WorldWideScience

Sample records for 15th century

  1. Introducing death: a 15th century Croatian Glagolitic literary text.

    Dürrigl, M A; Fatović-Ferencić, S

    2001-12-01

    We explored the notions of life and death as perceived and presented in a 15th century Croatian literary text, Slovo Mestra Polikarpa, in which master Polikarp, a well-learned man of medieval times, engages in a lengthy dialogue with Death itself. This contrast/debate is a rare piece of medieval literature, not only by its Old Croatian language, but also by the angular Glagolitic script in which it was written. As a part of Croatian cultural heritage, it is deeply rooted in and clearly belongs to the common context of Western European medieval views on life, health, ailing, and death. A medieval perspective on such issues might be interesting to broad readership and, in many aspects, to medical professionals, whose everyday practice necessarily involves not only practical and scientific, but also moral, philosophical, and religious deliberations about life and death. PMID:11740856

  2. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  3. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    Jurado, V.; Porca, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Pastrana, M.P. [Centro de Conservacion y Restauracion de Bienes Culturales, Junta de Castilla y Leon, Simancas (Spain); Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Saiz-Jimenez, C., E-mail: saiz@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  4. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  5. Patterns of Hospitality: Aspects of Institutionalisation in 15th & 16th Centuries Nuremberg Healthcare

    Fritz Dross

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with poor relief and health care provision by hospitals and hospital-like institutions in the imperial city of Nuremberg in 15th and 16th centuries southern Germany. It concentrates on the interplay and the functional connections of different types of charity. Thus, it is hoped to gain a more reliable base for analysing processes of differentiation in early modern health care provision than looking for the developments only in one prominent hospital alone. Special attention is paid to a charity caring for foreign lepers and thus prima facie contradicting the general trend of excluding lepers as well as foreigners from benevolence within the city's walls. In addition to analyse the hospitals' regulations and the patients' motiviation to get into a hospital this paper suggests to take a look for the ecomical and administrative conditions which force the inmates to leave hospitals and thus accelerating the development of temporarily care.

  6. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar Kα X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  7. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Kakuee, Omidreza, E-mail: okakuee@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A. [The Library, Museum and Documentation Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran Parliament, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135 Degree-Sign while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K{sub {alpha}} X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  8. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  9. Information background of 11th-15th centuries earthquakes located by the current catalogues in Vrancea (Romania)

    Tatevossian, R.; Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow, Russia; Albini, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia

    2009-01-01

    Earthquake catalogues for Romania supply for 11th–15th century earthquakes located in the region of Vrancea records that consist of a complete set of parameters, including magnitude and depth. Scope of this paper is to verify the reliability and consistency of these parameters with the informative background as explicitly referenced by the catalogues. After retrieving the original sources they mention, the set of data appeared to be related almost exclusively to the Russian plain and too poor...

  10. Chemical composition and deterioration of glass excavated in the 15th-16th century fishermen town of Raversijde (Belgium)

    The chemical composition, as determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of a series of ca. 100 archaeological glass fragments, excavated at the Raversijde site (Belgium) is discussed. In the 15th-16th century, Raversijde was a flourishing fishermen town located on the shore of the North Sea, close to the city of Ostend. As a consequence of several battles that were fought in its vicinity, the site was abandoned in the 16th century and was not occupied since then. It is one of the rare archaeological sites in Europe that contains a significant amount of information on the daily life inside a small but affluent medieval community. A comparison of the chemical composition of fragments of vessels and window glass encountered in Raversijde to those found in urban centres in Belgium and to literature date on German and French archaeological finds shows that glass made with wood ash dominates. Usually, it concerns artifacts with a predominantly utilitarian use. A few objects made with sodic (i.e., Na-rich) glass were also encountered, likely to have been imported from Venice during the 15th century or in later periods from an urban centre such as Antwerp, where Facon-de-Venice glass manufacturing activities were established near the start of the 16th century

  11. Finances, currency and taxation in the 14th and 15th centuries

    Gaspar Feliu

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of state taxation in the 14th century is intrinsically associated with monetary and financial development. In Catalonia, the crux of this joint evolution was the emergence of general taxes over the entire land, which required the towns to implement the censal, leading, in turn, to consolidated public debt and the financial slump of the 1380s, followed by difficulties caused by errors in monetary policy. The creation of the Taula de Canvi de Barcelona in 1401 mitigated both probl...

  12. Historical development of administration architecture in Malaysia (15th-21st century)

    Mohidin, H. H. B.; Ismail, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to document the development of the state administration building in Malaysia before and after the independence era, in relation to the evolutionary period of Malaysia's political, social and economic history. Multiple case study approach [19] is applied by referring to six prominent case studies to represent state administrative buildings from various phases of Malaysian history beginning from 14th century to 21st century as exemplar. Since this paper formulates new ways to approach and describes state administrative building design and factors that influence them, it uses interpretivism paradigm and (semiotics) as methodological approach to study the relationship between the building design and contextual elements. This paper, therefore, offers new insights, which not only add to knowledge in this field by widening and strengthening the understanding of state administrative architecture in Malaysia, but also are valuable for range of associated fields including architectural semiotics and non verbal communication. This is because this paper reveals deep understandings of the built form and material environment operating as a sign in a cultural and social context.

  13. Historical development of administration architecture in Malaysia (15th-21st century)

    The main purpose of this paper is to document the development of the state administration building in Malaysia before and after the independence era, in relation to the evolutionary period of Malaysia's political, social and economic history. Multiple case study approach [19] is applied by referring to six prominent case studies to represent state administrative buildings from various phases of Malaysian history beginning from 14th century to 21st century as exemplar. Since this paper formulates new ways to approach and describes state administrative building design and factors that influence them, it uses interpretivism paradigm and (semiotics) as methodological approach to study the relationship between the building design and contextual elements. This paper, therefore, offers new insights, which not only add to knowledge in this field by widening and strengthening the understanding of state administrative architecture in Malaysia, but also are valuable for range of associated fields including architectural semiotics and non verbal communication. This is because this paper reveals deep understandings of the built form and material environment operating as a sign in a cultural and social context

  14. Medical and social care in Rovinj from the mid 15th to the mid 19th century.

    Teklić, Ante; Peterković, Vjerislav

    2012-09-01

    By using published and unpublished sources from various archival series kept in the Rovinj Heritage Museum, Chapter Archives of Rovinj and the Diocesan Archives of Porec the authors shed new light and present the health and social care system in the city of Rovinj covering the period which goes from the mid 15th to the mid 19th century. Altruistic mentality of individual citizens, lay and ecclesiastical institutions as well as the need to prevent diseases urged the foundation of medical-social-religious-charitable institutions. In the researched period Rovinj flourished demographically and economically, so that health and social institutions included offices in charge of prevention. When it came to various aspects of social activities, decisions were made by the foreign political authorities--Venetian, French and Austrian administration, although the first initiative would always come from the Rovinj Commune or individual citizens. PMID:23213973

  15. Enhancement and character recognition of the erased colophon of a 15th-century Hebrew prayer book

    Walvoord, Derek J.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Knox, Keith T.; Heimbueger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A handwritten codex often included an inscription that listed facts about its publication, such as the names of the scribe and patron, date of publication, the city where the book was copied, etc. These facts obviously provide essential information to a historian studying the provenance of the codex. Unfortunately, this page was sometimes erased after the sale of the book to a new owner, often by scraping off the original ink. The importance of recovering this information would be difficult to overstate. This paper reports on the methods of imaging, image enhancement, and character recognition that were applied to this page in a Hebrew prayer book copied in Florence in the 15th century.

  16. Wall paintings from the late 15th century in the Monastery church of St. Paraskeve - Brajčino

    Popovska-Korobar Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of St. Paraskevy is located above the village Brajčino, on the east shore of Lake Prespa in the Republic of Macedonia. In accordance with the incomplete donor’s inscription this one aisle church with a pitched roof was built and decorated at the same time. Reparations came around 1800, when rebuilding was done on the longitudinal walls and the narthex (without fresco decoration. The fresco paintings from the 15th century are preserved on the west facade, and on the east and west wall of the naos. The decorative program in the interior was common for the small type monastery churches without narthex. From the old edifice, on the corner of the outside southwest wall visible are remains of figures, a monk and a man in laymen’s attire facing eastward. The iconographic program of the west facade is interesting for the scenes which encompass the patrons niche: a reduced Last Judgment (Royal Deesis, Hell and Paradise, where the monk Pahomios above the gate is depicted in prayer and the equestrian figures of St. George and St. Mena. A parallel for the rare iconography of St. Mena with the tamed beasts is found in an unpublished icon, which most probably was painted in the last quarter of the 15th century, and is kept presently on the iconostasis of the church of Panagia tou Apostolaki in Kastoria. In accordance with all the considered characteristics by means of comparative analysis, we assume that the anonymous master could be an individual who belonged to the painting workshops which are credited for painting the church of St. Nicholas of the nun Eupraxia in Kastoria. We suppose the painter worked in Brajčino soon after the year 1486 and before 1493, when the decoration of the church in Kremikovci was completed, in which he most likely took part as a member of another large workshop. Regarding the question about the origins of the style of the 'master from the 1480’s', the paper articulates an opinion that they should be traced

  17. Skeletal and dental indicators of health in the late mediaeval (12-15th century) population from Nin, southern Croatia.

    Novak, M; Martinčić, O; Strinović, D; Slaus, M

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive bioarchaeological study of the late mediaeval (12-15th century) skeletal sample from Nin was carried out in order to test the historically documented hypothesis that during the late mediaeval period Nin sustained a period of rapid development that resulted in it becoming one of the major urban centres on the eastern Adriatic coast. The analysed pathological changes (alveolar bone disease, dental caries, dental enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia, periostitis, tuberculosis, Schmorl's nodes, vertebral osteoarthritis, and bone fractures) indicate a relatively good quality of life for the majority of the population from this late mediaeval site. A low prevalence of dental pathologies suggests an adequate diet while a low frequency of long bone trauma testifies to a relatively peaceful life for the inhabitants of mediaeval Nin. Increased urban development during this period resulted in a worsening of sanitary conditions most likely caused by overcrowding, which is reflected in the presence of tuberculosis and the relatively high frequencies of dental enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia. An additional health concern for the late mediaeval inhabitants of Nin may have been the presence of malaria, as recorded in numerous historical sources. Comparison with other Croatian mediaeval skeletal samples suggests that the inhabitants of late mediaeval Nin experienced somewhat better living conditions than their contemporaries from other parts of Croatia. PMID:23102923

  18. Ice lubrication for moving heavy stones to the Forbidden City in 15th- and 16th-century China.

    Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A

    2013-12-10

    Lubrication plays a crucial role in reducing friction for transporting heavy objects, from moving a 60-ton statue in ancient Egypt to relocating a 15,000-ton building in modern society. Although in China spoked wheels appeared ca. 1500 B.C., in the 15th and 16th centuries sliding sledges were still used in transporting huge stones to the Forbidden City in Beijing. We show that an ice lubrication technique of water-lubricated wood-on-ice sliding was used instead of the common ancient approaches, such as wood-on-wood sliding or the use of log rollers. The technique took full advantage of the natural properties of ice, such as sufficient hardness, flatness, and low friction with a water film. This ice-assisted movement is more efficient for such heavy-load and low-speed transportation necessary for the stones of the Forbidden City. The transportation of the huge stones provides an early example of ice lubrication and complements current studies of the high-speed regime relevant to competitive ice sports. PMID:24191029

  19. On a Marginal Use of the Imperative in East Slavic Monuments of the 11th–15th Centuries

    Yana A. Pen’kova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the marginal construction that appears to be a kind of hybrid of an imperative and the future perfect: the auxiliary verb has the form of the imperative mood and is used with an l-participle. The construction is semantically and structurally similar to the Slavic perfect and the Slavic future perfect, however it is attested only in some archaic translated Church Slavonic monuments represented by East Slavic copies from the 11th through the 15th centuries of South Slavic translations (these include the Catechetical Lectures of Cyril of Jerusalem and the Homily to the Entombment and the Resurrection of Jesus Christ by Gregory of Antioch, as a part of the Uspensky Sbornik of the 12th–13th century or by East Slavic translations of the Story of Ahikar. The author of the article suggests different interpretations of the grammatical state of the construction in question and describes the advantages and disadvantages of each. The following interpretations are offered: 1 regarding the construction as a tracing of the original structure, 2 regarding it as an artificial rhetorical construction, and 3 regarding it as an analytical construction with an auxiliary verb in the imperative mood and the main verb in the form of an l-participle. It seems preferable not to regard the construction as a simple calque of the original structure but rather as a particular archaic perfect imperative periphrasis. It remains unclear, however, whether it was an exclusively literary structure and was used as a possible means of translating Greek constructions with éstō or if it could be used independently.

  20. Sine Labe. Immaculatism in 15th to 17th-Century Spain: The Social Projection of a Religious Imaginary

    Ruiz-Gálvez Priego, Estrella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Immaculatism, the devotion to the Virgin Mary, is an area of research of especial relevance for the history of social and religious mentalities. In Spain, it became a Matter of State from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The author aims to unravel how it was that such an abstruse and seemingly foreign-to-everyday-concerns theological subject turned into a social issue. Rooted in the theological discourse concerning human nature as “stained”, the concept of “original sin” began in the 13th century to be understood in terms of “infidelity”. In 1215, the 4th Lateran Council established a system of signs as markers for “infidels”, the first step toward an assimilation of the notions of fidelity/infidelity into those of trustworthiness/unloyalty which would later mean the association of the concept of original sin with that of the sin of the converts. In addition, the jural notions of Pactum and Fides, basis of the Feudal Contract, would inform the relationships between Man and God. Worshiping the Precious Blood of Jesus would impinge upon the so-called statutes for “Cleanliness” and “Nobility” of blood. This statutory definition of one’s blood would pass to one’s descendants, its formulation in terms of purity/impurity determining one’s social integration or exclusion.El inmaculismo, devoción a la Virgen, constituye un campo de investigación particularmente interesante para la historia de las mentalidades sociales y religiosas, llegando a ser asunto de Estado en la España de los siglos XV al XVIII. Nuestro propósito es elucidar cómo pudo llegar a convertirse en cuestión social un asunto de teología tan árduo y aparentemente tan alejado de lo cotidiano. Partiendo del discurso sobre la naturaleza humana “manchada” de los teólogos, llegamos al momento (siglo XIII en que la “mácula original” empieza a traducirse en términos de “infidelidad”. Las marcas decretadas por el IV Concilio de Letrán (1215

  1. Makam descriptions, classifications ın 15th century music manuscripts during ottoman period and a theorist of passing period: Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi

    N. Oya Levendoğlu Öner

    2011-01-01

    The subject of makam descriptions goes back to Pre-Ottoman Empire period. In this period, makam phenomenon which is often studied in the middle age manuscripts of Islamic world was considered as a part of mathematic science. First Turkish music manuscripts had written in 15th Century during Otoman period. This study is aimed to put forward how considered makam descriptions and classifications by author in this period. Eight manuscript have analyzed and compared with each other which are Arabi...

