beth Harland, all of whom share an interest in concepts of the tableau, a term that has received recent critical attention in the U.K. and often translated as "picture form." In addition, a small selection of scenographic artifacts and models from OSU's Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee Theater Research Institute act as a visual...

  18. Endometrial carcinoma stage I.

    Baram, A; Ron, I; Kupferminc, M; Inbar, M


    Standard staging and therapeutic approach to endometrial cancer involves lymph node sampling (LNS) at the time of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Lymphadenectomy prolongs time of surgery and increases the risk of morbidity; where other predictors are available, it may not contribute important supplementary information. 185/247 women with stage I endometrial carcinoma underwent the standard surgery while 62 underwent TAH+BSO. Recurrence and survival were monitored for a mean of 6.5 years and retrospectively reviewed: the rates for groups with and without known lymph node status were alike [13.5% (25/185) recurrence for the former and 12.9% (8/62) for the latter, and 5-year survival rates of 75.7% (140/185) for the former and 74.2 (46/62) for the latter]. Myometrial invasion and histological grade appeared to have been highly accurate predictors without lymph node information. Because information on histological grade is available early and is highly predictive, its use could be incorporated into a revised management algorithm for stage I endometrial cancer which would depend upon ensuring lymphadenectomy for women with low grade histopathology and omitting it for those with high grades on the grounds that no further information is necessary to act appropriately. PMID:21590195

  19. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka


    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and politic...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces.......The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...

  20. Stages: A system for generating strategic alternaties for forest management.

    Bos, J.


    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic planning for forest management. This strategic planning consists of deciding on zoning, future forest and transition management. STAGES consists of a zoning model (which addresses the zoning decision problem th...

  1. Transitions in Theory and Practice: Managing Metals in the Circular Economy

    Melissa Jackson; Aleta Lederwasch; Damien Giurco


    Transitioning from current resource management practice dominated by linear economic models of consumption and production, to circular models of resource use, will require insights into the stages and processes associated with socio-technical transitions. This paper is concerned with transitions in practice. It explores two frameworks within the transitions literature—the multi-level perspective and transition management theory—for practical guidance to inform a deliberate transition in pract...

  2. Transition time

    Carlos Renato Zacharias


    Full Text Available 2013 is going to be an interesting year for the High Dilution research field. There is a tendency to revise basic concepts and common beliefs, while refining models and theories. The fundamental research team seems to be open to deeper discussions, aiming to reinforce some hypothesis and discharge others. In somehow, we are stuck in a vicious way of think, trying to manage and describe an informational phenomenon into a molecular framework. The challenge offered to those researchers involved with basic science is to figure out how to deal with such phenomenon, since previous theories and models have not shown to be matched! In the other hand, there is a tendency to explore the HD phenomenon in its technological branch. While basic research is important to describe how things work, the applied research has a more intense social and economic appeal. To develop technology based on HD means to give a different kind of visibility to the field, attracting sponsors, companies, entrepreneurs, always committed to the market regulatory laws. I am expecting for this year some important movements, both in the basic and applied research. Of course, it will be only a new beginning, as these changes require a lot of work, discussions and insights. But this transition time is very welcome!

  3. Characterization and endocytic internalization of Epith-2 cell surface glycoprotein during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos



    Full Text Available The epithelial cells of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus embryo express an Epith-2, uncharacterized glycoprotein, on the lateral surface. Here, we describe internalization of Epith-2 during mesenchyme formation through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Epith-2 was first expressed on the entire egg surface soon after fertilization and on the blastomeres until the 4-cell stage, but was localized to the lateral surface of epithelial cells at and after the 16-cell stage throughout the later developmental period. However, primary (PMC and secondary mesenchyme cells (SMC that ingress by EMT lost Epith-2 from their cell surface by endocytosis during dissociation from the epithelium, which was associated with the appearance of cytoplasmic Epith-2 dots. The cytoplasmic Epith-2 retained a similar relative molecular mass to that of the cell surface immediately after ingression through the early period of the spreading to single cells. Then, Epith-2 was completely lost from the cytoplasm. Tyrosine residues of Epith-2 were phosphorylated. The endocytic retraction of Epith-2 was inhibited by herbimycin A (HA, a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK inhibitor, and suramin, a growth factor receptor (GFR inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of the GFR/PTK (GP signaling pathway. These two GP inhibitors also inhibited PMC and SMC spreading to individual cells after ingression, but the dissociation of PMC and SMC from the epithelium was not inhibited. In suramin-treated embryos, dissociated mesenchyme cells migrated partially by retaining their epithelial morphology. In HA-treated embryos, no mesenchyme cells migrated. Thus, the EMT occurs in relation to internalization of Epith-2 from presumptive PMC and SMC.

  4. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.


    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  5. Stagings of Divine Power

    Holm, Bent


    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...... is investigated up to the 18. century. Particilarly three fields of reference are exposed - the Christian, the Antique, and the Norse - in a context of European notions and manifestations of royal and state power. Three approaches are especially significant: Divine Monarchy, Divine Monarch, The long Baroque....

  6. Metropolitanization:China’s Transitioning Urbanization Patterns


    Amid larger institutional transitions,China has seen rapid urbanization stimulated by the marketization and new industrialization in the country.Now facing a series of new challenges,the traditional mode of urbanization needs to be changed.History has proven that metropolitanization is a necessary stage of urban development;under the circumstances of China’s current industrialization,metropolitanization emerges as the primary direction in China’s transitioning urbanization.This paper suggests certain measures for boosting metropolitanization and urbanization transition in China.

  7. Global transition in health.

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W


    backwards upon the three stages of Omran's original thesis on epidemiological transition, to understand life and death forwards, in a world in fast transition, cf. the Danish philosopher Soeren Kirkegaard: "it is true what philosophy tells us, that life must be understood backwards, while not forgetting the second sentence, that it must be lived forwards". PMID:17349223

  8. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy


    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    Wood, Ann Stace


    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  10. Transition to Adulthood

    ... Parent Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Transition to Adulthood Link-checked, June 2016 A legacy ... Resources of more info _________________________ A Quick Summary of Transition Transition services are intended to prepare students to ...

  11. CT staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the characterization of renal masses, in order to stage them, determine their prognosis and their appropriate clinical and/or surgical management. Material and Methods: Between 1988 and 2001, we selected 63 patients with renal tumors that had been examined by pathology. Patient's ages ranged from 16 to 88 years (25 women, 38 men). The studies were performed with a sequential helical CT, using 5 mm thickness sections every 5mm evaluating the cortico medullar and nephrographic phases. Renal tumors were characterized and staged without any knowledge about the pathological findings; subsequently the tomographic characteristics were compared to such findings. The following characteristics were evaluated: 1) mixed solid-cystic nature; 2) size; 3) borders; 4) enhancement; 5) necrosis; 6) hemorrhage; 7) central scar; 8) presence of fat; 9) collecting system; 10) capsular invasion; 11) perirenal fat invasion; 12) vessels; 13) Gerota's fascia; 14) lymph nodes; and 15) local and/or distant metastases. Results: Of the 63 tumors, 2 were complicated cysts; of the 61 remaining tumors, 10 were angiomyolipomas, 1 was a renal lymphoma, 1 was a focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 was a metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 4 transitional cell tumors, 4 oncocytomas, 37 clear cell renal carcinoma. The CT could correctly characterize the 2 cystic tumors as such, as well as the 9 angiomyolipomas and the 4 transitional cell tumors. The 48 other tumors (1 angiomyolipoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary RCC, 4 oncocytomas, and 37 cell renal carcinomas) remaining were characterized as renal adenocarcinomas and CT staged. Conclusion: CT is a useful method to characterize renal masses since it determines their solid-cystic or fatty structure; aiding in many cases to define a surgical treatment. For the CT staging of renal tumors, the

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...