  2. Makam descriptions, classifications ın 15th century music during Ottoman period and a theorist of passing period: Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi

    Oya Levendoğlu Öner

    2011-01-01

    The subject of makam descriptions goes back to  Pre-Ottoman Empire period. In this period, makam phenomenon which is often studied in the middle age manuscripts of Islamic world was considered as a part of mathematic science. First Turkish music manuscripts had written in 15th Century during Ottoman period. This study is aimed to put forward how considered makam descriptions and classifications by author in this period. Eight  manuscripts have analyzed and compared with each other w...

  3. Land Use Change and Socio-Economic Evaluation in São Jorge Island (Between 15th and 20th Century)

    Dentinho, Tomaz; Serpa, Vanda; Silveira, Paulo; Goncalves, Joana

    2006-01-01

    The agenda explain the historical evolution of land uses in São Jorge Island (Azores- Portugal) between 15th-20th century.The economic exploitation of the island space prosecuted itself in simultaneous with his colony, one form to guarantee the auto supplying of the populations. First we assess the capacity of the island territory for different uses based on agronomic analysis and transform these capacities in attractiveness coefficients.Then we design a spatial interaction model with five di...

  4. From a market economy to a government monopoly precious metals of Serbia and Bosnia between Venice and the Ottoman empire (15th-16th century

    Bojović Boško I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of precious metals in the Balkans reached its climax in the 15th century. It was exported mostly by Ragusa, basically for the Venice Mint. According to the available documents it can be estimated that the traffic of such metals carried out via Ragusa was between 11060 kg in 1425, and an optimum estimation of 25 tons annually for the first half of the century. The Ottoman occupation of Serbia and Bosnia in the middle of the century marks the end of the exportation of raw materials indispensable to the European monetary economy, which lacked precious metals for mints. The production as well as the coining of the Balkan precious metals took place within the closed circuit of the Ottoman economic autarchy. Notwithstanding all the efforts of the central administration, including a highly developed legislation, and in spite of the development of a big mining centre of Siderokapsia (Eastern Macedonia, the production of precious metals continued to decline in the 15th century. This economic phenomenon led to the financial crash that marked the beginning of the recurring financial and economic crises in the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 16th century. The contribution of the precious metals from the Balkans to the European monetary economy at the end of the Middle Ages has not been sufficiently studied by the specialists in economic history, and it has not been taken into account regarding the spectacular decline of the Ottoman economy and power.

  5. Makam descriptions, classifications ın 15th century music during Ottoman period and a theorist of passing period: Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi

    Levendoğlu Öner, Oya

    2011-01-01

    The subject of makam descriptions goes back to  Pre-Ottoman Empire period. In this period, makam phenomenon which is often studied in the middle age manuscripts of Islamic world was considered as a part of mathematic science. First Turkish music manuscripts had written in 15th Century during Ottoman period. This study is aimed to put forward how considered makam descriptions and classifications by author in this period. Eight  manuscripts have analyzed and compared with each other which are A...

  6. Makam descriptions, classifications ın 15th century music manuscripts during ottoman period and a theorist of passing period: Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi

    N. Oya Levendoğlu Öner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of makam descriptions goes back to Pre-Ottoman Empire period. In this period, makam phenomenon which is often studied in the middle age manuscripts of Islamic world was considered as a part of mathematic science. First Turkish music manuscripts had written in 15th Century during Otoman period. This study is aimed to put forward how considered makam descriptions and classifications by author in this period. Eight manuscript have analyzed and compared with each other which are Arabic, Persian and ancient Turkish. It is seen that makams were described with short seyir (melodic development, makam circles and on the accord system of instruments in Turkish manuscripts which are written in 15th century. These description ways are different more than Arabic and Persian manuscripts. Makams were described with alphabetic notation gave their scale and interval in those manuscripts. There are also some differences with regard to makam classifications between these two schools. It is concluded that Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi who is one of this period’s aouthor improved an characteristic makam description synthesizing each two description way.

  7. Makam descriptions, classifications ın 15th century music during Ottoman period and a theorist of passing period: Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi

    Oya Levendoğlu Öner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of makam descriptions goes back to  Pre-Ottoman Empire period. In this period, makam phenomenon which is often studied in the middle age manuscripts of Islamic world was considered as a part of mathematic science. First Turkish music manuscripts had written in 15th Century during Ottoman period. This study is aimed to put forward how considered makam descriptions and classifications by author in this period. Eight  manuscripts have analyzed and compared with each other which are Arabic, Persian and ancient Turkish. It is seen that makams were described with short seyir (melodic development, makam circles and on the accord system of instruments in Turkish manuscripts which are written in 15th century . These description ways are different more than Arabic and Persian manuscripts. Makams were described with alphabetic notation gave their scale and interval in those manuscripts. There are also some differences with regard to makam classifications between this two school.  It is concluded that Ladikli Mehmet Çelebi who is one of this period’s aouthor improved a characteristic makam description synthesizing each two description way.

  8. Transmission of musical knowledge and history of European culture in the early decades of the 15th century

    Matteo Nanni

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of music history in the first half of the 14th century is characterized by an internationalization of European musical culture, as a continuation of the cultural process of early Humanism. The category of ‘evolution’, and the very idea of ‘rebirth’, or the “legend of progress” (Martin Le Franc, Johannes Tinctoris) as discussed by Reinhard Strohm, must be read today not only in terms of stylistic standardization, but also as one of the hallmarks of a search for cultural identity....

  9. Iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" in Books of Hours of 15th and 16th Century

    Elsa Guyot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of biblical exegesis and medieval literature, this paper proposes an iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" as it appears in Books of Hours. From the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, pictorial representations of this Old Testament scene experienced a boom justified by the underlying eroticism of this episode in which David surprises Bathsheba as she is performing a ritual purification bath. The illuminations that we study reflect the encounter between the Christian tradition and humanistic culture.

  10. Transmission of musical knowledge and history of European culture in the early decades of the 15th century

    Matteo Nanni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of music history in the first half of the 14th century is characterized by an internationalization of European musical culture, as a continuation of the cultural process of early Humanism. The category of ‘evolution’, and the very idea of ‘rebirth’, or the “legend of progress” (Martin Le Franc, Johannes Tinctoris as discussed by Reinhard Strohm, must be read today not only in terms of stylistic standardization, but also as one of the hallmarks of a search for cultural identity. Even from a historical-musical point of view, what we see is the building of a new European taste from the combination of local styles and practices, thanks to the spread of handwritten collections all over the continent. Even composers from more distant regions embraced the new style, although less regularly. The Council of Basel was not only a historical event confined to the years during which the synod took place, just as it cannot be regarded as a mere empirical fact that only affected one city in northern Switzerland. It should rather be taken as a paradigmatic event in the cultural history of the 14th century. The encounters between intellectuals and artists, the interaction between musicians from different European regions, who met thanks to the frequent travels of the courts and chapels, turned the Council into a virtual platform for both the search for a new cultural identity, and the birth of new musical repertories and practices. The Council therefore transcends the material boundaries of the city of Basel, turning into a true ‘cultural generator’, where each individual contributed to the constant transmission and fusion of musical experiences, which became vectors for a new musical vision that reached to even the farthest corners of Europe.

  11. Shades of green in 15th century paintings: combined microanalysis of the materials using synchrotron radiation XRD, FTIR and XRF

    A representative selection of green paintings from fifteenth century Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon are analyzed by a combination of synchrotron radiation microanalytical techniques including FTIR, XRD, and XRF. The green pigments themselves are found to be a mixture of copper acetates/basic copper acetates and basic copper chlorides. Nevertheless, a broader range of green shades were obtained by mixing the green pigment with yellow, white, and blue pigments and applied forming a sequence of micrometric layers. Besides the nature of the pigments themselves, degradation and reaction products, such as carboxylates, formates and oxalates were also identified. Some of the copper based compounds, such as the basic copper chloride, may be either part of the original pigment or a weathering product. The high resolution, high brilliance, and small footprint of synchrotron radiation proved to be essential for the analysis of those submillimetric paint layers made of a large variety of compounds heterogeneous in nature and distribution and present in extremely low concentrations. (orig.)

  12. Shades of green in 15th century paintings: combined microanalysis of the materials using synchrotron radiation XRD, FTIR and XRF

    Salvado, Nati; Buti, Salvador [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. d' Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Barcelona (Spain); Cotte, Marine [CNRS UMR8220, LAMS, Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, 3 rue Galilee, 94200, Ivry-Sur-Seine (France); Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel-6, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Cinque, Gianfelice [Diamond Light Source, Oxon (United Kingdom); Pradell, Trinitat [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    A representative selection of green paintings from fifteenth century Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon are analyzed by a combination of synchrotron radiation microanalytical techniques including FTIR, XRD, and XRF. The green pigments themselves are found to be a mixture of copper acetates/basic copper acetates and basic copper chlorides. Nevertheless, a broader range of green shades were obtained by mixing the green pigment with yellow, white, and blue pigments and applied forming a sequence of micrometric layers. Besides the nature of the pigments themselves, degradation and reaction products, such as carboxylates, formates and oxalates were also identified. Some of the copper based compounds, such as the basic copper chloride, may be either part of the original pigment or a weathering product. The high resolution, high brilliance, and small footprint of synchrotron radiation proved to be essential for the analysis of those submillimetric paint layers made of a large variety of compounds heterogeneous in nature and distribution and present in extremely low concentrations. (orig.)

  13. 15th Cluster workshop

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  14. “Like a virgin”: Absence of rheumatoid arthritis and treponematosis, good sanitation and only rare gout in Italy prior to the 15th century

    A. Coppa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Origin of disease has special interest for rheumatologists, for whom absence of etiologic information generally mandates empirical approaches. Hypotheses have been offered that rheumatoid arthritis and syphilis were New World diseases, only transmitted to the Old World subsequent to the passages of Christopher Columbus (1-7. The pertinent search is for polyarticular erosive disease, sparing axial joints (8-10 and for oligostotic or polyostotic periosteal reaction (3, 4. The phenomenon of interest is not the focal periosteal reaction that occurs secondary to trauma (9, 10, but rather the more diffuse reaction indicative of pres- “Like a virgin”: Absence of rheumatoid arthritis and treponematosis, good sanitation and only rare gout in Italy prior to the 15th century “Come una vergine”: in Italia, niente artrite reumatoide o sifilide, solo poca gotta, e buona sanità prima del XV secolo BM. Rothschild1, A. Coppa2, PP. Petrone3 1Arthritis Center of Northeast Ohio, Youngstown, OH; Department of Internal Medicine, Northeast Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, OH; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH; Department of Earth Sciences, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA; 2Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, Sede di Antropologia, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma; 3Museo di Antropologia, Centro Musei di Scienze Naturali, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli RUBRICA LA REUMATOLOGIA NELLA LETTERATURA… Reumatismo, 2004; 56(1:61-66 Reumatismo, 2004; 56(1:61-66 RIASSUNTO Obiettivi: Lo studio è stato condotto con lo scopo di compiere alcune valutazioni e di verificare, anche indirettamente, una serie di ipotesi: 1. che l’artrite reumatoide e la sifilide siano malattie originate nelle Americhe e che siano state trasmesse nel Vecchio Continente successivamente ai viaggi di Cristoforo Colombo; 2. che l’intossicazione da piombo, causa di iperuricemia e quindi di

  15. Hesychasm and Art : The Appearance of New Iconographic Trends in Byzantine and Slavic Lands in the 14th and 15th Centuries

    Strezova, Anita

    2014-01-01

    “Although many of the iconographic traditions in Byzantine art formed in the early centuries of Christianity, they were not petrified within a time warp. Subtle changes and refinements in Byzantine theology did find reflection in changes to the iconographic and stylistic conventions of Byzantine art. This is a brilliant and innovative book in which Dr Anita Strezova argues that a religious movement called Hesychasm, especially as espoused by the great Athonite monk St Gregory Palamas, had...

  16. Technology and technique of the newly revealed 15th-century mural paintings in Marianka near Pasłęk (north Poland)

    Kudła, Sylwia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Gothic painted decoration in the interior of the village church of St. Peter and Paul in Marianka near Pasłęk (northern Poland, Elbląg area) constitutes a complex of paintings with complicated form and content, which was created over the course of first half of the fifteenth century. These paintings have been researched by art historians since 1892, when they were discovered during refurbishing works in the church. However, until 2012, they had not been completely revealed,...

  17. A reference to altar paintings in the Kotor archives of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries: Madonna di Misericordia and Immaculata Concepitone

    Živković Valentina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available New iconographies themes, but also well-developed and enriched older program solutions, are the most vivid expression of the theological teachings and piety of an epoch. Some of the favorite themes in European art at that time were the Madonna di Misericordia and the Immaculata Conceptione. Written sources lead us to conclude that these iconographies solutions existed and were developed in the Kotor area. The Madonna di Misericordia was made for members of a religious brotherhood, while the Immaculata Conceptione is mentioned in reference to a chapel of the same name, in the church of the monastery of the Franciscan Observants of St. Bernardin. Like the demand for the wider accessibility of theological books intended for layman (breviaries and Psalters, so the increasing demand for altar paintings reflected new trends in the Catholic Church that developed from the 13th century according to the decisions of the 4th Lateran Council. The most important role in developing the new aspect of piety in towns was played by the members of the Franciscan and Dominican orders. Besides the many novelties they introduced in religious practice, they also gave a strong impetus to the veneration of holy pictures and to the development of new iconographies solutions. Altar paintings were frequently commissioned by the brotherhoods who reflected the spiritual and commercial life of the town through their religious activities and craftsmanship. It was for the brotherhood of St. Trifun that the painting of Our Lady of Mercy was produced, the existence of which is indirectly recorded by means of a decree of the brotherhood written in 1413. On the other hand, an even more exhaustive amount of information, both about this and about the Altar of the Immaculate Conception in the Franciscan church, is found in the wills of the Kotor inhabitants. On their deathbeds, the testators frequently bequeathed especially revered paintings or donations to have them produced, as acts

  18. H TOY θEOY ΔIA TΩN ARHONTΩN PROMHθEIA - Byzantine 15th century archontes and religious endowments: Two examples

    Nikolić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constantinopolitan aristocracy of the XV century was, in the different ways and for the various reasons, attached to many of the city's monasteries and churches. The article is about two capital monasteries, St. John The Forerunner in Petra and Christ Philanthropos Soter, and the connection of the illustrious families of Lascaris Leontares and Asanes/Philanthropenos to them. Two epitaphs, composed by John Eugenikos for their ktetors, Demetrios Lascaris Leontares and Isaakios Asanes, shed more light on the matter. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu i br. 177015: Hrišćanska kultura na Balkanu u srednjem veku: Vizantijsko carstvo,Srbi i Bugari od 9. do 15. veka

  19. The «Mithridates Qur’ān » (ms. Vat. ebr. 357 at the junction of Arabic knowledge in 15th-century Italy

    Grévin, Benoît

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quranic works of Guglielmo Raimondo Moncada, alias Flavius Mithridates (cerca 1440-1489?, a Jewish-Sicilian convert with a complex background who was professor of Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic to Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, have been subjected to judgments that have ranged from impassioned praise to disdain. An analysis of the tasks of collation, translation and commmentary carried out by Moncada (and other hands on the “Judeo-Arabic” Quran Vat. Ebr. 357 reveals the close link between what are a priori the most striking aspects of «Moncadian» Quranology and its context of linguistic and cultural formation, leading to a re-examination of what is probably the richest archive of Quranic scholarship from late 15th-century Italy.

    [fr] Les travaux coraniques de Guglielmo Raimmondo Moncada, alias Flavius Mithridate (circa 1440-1489 ?, converti judéo-sicilien au parcours complexe et maître d’hébreu, d’araméen et d’arabe de Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, ont fait l’objet d’appréciations contradictoires, oscillant entre l’exaltation et la dépréciation. Une analyse de l’activité de collation, de traduction et de commentaire effectuée par Moncada (et d’autres mains sur le coran « judéo-arabe » Vat. Ebr. 357 dévoile l’association étroite entre les aspects a priori les plus déroutants de la coranologie « moncadienne » et son contexte de formation linguistique et culturelle, entraînant un réexamen de ce qui reste probablement le dossier le plus riche concernant l’étude du Coran en contexte italien à la fin du XVe siècle.

  20. The 15th International Symposium on Ostracoda

    Steffen Mischke

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ostracodologists from 36countries attended the 15th International Symposium on Ostracoda in Berlin last September.Four days filled with scientific sessions, workshops and a mid-symposium fieldtrip attracted 160 participants.

  1. The ESA Hubble 15th Anniversary Campaign

    Christensen, L. L.; Kornmesser, M.

    2005-12-01

    The 15th anniversary of the launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope occurred on 24th April 2005. As Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects in the world, ESA decided to celebrate this anniversary, among other things, with the production of a Hubble 15th Anniversary movie and a book, both called "Hubble, 15 years of discovery". The movie covers all aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope project - a journey through the history, the problems and the scientific successes of Hubble. With more than 700,000 multi-lingual DVDs distributed to the public, media, educators, decision-makers and scientists, the Hubble 15th anniversary campaign has been one of the largest such projects in Europe.

  2. 15th Beijing International Book Fair

    2008-01-01

    The 15th Beijing Intemational Book Fair(BIBF)is to be held in Tianjin on September 1-4.It is the first time that the fair is held outside of Beijing. The change of venue is because the book fair coincides with the closing of the Beijing Olympic Games and the open-

  3. Review on the 15th SPINEXPO Shanghai

    2010-01-01

    The 15th edition of SPINEXPO Shanghai,held at the Shanghai Pudong Expo Centre from 9th to 11th March,2010,has just come to a successful close.It showed that the success of an international textile exhibition was not linked to an over-inflated Euro,worldwide financial crisis or a slump in global consumption but to what could be offered by a truly international free-of-charge entrance exhibition,with a range based on quality,fostering creativity regardless of geographic origin.

  4. Review on the 15th SPINEXPO Shanghai

    Xue Peng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 15th edition of SPINEXPO Shanghai,held at the Shanghai Pudong Expo Centre from 9th to 11th March,2010,has just come to a successful close.It showed that the success of an international textile exhibition was not linked to an over-inflated Euro,worldwide financial crisis or a slump in global consumption but to what could be offered by a truly international free-of-charge entrance exhibition,with a range based on quality,fostering creativity regardless of geographic origin.

  5. 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity

    1978-01-01

    Once again, it gives me a great pleasure to pen the Foreword to the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity. As in the past, these now biannual conferences pro­ vide a broadly based forum for those researchers actively working on this important property of matter to convene on a regular basis to exchange their experiences and report their findings. As it is apparent from the Table of Contents, the 15th Conference represents perhaps the broadest coverage of subject areas to date. This is indicative of the times as the boundaries between disciplines be­ come increasingly diffused. I am sure the time has come when Con­ ference Chairmen in coming years will be soliciting contributions not only in the physical sciences and engineering', but will actively seek contributions from the earth sciences and life sciences as well. Indeed, the thermal conductivity and related properties of geological and biological materials are becoming of increasing im­ portance to our way of life. As...

  6. Proceedings 15th International Refinement Workshop

    Derrick, John; Reeves, Steve; 10.4204/EPTCS.55

    2011-01-01

    Refinement is one of the cornerstones of a formal approach to software engineering: the process of developing a more detailed design or implementation from an abstract specification through a sequence of mathematically-based steps that maintain correctness with respect to the original specification. The aim of this BCS FACS Refinement Workshop, is to bring together people who are interested in the development of more concrete designs or executable programs from abstract specifications using formal notations, tool support for formal software development, and practical experience with formal refinement methodologies. The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, and discussion of common ground and key differences. This 15th workshop continued a 20 year tradition in refinement workshops run under the auspices of the British Computer Society (BCS) FACS special interest group. After the first seven editions had been held in the UK, in 1998 it was combined with the Australasian Refine...

  7. 15th International Congress on Mathematical Physics

    New Trends in Mathematical Physics

    2009-01-01

    This book collects selected papers written by invited and plenary speakers of the 15th International Congress on Mathematical Physics (ICMP) in the aftermath of the conference. In extensive review articles and expository texts as well as advanced research articles the world leading experts present the state of the art in modern mathematical physics. New mathematical concepts and ideas are introduced by prominent mathematicalphysicists and mathematicians, covering among others the fields of Dynamical Systems, Operator Algebras, Partial Differential Equations, Probability Theory, Random Matrices, Condensed Matter Physics, Statistical Mechanics, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Information and String Theory. All together the contributions in this book give a panoramic view of the latest developments in mathematical physics. They will help readers with a general interest in mathematical physics to get an update on the most recent developments in their field, and give a broad ov...

  8. 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 15th ICMBE held from 4th to 7th December 2013, Singapore. Biomedical engineering is applied in most aspects of our healthcare ecosystem. From electronic health records to diagnostic tools to therapeutic, rehabilitative and regenerative treatments, the work of biomedical engineers is evident. Biomedical engineers work at the intersection of engineering, life sciences and healthcare. The engineers would use principles from applied science including mechanical, electrical, chemical and computer engineering together with physical sciences including physics, chemistry and mathematics to apply them to biology and medicine. Applying such concepts to the human body is very much the same concepts that go into building and programming a machine. The goal is to better understand, replace or fix a target system to ultimately improve the quality of healthcare. With this understanding, the conference proceedings offer a single platform for individuals and organisations working i...

  9. Pediatric neurosurgical techniques in the 15th century.

    Turgut, Mehmet

    2008-10-01

    The renowned Turkish surgeon Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu (1385--1468 AD), delineates management of various pediatric neurosurgical diseases such as head trauma, spinal trauma, and intrauterine and infantile hydrocephalus, as well as basic surgical principles in his textbook Cerrahiyyetü'l Haniyye, which consists of three chapters dealing with a variety of surgical specialities. The sections on neurosurgery are still relevant to modern medicine. The book combines previous knowledge of Greek, Roman, Arabic, and Turkish surgery. Today, Sabuncuoğlu is recognized as a pioneer of pediatric neurosurgery. PMID:18703338

  10. Polémique antichrétienne et théologie dans le Sefer ha-‘iqqarim de Yosef Albo (xve s. Anti-Christian Polemics and Theology in Yosef Albo’s Sefer ha‑'iqqarim (15th century

    Philippe Bobichon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Written in 1425 by one of the participants in the Disputation of Tortosa (1413-1414, the Sefer ha-Iqqarim is one of the most important philosophical-theological writings of the 14th and 15th centuries. It was composed during the period comprised between the persecutions of 1391 and the expulsion of 1492 and characterised by the multitude of conversions. Like Sa‘adya Gaon, Maimonides and Hasdai Crescas – the latter being his teacher – Joseph Albo examines the “Principles” of Judaism, their relation with reason and their religious specificity. This reflection is constructed by means of references to the Jewish tradition, but also, in one particular context, by opposing everything that calls this tradition into question. Thus, references to Christianity, in various forms, are omnipresent in the Sefer ha-Iqqarim. A veritable “Defence and Illustration” of Judaism, the Sefer ha-Iqqarim cannot be reduced to its polemical dimension, yet this dimension should be taken into account for an exact appreciation of its purpose, reception and scope.

  11. Proceedings of the 15th symposium on advanced photon research

    The 15th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA-KPSI) in Kizugawa, Kyoto on November 13 - 14, 2014. This report consists of invited and contributed papers presented at the oral and poster sessions in the Symposium. All the 23 papers are indexed individually (J.P.N.)

  12. 15th European conference on personality (ECP15)

    Millová, Katarína; Hřebíčková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 184-185. ISSN 0009-062X. [European conference on personality /15./. Brno, 20.07.2011-24.07.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : 15th European Conference on Personality * report Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.087, year: 2011

  13. China Ranks 15th for 2001 Natural Gas Production

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's natural gas output totaled 30.302 billion cubic meters in 2001, an 11 percent increase as compared with the previous year. However, China ranked 15th in the world for its natural gas production last year while Malaysia jumped to the 12th place in the ranking since the country saw a considerable increase in gas production.

  14. Newton's Apple: 15th Season. Free Educational Materials.

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    This guide helps teachers use the 15th season of the television program "Newton's Apple" in the classroom and lists show segments on asthma, car engines, glacier climbing, glass blowing, glaucoma, gliders, gold mine, greenhouse effect, kids on Mars, lightning, "Lost World" dinosaurs, mammoth dig, NASA robots, Novocain (TM), pack behavior, pet…

  15. 15th WPC - Teamwork of International Petroleum Community

    Zhai Guangming

    1997-01-01

    @@ The 15th World Petroleum Congress (WPC) closed on October 17, 1997, has achieved a great and fruitful success. The main reason is that Mr. D. van der Meer, Mr. Paul Tempest and other WPC officials have made fully supports and efforts from the very beginning to the end.In addition, many companies worldwide made a great contribution to WPC. As secretary-general of Chinese Organizing Committee, I would like to extend cordial thanks to all of them.

  16. 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Shan-Gui; Nuclear Structure in China 2014; NSC2014

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of the contributions to the 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China (NSC2014), held on October 25-28, 2014 in Guilin, China and hosted by Guangxi Normal University. It provides an important updated resource in the nuclear physics literature for researchers and graduate students studying nuclear structure and related topics. Recent progress made in the study of nuclear spectroscopy of high-spin states, nuclear mass and half-life, nuclear astrophysics, super-heavy nuclei, unstable nuclei, density functional theory, neutron star and symmetry energy, nuclear matter, and nuclear shell model are covered.

  17. Gold Rush in Mol at the 15th ASCERI Atomiade

    Chris Haen, Konrad Jende & Rachel Bray, Atomiade organizers and athletes for the CERN team

    2015-01-01

    What initially began as a football tournament between German institutes involved in nuclear research has developed into ASCERI (Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes), which aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sport meetings, bringing together members of public research institutes at the European level. The members come from over 40 research institutes (see here) spanning 16 countries.     CERN team going for Gold at the summer Atomiade!   One of the main sport events organised by ASCERI, the 15th Atomiade was held from 5 to 8 June 2015 (organisational committee JRC Geel) in Mol, in the Kempen region of Belgium. CERN participated by sending 40 athletes from 15 countries to compete in a variety of disciplines: Athletics, Basketball, Cycling, Mountain Bike Race, Canoeing/Kayak, S.U.P., Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Triathlon, Volleyball. The 1200 athletes from 36 European research institutes were housed in th...

  18. PREFACE: The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop (ICTW15) was held in Le Havre, France from 9-12 July 2007. This regular international conference started in 1979 in Leeds, UK when the research interest in simple models of fluid flows was revitalized by systematic investigation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Couette-Taylor flow. These two flow systems are good prototypes for the study of the transition to chaos and turbulence in closed flows. The workshop themes have been expanded from the original Couette-Taylor flow to include other centrifugal instabilities (Dean, Görtler, Taylor-Dean), spherical Couette flows, thermal convection instabilities, MHD, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, transition to turbulence, development of numerical and experimental techniques. The impressive longevity of the ICTW is due to the close interaction and fertile exchanges between international research groups from different disciplines: Physics and Astrophysics, Applied Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering. The present workshop was attended by 100 participants, the program included over 83 contributions with 4 plenary lectures, 68 oral communications and 17 posters. The topics include, besides the classical Couette-Taylor flows, the centrifugal flows with longitudinal vortices, the shear flows, the thermal convection in curved geometries, the spherical Couette-Taylor flow, the geophysical flows, the magneto-hydrodynamic effects including the dynamo effect, the complex flows (viscoelasticity, immiscible fluids, bubbles and migration). Selected papers have been processed through the peer review system and are published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Workshop has been sponsored by Le Havre University, the Region Council of Haute-Normandie, Le Havre City Council, CNRS (ST2I, GdR-DYCOEC), and the European Space Agency through GEOFLOW program. The French Ministry of Defense (DGA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of

  19. Detección de indicios de manipulación contable y posible práctica “fraudulenta” en el gremio del comercio textil de Londres en los siglos XIV y XV = Evidences in detection of accounting manipulation and potential “fraud” in the textile industry in London during the 14th and 15th centuries

    Ángel Ballarín Garnica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El gremio del comercio textil de Londres es una institución con más de 710 años de historia que todavía sigue ejerciendo su actividad. Desde el siglo XIV dispone de registros contables detallados que reflejan su actividad económica. Este trabajo pretende obtener indicios de manipulación contable en dicha institución mediante técnicas forenses (Ley de Benford en el periodo 1390-1435. La aplicación de esta técnica ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de indicios de una posible manipulación contable que confirma la existencia de prácticas “fraudulentas” (pagos a un parlamentario, alcalde…. The Mercers’ of London is an institution with more than 710 years of history which is exercising still today. Since the XIV century it has kept thorough accounting records showing its economic activity. This paper’s goal is to obtain indications of accounting manipulation in this institution during the period 1390 to 1435, by using forensic techniques (Benford’s Law. The use of this technique has revealed the presence of indications of a possible accounting manipulation, which confirms the existence of ‘fraudulent’ practices such as payments to a MP and the mayor of London.