    Boyle, R. J.


    This program was developed to predict turbine stage performance taking into account the effects of complex passage geometries. The method uses a quasi-3D inviscid-flow analysis iteratively coupled to calculated losses so that changes in losses result in changes in the flow distribution. In this manner the effects of both the geometry on the flow distribution and the flow distribution on losses are accounted for. The flow may be subsonic or shock-free transonic. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. This program has been applied to axial and radial turbines, and is helpful in the analysis of mixed flow machines. This program is a combination of the flow analysis programs MERIDL and TSONIC coupled to the boundary layer program BLAYER. The subsonic flow solution is obtained by a finite difference, stream function analysis. Transonic blade-to-blade solutions are obtained using information from the finite difference, stream function solution with a reduced flow factor. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud and provision is made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. Boundary layer analyses are made to determine profile and end-wall friction losses. Empirical loss models are used to account for incidence, secondary flow, disc windage, and clearance losses. The total losses are then used to calculate stator, rotor, and stage efficiency. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370/3033 under TSS with a central memory requirement of approximately 4.5 Megs of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1985.

  15. A three-stage model of Golgi structure and function.

    Day, Kasey J; Staehelin, L Andrew; Glick, Benjamin S


    The Golgi apparatus contains multiple classes of cisternae that differ in structure, composition, and function, but there is no consensus about the number and definition of these classes. A useful way to classify Golgi cisternae is according to the trafficking pathways by which the cisternae import and export components. By this criterion, we propose that Golgi cisternae can be divided into three classes that correspond to functional stages of maturation. First, cisternae at the cisternal assembly stage receive COPII vesicles from the ER and recycle components to the ER in COPI vesicles. At this stage, new cisternae are generated. Second, cisternae at the carbohydrate synthesis stage exchange material with one another via COPI vesicles. At this stage, most of the glycosylation and polysaccharide synthesis reactions occur. Third, cisternae at the carrier formation stage produce clathrin-coated vesicles and exchange material with endosomes. At this stage, biosynthetic cargo proteins are packaged into various transport carriers, and the cisternae ultimately disassemble. Discrete transitions occur as a cisterna matures from one stage to the next. Within each stage, the structure and composition of a cisterna can evolve, but the trafficking pathways remain unchanged. This model offers a unified framework for understanding the properties of the Golgi in diverse organisms. PMID:23881164

  16. Bipolar disorder: staging and neuroprogression

    Rodrigues, Aline André; Rosa, Adriana R.; Kunz, Maurício; Ascoli, Bruna; Kapczinski, Flávio


    In bipolar disorder illness progression has been associated with a higher number of mood episodes and hospitalizations, poorer response to treatment, and more severe cognitive and functional impairment. This supports the notion of the use of staging models in this illness. The value of staging models has long been recognized in many medical and malignant conditions. Staging models rely on the fact that different interventions may suit different stages of the disorder, and that better outcomes...

  17. [Demographic transition at the epoch of industrialization].

    Billig, W


    The relationship between the early stages of industrialization and population factors in the United Kingdom, France, and the United States is analyzed from a Marxist perspective. The author attempts to associate successive phases of industrialization with phases of the demographic transition. He concludes that no comprehensive general theory concerning this relationship has been established. (summary in ENG, RUS) PMID:12266382

  18. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra;


    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  19. Staged theta pinch experiments

    Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)

  20. Science on stage


    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  1. Stage-to-stage progression of chronic kidney disease in renal transplantation with chronic allograft dysfunction

    Khalkhali H


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Although the short-term results of kidney transplantation have improved greatly during the past decades, the long-term results have not improved according. Graft loss due to chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD is a major concern in renal transplant recipients (RTRs. There is little data about disease progression in this patient population. In this paper, we investigated history of kidney function as the pattern, waiting time and rate of pass from intermediate stages in RTR with CAD."n"nMethods: In a single-center retrospective study, 214 RTRs with CAD investigated at the Urmia University Hospital urmia, Iran from 1997 to 2005. Kidney function at each visit assessed with GFR. We apply NKF and K/DOQI classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD staging system to determine pattern of disease progression per stage in this group of patients. "n"nResults: The pure death-censored graft loss was 26% with mean waiting time 81.7 months. 100% of RTRs passed from stage I to II in mean waiting time 26.3 months. The probability of prognostic factors transition from stage II to III was 88.9% with mean waiting time 25.5 months, transition from III to IV was 55.7% with mean waiting time of 24.9 months and transition for

  2. Key Relationships for International Student University-to-Work Transitions

    Popadiuk, Natalee Elizabeth; Arthur, Nancy Marie


    International student research predominantly focuses on the initial and middle stages of their sojourn. Our research, however, specifically addresses how relationships support international students to successfully navigate the late-stage transition from university to work. In this qualitative study, we interviewed 18 international students from…

  3. The effect of compressed demographic transition and demographic gift on economic growth

    Shin, Inyong


    In this paper, we examine the demographic transition and its effect on economic growth using a cross-country data. We use a threshold regression model to verify the transition and to confirm whether the demographic transitions are compressed or not in developing countries. We found out that in general, the demographic transitions, including the decreasing birth and death rate, in developing countries start in an earlier development stage compared to the demographic transitions in developed co...

  4. Gifts from Exoplanetary Transits

    Narita, Norio


    The discovery of transiting extrasolar planets has enabled us a number of interesting stduies. Transit photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of transiting planets, and thereby we can learn the true mass and the density of respective planets by the combined information of radial velocity measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of transiting planets such as secondary eclipse, transit timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect p...

  5. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh


    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  6. Neural transcription factors bias cleavage stage blastomeres to give rise to neural ectoderm.

    Gaur, Shailly; Mandelbaum, Max; Herold, Mona; Majumdar, Himani Datta; Neilson, Karen M; Maynard, Thomas M; Mood, Kathy; Daar, Ira O; Moody, Sally A


    The decision by embryonic ectoderm to give rise to epidermal versus neural derivatives is the result of signaling events during blastula and gastrula stages. However, there also is evidence in Xenopus that cleavage stage blastomeres contain maternally derived molecules that bias them toward a neural fate. We used a blastomere explant culture assay to test whether maternally deposited transcription factors bias 16-cell blastomere precursors of epidermal or neural ectoderm to express early zygotic neural genes in the absence of gastrulation interactions or exogenously supplied signaling factors. We found that Foxd4l1, Zic2, Gmnn, and Sox11 each induced explants made from ventral, epidermis-producing blastomeres to express early neural genes, and that at least some of the Foxd4l1 and Zic2 activities are required at cleavage stages. Similarly, providing extra Foxd4l1 or Zic2 to explants made from dorsal, neural plate-producing blastomeres significantly increased the expression of early neural genes, whereas knocking down either significantly reduced them. These results show that maternally delivered transcription factors bias cleavage stage blastomeres to a neural fate. We demonstrate that mouse and human homologs of Foxd4l1 have similar functional domains compared to the frog protein, as well as conserved transcriptional activities when expressed in Xenopus embryos and blastomere explants. genesis 54:334-349, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27092474

  7. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    Isaacs, T


    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to

  8. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  9. Research for the energy turnaround. Phase transitions actively shape. Contributions

    The Annual Conference 2014 of the Renewable Energy Research Association was held in Berlin on 6 and 7 November 2014. This book documents the contributions of the conference on research for the energy turnaround, phase transitions actively shape. After an introduction and two contributions to the political framework, the contributions to the economic phases of the energy transition, the phase of the current turn, the phases of social energy revolution, the stages of heat turnaround (Waermewende), and the stages of the mobility turn deal with the stages of development of the energy system. Finally, the Research Association Renewable Energy is briefly presented.

  10. Statistics of Neutron Stars at the Stage of Supersonic Propeller

    Beskin, V S


    We analyze the statistical distribution of neutron stars at the stage of a supersonic propeller. An important point of our analysis is allowance for the evolution of the angle of inclination of the magnetic axis to the spin axis of the neutron star for the boundary of the transition to the supersonic propeller stage for two models: the model with hindered particle escape from the stellar surface and the model with free particle escape. As a result, we have shown that a consistent allowance for the evolution of the inclination angle in the region of extinct radio pulsars for the two models leads to an increase in the total number of neutron stars at the supersonic propeller stage. This increase stems from he fact that when allowing for the evolution of the inclination angle $\\chi$ for neutron stars in the region of extinct radio pulsars and, hence, for the boundary of the transition to the propeller stage, this transition is possible at shorter spin periods (P~5-10 s) than assumed in the standard model.

  11. On primordial equation of state transitions

    Aravind, Aditya; Paban, Sonia


    We revisit the physics of transitions from a general equation of state parameter to the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We show that it is unlikely for the modes comprising the cosmic microwave background to contain imprints from a pre-inflationary equation of state transition and still be consistent with observations. We accomplish this by considering observational consistency bounds on the amplitude of excitations resulting from such a transition. As a result, the physics which initially led to inflation likely cannot be probed with observations of the cosmic microwave background. Furthermore, we show that it is unlikely that equation of state transitions may explain the observed low multipole power suppression anomaly.

  12. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang


    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to C. above the bed temperature.

  13. Single Cell Proteomics Using Frog (Xenopus laevis) Blastomeres Isolated from Early Stage Embryos, Which Form a Geometric Progression in Protein Content.

    Sun, Liangliang; Dubiak, Kyle M; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Zhang, Zhenbin; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J


    Single cell analysis is required to understand cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. We propose that single cells (blastomeres) isolated from early stage invertebrate, amphibian, or fish embryos are ideal model systems for the development of technologies for single cell analysis. For these embryos, although cell cleavage is not exactly symmetric, the content per blastomere decreases roughly by half with each cell division, creating a geometric progression in cellular content. This progression forms a ladder of single-cell targets for the development of successively higher sensitivity instruments. In this manuscript, we performed bottom-up proteomics on single blastomeres isolated by microdissection from 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, 32-, and 50-cell Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) embryos. Over 1 400 protein groups were identified in single-run reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry from single balstomeres isolated from a 16-cell embryo. When the mass of yolk-free proteins in single blastomeres decreased from ∼0.8 μg (16-cell embryo) to ∼0.2 μg (50-cell embryo), the number of protein group identifications declined from 1 466 to 644. Around 800 protein groups were quantified across four blastomeres isolated from a 16-cell embryo. By comparing the protein expression among different blastomeres, we observed that the blastomere-to-blastomere heterogeneity in 8-, 16-, 32-, and 50-cell embryos increases with development stage, presumably due to cellular differentiation. These results suggest that comprehensive quantitative proteomics on single blastomeres isolated from these early stage embryos can provide valuable insights into cellular differentiation and organ development. PMID:27314579

  14. Transformation of cluster structure at initial stage

    The initial stages of cluster nucleation for Pd or Ir adatoms on a W (1 1 0) surface and in the vicinity of surface steps are directly imaged by a field ion microscope (FIM). Three types of structures are observed. One is a one-dimensional linear chain, which is parallel to the nearest neighbor-stacking directions of the substrate. Another is a two-dimensional compact island, which is a pseudomorphic structure like the substrate. The other is a three-dimensional cluster, which shows a structural transition from bcc (1 1 0) to fcc (1 1 1). Factors affecting the structural transformation include coverage of atoms or atom chains, temperature of heat treatments and boundary of the substrate terrace.

  15. On modern demographic transition in China.


    The theory of demographic transition traditionally indicates 3 historical stages. The limitations of the theory are: 1)studies are confined to phenomenal descriptions which means that China is exempt, 2) it focuses too much on productive forces and ignores the factor of the relation between production and other non-economic factors. There is more to transition theories than birth rate, death rate of natural increase. In 1971 China began the process of modern demographic transition with a death rate of 0.7% and a drop in the birth rate. In 1976 China began the 2nd stage where birth rates doubled which made China a unique case because it fell outside the conventional model. The primary factor for this was the change in the fertility rate. The effects of population policy on fertility will be less if economic development and cultural development do not keep pace. The fact that rural people were reluctant to accept the population policy was a strong factor. The 2nd rise is attributed to the "flexible minor policies". This 2nd rise will be a significant factor in future population development. The key to modern demographic transition in China is to lower the birth rate by: 1) developing economic policies that will increase the quality of social and economic backgrounds, 2) the interference of the policy in demographic transition should follow the medium principle, 3) communication and education should be increased to help people set up the value of less births, better births. PMID:12284673

  16. Data processing in a small transit company using an automatic passenger counter

    Avadhani, Umesh D.


    This thesis describes the work done in the second stage of the implementation of the Automatic Passenger Counter (APC) system at the Roanoke Valley - Metro Transit Company. This second stage deals with the preparation of a few reports and plots that would help the transit managers in efficiently managing the transit system. The reports and plots give an evaluation of the system and service operations by which the decision makers can support their decisions. For an efficie...

  17. Multi-stage complex contagions

    Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Gleeson, James P.; Porter, Mason A.


    The spread of ideas across a social network can be studied using complex contagion models, in which agents are activated by contact with multiple activated neighbors. The investigation of complex contagions can provide crucial insights into social influence and behavior-adoption cascades on networks. In this paper, we introduce a model of a multi-stage complex contagion on networks. Agents at different stages—which could, for example, represent differing levels of support for a social movement or differing levels of commitment to a certain product or idea—exert different amounts of influence on their neighbors. We demonstrate that the presence of even one additional stage introduces novel dynamical behavior, including interplay between multiple cascades, which cannot occur in single-stage contagion models. We find that cascades—and hence collective action—can be driven not only by high-stage influencers but also by low-stage influencers.


    朱佩君; 郑永光; 陶祖钰


    Typhoon Winnie (1997) experienced three stages after landfall on China: weakening, transition, and re-intensification. The transition is similar to the "complex transition" model proposed by Matano and Sekioka. During the re-intensification stage, the transformed cyclone developed into a pattern of Shapiro-Keyser Cyclone model. From the diagnosis we can find that the cause of Winnie's transition is the intrusion of cold air from the mid- and upper- troposphere and the warm temperature advection in the lower. Winnie redeveloped after transition,which is the result of three vital factors: the warm temperature advection in the lower troposphere, the divergence on the right side of the upper jet entry and the cyclonic vorticity advection in the upper.

  19. The Managerial Transition.

    Kneeland, Steven J.