  20. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  1. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  2. Contributions of Muslim Scholars to the History of Economic Thought and Analysis upto 15th Century

    Islahi, Abdul Azim

    2005-01-01

    The book highlights Muslim contributions to economic thought, an area which has received little attention by economists. Earlier works by Islamic economists have heightened, not lessened, the need for further research as they indicated possible linkages with mainstream economic thought. The present work seeks to determine the role of medieval Muslim scholars in the evolution of mainstream economics and to find out their impact on the scholastic doctors and mercantilists. It addresses Western ...

  3. The Actors of the Maghribian Diplomacy with the Christian World (12th-15th centuries

    Valérian, Dominique

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the originalities of the diplomatic practice of the Maghrebian sovereigns with northern Christian States resides in the use of very different types of ambassadors. Whereas the embassies sent to other sovereigns of the world of Islam are all Moslem, eventually Jewish, one finds many Christians as ambassadors sent for missions to Iberian or Italian States. As mercenaries or merchants mostly, they have certainly a good knowledge of the international relations of the time. But they have also a very ambiguous statute within the framework of the Islamo-Christian relations in the Mediterranean. The Maghrebian sovereigns actually use, according to needs for the mission, Christian or Moslem agents, still keeping an effective control on important political decisions.

    Une des originalités de la pratique diplomatique des souverains maghrébins en direction des Etats chrétiens du nord réside dans l’envoi d’ambassadeurs de profils très variés. Alors que les ambassades envoyées à d’autres souverains du monde de l’Islam sont tous musulmans, éventuellement juifs, on trouve de nombreux chrétiens comme ambassadeurs chargés de missions auprès des puissances ibériques ou italiennes. Mercenaires ou marchands le plus souvent, ils ont certes une bonne connaissance des relations internationales de l’époque. Mais ils n’en ont pas moins un statut ambigu dans le cadre des relations islamo-chrétiennes en Méditerranée. Les souverains maghrébins utilisent en réalité, selon les besoins de la mission, des agents chrétiens et musulmans, mais tout en gardant un contrôle efficace sur les décisions prises.

  4. Bioremoval of Sulphate Layer from a 15th Century Polychrome Marble Artifact

    Manuela Martino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows the application of viable bacterial cells for removing undesired deposits from the surface of a stone polychrome bas-relief, exhibited at the Interdisciplinary Gallery of Sicily Palazzo Abatellis (Palermo. Diagnostic studies carried out during the restoration were aimed at characterizing the technique of execution and understanding the degradation processes. The results of the XRF and FTIR investigations showed that on large areas of the artifact’s surface, stratified deposits with a significant presence of sulfates were present. For bioremoval of the deposits, viable bacterial cells belonging to the species Desulfovibrio vulgaris, were utilized in gelled solution form, evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of this cleaning with that of the desulfating agents usually employed. The results demonstrate that by using the colonised substrate as a nutritional source in their natural metabolic processes, this bacterial species can be used to obtain high efficiency and selectivity of action, representing a valid alternative to the use of traditional chemical agents.

  5. Sustainability and Bioeconomy: Synthesis of Key Themes from the 15th ICABR Conference

    Smyth, S.J.; Aerni, P.; Castle, D.; DEMONT, M; Falck-Zepeda, J.B.; Paarlberg, R.; Phillips, P.W.B.; Pray, C.E.; Savastano, S; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2011-01-01

    The International Consortium on Applied Bioeconomy Research (ICABR) held its 15th annual conference near Rome, Italy in June 2011. The theme of the conference was sustainability, and this topic was addressed through numerous presentations from academia, government, and industry. Numerous presentations from developing countries highlighted the adoption benefits of the biotechnologies in these countries

  6. 15th order resonance terms using the decaying orbit of TETR-3. [perturbation due to gravitation

    Wagner, C. A.; Klosko, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifteenth-order commensurability of the orbit of TETR-3 (1971-83B) is studied. The study is designed to obtain good discrimination of 15th-order resonances through a better range of inclinations. The first low inclination orbit, 33 deg, is used for this purpose; it is very sensitive to the high degree terms which were rather poorly represented by previously analyzed orbits.

  7. Irradiation experiments of the 13th-15th OGL-1 fuel assemblies

    The Oarai Gas Loop-1, OGL-1, which had been installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of the Oarai Research Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), was an in-pile helium loop for irradiation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels at high pressure and temperature. This report describes results of fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) of the 13th-15th OGL-1 fuel assemblies. The 13th and 15th fuel assemblies employed the first-charge fuel of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The 13th assembly was loaded with a high quality fuel, whose as-produced failure fraction had been drastically decreased, compared with that for fuels before that time. The 15th assembly was loaded with a fuel, which had been produced by the same apparatus that was used afterwards for the first charge fuel of the HTTR. Both of these fuel assemblies gave good results in PIEs as well as in the fission-gas release rates during irradiation. The 14th fuel assembly used a trial product of an advanced fuel for high burnup utilization, which employed coated fuel particles (CFPs) with thicker coating layers than those for the first charge fuel. This fuel assembly indicated a spike release of fission gas during irradiation at 1500degC after a transient temperature increase up to this value. As a whole, all of the 13th - 15th assemblies demonstrated good performance of the loaded fuels, giving significantly lower values in fission-gas release rates during irradiation and in failure fractions of CFPs after irradiation, than the corresponding design limit values for the first charge fuel of the HTTR. (author)

  8. Irradiation experiments of the 13th-15th OGL-1 fuel assemblies

    Hayashi, Kimio; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Toshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Shiratori, Tetsuo; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Fukuda, Kousaku; Itoh, Tadaharu; Waragai, Heita [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-01-01

    The Oarai Gas Loop-1, OGL-1, which had been installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of the Oarai Research Establishment of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), was an in-pile helium loop for irradiation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels at high pressure and temperature. This report describes results of fabrication, irradiation and post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) of the 13th-15th OGL-1 fuel assemblies. The 13th and 15th fuel assemblies employed the first-charge fuel of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The 13th assembly was loaded with a high quality fuel, whose as-produced failure fraction had been drastically decreased, compared with that for fuels before that time. The 15th assembly was loaded with a fuel, which had been produced by the same apparatus that was used afterwards for the first charge fuel of the HTTR. Both of these fuel assemblies gave good results in PIEs as well as in the fission-gas release rates during irradiation. The 14th fuel assembly used a trial product of an advanced fuel for high burnup utilization, which employed coated fuel particles (CFPs) with thicker coating layers than those for the first charge fuel. This fuel assembly indicated a spike release of fission gas during irradiation at 1500degC after a transient temperature increase up to this value. As a whole, all of the 13th - 15th assemblies demonstrated good performance of the loaded fuels, giving significantly lower values in fission-gas release rates during irradiation and in failure fractions of CFPs after irradiation, than the corresponding design limit values for the first charge fuel of the HTTR. (author)

  9. Qatar Airways Official Partner of China Team At 15th Doha Asian Games 2006

    2006-01-01

    @@ Asian Games was held from Dec.1-15 this year in Qatar's capital Doha,which attracted more than 10,500 athletes and team officials from 45 countries competing in 39sports.As Official Airline of the 15th Asian Games,Qatar Airways delivers its award-winning Five Star service to visitors to the Games,whether they are participating or are spectators.

  10. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume I.

    Benson, Susan Shattuck; Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 1 of the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials contains: (1) Summary Reports for Sessions 1 through 6; (2) Program of the 15th Seminar; (3) Resolutions of the 15th Seminar; (4) Participants in the 15th Seminar; (5) Seminar Committees, 1970-1971; (6) List of Working Papers; (7) Working paper number one -- Progress…

  11. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Real-Time and Network Systems (RTNS'07)

    Puaut, Isabelle; Navet, Nicolas; Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of RTNS is to provide the participants, academic researchers or practitioners, with a forum to disseminate their work and discuss emerging lines of research in the area of real-time and network systems: real-time system design and analysis, infrastructure and hardware for real-time systems, software technologies and applications. The 15th edition of RTNS was held in Nancy, France on the 29th and 30th March 2007. The presentations were organized in 6 sessions covering all m...

  12. Support for U.S. Participants at the 15th International Congress on Catalysis

    Wachs, Israel E.

    2013-08-05

    The grant was used to partially assist the travel expenses of U.S. academic scientists to attend the 15th International Congress on Catalysis. The conference was held in Munich, Germany from July 1-6, 2012. The importance of the International Congress was to bring together the international community of faculty members who participate in catalysis research, and to share information that would lead to further developments and directions in the field of study. Graduate students and Post Docs were invited to apply for travel assistance based on criteria established by the North American Catalysis Society (NACS) and the local Catalysis Clubs.

  13. First Names in Riga in the 15th C. by Entries of the Financial Board Rolls

    Siliņa-Piņķe, Renāte

    2009-01-01

    Renāte Siliņa-Piņķe First Names in Riga in the 15th C. by Entries of the Financial Board Rolls Doctor’s thesis is an interdisciplinary work on historical anthroponymics. 142 first names recorded (4485 times in total) in Riga Financial Board rolls (1405-1474) are analyzed in the paper. The main part is a research on 111 names of inhabitants of Riga. Section of linguistic analysis is fixed on descent and way of forming words, including traits of Middle Low German, spelling, declension. A ...

  14. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment

    15th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (15th ICHMET) is a continuation of a series of conferences that have been held since 1975. These conferences typically draw 500-1000 participants from countries in many parts of the world. The ICHMETs are the only forum that provide an integrated perspective on research and policy initiatives on all heavy metals in a trans-disciplinary context. There is a need to understand not only the unique features and behavior of individual heavy metals but also the differences, similarities and interactions of different metals at the ecosystem, systemic and cellular levels if we are to deal with the problems of global heavy metal pollution in a sustainable manner. The presented contributions concerned problems: (1) trend tracking/analysis of heavy metals data; (2) analytical tools and techniques; (3) heavy metals in the marine environment; (4) accumulation in foods and crops; (5) soil contamination; (6) heavy metals in sediments and remediation technologies; (7) effects on human health; (8) heavy metals in the atmosphere; (9) sources, emissions and control of heavy metals; (10) phytoremediation; (11) wastewater treatment; (12) heavy metals in the historical pollution record.

  15. mtDNA from hair and nail clarifies the genetic relationship of the 15th century Qilakitsoq Inuit mummies

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Djurhuus, Durita; Melchior, Linea;

    2007-01-01

    typing, and incomplete STR results led researchers to conclude that the eight mummies formed two distinct family groups: A grandmother (I/5), two daughters (I/3, I/4), and their two children (I/1, I/2) in one grave, and two sisters (II/6, II/8) and a daughter (II/7) of one of them in the other. Using mtDNA...... from hair and nail, we have reanalyzed the mummies. The results allowed the unambiguous assignment of each of the mummies to one of three mtDNA haplogroups: A2b (I/5); A2a (I/2, I/3, II/6, II/8); A2a-311 (I/1, I/4, II/7), excluded some of the previous relations, and pointed to new ones. I/5 is not the...

  16. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    Polvorinos del Rio, A. [Departamento de Cristallografia, Mineralogia y Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Sevilla, avenida Reina Mercedes s/n (Spain); Castaing, J. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jacques.castaing@culture.fr; Aucouturier, M. [Laboratoire du centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France C2RMF CNRS UMR 171, Plais du Louvre, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  17. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics

  18. Ice lubrication for moving heavy stones to the Forbidden City in 15th- and 16th-century China

    Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    In the history of mechanical engineering, it is commonly believed that transporting huge stones with sliding sledges hauled by men did not occur in ancient China, because there were well-developed wheeled vehicles in China around 1500 B.C. However, some books contain brief remarks that the Large Stone Carving in the Forbidden City in Beijing was pulled to the site with a sledge sliding on an artificial ice path. Here we investigate the Chinese case based on historical documents and modern exp...

  19. 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics

    Passante, Roberto; Trapani, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, held in Palermo, Italy, from 18 to 23 May 2015. Non-Hermitian operators, and non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in particular, have recently received considerable attention from both the mathematics and physics communities. There has been a growing interest in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum physics since the discovery that PT-symmetric Hamiltonians can have a real spectrum and thus a physical relevance. The main subjects considered in this book include: PT-symmetry in quantum physics, PT-optics, Spectral singularities and spectral techniques, Indefinite-metric theories, Open quantum systems, Krein space methods, and Biorthogonal systems and applications. The book also provides a summary of recent advances in pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians and PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, as well as their applications in quantum physics and in the theory of open quantum systems.

  20. The Status and Results of the 15th ISO/TC 135 Plenary, Subcommittee, and Working Group Meetings

    The 15th ISO/TC 135 plenary, sub-committee, and working group meetings were held in Columbus, Ohio USA from the 15th to the 21st October, 2005 in conjunction with ASNT fall conference and Quality Testing Show. In this period, the meetings of the subcommittee 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, SC7/WG 7 and SC7/WG 8 meetings were held. Seven persons from Korea participated in the meetings. Here summarized are the results of the meetings and the status of the ISO/TC 135.

  1. Impact of payroll taxes for small shoe manufacturing enterprises profit generation in Bogota city 15th district

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we illustrate the financial difficulties that payroll taxes would impose on small shoe manufacturing enterprises in Bogota City 15th district and how this would impose some restrictions for firms profit generation, when such contributions turns out to be a fixed cost. We present a brief on the legal framework as well as an econometric exercise that shows the relations between labor costs and profit generation for the footwear industry in the 15th urban district of Bogotá city.