    Having identified the problem of managerial transition in a previous article (CE 510 277), the author outlines a strategy for change which includes performance appraisal, definition of the management structure, and counselling for the individual in transition. (SK)

  20. Successive Transitions in Ecodesign

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.


    acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, together providing a historic account of how academic...

  1. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    Wyn, Johanna


    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  2. Deconstructing transitional justice.

    Turner, C


    Transitional justice as a field of inquiry is a relatively new one. Referring to the range of mechanisms used to assist the transition of a state or society from one form of (usually repressive) rule to a more democratic order, transitional justice has become the dominant language in which the move from war to peace is discussed in the early twenty-first century. Applying a deconstructive analysis to the question of transitional justice, the paper seeks to interrogate the core assumptions tha...

  3. Cities in Transition

    Shepotylo Oleksandr


    This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces d...

  4. Cosmological phase transitions

    Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)


    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  5. Cosmological phase transitions

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  6. Transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes

    Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.


    A code is called transitive if its automorphism group (the isometry group) of the code acts transitively on its codewords. If there is a subgroup of the automorphism group acting regularly on the code, the code is called propelinear. Using Magma software package we establish that among 201 equivalence classes of transitive perfect codes of length 15 from \\cite{ost} there is a unique nonpropelinear code. We solve the existence problem for transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes for any admissi...

  7. Dynamical transition of heat transport in a physical gel near the sol-gel transition

    Kobayashi, Kazuya U.; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei


    We experimentally study heat transport in a gelatin solution near a reversible sol-gel transition point where viscosity strongly depends on temperature. We visualize the temperature field and velocity field using thermochromic liquid crystals and polystyrene latex particles, respectively. During the initial stages of heating, we find that heat transport undergoes a dynamical transition from conductive to convective. Subsequently, during later stages, we observe that the transport dynamics are much more complex than conventional thermal convections. At the sample’s surface we observe the formation of stagnant domains, which lack fluid flow. Their formation is not due to the effects of local cooling. We determine that it is the dynamics of these stagnant domains that induce convective-conductive-convective transitions.

  8. Transitivity of Preferences

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.


    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  9. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ... Stage I Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB: In stage IA , the tumor is low grade (likely to grow ... tumor does not place any vital organs in danger. Hormone therapy Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment ...

  10. The Many Worlds of Transition Research.

    Narasimha, R.


    The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a boundary layer is a complex phenomenon that may take different routes, each involving distinct stages governed by different, often not-yet unraveled dynamical principles. There are, surprisingly, questions concerning virtually every stage in the process, beginning with receptivity to external disturbances, the linear stability of spatially developing flows, different possible nonlinear end games, the formation and propagation of turbulent spots and the emergence of fully developed turbulent flow. There seems no doubt that the flow has to be seen as a forced, nonlinear spatio-temporal system, but the system is so complex that to extract simple insights is still very difficult.

  11. Staging of unipolar affective illness

    Ewa Ferensztajn


    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1 staging of unipolar affective illness; 2 staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3 conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.

  12. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance characterization of the defect migrating during stage III in electron-irradiated copper

    Nuclear quadrupolar couplings around monovacancies created by electron irradiation in copper have been measured by the nuclear-magnetic-resonance field-cycling technique. The corresponding quadrupolar transitions disappear completely after the annealing stage III of the residual resistivity, while 17% of the initial resistivity increase remains. Consequently, this experiment shows unambiguously that all the monovacancies are annihilated or agglomerate during stage III and rules out the model in which split interstitials migrate during stage III and monovacancies during stage IV

  13. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy


    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  15. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    Saidla, Debie D.


    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  16. Radiological staging of bronchogenic cancer

    Staging of the bronchogenic carcinoma is based on the TNM code; radiological imaging and radionuclide scanning account for most of the preoperative assessment of the tumor stage. A series of 206 patients was evaluated by chest radiography, mediastinal and hilar tomography, CT of the thorax, upper abdomen and brain. The pathological correlations performed after surgery showed that CT provided a correct T in 175 patients out of 206 (= 84.9%), while conventional radiology gave only 120 correct diagnoses (58.2%). In assessment of N1, sensitivity was 53%, specificity 85.3%, diagnostic accuracy 77.7%. Pertinent figures for N2 were 81.8 - 88.3 - 86.9%. The reliability of CT in staging for M is difficult to assess, because tha majority of patients who showed distant metastases were not operated upon. The main problems concerning evaluation criteria for staging are discussed. (Author)

  17. How Is Endometrial Cancer Staged?

    ... organs away from the uterus, such as the lungs or bones. The cancer can be any size and it may or may not have spread to ... and Staging Treating Endometrial Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After ...

  18. Neuroblastoma: diagnostic imaging and staging

    Results of computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy, excretory urography, and other imaging tests used to diagnose and stage 38 cases of neuroblastoma prior to treatment were reviewed. Findings of these examinations were correlated with clinical data, laboratory data, results of biopsy, and surgical findings. CT was the most sensitive single test (100%) for the detection and delineation of the primary tumor. Calcifications that suggested the histologic diagnosis of neuroblastoma were present in 79% of the cases. Rim calcifications, the most specific pattern for neuroblastoma, were identified in 29% of all cases. CT alone accurately staged 82% of cases; when complemented by bone marrow biopsy, staging accuracy was 97%. CT alone was more accurate than any combination of imaging tests that excluded CT. An algorithm using CT is presented for the diagnosis and staging of neuroblastoma at reduced cost and with increased efficiency

  19. Life stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts.

    Máliš, František; Kopecký, Martin; Petřík, Petr; Vladovič, Jozef; Merganič, Ján; Vida, Tomáš


    Ongoing climate change is expected to shift tree species distribution and therefore affect forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. To assess and project tree distributional shifts, researchers may compare the distribution of juvenile and adult trees under the assumption that differences between tree life stages reflect distributional shifts triggered by climate change. However, the distribution of tree life stages could differ within the lifespan of trees, therefore, we hypothesize that currently observed distributional differences could represent shifts over ontogeny as opposed to climatically driven changes. Here, we test this hypothesis with data from 1435 plots resurveyed after more than three decades across the Western Carpathians. We compared seedling, sapling and adult distribution of 12 tree species along elevation, temperature and precipitation gradients. We analyzed (i) temporal shifts between the surveys and (ii) distributional differences between tree life stages within both surveys. Despite climate warming, tree species distribution of any life stage did not shift directionally upward along elevation between the surveys. Temporal elevational shifts were species specific and an order of magnitude lower than differences among tree life stages within the surveys. Our results show that the observed range shifts among tree life stages are more consistent with ontogenetic differences in the species' environmental requirements than with responses to recent climate change. The distribution of seedlings substantially differed from saplings and adults, while the distribution of saplings did not differ from adults, indicating a critical transition between seedling and sapling tree life stages. Future research has to take ontogenetic differences among life stages into account as we found that distributional differences recently observed worldwide may not reflect climate change but rather the different environmental requirements of tree life stages. PMID

  20. Significant change of sensitivity index d' in sensory processing of human brain during wake-sleep transition

    Chuang Gao; Fengjuan Zhang; Wei Wei; Yang Zhang; Shanyu Ke


    The sensor area in the brain remains active during the wake-sleep transition. However, the behavioral mechanisms of sensor sensitivity involved in the transition from a state of wakefulness to a sleep state remain poorly understood. To detect sensitivity index (d') changes during the wake-sleep transition, the present study recorded response times of wakefulness versus wake-sleep transition in 14 healthy undergraduate volunteers. During wake-sleep transition testing, morphological changes in the time courses of behavior response revealed 2 typical phases (stages A and B). In stage A, subject behavior responses exhibited temporal fluctuations, and all subjects displayed a high accuracy rate. In stage B, subjects did not exhibit behavioral responses. The sensitivity index d' during the wake-sleep transition (stage A) was significantly weaker than during wakefulness. Results demonstrated that at the behavioral level, sensation capacity for transfer information from the external world into the internal system significantly decreased during the transition to sleep.