  2. Symposium on the 15th anniversary of modified JRR-3 operation for neutron utilization

    In commemoration of the 15th Anniversary of the Modified Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3), a symposium was held at Techno Community Square RICOTTY (Tokai-mura), December 4, 2006. The operators and users of JRR-3 reported their fruits in science and technology in the past and presented future plans. Dr. K. Sato, a former member of the executive director of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, presented a valuable episode in JRR-3 modification works. Mr. N. Kimura, director of 'The Office for Quantum and Radiation Research, MEXT', and Emeritus Prof. Y. Endoh, president of 'The Japanese Society for Neutron Science', expressed their sincere thanks for a large contribution to science and technology in these 15 years JRR-3 operation, and also their desire for the future contribution. Distinguished scientists reported their fruits in the various research fields at the JRR-3, such as developments of advanced neutron instruments, material sciences, structural analyses of protein focusing on hydrogen positions, water distribution in plants, structural analyses of soft materials and residual stress measurements. We presented the upgrading plan of the JRR-3 to increase the intensity of cold neutron beam to 10 times. This upgrading plan can create new world of science and technology. A desire for this upgrading plan was expressed by scientists and engineers. The consensus in the symposium was as follows. The Japan-Proton Accelerator Research Complex is suitable for experiments requiring high intensity pulse neutron beam. The JRR-3 is suitable for high accuracy experiments using continuous neutron beam. Therefore, both facilities are complementarily indispensable for science and technology using neutron. Total number of participants was about 230 from domestic universities and industries, etc. The lectures and research fruits presented in the symposium are summarized in this report. (author)

  3. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  4. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    Zou, Yaming; Hutton, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This issue contains papers presented at the 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions, HCI2010. The conference was held at Fudan University, Shanghai, 29 August-3 September 2010. HCI is a biannual conference series going back to the very first conference held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. Previous editions in this millennium were held in Berkeley, USA, 2000; Caen, France, 2002; Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004; Belfast, UK, 2006, and Tokyo, Japan, 2008. The physics of highly charged ions, HCIs, is of great interest due to their key role in testing quantum electrodynamics in strong fields, and possible testing of parity non-conservation. However, HCIs also play crucial roles in the physics of hot plasmas, for example those produced in tokamak fusion devices and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Much of the diagnostics of matter under such extreme environments relies very heavily on high quality atomic data of HCIs. The field of x-ray astronomy hinges almost entirely on the use of spectral lines from HCIs to provide information from distant astrophysical plasmas and objects. Given these fundamental interests and the current rapid developments in fusion and x-ray astronomy, it is clear that the physics of HCIs is a rich area of research with strong and important connections to many important subfields of physics. New application areas of HCI physics are also under development: two examples are (a) to provide 13.5 nm—and later half of this wavelength—radiation for lithography and (b) applications in medical research. The need for high quality atomic data of HCIs is as important now as it has ever been. HCI2010 was attended by over 200 scientists from around 20 countries; see the following table. Over 70 of the participants were students, which is very encouraging for the future of HCI related physics. The academic programme was organized based on the suggestions from the International Advisory Board, and consisted of six review lectures

  5. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2015)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D.; Blaschke, D.; Kekelidze, V.; Matveev, V.; Sorin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 15th International Conference Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM) took place at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (VBLHEP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna in the period July 6 -11, with a record participation of 244 people from 31 countries! The previous meeting of the series in Birmingham 2013 had collected 158 physicists from 25 countries [J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 509, 011001 (2014)]. At SQM-2015, there was also a record participation of young scientist; every 4th conference attendee did not yet hold a PhD degree! There was a special program of 4 general lectures, a devoted session of parallel talks for Young Talents and the Helmholtz International Summer School (HISS) with 16 lecturers on the topics regarding Dense Matter (29.06.-11.07.) as a satellite event at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP) and at VBLHEP. Another satellite event was the Round TableWorkshop on Physics at NICA, jointly organized by JINR and the Republic of South Africa on July 5, 2015. The selection of Dubna as the place for SQM-2015 conference by the International Advisory Committee (IAC) demonstrates the broad interest of the community in the progress of the Russian Megascience Project on the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) hosted at JINR Dubna. In a few years from now the experiments planned at NICA will produce data that provide new information of unprecedented accuracy which will help to answer some of the key questions which are topical at this conference. The SQM-2015 conference had an ambitious scientific program with 38 plenary talks, 97 parallel talks in 7 topical directions and 39 posters reporting the state of the research and the future directions in the fields of strangeness, heavy avors and bulk physics, suggested by the IAC to be the subtitle of the conference from 2016 onwards. Most of the contributions are represented in these Proceedings which we recommend to the community! We gratefully

  6. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  7. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15)

    Wu, Z. Y.

    2013-04-01

    The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15) was held on 22-28 July 2012 in Beijing, P. R. China. About 340 scientists from 34 countries attended this important international event. Main hall Figure 1. Main hall of XAFS15. The rapidly increasing application of XAFS to the study of a large variety of materials and the operation of the new SR source led to the first meeting of XAFS users in 1981 in England. Following that a further 14 International Conferences have been held. Comparing a breakdown of attendees according to their national origin, it is clear that participation is spreading to include attendees from more and more countries every year. The strategy of development in China of science and education is increasing quickly thanks to the large investment in scientific and technological research and infrastructure. There are three Synchrotron Radiation facilities in mainland China, Hefei Light Source (HLS) in the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSRL), Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) in the Institute of High Energy Physics, and Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics. More than 10000 users and over 5000 proposals run at these facilities. Among them, many teams from the USA, Japan, German, Italy, Russia, and other countries. More than 3000 manuscript were published in SCI journals, including (incomplete) Science (7), Nature (10), Nature Series (7), PNAS (3), JACS (12), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (15), Nano Lett. (2), etc. In XAFS15, the participants contributed 18 plenary invited talks, 16 parallel invited talks, 136 oral presentations, 12 special talks, and 219 poster presentations. Wide communication was promoted in the conference halls, the classical banquet restaurant, and the Great Wall. Parallel hallCommunicationPoster room Figure 2. Parallel hallFigure 3. CommunicationFigure 4. Poster room This volume contains 136 invited and contributed papers

  8. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  9. Energy fair - further selection from the 15th world energy conference

    As a quintessence the author quotes the statement made by Knizia in November 1992 before the Nuclear Society: Problems such as population growth, impending distribution wars and enormous migration movements or atmosphere damaging seem to be of secondary importance if in the public the hazards of nuclear energy are conjured up. Isn't that the only way of understanding that many hundreds of politicians met in Rio in order to deplore the threat to the atmosphere by CO2 overloading, but none of the statesmen of the Western world, which because of its scientific, technological and investigation potentials would be able to do so, mentions the utilization of nuclear energy as a possible remedy. Is it not the only way of understanding that an appeal by various hundreds of scientists, among them more than 50 Nobel prize winners, to the heads of state assembled in Rio, goes unheard, may be because it contained sentences such as: We view with concern how on the threshold of the 21st century an irrational ideology is spreading which counteracts scientific and industrial progress, thus hindering economic and social development. (orig./HSCH)

  10. 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2014) held on June 30 – July 2, 2014 in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 13 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.

  11. Progress of International Low-Temperature Plasma Research Overview of the 15th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry

    吴承康

    2001-01-01

    International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC) is the most influencial international symposium on science and technology research of low-temperature plasma, especially in the fields related to materials processing. People can be rightly informed of the current devel oping trend of this field from the contents of these symposia. This paper vill introduce briefly a general overview of the 15th ISPC. As viewed from the number of papers and their contents, there is still abundant research on thermal plasma, and the needs for micro-electronic technology and high performance films have driven forward continuous and intensive development of the research on low-pressure, non-equilibrium plasmas, while the research on normal pressure, non-equilibrium plasma has become a new highlight in this field.``

  12. In-service inspection of fatigue cracks in a 1/5th scale PWR vessel with pressure cycles

    The Joint Research Center (JRC) at ISPRA has undertaken for several years a study on the propagation of fatigue cracks in PWR vessels. The goal is to establish a relation between the size and the location of the defects and the residual life of the structure. In order to verify the validity of theoretical models developed, a mock-up at a 1/5th scale of a PWR vessel was built. It was submitted to a pressurization cycle representative of the operating conditions in a PWR. Therefore, it was necessary to have non-destructive methods which allow stable and reliable tracks over a long period of time. This paper reviews results obtained by CEA during 5 successive in-service inspections over a 4 year period

  13. The Successive CME on 13th; 14th and 15th February 2011 and Forbush decrease on 18 February 2011

    Aims. We analyze the kinematics of three interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) that occurred on 13th, 14th and 15th February 2011 in the active region AR 11155 and have shown that they appeared at the Earth orbit on February, 18th and caused Forbush decrease (FD). Methods. The solar coordinates of flares are (S19W03), (S20W14) and (S21W18). The kinematic curves were obtained using STEREO (A and B) data. Additionally, we explore the possibility of the CME-CME interaction for these three events. We compare obtained estimates of ICME arrival with the in-situ measurements from WIND satellite at L1 point and with ground-based cosmic ray data obtained from SEVAN network. Results. The acceleration of each CME is highly correlated with the associated SXR flares energy release. CMEs that erupted at 13 and 14 Feb 2011 are not associated with prominence eruption; maximum velocity was vmax approc. 550 ± 50 km/s and vmax approx. 400 ± 50 km/s, respectively. However, 15 Feb 2011 CME is connected with much more violent eruption associated with a prominence, with maximum velocity of vmax approx. 1400 ± 50 km/s. The last overtakes 13th and 14th Feb CMEs at distances of 32 and 160 R☉, respectively.

  14. Structural and dynamical patterns on online social networks: the Spanish May 15th movement as a case study.

    Javier Borge-Holthoefer

    Full Text Available The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for several quantities. Remarkably, we report that the patterns characterizing the spreading dynamics are asymmetric, giving rise to a clear distinction between information sources and sinks. Our study represents a first step towards the use of data from online social media to comprehend modern societal dynamics.

  15. The USCACA hosted symposiums at the 7th CACA annual meeting and the 15th CSCO annual meeting in Beijing

    Michael Shi; Wancai Yang; Pascal Qian; Li Yan

    2012-01-01

    In September 2012,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) hosted two symposiums in Beijing.The USCACA hosted the first joint session at the 7th annual meetings of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA),themed on "Collaboration between the US and China in Cancer Research." Six experts from the United States and China presented their latest work on basic and translational cancer research.During this symposium,5 young Chinese scholars,returnees after their training in the United States,were honored the "AFCR-USCACA Scholarships Award." The USCACA hosted a second symposium during the 15th annual meeting of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO),focused on the "US-China Collaboration in Cancer Drug Clinical Development." An international delegation of oncology experts presented the innovative clinical trial strategies and discussed the biomarkers for cancer early detection and clinical trials,targeted therapy,and new drug development.The Oncology Drug Clinical Development and Safety Evaluation Committee was also launched to promote an innovative environment and to provide a collaborative platform for anti-cancer drug development in China.

  16. Topside ionospheric effects of the annular solar eclipse of 15th January 2010 as observed by DEMETER satellite

    Pal, Sujay; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Kanta Maji, Surya; Chakraborty, Suman; Sanki, Dipak

    2016-07-01

    We present effects of the annular solar eclipse of 15th January 2010 on the topside ionosphere using the DEMETER satellite data. Measurements of the electron-ion density and electron temperature by the ISL (Instrument Sonde de Langmuir) and IAP (Instrument Analyseur de Plasma) instruments on board the DEMETER satellite during the eclipse time over the low latitude (±40) Indian ocean area are presented. We found decrease in electron density by about 25% and decrease in ion density by about 33% from the reference orbits at the altitude of the satellite (~ 660 km). Electron and ion temperatures were also found to have decreased by 200-300 K at the same altitude. Instead of simple decrease as in ion density, electron temperature showed a complex wave-like oscillation as solar eclipse progressed. Electron density decreased to a minimum value before the maximum obscuration and again starts to increase before passing through another minimum at the time of maximum obscuration. Both the minima are located at the ±10 degree geomagnetic latitude. Variations of electron and ion densities were found to follow the average solar illumination experienced by the real and conjugate paths at satellite altitude, while the electron temperature showed no such correlation.

  17. Visible and near-infrared observations of asteroid 2012 DA14 during its closest approach of February 15th, 2013

    de Leon, J; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Alvarez-Candal, A; Morales, N; Duffard, R; Santos-Sanz, P; Licandro, J; Perez-Romero, A; Lorenzi, V

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 made its closest approach on February 15th, 2013, when it passed at a distance of 27,700 km from the Earth's surface (inside the geosynchronous satellite ring). It was the first time an asteroid of moderate size was predicted to get that close to the Earth, becoming bright enough to permit a detailed study from ground based telescopes. Asteroid 2012 DA14 was poorly characterized before its closest approach. The main objective of this work was to obtain new and valuable data to better understand its physical properties, and to evaluate the effects of such a close approach on the object. We acquired data using several telescopes on four Spanish observatories: the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 3.6m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, both in "El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory (ORM, La Palma); the 2.2m CAHA telescope, in "Calar Alto2 Observatory (Almeria); the f/3 0.77m telescope in "La Hita" Observatory (Toledo); and the f/8 1.5m telescope in "Sierra Nevada" Observatory (Gra...

  18. The Gender Balance of the Australian Space Research Community: A Snapshot From The 15th ASRC, 2015

    Horner, Jonathan; Cairns, Ann; Short, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the striking gender imbalance in the physical sciences has been a topic for much debate. National bodies and professional societies in the astronomical and space sciences are now taking active steps to understand and address this imbalance. In order to begin this process in the Australian Space Research community, we must first understand the current state of play. In this work, we therefore present a short 'snapshot' of the current gender balance in our community, as observed at the 15th Australian Space Research Conference. We find that, at this year's conference, male attendees outnumbered female attendees by a ratio of 3:1 (24% female). This gender balance was repeated in the distribution of conference talks and plenary presentations (25 and 22% female, respectively). Of the thirteen posters presented at the conference, twelve were presented by men (92%), a pattern repeated in the awards for the best student presentations (seven male recipients vs one female). The program and organising c...

  19. 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    Sopori, B. L.