  1. The Staging of the Turk

    Holm, Bent


    An analytical and contextualized presentation of the figure of the Turk on the Danish stage in the 18. century with a specific focus on the interaction between the actual commercial and military circumstances on the one hand and the performative representations on the other hand. How far did the ...... staged image reflect the actual circumstances and how far was it an internal self-reflection?...

  2. Mediastinal Staging for Lung Cancer

    Jacob Gelberg; Sean Grondin; Alain Tremblay


    Staging of the mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes plays a crucial role in identifying the best treatment option for patients with confirmed or suspected lung cancer and, in many cases, can simultaneously confirm a diagnosis of cancer. Noninvasive modalities, such as computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and PET-CT, are an important first step in this assessment. Ultimately, invasive staging is frequently required to confirm or rule out the presence of metastatic disease ...

  3. Invasive staging of the mediastinum

    Wever, W De; Coolen, J; Verschakelen, J.


    Staging of patients with lung cancer provides accurate information on the extent of disease and guides the choice of treatment. Non-invasive imaging techniques are safe, however these imaging techniques have limited accuracy in detection of mediastinal lymph node metastases. The American College of Chest Physicians guidelines for lung cancer staging recommend that patients with abnormal lymph nodes on CT or PET, or centrally located tumors without mediastinal LNs, should undergo invasive stag...

  4. Sibling Relationships during the Transition to Adulthood

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Little, Wendy M.


    Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, ge...

  5. Staging of pediatric abdominal malignancies

    The scope of this review is the role of CT in the staging of childhood solid abdominal malignancies. Owing to the limitations of space, only the commonest lesions will be discussed in detail: Wilms' tumor, neuroblastoma, and liver tumors. The TNM staging system has been utilized throughout this monograph. It will not be used in this chapter, however, since in this country different staging systems individualized to each pediatric tumor have been developed. These staging systems take into account the different biology of each tumor and have clear correlations with prognosis and therapeutic programs. The discussion centers almost exclusively on the role of CT in the staging and management of neoplastic processes in children. The information required for staging can sometimes be obtained by other imaging modalities (i.e., ultrasound, excretory urography, etc.) The choice of modality will be strongly influenced by techniques and expertise available as well as by the bias of the institution. An additional factor to be taken into consideration will be the economic factor. Prospective reimbursement will strongly encourage the use of tests that are cost-effective and clinically efficacious

  6. Transitions in endocrinology: treatment of Turner's syndrome during transition.

    Gawlik, Aneta; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa


    Transition in health care for young patients with Turner's syndrome (TS) should be perceived as a staged but uninterrupted process starting in adolescence and moving into adulthood. As a condition associated with high risk of short stature, cardiovascular diseases, ovarian failure, hearing loss and hypothyroidism, TS requires the attention of a multidisciplinary team. In this review paper, we systematically searched the relevant literature from the last decade to discuss the array of problems faced by TS patients and to outline their optimal management during the time of transfer to adult service. The literature search identified 233 potentially relevant articles of which 114 were analysed. The analysis confirmed that all medical problems present during childhood should also be followed in adult life. Additionally, screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and osteoporosis is needed. After discharge from the paediatric clinic, there is still a long way to go. PMID:24225028

  7. Atomic Transition Probabilities Scandium through Manganese

    Atomic transition probabilities for about 8,800 spectral lines of five iron-group elements, Sc(Z = 21) to Mn(Z = 25), are critically compiled, based on all available literature sources. The data are presented in separate tables for each element and stage of ionization and are further subdivided into allowed (i.e., electric dipole-E1) and forbidden (magnetic dipole-M1, electric quadrupole-E2, and magnetic quadrupole-M2) transitions. Within each data table the spectral lines are grouped into multiplets, which are in turn arranged according to parent configurations, transition arrays, and ascending quantum numbers. For each line the transition probability for spontaneous emission and the line strength are given, along with the spectroscopic designation, the wavelength, the statistical weights, and the energy levels of the upper and lower states. For allowed lines the absorption oscillator strength is listed, while for forbidden transitions the type of transition is identified (M1, E2, etc.). In addition, the estimated accuracy and the source are indicated. In short introductions, which precede the tables for each ion, the main justifications for the choice of the adopted data and for the accuracy rating are discussed. A general introduction contains a discussion of our method of evaluation and the principal criteria for our judgements

  8. The interpersonal relationship: Transitions of university professors

    Fabiula Meneguete Vides da Silva


    Full Text Available In this paper we search to understand the meaning of interpersonal relationships established in the processes of transition from individual contributor (teacher to lead (dean and leading contributor to individual universities. The phenomenological-hermeneutic approach of van Manen (1990 was used to resume the main themes of this experience. Six former university administrators lent their experiences at universities belonging to the Santa Catarina Association of Educational Foundations (ACAFE, through interviews in three stages suggested by Seidman (1998, conducted between May 2009 and March 2010. Drawing on interviews transcribed, it was possible to rescue three major central themes, which represent the interpersonal relationships that the teachers interviewed lived in the transition to deans: professional relationships, relationships with students and family relations: feeling support and billing. By taking on the management of the university, former managers perceived support from family, but also charging for longer commitment. In the transition from deans for teachers were rescued two themes: professional relations and family living the transition. Interpersonal relationships experienced by ex-managers, after leaving the offices, were important in the transition to the classroom. Relationships with co-workers were a source of joys and disappointments for teachers. While the support of family and friends was of paramount importance, providing them with nurturing and safety. The data revealed through the experiences of teachers reveal issues relevant to the understanding of interpersonal relationships experienced during the transitions studied, bringing thus contributions to thinking in human resource policies.

  9. Quantum phase transitions

    In recent years, quantum phase transitions have attracted the interest of both theorists and experimentalists in condensed matter physics. These transitions, which are accessed at zero temperature by variation of a non-thermal control parameter, can influence the behaviour of electronic systems over a wide range of the phase diagram. Quantum phase transitions occur as a result of competing ground state phases. The cuprate superconductors which can be tuned from a Mott insulating to a d-wave superconducting phase by carrier doping are a paradigmatic example. This review introduces important concepts of phase transitions and discusses the interplay of quantum and classical fluctuations near criticality. The main part of the article is devoted to bulk quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems. Several classes of transitions will be briefly reviewed, pointing out, e.g., conceptual differences between ordering transitions in metallic and insulating systems. An interesting separate class of transitions is boundary phase transitions where only degrees of freedom of a subsystem become critical; this will be illustrated in a few examples. The article is aimed at bridging the gap between high-level theoretical presentations and research papers specialized in certain classes of materials. It will give an overview on a variety of different quantum transitions, critically discuss open theoretical questions, and frequently make contact with recent experiments in condensed matter physics

  10. Monetary Policy Rules in Some Transition Economies

    Mohamed El-Hodiri


    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the question of whither monetary rules or ad hoc monetary policies were followed during the early stages of transition and in response to the global financial crisis. We study Eastern European countries and thee CIS countries. We find that during the early of transition, both developed economies and economies in transition used the monetary base, as well as the interest rate, as the main tools for monetary policy. However, in response to the global crises, priority was given to the main objective such as containing inflation and supporting economic growth. Monetary authorities had the additional possible choice of alternative objectives, such as stabilization of nominal exchange rate and real effective exchange rate, or increase in reserves. It was found that countries mostly retained priorities of monetary policy and some of them gave a greater importance to the alternative objectives.