    2005-11-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

  20. Structural and Dynamical Patterns on Online Social Networks: the Spanish May 15th Movement as a case study

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; García, Iñigo; Cauhé, Elisa; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ferrer, Darío; Francos, David; Iñiguez, David; Pérez, María Pilar; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Sanz, Francisco; Serrano, Fermín; Viñas, Cristina; Tarancón, Alfonso; Moreno, Yamir

    2011-01-01

    The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M) movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for sev...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ORNAMENT DESIGNINGS OF 15TH CENTURY BOOKCOVERS ON ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTS (UNDER THE LIGHT OF DİYARBAKIR SAFA PARLI MOSQUE)

    Savaş Maraşlı

    2013-01-01

    A main mutual characteristic of decorative arts of Islamic states is the general resemblence of motifs which form the patterns and used in decorations. This view is strengthened by the implication of those motifs which are performed in different sizes and on different materials from arcitechture to textile, from manuscripts to wood decoration from small handcraft to common tools in the general frame of Turkish-Islamic culture. It is known that with taking over their artistic traditions fro...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ORNAMENT DESIGNINGS OF 15TH CENTURY BOOKCOVERS ON ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTS (UNDER THE LIGHT OF DİYARBAKIR SAFA PARLI MOSQUE

    Savaş Maraşlı

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A main mutual characteristic of decorative arts of Islamic states is the general resemblence of motifs which form the patterns and used in decorations. This view is strengthened by the implication of those motifs which are performed in different sizes and on different materials from arcitechture to textile, from manuscripts to wood decoration from small handcraft to common tools in the general frame of Turkish-Islamic culture. It is known that with taking over their artistic traditions from Timurs,Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu, Turkomen have great contributions to the development of book arts (bookbinding, ornemantation, miniature. By their artists, Turkomen dynasties contributed this development by carrying their styles of bookwork and also architecture to Iran and Anatolia where they had spread. The resemblence in the rockworks of the period's architecture in Diyarbakır, which was once a capital of Akkoyunlu, and the ornoments on the book covers is in a remarkable characteristic. Apart from mutual perception seen in decorative arts in general sense those resemblences are the same in designing, not in motifs base. The performing of the cover designings which are commonly seen şemseli salbeki on ornemantations of Safa Parlı mosque's niche, pulpit and minarets points out that book ornamentation designings can be a source to architectural ornemantations.

  3. Depiction of facial nerve paresis in the gallery of portraits carved in stone by George Matthew the Dalmatian on the Sibenik Cathedral dating from the 15th century.

    Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana

    2011-06-01

    The introductory segment of this paper briefly describes George Matthew the Dalmatian, the architect who, between 1441 and 1473, oversaw the construction of the Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik, a city on the Croatian side of the Adriatic coast. Of the most impressive details included in this monumental construction and sculptural flamboyant gothic production infused with distinctive Dalmatian spirit is a frieze of 71 stone and three lion portraits encircling the outer apse wall. From the intriguing amalgamation of portraits of anonymous people this master came across in his surrounding, the fiftieth head in the row has been selected for this occasion. On the face of a younger man the authors have recognized and described pathognomonic right-sided facial nerve paresis. The question posed here is whether this is coincidental or it represents the master's courage, given that instead of famous people in the cathedral he situated not only ordinary people but also those "labelled" and traditionally marginalized, thus, in the most beautiful manner, foreshadowing the forthcoming spirit of Humanism and Renaissance in Croatian and European art. PMID:21755741

  4. “Like a virgin”: Absence of rheumatoid arthritis and treponematosis, good sanitation and only rare gout in Italy prior to the 15th century

    Coppa, A.; Rothschild, B M; PP. Petrone

    2011-01-01

    Origin of disease has special interest for rheumatologists, for whom absence of etiologic information generally mandates empirical approaches. Hypotheses have been offered that rheumatoid arthritis and syphilis were New World diseases, only transmitted to the Old World subsequent to the passages of Christopher Columbus (1-7). The pertinent search is for polyarticular erosive disease, sparing axial joints (8-10) and for oligostotic or polyostotic periosteal reaction (3, 4). The phenomenon of i...

  5. Utopie: Eine Geschichte aus dem 15. Jahrhundert fur die Siebte Klasse, mit Ubungen (Utopia: A View of the 15th Century for the Seventh Class, with Exercises).

    Stott, Michael

    This German language textbook is intended for classroom use. The theme of the text relates to the Renaissance, and the narrative is based on Sir Thomas More's "Utopia" (1516) and relates to the experiences of its central character Raphael among the inhabitants of the strange island. Each chapter touches lightly on some thought provoking issue,…

  6. Transmission of the property and its market. Artisanship’s household in the “vila” of Alzira during the 14th and 15th centuries

    Martínez Araque, Ivan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The artisanship was a very important group into the bourgs that belonged to the kingdom of Valence in the Later Middle Ages. This was also true in Alzira. The aim of this essay is to analyze this varied social group using one of the main places in which they developed their activity, the workshop or the house. And it all from the location of most of the artisans in the urban center and also from the tasks that they developed in their domestic sphere, including the transmission of the property and the characteristics of the Property Market. In conclusion, we want to ask ourselves about how families included the household in their strategies and what was its role in the rules that allowed the social reproduction of the artisanship.

    [ca] L'artesanat fou un col??lectiu destacat en l'àmbit del conjunt de viles que formaven el País Valencià en la baixa Edat Mitjana, també en el cas d'Alzira. En el següent article tractem d'oferir una anàlisi d'aquest heterogeni grup social mitjançant un dels principals espais on desenvolupava la seua activitat, l'obrador o la casa. I això a partir de la localització de bona part de la menestralia en el centre urbà, també de les tasques que portava a terme en l'àmbit domèstic, passant per la transmissió del patrimoni o en quines condicions accedia al mercat immobiliari. En definitiva, pretenem interrogar-nos sobre com s'inseria l'habitatge en les estratègies familiars i quin paper jugava en les lògiques que permetien la reproducció social de l'artesanat.

  7. Paleosols and climate in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland during the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the 25th-15th Centuries BC)

    Demkin, V. A.; Borisov, A. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    Paleosol studies of kurgans dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the Catacomb, Pokrovskaya, and Srubnaya cultural epochs; 4500-3500 BP) have been performed within the dry steppe zone in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland. The studied kurgans occupy the upper parts of local interfluves differing in the lithology of their upper horizons. The specificity of the Middle Holocene pedogenesis as related to the local lithologic and geomorphic conditions has been characterized. During the past 4500 years, local soils have been subjected to evolutionary changes related to climatic fluctuations. These changes manifested themselves at the subtype level with substitution of dark chestnut soils for chestnut soils. The climatic conditions during the Catacomb and Pokrovskaya cultural epochs (4.5-3.8 ka BP) were more arid than those at present. The maximum aridization of the climate took place at the end of the third and the first quarter of the second millennia BC. Detailed descriptions of the morphology of kurgan bodies and buried paleosols make it possible to hypothesize about the seasons of the kurgan construction and the technology of this work.

  8. The medieval peasantry : on the social and religious position of the rural natives in southern Livonia (13th-15th centuries) / Andris Šnē

    Šnē, Andris, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Liivimaa Läti alade sotsiaalsest, poliitilisest ja usulisest olukorrast 13.-15. sajandil. Kuni pärisorjuse kehtestamiseni 15. sajandil jäid agraarsed struktuurid Liivimaal sarnasteks vallutuseelsete struktuuridega. Kohalikud rahvad säilitasid oma eelajaloolise paganliku pärandi läbi keskaja kuni uusajani välja

  9. Being an Ottoman Vlach: On Vlach identity (Ies), role and status in western parts of the Ottoman Balkans (15th-18th centuries)

    Kursar, Vjeran

    2013-01-01

    Following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, the Vlachs, still a largely nomadic and semi-nomadic population, made special arrangements with the conquerors. They served as a colonising force in newly conquered areas, manning auxiliary military units such as voynuks and martoloses, etc. In exchange, the Ottomans granted the Vlachs wide exemptions and autonomies that made them significantly different from the ordinary subject population – re‘âyâ. During the course of time, with centralisation...

  10. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume II.

    Benson, Susan Shattuck: Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 2 contains 13 working papers from the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials. The papers are: (1) A Report on Bibliographic Activities; (2) Microfilm Projects Newsletter; (3) Role of Latin American Legal Material in the Social Science Research Library; (4) A description of sources for Legal and Social Science…

  11. The proceeding of the 15th national symposium on atomic physics and nuclear physics and the 8th annual meeting an modern physics

    It is the proceedings of the 15th national symposium on atomic physics and nuclear physics and the 8th annual meeting on modern physics. The symposium was held on Jun, 27-31, 2004, in Guangzhou, China. 30 papers are presented in this symposium. Some of them related with nuclear physics

  12. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C) origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fishery

    Orton, D.C.; Makowiecki, D.; de Roo, T.;

    2011-01-01

    hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of...

  13. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  14. Working with Pastoralist NGOs and Land Conflicts in Tanzania: A Report on a Workshop in Terrat, Tanzania, 11th-15th December, 1994

    Bradbury, M.; Fisher, S.; Lane, C

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record The report is the result of a 'conflict resolution' training workshop that was held in Terrat village, Simanjiro district, Arusha, Tanzania, between 11-15th December 1994. The workshop was planned by the Education, Research and Planning Committee of PINGOs, a forum for Pastoral Indigenous Non-Governmental Organization as the first module of a longer term programme entitled 'Democracy training for pastoralist development workers'. It bought together local NGOs from the ...

  15. Application of ERT and SSR to Detect the shallow subsurface cracks under buildings of District No. 27 at 15th May City, Helwan, Egypt.

    Basheer Mohammed, A. A.; Abdalla, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    15th May City, 12 km to the southeast of Helwan city, is one of promised cities planned in 1986 by the Egyptian government through its program to withdraw the population from the condensed central Nile valley to the side parts of the Nile valley Egypt. The present study runs on the district No. 27. at 15th May city. The main target of this study is to detect the cracks in the shallow subsurface layer under buildings and estimate its displacement to reach its causes. This study embraces, two dimension electrical resistivity, and shallow seismic refraction surveys. The two dimension electrical imaging technique was interpreted in terms of depths and thicknesses of the geoelectric layers, on this regard, it suggests a succession of three layers, and in addition, the boundaries of the crack could be sensed. The shallow seismic refraction technique results revealed a succession of three seismic layers. These layers illustrated from both techniques are dried limestone "calcite to dolomite" layer, and the second is wetted to semi-wetted "Marley limestone". On the other hand, these parameters allow for separating the area into layers of different competence nature and consequently different appropriateness. Five cracks sites have been detected with its directions in the study area, the main reason of these crack reveal to the irrigation water which used in garden's watering among the buildings.

  16. 15th March 2011 - Singapore National Research Foundation Permanent Secretary(National Research and Development)T. M. Kian signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    15th March 2011 - Singapore National Research Foundation Permanent Secretary(National Research and Development)T. M. Kian signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and visiting CMS control centre with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  17. Towards the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012: Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011

    de Vega, H J; Sanchez, N G

    2012-01-01

    The Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011 was held on 20-22 July in the historic Paris Observatory's Perrault building, in the Chalonge School spirit combining real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach connected to them in the Warm Dark Matter Standard Model of the Universe: News and reviews from Herschel, QUIET, Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), South Pole Telescole (SPT), Planck, PIXIE, the JWST, UFFO, KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, particle and nuclear physics warm dark matter (DM) searches and galactic observations, related theory and simulations, with the aim of synthesis, progress and clarification. Philippe Andre, Peter Biermann, Pasquale Blasi, Daniel Boyanovsky, Carlo Burigana, Hector de Vega, Joanna Dunkley, Gerry Gilmore, Alexander Kashlinsky, Alan Kogut, Anthony Lasenby, John Mather, Norma Sanchez, Alexei Smirnov, Sylvaine Turck-Chieze present here their highlights of the Colloquium. Ayuki Kamada and Sinziana Paduroiu present here their poster hi...

  18. Developing consumer involvement in primary dental care. Report of a half-day seminar held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 15th September 2008.

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Batchelor, Paul; Johns, David J

    2009-01-01

    The seminar on developing consumer involvement in primary dental care, held during the morning of 15th September 2008, was a collaboration between the Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) (FGDP[UK]). As Professor Mike Mulcahy (immediate past Dean of the Faculty) remarked during his address of welcome, it marked a new and exciting development in the Faculty's role in setting and maintaining professional standards for the benefit of patients. It brought together nearly 50 representatives of national bodies, such as the National Audit Office, consumer groups, the Faculty's Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee, the media and others. Many of the national bodies represented at the seminar had published reports on primary dental care during the last five years. PMID:19126349

  19. Acute kidney injury in the era of big data: the 15(th) Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI).

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Goldstein, Stuart L; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A

    2016-01-01

    The world is immersed in "big data". Big data has brought about radical innovations in the methods used to capture, transfer, store and analyze the vast quantities of data generated every minute of every day. At the same time; however, it has also become far easier and relatively inexpensive to do so. Rapidly transforming, integrating and applying this large volume and variety of data are what underlie the future of big data. The application of big data and predictive analytics in healthcare holds great promise to drive innovation, reduce cost and improve patient outcomes, health services operations and value. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may be an ideal syndrome from which various dimensions and applications built within the context of big data may influence the structure of services delivery, care processes and outcomes for patients. The use of innovative forms of "information technology" was originally identified by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) in 2002 as a core concept in need of attention to improve the care and outcomes for patients with AKI. For this 15(th) ADQI consensus meeting held on September 6-8, 2015 in Banff, Canada, five topics focused on AKI and acute renal replacement therapy were developed where extensive applications for use of big data were recognized and/or foreseen. In this series of articles in the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, we describe the output from these discussions. PMID:26925244

  20. Feedback on floods in Var, south of France, 15th June 2010 : different societal impacts and responses linked to levels of prevention, organization and information

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2010-09-01

    Observing the last dramatical floods in Var in south of France on 15th June 2010, very differents responses and impacts can be identified. 23 death, people missing, more than 50 communities impacted, 700 Millions Euros of damages were to declare after the event. Most of human loss, 12 people, were to deplore in Draguignan in Var were 270 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center. This tragedy reminds all the necessity of prevention, organization and communication. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. To manage these kinds of crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. While many damages were observed in Draguignan, the event was different in Hyères, Sainte-Maxime, Cogolin, Grimaud or Toulon who behaved to face it by minimizing the effects, and economic impacts of the flood. The fact is that they had prepared their organization to face flood crisis, they had informed the population of what had to be done, they had given security advices, they had reacted from the vigilance information and kept on being informed during the event to adapt their plans and actions: opening security centers, closing roads before they get flooded, evacuating when necessary. The most relevant example is in Sainte-Maxime where 260 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center, a volume close to the 270 mm registered in Draguignan during the same event. In Sainte-Maxime, no human loss was to deplore, the community was informed, had the information of rainfall intensity and rainfall effects in anticipation and could inform the citizen with the help of the police circulating and communicating in the streets. Getting informed the citizen could elevate and protect their property, evacuate their cars on the hights of the community, and secure themselves and family. Comparing this event with what happened in

  1. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    Levine, Ellen [National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  2. Einstein's Century

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  3. Moneychanging and Urban Elites: the Rise of Antonio de Paredes and his Family in Valladolid at the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century

    Carvajal de la Vega, David

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 15th century, Valladolid went through a period of prosperity that strengthened its position as one of the most significant towns in the Crown of Castile during the 16th century. This propitious context, favouring the development of commercial and financial businesses, prompted the appearance of individuals who, alongside their families, began to increase their economic power and to reinforce their social links, leading them to occupy a position among the urban elite. The aim of...