  11. Positively selected Leu-11a (CD16+) cells require the presence of accessory cells or factors for the lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected fibroblasts but not herpes simplex virus-infected Raji.

    Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P; Feldman, M; Curl, S; Schnell, J; Denny, T


    Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that human NK activity against HSV-infected fibroblasts (HSV-Fs) but not K562 targets was sensitive to treatment with anti-HLA-DR plus C. In the current study, we have selected Leu-11a+ (CD-16) cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting and found that although Leu-11a enriched populations lysed K562 targets in 14-h 51Cr-release assays, they were unable to kill HSV-Fs targets unless a Leu-11a-depleted population was added back to the effectors or unless known activators of NK cells (IFN-alpha or IL-2) were added to the assays. In contrast, Leu-11a-enriched populations were able to mediate ADCC against HSV-Fs in the presence of sera from HSV-seropositive individuals without the requirement for accessory cells. We have begun preliminary characterization of the accessory cells which allow lysis of HSV-Fs by NK cells: they are HLA-DR+ cells which enrich in the light density fractions of Metrizamide density gradients. They need be present in very small numbers for lysis to take place and are not MHC restricted in that heterologous add-backs between anti-HLA-DR plus C and anti-Leu-11b plus C-treated populations are capable of target cell lysis at levels similar to those achieved with the autologous add-backs. Further, the levels of lysis in heterologous add-back experiments reflected the lytic potential of the effector rather than the accessory cell donor. Finally, although the requirement for accessory cells for NK lysis has been demonstrated for fibroblasts infected with HSV-1, CMV, and VZV, lysis of HSV-infected Raji lymphoblastoid cells is relatively accessory-cell independent, indicating that the requirement for accessory cells for lysis by NK cells is not a property of all herpesvirus-infected targets. PMID:2526183

  12. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.


    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  13. Predictability of Critical Transitions

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Hallerberg, Sarah


    Critical transitions in multistable systems have been discussed as models for a variety of phenomena ranging from the extinctions of species to socio-economic changes and climate transitions between ice-ages and warm-ages. From bifurcation theory we can expect certain critical transitions to be preceded by a decreased recovery from external perturbations. The consequences of this critical slowing down have been observed as an increase in variance and autocorrelation prior to the transition. However especially in the presence of noise it is not clear, whether these changes in observation variables are statistically relevant such that they could be used as indicators for critical transitions. In this contribution we investigate the predictability of critical transitions in conceptual models. We study the the quadratic integrate-and-fire model and the van der Pol model, under the influence of external noise. We focus especially on the statistical analysis of the success of predictions and the overall predictabil...

  14. Bus rapid transit

    Wright, Lloyd


    Effective public transit is central to development. For the vast majority of developing city residents, public transit is the only practical means to access employment, education, and public services, especially when such services are beyond the viable distance of walking or cycling. Unfortunately, the current state of public transit services in developing cities often does little to serve the actual mobility needs of the population. Bus services are too often unreliable, inconvenient and ...

  15. The Talmud On Transitivity

    Shlomo Naeh; Uzi Segal


    Transitivity is a fundamental axiom in Economics that appears in consumer theory, decision under uncertainty, and social choice theory. While the appeal of transitivity is obvious, observed choices sometimes contradict it. This paper shows that treatments of violations of transitivity al- ready appear in the rabbinic literature, starting with the Mishnah and the Talmud (1st–5th c CE). This literature offers several solutions that are similar to those used in the modern economic literature, as...

  16. Computing quantum phase transitions

    Vojta, Thomas


    This article first gives a concise introduction to quantum phase transitions, emphasizing similarities with and differences to classical thermal transitions. After pointing out the computational challenges posed by quantum phase transitions, a number of successful computational approaches is discussed. The focus is on classical and quantum Monte Carlo methods, with the former being based on the quantum-to classical mapping while the latter directly attack the quantum problem. These methods ar...

  17. PET in lung cancer staging

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation

  18. Staged separation of craniopagus twins.

    Dunaway, David; Jeelani, N U Owase


    Craniopagus twins are rare and account for up to 6% of all conjoined twins. No hospital will encounter many such twins and the opportunity to develop expertise is limited. We have dealt with 2 such sets and illustrate our approach by reference to our most recent set. We believe that detailed imaging allows precise delineation of the anatomy and facilitates detailed planning of the surgery. When venous drainage from the 2 brains is connected, we believe that staged separation is preferable as gradual alteration of hemodynamics may be safer than a single-stage procedure. PMID:26382265

  19. Hypertension Management in Transition: From CKD to ESRD.

    Valika, Aziz; Peixoto, Aldo J


    Hypertension is present in ∼90% of patients in late-stage CKD. There are scarce data focusing on the transition period between CKD Stages 4 and 5 (end-stage kidney disease) as it relates to hypertension evaluation and management. Here, we propose that a combination of the principles used in the management of patients with CKD Stages 4 and 5 be applied to patients in this transition. These include the use of out-of-office blood pressure (BP) monitoring (eg, home BP), avoidance of excessively tight BP goals, emphasis of sodium restriction, preferential use of blockers of the renin-angiotensin system and diuretics, and consideration of the use of beta blockers. PMID:27324679

  20. Labour market states, mobility and entrepreneurship in transition economies

    Mark Dutz; Celine Kauffmann; Serineh Najarian; Peter Sanfey; Ruslan Yemtsov


    This paper examines the different strategies adopted by individuals in transition economies to cope with labour market restructuring. Using micro-data from seven countries at different stages of transition, we focus on “active” coping strategies, in particular mobility and entrepreneurship. Our results show that there is significant mobility across labour market states in most countries, but little inflow into entrepreneurship from unemployment or inactivity. Entrepreneurship is a high-reward...

  1. A life course perspective on health trajectories and transitions

    Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Sacker, Amanda; Blane, David


    This book examines health trajectories and health transitions at different stages of the life course, including childhood, adulthood and later life. It provides findings that assess the role of biological and social transitions on health status over time.The essays examine a wide range of health issues, including the consequences of military service on body mass index, childhood obesity and cardiovascular health, socio-economic inequalities in preventive health care use, depression and anxiet...

  2. Transitioning between Clerkship Directors

    Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.


    Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth transition resulting in one case. Results: Gradually transitioning allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…

  3. Transitions in Spousal Caregiving.

    Burton, Lynda C.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Schulz, Richard; Jackson, Sharon; Hirsch, Calvin


    Describes transitions over 5 years among community-dwelling elderly spouses into and within caregiving roles and associated health outcomes. The trajectory of health outcomes associated with caregiving was generally downward. Those who transitioned to heavy caregiving had more symptoms of depression, and poorer self-reported health and health…

  4. Urban renewal in transition

    Stouten, P.