  4. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  5. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2015)

    Livermore, C.; Velásquez-García, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Greetings, and welcome to Boston, MA and PowerMEMS 2015 - the 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications! The objective of PowerMEMS 2015 is to catalyze innovation in micro- and nano-scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS range from the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. Since the first PowerMEMS in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the Conference has grown in size, reputation, impact, and technical breadth. This continuing growth is evident in this year's technical program, which includes an increasing number of papers on nanomaterials, additive manufacturing for energy systems, actuators, energy storage, harvesting strategies and integrated energy harvesting systems, for example. This year's technical program is highlighted by six plenary talks from prominent experts on piezoelectrics, robotic insects, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, nanocomposite cathodes, and thermal energy conversion systems. The contributed program received a large number of abstract submissions this year, 169 in total. After careful review by the 34-member Technical Program Committee, a total of 135 papers were selected for presentation. The 60 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 75 posters

  6. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    From 30 July to 1 August 2009, over a hundred scientists from 18 countries attended the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics and the 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions which were held at the W T Young Library of the University of Kentucky, USA. Both conferences were satellite meetings of the XXVI International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) held in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA, 21-28 July 2009. These symposia covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical topics involving excitation, ionization (single and multiple), and molecular fragmentation, of a wide range of targets by photons and charged particles (polarized and unpolarized). Atomic targets ranged from hydrogen to the heavy elements and ions, while molecular targets ranged from H2 to large molecules of biological interest. On the experimental front, cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS), also known as the Reaction Microscope because of the complete information it gives about a wide variety of reactions, is becoming commonplace and has greatly expanded the ability of researchers to perform previously inaccessible coincidence experiments. Meanwhile, more conventional spectrometers are also advancing and have been used for increasingly sophisticated and exacting measurements. On the theoretical front great progress has been made in the description of target states, and in the scattering calculations used to describe both simple and complex reactions. The international nature of collaborations between theorists and experimentalists is exemplified by, for example, the paper by Ren et al which has a total of 13 authors of whom the experimental group of six is from Heidelberg, Germany, one theoretical group is from Australia, with the remainder of the theoreticians coming from several different institutions in the United States. A total of 52 invited talks and

  7. century drying

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  8. Laissez faire or faire mourir. The significance of participation of the clergy in the contract of purchase and sale of annuities in Central Europe between the 14th and the 15th century / Krzysztof Olendzki ; komment. Tiina Kala

    Olendzki, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Rendiseostust ja -müügist ning kiriklike institutsioonide osalusest selles. Raha tulu saamise eesmärgil väljalaenamist kritiseeriti. Intressi suurust üritati piirata või rendiselepinguid tühistada.

  9. Depiction of Facial Nerve Paresis in the Gallery of Portraits Carved in Stone by George Matthew the Dalmatian on the Šibenik Cathedral Dating from the 15th Century

    Škrobonja, Ante; Čulina, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    The introductory segment of this paper briefly describes George Matthew the Dalmatian, the architect who, between 1441 and 1473, oversaw the construction of the Cathedral of St. James in [ibenik, a city on the Croatian side of the Adriatic coast. Of the most impressive details included in this monumental construction and sculptural flamboyant gothic production infused with distinctive Dalmatian spirit is a frieze of 71 stone and three lion portraits encircling the outer apse wall....

  10. Research on London Environmental Problems and its Governance During the 13th to 15th Century%13-15世纪伦敦城市环境问题及其治理考察

    张思

    2014-01-01

    London had been nagged by some environmental problems in the late medieval ages, which involving the living garbage pollution, air, noise, water and solid waste pollution caused by the industrial production. Its reason was that the weak urban public infrastructure, demographic growth rapidly caused by a large number of floating population, and the important position which was as the industrial and economic centre of Britain. Therefore, the royal government and London municipality used various ways like enacting the statute and regulation, forcing the polluted industries removed out of the city, setting up the new government agency and officeholders, in order to manage the urban environment pollution.%中世纪晚期的伦敦,受到生活垃圾污染和工业生产导致的空气、噪声、水体、固体废弃物污染等环境问题的困扰。究其原因,是城市公共基础设施薄弱、大量外来人口涌入导致人口过渡激增、作为英国工商业和海外贸易中心的重要地位等多方面合力作用的结果。为此,王国政府和市政当局通过颁布法令条文、强制有污染的工业场址迁移出城、增设政府机构和职官等多种方式,对城市环境污染予以整治。

  11. A refreshing alternative to the pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre: the monumental burials of Christ in France (XVth-XVIth centuries

    Elsa Karsallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1420’s in France some groups of sculptures appeared representing the life-size burial of Christ. These monumental “Entombments” experienced a strong expansion from the mid-15th century until approximately 1520, in France as well in bordering regions such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. From the end of the 19th century they were studied in a primarily stylistic perspective while the problem of their functions and uses have been addressed only very recently. The intent here is to appraise the hypothesis according to which they would have served as substitutes in a spiritual pilgrimage. First the study considers the situation of the pilgrimage in the Holy Land during the 15th century, then it analyzes the relationships between images and indulgences. Finally it ends with the examination of a number of burials accompanied by indulgences, that could be utilised as supports of a spiritual pilgrimage.

  12. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  13. ‘Let us distribute lands fairly and deservedly’: land distribution system establishment in russia in the 15th–16th centuries

    Bentsianov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The author studies the establishment of the land distribution system in the Russian state between the 15th and mid-16th centuries. Referring to a vast variety of sources (cadastre books, gentry military lists, letters patent, legislative acts, etc.) the author analyzes the appearance and further development of the system of land distribution. Comparing materials from different parts of the country, the author describes the complexity and ambiguity behind the creation of the said system. Its b...

  14. Dimming of the 17th Century Sun

    Foukal, Peter; Schnerr, Roald

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th - 17th century Sp\\"orer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid- millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared to larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI - effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11- yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20t...

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis--a notifiable disease: report of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    Kunze, Ursula

    2013-09-01

    The 15th Meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE)--a group of neurologists, general practicioners, clinicians, travel physicans, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists--was held under the title "Tick-Borne Encephalitis--a notifiable disease". With the inclusion of TBE in the list of notifiable diseases, an important measure was established to continue improving the level of evidence on TBE in Europe to better help guide policies and methods to lower the burden of this disease. Due to differences in diagnosis, case definition, and reporting in European countries, the overall epidemiology and burden of TBE remains unclear. During the meeting, important issues regarding epidemiology, risk areas, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed. A poster session provided an overview of the epidemiological situation 2012 in 13 European countries. PMID:23831368

  16. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  17. CHIC Enters Its 15th Year

    LIU Shuang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Six days, more than one thousand brands from seventeen countries and regions, 120,000visitors, the fifteenth China International Clothing & Accessories Fair (CHIC2007) was successfully curtain down on March 24th.

  18. Saint Sisoes above the grave of Alexander the Great. A monastic theme of post-Byzantine art and its examples from the 17th century Serbian painting

    Živković Miloš

    2013-01-01

    The depiction of St. Sisoes above the grave of Alexander the Great was formulated at the end of the 15th century. The image in question is a visual interpretation of a short song («I see you, grave»), and it was often painted in the churches throughout the Balkans during the next two centuries. With references to the textual basis of this iconographic theme, as well as its meaning, the article is devoted to insufficiently studied Serbian examples of frescoe...

  19. Nineteenth-Century English

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  20. [Management of patients at the Saint-Jean de Jérusalem hospital in the 12th Century].

    Monier, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The Order of the Hospital Saint John of Jerusalem founded in the Holy Land on the 15th February 1113 was devoted to give the pilgrims board and lodging. Since 1125 the Hospitaliers took in sick and ensured supplies and cares for them as they recruited physicians and surgeons. A hierarchical organization lasted during the 13th century until the fall of Acre and the loss of the Holy Land. The author describes the day of a patient in this lazaret during the years of 1177 to 1187. PMID:21598560

  1. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  2. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO2. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  3. A Brief Introduction to 15th French Conference of Meat Science and Technology (JSMTV)%第15届法国肉类科技大会(JSMTV)简介

    Jean-François HOCQUETTE

    2015-01-01

    The 15th French Conference of Meat Science and Technology (JSMTV) was held in 2014 and attended by 240 people, of which 20% are businessmen and 18% come from countries other than France. A delegation from the Sino-French Research and Development Center for Beef Cattle also attended the conference. Considering the multiple challanges (environmental issues, animal and human health, and equal access to food) faced by the animal husbandry industry, this conference was focused on the methods used to analyze the environmental impact of meat production, the economic and sociological factors affecting meat consumption, and how to increase the competitiveness of the meat industry. From a nutritional point of view, meat consumed in reasonable amounts is safe for human health. Regarding the efficiency of meat cutting, processing and quality grading, the focus of research is on the importance of innovations and marketing and sales strategies in the meat industry.%2014年共有240人参加了法国第15届肉类科技大会,其中20%是企业界人士,18%来自法国以外的国家。中法肉牛研究与发展中心也组织代表团参加了本次会议。鉴于畜牧产业面临的多重挑战(环境问题、动物和人类健康以及获取食物权利的问题),大会着重介绍了肉类生产造成环境影响的分析方法、影响肉类消费的经济学和社会学因素,以及提高肉类产业竞争力等议题。在人类营养方面,提出了适量吃肉对人体健康不造成威胁的结论。在提高胴体优质切块比率、肉类加工、产品细分等方面,各项研究都着重强调了创新和市场营销的重要性。

  4. Toward a space-time scale framework for the study of everyday life activity's adaptation to hazardous hydro-meteorological conditions: Learning from the June 15th, 2010 flash flood event in Draguignan (France)

    Ruin, Isabelle; Boudevillain, Brice; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Lutoff, Céline

    2013-04-01

    environmental perturbations requires an integrated approach, sensitive to the spatial and temporal dynamics of geophysical hazards and responses to them. Such integrated approaches of the Coupled Human and Natural System have been more common in the environmental change arena than in risk studies. Nevertheless, examining interactions between routine activity-travel patterns and hydro-meteorological dynamics in the context of flash flood event resulted in developing a space-time scale approach that brought new insights to vulnerability and risk studies. This scaling approach requires suitable data sets including information about the meteorological and local flooding dynamics, the perception of environmental cues, the changes in individuals' activity-travel patterns and the social interactions at the place and time where the actions were performed. Even if these types of data are commonly collected in various disciplinary research contexts, they are seldom collected all together and in the context of post-disaster studies. This paper describes the methodological developments of our approach and applies our data collection method to the case of the June 15th, 2010 flash flood events in the Draguignan area (Var, France). This flash flood event offers a typical example to study the relation between the flood dynamics and the social response in the context of a sudden degradation of the environment.

  5. Saint Sisoes above the grave of Alexander the Great. A monastic theme of post-Byzantine art and its examples from the 17th century Serbian painting

    Živković Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The depiction of St. Sisoes above the grave of Alexander the Great was formulated at the end of the 15th century. The image in question is a visual interpretation of a short song («I see you, grave», and it was often painted in the churches throughout the Balkans during the next two centuries. With references to the textual basis of this iconographic theme, as well as its meaning, the article is devoted to insufficiently studied Serbian examples of frescoes of St. Sisoes above Alexander’s tomb, preserved on the walls of several churches painted in the first half of the 17th century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  6. Sakharov readings 2015: environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of the 15 international scientific conference

    The proceeding includes materials of reports of 15-th international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2015: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 21-22 of May 2015 in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Belarus). The proceeding continues abstracts about philosophical, social-ecological nd bioethical and problems of modernity; education for sustainable development; medical ecology; biological ecology; radiobiology; radioecology and radiation protection; information systems and technologies in ecology and medicine; regional environmental problems; ecological monitoring and management; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges. (authors)

  7. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    Rasmussen, Knud

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  8. Statisticians of the centuries

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  9. A Century of Antivenom

    Lovreček, Dijana; Tomić, Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Because it primarily affects the poor in undeveloped parts of the world where medical care is often inadequate and insufficient, envenomation is considered a neglected public health issue, despite the existence of antivenom therapy for more than a century. This article provides an overview of the epidemiological situation for important venomous animals, together with achievements in the production, control, technological progress and safety of antivenoms since their discovery.

  10. WHEELING THROUGH THE CENTURIES

    HUO; JIANYING

    2002-01-01

    IN an excavated pit at the side of an expressway in Shandong’s Linzi are visible 2,000-year-old remains of horses and wooden carriages. The horse skeletons are on their side, in an attitude of motion. The pit was discovered in the late 20th century, when the expressway was being built. These early ancestors of modern transport, no longer "road-worthy," are now protected historic artifacts.

  11. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  12. The quantum century

    Physicists often complain that the phrase quantum leap'' is used erroneously, if harmlessly, by people to describe a large jump or change. Yet this month the physics community is celebrating the 100th anniversary of what must count as the beginning of the biggest quantum leap in the history of science, whichever way you define the phrase. On 14 December 1900 Max Planck presented a paper on the radiation emitted by a black body at a meeting of the German Physical Society in Berlin. This event is generally taken to mark the start of the quantum century, though few people realized it at the time - not even Planck himself. (U.K.)