    Urban renewal in transition consists revised and enlarged version of two papers. The first paper 'urban renewal and restructuring: between economie and social renewal' had been presented at the conference 'Labour on the move and transitions in the building process', organlzed by the Bartlett School

  5. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Ellen Clarke


    An `evolutionary transition in individuality’ or `major transition’ is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  6. Transition probabilities for atoms

    Current status of advanced theoretical methods for transition probabilities for atoms and ions is discussed. An experiment on the f values of the resonance transitions of the Kr and Xe isoelectronic sequences is suggested as a test for the theoretical methods

  7. Researching Student Transitions

    Voorhees, Richard A.; Smith, Gregory P.; Luan, Jing


    This article sketches a research agenda for the further study of community college student transitions. Specific techniques are depicted as are potential data sources that can be used to pursue that agenda. The role of student tracking systems in transition research is discussed as well as the applicability of national surveys to the study of…

  8. Induced Institutional Transition of Contract Farming in Shandong Province

    Sun, Bao-Chun


    This article describes the process of institutional transition of contract farming in Shandong Province. The changes in preparatory stage of contract farming express in: One, the information asymmetry of the two sides of the contract is reducing; Two, the security system of contract farming tends to be perfection; Three, the organizational form of contract farming tends to be simplification. The measures taken in production stage of agricultural product are as follows: The first is investment...

  9. The transition from preoperative to operational thinking of children

    Klašnja, Dijana


    The theoretical part of this diploma thesis focuses on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The thesis discusses the characteristics of Piaget's theory, the employed research method and the developmental factors affecting the cognitive development of children. The largest part of this section focuses on the characteristics of the individual stages of cognitive development. Since the thesis examines the transition from the preoperational to the operational stage of intellectual devel...

  10. Laboratory experiment on boundaries of upper stage plane bed regime

    Zrostlík, Štěpán; Matoušek, Václav


    Results are discussed of laboratory experiments on criteria determining the transition between the regime of dunes and the upper stage plane bed (UPB) regime and the transition between the UPB regime and the regime of wavy flow. The experiments were carried for 3 fractions of plastic material and two fractions of glass beads in a broad range of flow conditions (different discharges of water and solids and longitudinal bed slopes) in a tilting flume. The experiments reveal that, contrary to expectations, a constant value of the Shields parameter is not an appropriate criterion for the transition between the dune regime and the UPB regime. Furthermore, the transition appears to be insensitive to the total discharge of solids and water. Instead, the criterion seems to be well represented by a constant value of the average transport concentration of sediment (the ratio of volumetric discharge of solids and volumetric discharge of mixture). The experimental results exhibit a very tight correlation between the transport concentration and the longitudinal bed slope. Hence, a constant value of the bed slope can be considered an appropriate criterion for the transition. The transition between the UPB regime and the wavy regime (significant waves develop but they are not always standing waves) is found at a constant value of Froude number, which is in agreement with literature, although it is found at a higher value than the literature usually suggests (Fr = 1.2 instead of 1.0). Hence, the transition occurs in the super-critical flow but it is not necessarily associated with the critical flow.

  11. When science takes centre stage


    The teachers at 'Science on stage' are not emotionally attached to their chalk. Neither are they are weary old men who sport tweed jackets with elbow-patches and enter into conversation with their blackboards. Actually, 'Science on stage' teachers are far from the cliché of the boring physics teacher who can only inspire yawns from his pupils. Some present the basic principles of mechanics using a bicycle, others explain chemistry with examples from everyday life. The most audacious of them go so far as to explain the Doppler effect by means of a play in which Einstein dreams about jumping cows... These are but a few of the activities and plays that will be shown during the EIROforum1 Science on Stage Festival (organised by 7 European scientific organisations including CERN), to be held from 21 to 25 November at CERN, Geneva. This festival is dedicated to the teaching science in order to make it more attractive. After the first edition 'Physics on Stage' which was held in 2000 at CERN, the laboratory agai...

  12. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    Elsenberg, Michael B.


    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  13. Early stage fuel cell funding

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  14. Tumor diagnosis, grading, and staging

    Optimal use of radiation therapy for the treatment of animal tumors necessitates accurate clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and pathology. This requires a coordinated effort between the clinical and radiation oncologist, radiologist, and pathologist. The histological appearance of the tumor, tumor grade, and tumor stage are important diagnostic criteria that need to be established. Diagnostic imaging, including radiographic, computerized tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound studies are helpful in establishing an accurate tumor location and diagnosis. Biopsy and histological examination of tumor tissue are necessary for final diagnosis of tumor type. Determination of tumor type is critical because different tumor types vary in regard to radiosensitivity, local behavior, and propensity for regional and systemic metastasis. The histological grade of many tumors is an important indicator of the potential for local invasion or systemic metastases, and may influence treatment response. Tumor staging as determined by clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and histological evaluation is necessary to establish the extent of the tumor, both locally, regionally, and systemically. The clinical oncologist should have an understanding of the procedures involved in tumor diagnosis, tumor grading, and tumor staging. This provides a better understanding of the neoplastic condition and recognition of the limitations of diagnostic procedures. Tumor type, grade, and stage all impact radiation treatment planning and the need for adjuvant regional or systemic therapy

  15. Staging Urban Experiences in Suburbia

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael


    Urban design provides props, requisites and decors for staging the users' performances in space. Design may facilitate or impede specific ways of moving around, interacting with objects and other people, feeling, learning and sense making.The actual design may very well contradict the explicit...

  16. Cosmological phase transitions

    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  17. Survival Advantage Associated with Decrease in Stage at Detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    John Hoff


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to document the survival advantage of lowering stage at detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. Treatment outcomes and survival were evaluated in patients with Stage IIIA and Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer treated from 2000 to 2009 at the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center (UKMCC and SEER institutions. Results. Cytoreduction to no visible disease (P<0.0001 and complete response to platinum-based chemotherapy (P<0.025 occurred more frequently in Stage IIIA than in Stage IIIC cases. Time to progression was shorter in patients with Stage IIIC ovarian cancer (17±1 months than in those with Stage II1A disease (36±8 months. Five-year overall survival (OS improved from 41% in Stage IIIC patients to 60% in Stage IIIA patients treated at UKMCC and from 37% to 56% in patients treated at SEER institutions for a survival advantage of 19% in both data sets. 53% of Stage IIIA and 14% of Stage IIIC patients had NED at last followup. Conclusions. Decreasing stage at detection from Stage IIIC to stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer is associated with a 5-year survival advantage of nearly 20% in patients treated by surgical tumor cytoreduction and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  18. General principles and stages of optimal AFCS design

    Platonov, A.; Zaitsev, Ie.


    The goal of the paper is a discussion of general principle and stages of the optimal analog feedback communication systems (AFCS) design. Previous research devoted to the analysis of particularities of AFCS functioning gave necessary analytical basis for transition to practical design of optimal AFCS. This is new class of communication systems (CS) transmitting the signals, under given bit error rate (BER), with bit rate equal to the capacity of the forward channel and power-bandwidth efficiency attaining the theoretical limit. In the paper, we describe the ordered sequence of the stages of transition from the abstract results to designing of the pre-commercial versions of optimal AFCS considering them as the basic communication link "sensor node (SN)" - "base station" (BS) of the wireless sensor network (WSN). We also show that verified theoretical results enable analytically argued decision making at different stages of designing of the high quality and energy efficient WSN communication links. This facilitates optimisation of the project works schedule, distribution of the tasks and resources for their realization, reduce the time and cost of design.

  19. Systems reliability evaluation under aging by the device of stages optimized through genetic algorithms

    A methodology is developed based on the method of stages optimized through genetic algorithms to allow reliability evaluation of plant stand by systems. This methodology allows the transformation of on-Markovian models into equivalent Markovian ones by considering a set of fictitious states, called stages. Therefore, a state with a time-dependent transition rate is represented by a combination of stages (series, parallel or series/parallel) with constant transition rate. The optimization is necessary to overlap the difficulties presented to find the identification parameter of the device of stages, which is a complex optimization problem and requires a robust and efficient optimization tool, e.g the genetic algorithms. results concerning initial applications to Auxiliary Feedwater Systems (AFW) pumps are shown and commented, for which Weibull and lognormal distribution are employed respectively for modeling failures and repair times. (author)

  20. The energy transition

    This special dossier about energy transition is made of 10 contributions dealing with: thousands of years of energy transition (Jean-Marc Jancovici); a recurring problem after a thousand years of fight (Mathieu Arnoux); urban mobility: another energy story (Arnaud Passalacqua); an opportunity subjected to conditions for the French competitiveness (Dominique Auverlot, Benoit Leguet); Germany: an energy utopia or a role model? (Etienne Beeker); environment: the financing stakes (Dominique Dron); reconciling the economical, social and ecological stakes (Alain Grandjean); Sweden in the face of transportation challenge (Julien Morel, Quentin Lambert); India and China with a commitment to global warming (Jean-Pascal Tranie); training the energy transition managers (Dominique Bureau)

  1. Martensitic phase transitions

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)


    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  2. Deforming Geometric Transitions

    Rossi, Michele


    After a quick review of the wild structure of the complex moduli space of Calabi-Yau threefolds and the role of geometric transitions in this context (the Calabi-Yau web) the concept of "deformation equivalence" for geometric transitions is introduced to understand the arrows of the Gross-Reid Calabi-Yau web as deformation-equivalence classes of geometric transitions. Then the focus will be on some results and suitable examples to understand under which conditions it is possible to get "simpl...

  3. Identification of Paralogous Life-Cycle Stage Specific Cytoskeletal Proteins in the Parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    Neil Portman; Keith Gull


    The life cycle of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, is characterised by a transition between insect and mammalian hosts representing very different environments that present the parasite with very different challenges. These challenges are met by the expression of life-cycle stage-specific cohorts of proteins, which function in systems such as metabolism and immune evasion. These life-cycle transitions are also accompanied by morphological rearrangements orchestrated by microtubule ...

  4. Two Stage Cadherin Kinetics Require Multiple Extracellular Domains but Not the Cytoplasmic Region*

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Jiang, Ning; Li, Fang; Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Cheng; Leckband, Deborah


    Micropipette manipulation measurements quantified the pre-steady state binding kinetics between cell pairs mediated by Xenopus cleavage stage cadherin. The time-dependence of the intercellular binding probability exhibits a fast forming, low probability binding state, which transitions to a slower forming, high probability state. The biphasic kinetics are independent of the cytoplasmic region, but the transition to the high probability state requires the third extracellular domain EC3. Deleti...

  5. An Observational Perspective of Transitional Disks

    Espaillat, C.; Muzerolle, J.; Najita, J.; Andrews, S.; Zhu, Z.; Calvet, N.; Kraus, S.; Hashimoto, J.; Kraus, A.; D'Alessio, P.

    Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about to undergo its next burst of growth as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reaches its full potential. We discuss what we have learned about transitional disks from SEDs, color-color diagrams, and imaging in the (sub)millimeter and infrared. We note the limitations of these techniques, particularly with respect to the sizes of the clearings currently detectable, and highlight the need for pairing broadband SEDs with multi-wavelength images to paint a more detailed picture of transitional disk structure. We review the gas in transitional disks, keeping in mind that future observations with ALMA will give us unprecedented access to gas in disks, and also observed infrared variability pointing to variable transitional disk structure, which may have implications for disks in general. We then distill the observations into constraints for the main disk-clearing mechanisms proposed to date (i.e., photoevaporation, grain growth, and companions) and

  6. Survival Advantage Associated with Decrease in Stage at Detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    John Hoff; Lauren Baldwin; Jason Lefringhouse; Edward Pavlik; Rachel Miller; Christopher DeSimone; Frederick Ueland; Thomas Tucker; Richard Kryscio; van Nagell, J. R.


    Objective. The aim of this study was to document the survival advantage of lowering stage at detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. Treatment outcomes and survival were evaluated in patients with Stage IIIA and Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer treated from 2000 to 2009 at the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center (UKMCC) and SEER institutions. Results. Cytoreduction to no visible disease (P < 0.0001) and complete response to platinum-based chemot...

  7. Dynamic properties of structural transition in iron under uniaxial compression.

    Shao, J L; Duan, S Q; He, A M; Qin, C S; Wang, P


    By using molecular dynamics simulations, we have successfully simulated the bcc [Formula: see text] hcp structural transition in single-crystal iron under isothermal compression along the [001] direction. The results reveal a distinct softening of C(33) and a hardening of C(31) (or C(32)) prior to the transition and an over-relaxation of the stress after transition. Above the critical stress the morphology evolution of structural transition is analyzed, which can be divided into four stages: hcp homogeneously nucleated, columnar grains formed, nuclei competed and merged, and a laminar structure formed along {110} planes. Besides, our simulations demonstrate that in mixed phases the hcp phase has negative shear stress and the potential of the hcp phase is higher than the bcc phase, and the shear stress of the system keeps a linear decrease with hcp mass fraction. The effect of temperature on the structural transition is also discussed. PMID:21693955

  8. Dynamic properties of structural transition in iron under uniaxial compression

    Shao, J L; Duan, S Q; He, A M; Qin, C S; Wang, P [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, PO Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China)], E-mail:


    By using molecular dynamics simulations, we have successfully simulated the bcc {yields} hcp structural transition in single-crystal iron under isothermal compression along the [001] direction. The results reveal a distinct softening of C{sub 33} and a hardening of C{sub 31} (or C{sub 32}) prior to the transition and an over-relaxation of the stress after transition. Above the critical stress the morphology evolution of structural transition is analyzed, which can be divided into four stages: hcp homogeneously nucleated, columnar grains formed, nuclei competed and merged, and a laminar structure formed along {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes. Besides, our simulations demonstrate that in mixed phases the hcp phase has negative shear stress and the potential of the hcp phase is higher than the bcc phase, and the shear stress of the system keeps a linear decrease with hcp mass fraction. The effect of temperature on the structural transition is also discussed.

  9. Dynamic properties of structural transition in iron under uniaxial compression

    By using molecular dynamics simulations, we have successfully simulated the bcc → hcp structural transition in single-crystal iron under isothermal compression along the [001] direction. The results reveal a distinct softening of C33 and a hardening of C31 (or C32) prior to the transition and an over-relaxation of the stress after transition. Above the critical stress the morphology evolution of structural transition is analyzed, which can be divided into four stages: hcp homogeneously nucleated, columnar grains formed, nuclei competed and merged, and a laminar structure formed along {110} planes. Besides, our simulations demonstrate that in mixed phases the hcp phase has negative shear stress and the potential of the hcp phase is higher than the bcc phase, and the shear stress of the system keeps a linear decrease with hcp mass fraction. The effect of temperature on the structural transition is also discussed.

  10. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    Miller, M. W.


    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.