  13. New Century, New Prospects

    CHEN XULONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nuclear weapons changed the world of the 20th century. Their powerful force rewrote history. Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan by the United States accelerated the collapse of Japanese militarism and hastened the end of World War Ⅱ. The West led by the United States and the East bloc led by the Soviet Union started a bitter nuclear arms race that mutually assured destruction. The balance of terror between the two blocs stabilized in the Cold War and prevented the world from actual armed conflict, thus maintaining a long-term but occasionally uneasy peace in Europe and the world.

  14. A Century Apart

    Birgir Hrannar Stefánsson 1982

    2014-01-01

    Iceland and China are two nations situated almost at the opposite side of the globe. In this thesis, I am taking two examples of media coverage on China; the writings of Ólafur Ólafsson are compared with the discussion in Akureyri Vikublað regarding Huang Nubo. Ólafur Ólafsson was a pioneer of intercultural communication between Iceland and China in the early 20th century. Working as a missionary in China he sent home letters published through the magazine Ljósberinn and later on these wr...

  15. A century of physics

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  16. The management century.

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it. PMID:23155998

  17. Evolution of forest cover in Portugal:A review of the 12th-20th centu-ries

    Fernando Reboredo; João Pais

    2014-01-01

    Portugal’s forests in the 12th century were dominated by the Fagaceae represented by Quercus and Castanea, and several pine species. From the 12th century onwards, forests underwent changes in their man-agement starting with protection and ultimately leading to intense ex-ploitation. The massive naval construction during the maritime expansion (mainly in the 15th-16th centuries) involved felling of approximately 5 million trees mainly Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and other Quercus species. Cumulative fuel-wood consumption of 959 Mm3 during 1300-1854 was attributed to demographic expansion while the deforesta-tion rate during 1636-1854 accounted for a minimum of 72.6% and a maximum of 96% of total forest cover. The volume of timber used in railway sleepers from 1856 onwards might have reached 0.5 Mm3. The last quarter of the 20th century increased the forest cover of Portugal through the World Bank program of Eucalyptus globulus reforestation.

  18. 21st Century Skills Map

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  19. A century of antenna development

    Olver, A. D.

    The paper describes a century of antenna development as part of a century of radio communications. This historical review examines, chronologically, the pre-Hertz period, Hertz antennas, the microwave optics period, the Marconi era, short waves, theoretical design before and after computers, and radar. Consideration is also given to mobile antennas, microwave comunications, radio astronomy, and satellite comunications.

  20. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  1. MANAGEMENT BOARD MEETING OF 15th JANUARY 2003

    2003-01-01

    Progress Report on Earned Value Management (EVM) In his capacity as EVM Project Leader, J. Ferguson, Leader of AS Division, presented a progress report on the implementation of the EVM system, focussing on recent measures adopted to accelerate completion of the data collection phase. He announced that, at a general meeting in December 2002 attended by representatives of the 23 groups and 5 divisions concerned, it had been agreed to apply the efficient data collection model used by the LHC-MMS group to the remaining groups, with a view to finalising that stage of the preparations for EVM by the end of March 2003. The model, which consisted of a concerted burst of effort lasting three weeks, would be taken up by two new groups each week in accordance with an ambitious but feasible schedule, so that by the time the exercise was in full swing a total of six groups would be taking part at any one time. Once all of its data had been submitted, each group would then enter the reporting cycle within a month. Given t...

  2. 15th annual conference on composites and advanced ceramics

    Bansal, N.P.; Hyatt, M.J.; Drummond, C.H., III.

    1991-01-01

    Powders of roller quenched (Sr,Ba)O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-{sup 2}SiO{sub 2} glasses of various compositions were uniaxially pressed into bars and hot isostatically pressed at 1350{degree}C for 4 hours or cold isostatically pressed and sintered at different temperatures between 800 to 1500{degree}C for 10 or 20 hours. Densities, flexural strengths, and linear thermal expansion were measured for three compositions. The glasss transition and crystallization temperatures were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The liquidus and crystallization temperature from the melt were measured using high temperature Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). Crystalline phases formed on heat treatment of the glasses were identified by powder x ray diffraction. In Sr containing glasses, the monoclinic celsian phase always crystallized at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. At lower temperatures, the hexagonal analog formed. The temperature for orthorhombic to hexagonal structure transformation increased monotonically with SrO content, from 327{degree}C for BaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-{sup 2}SiO{sub 2} to 758{degree}C for SrO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-{sup 2}SiO{sub 2}. These glass powders can be sintered to almost full densities and monoclinic celsian phase at a relatively low temperature of 1100{degree}C.

  3. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  4. 15th radiochemical conference: Booklet of abstracts and conference programme

    The conference was structured as follows: Opening plenary lectures (6 lectures); Topic 1 - radionuclides in the environment, radioecology (22 verbal presentations (VPs), 23 poster presentations (PPs)); Topic 2 - nuclear analytical methods (22 VPs, 32 PPs); Topic 3 - chemistry of actinide and transactinide elements (8 VPs, 10 PPs); Topic 4 - radiation chemistry (9 VPs, 5 PPs); Topic 5 - production and application of radionuclides (17 VPs, 6 PPs); Topic 6 - separation methods, speciation (21 VPs, 23 PPs); Topic 7 - chemistry of nuclear fuel cycle, radiochemical problems in nuclear waste management (20 VPs, 16 PPs); Topic 8 - nuclear methods in medicine, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiodiagnostics, labelled compounds (8 VPs, 7 PPs); and Panels (2 introductions). (P.A.)

  5. Preliminary Proceedings 15th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency

    The EXPRESS workshops aim at bringing together researchers interested in the relations between various formal systems, particularly in the field of Concurrency. More specifically, they focus on the comparison between programming concepts (such as concurrent, functional, imperative, logic and object...

  6. 15th annual conference on composites and advanced ceramics

    Baaklini, G.Y.; Bhatt, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The room-temperature tensile testing of silicon carbide fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SiC/RBSN) composite specimens was monitored by using in-situ x ray film radiography. Radiographic evaluation before, during, and after loading provided data on the effect of preexisting volume flaws (high density impurities, and local density variations) on the fracture behavior of composites. Results from (0)1, (0)3, (0)5, and (0)8 composite specimens, showed that x ray film radiography can monitor damage accumulations during tensile loading. Matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding, and fiber pullout were imaged throughout the tensile loading history of the specimens. Further, in-situ film radiography was found to be a helpful and practical technique for estimating interfacial shear strength between the SiC fiber and the RBSN matrix by the matrix crack spacing method. It is concluded that pretest, in-situ, and post-test radiography can provide for a greater understanding of ceramic matrix composite mechanical behavior, a verification of related experimental procedures, and a validation and development of related analytical models.

  7. 15th International Conference on Boron Chemistry (IMEBORON XV)

    Grüner, Bohumír; Štíbr, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2015), s. 121. ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * boron * boron materials * carboranes * IMEBORON XV * medicinal chemistry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  8. MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary

    ... includes: Over 950 pages providing links to reliable consumer information on important health issues Information on prescription ... or near the top of the American Customer Satisfaction Index for government news sites. In 2010, MedlinePlus ...

  9. 15th Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie

    2016-01-01

    La XV Edizione di IFAE - Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie - si terrà presso il Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università di Genova L'edizione 2016 comprenderà numerose sessioni dedicate alla discussione degli aspetti di maggiore interesse attuale e di prospettiva nella fisica delle alte energie.

  10. ICOM commitee for conservation, 15th Triennial Conference New Delhi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A l’automne dernier s’est tenue, à New-Delhi, la 15 session d’ICOM-CC, le plus important des groupes de travail d’ICOM. Plusieurs ateliers ont fonctionné simultanément et ont rassemblé une moisson d’informations relatives à tous les champs de la conservation-restauration. Traditionnellement, les Preprints du symposium mettent l’ensemble des communications à disposition du lecteur. La version électronique de la publication nous étant parvenue alors que l’édition du présent numéro était en cour...

  11. The Anti-American Century?*

    Krastev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The twentieth century was “the American century.” championing democracy and capitalism, the United States won the cold War and emerged as the only global superpower— not only in military, but also in economic, technological, and even cultural terms. The widening currency of the English language and the continued desire of millions around the world to emigrate to the united States underlined the reality of U.S. predominance. The future, it was said, looked like a country, and that country was ...

  12. Four Centuries of Return Predictability

    Benjamin Golez; Peter Koudijs

    2014-01-01

    We analyze four centuries of stock prices and dividends in the Dutch, English, and U.S. market. With the exception of the post-1945 period, the dividend-to-price ratio is stationary and predicts returns throughout all four centuries. “Excess volatility” is thus a pervasive feature of financial markets. The dividend-to-price ratio also predicts dividend growth rates in all but the most recent period. Cash-flows were therefore much more important for price movements before 1945, and the dominan...

  13. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term conseque......We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...

  14. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis P.

    2016-01-01

    natural resource use by analyzing roll call votes over the past century with a Random Utility Model (Manski, 1977) and conclude that economics mattered. So did ideology, but not uniformly. After World War II, the pro-environment vote which had been conservative shifted to being liberal. All these votes...

  15. A century of oil exploration

    The paper speech of the events and decisions that marked the history of the petroleum in Colombia and of Ecopetrol, from the adventure undertaken by some visionary at the beginning of the century X X, until the changes introduced in 1999

  16. Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies/Twin Research: Differentiating MZ Co-twins Via SNPs; Mistaken Infant Twin-Singleton Hospital Registration; Narcolepsy With Cataplexy; Hearing Loss and Language Learning/Media Mentions: Broadway Musical Recalls Conjoined Hilton Twins; High Fashion Pair; Twins Turn 102; Insights From a Conjoined Twin Survivor.

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies are presented. The congress was held November 16-19, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. This report is followed by summaries of research addressing the differentiation of MZ co-twins by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), an unusual error in infant twin-singleton hospital registration, twins with childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy, and the parenting effects of hearing loss in one co-twin. Media interest in twins covers a new Broadway musical based on the conjoined twins Violet and Daisy Hilton, male twins becoming famous in fashion, twins who turned 102 and unique insights from a conjoined twin survivor. This article is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth (Liz) Hamel, DZA twin who met her co-twin for the first time at age seventy-eight years. Liz and her co-twin, Ann Hunt, are listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of Records as the longest separated twins in the world. PMID:25662422

  17. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  18. A century of poultry genetics

    Tixier-Boichard, M.; Leenstra, F.R.; Flock, D.; Hocking, A D; Weigend, S

    2012-01-01

    The 20th Century saw an astonishing advance in our understanding of genetics and the scientific basis of the genetic improvement of farm animals. The application of genetic principles to chickens in the 1950s and 1960s led to a rapid change in the productivity and efficiency of laying hens and broiler chickens, turkeys and ducks. Subsequently, the application of increasingly powerful computers and sophisticated mathematical algorithms has increased the range of traits that could be successful...

  19. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  20. Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records

    Buckley, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    the period of the late 14th and early 15th centuries when a very week monsoon is thought to have occurred, possibly contributing to the demise of the Angkor Wat civilization in Cambodia.

  1. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  2. A CENTURY OF NEWS DISCOURSE

    Allan Bell

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the development of news discourse across the 20th century ihrough a case study ofthe coverage of three expeditions to the South Pole: Captain Scott in 1912, Sir Edmund Hillary in 1958, and Peter Hillary in 1999. The way the news about the three expeditions reached New Zealand media serves as a framework and an illustration to examine three related issues: how technology has changed the time and place dimensions of news delivery; the consequent and concomitant shifts in news presentation; and associated changes in how humans have understood time and place. News values remain the same at a broad level across the century, but different in detail. Nationalism is obtrusive, but its focus shifts. In news practice, the deadline and the scoop drive the news in al1 three periods, but the scooping medium shifts from press to radio to television. The lapse between an event and its reporting shrinks exponentially from months to hours to minutes. The design of newspaper front pages changes radically, and news language compresses. There are social impacts, with newsworthy figures receiving closer exposure and the audience being cast in a more voyeuristic role.

  3. REVIEW: A CENTURY OF PROTESTS

    Uday Chandra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Arupjyoti Saikia. 2013. A Century of Protests: Peasant Politics in Assam Since 1900. New Delhi and Abingdon: Routledge. Notwithstanding its somewhat misleading subtitle, A Century of Protests is a painstaking reconstruction of the checkered agrarian history of the Brahmaputra Valley between the passage of the Assam Land Revenue Regulation of 1886 and the repeal of the Assam Tenancy Act of 1971 in 1986. The state of Assam in India today, bordering what is now Bangladesh, lies beneath the watchful eyes of the Eastern Himalayas, through which the mighty Brahmaputra gushes and breathes life into the valley. The landscape of the Brahmaputra Valley, historically speaking, has been as much a patchwork of field and forest as of different ethnolinguistic and religious groups, ever fluid and shifting in response to human and non-human vectors of change. The contested relations of power that yoke together owners and cultivators of this complex, variegated landscape in the late colonial and early postcolonial eras is the subject of the book under review.

  4. My Quarter Century with Jan

    Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    A quarter century ago, Jan van Paradijs and I started on a scientific journey, our lives became entwined, and a friendship evolved that shaped both our lives scientifically and in personal matters. To tell our story was very difficult for me. I went through 24 years of notes in my calendars and re-lived more than 8000 days of my own and Jan's life, 20 years of slides, 15 years of e-mail. There were times that I had to stop and leave it alone for a week or more as it became too emotional. Few people know (perhaps only two) what we meant for each other. When Jan died, part of me died.

  5. Countering 21st Century Threats

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U.S. and......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas of...... shared interests pre-crisis. • Establish political agreements and/or intentions with partners to address potential threats. • Establishing mutual trust through Building Partnership Capacity with capable SOF and intelligence organizations....

  6. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  7. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  8. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  9. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  10. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  11. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  12. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  13. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  14. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    Work on speech sound and the sound systems of languages can be traced back in the British Isles at least as far as the sixteenth century. It was, however, only in the nineteenth century that the word ‘phonetics' was actually coined, and it was also at this time that a wider interest in the subjec...

  15. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  16. Drought periods during XXth century

    The drought problem always exists somewhere in the world so that the economy of some nation or nations is always being adversely influenced by this factor. Although drought is a natural component of the climate in arid and semi-arid areas, it can occur in areas, which normally receive adequate precipitation. Available hydro meteorological data indicate droughts have occurred through the last century in Bulgaria and they a part of the climatic cycle on the Balkan Peninsula. The precipitation distribution is one of the basic characteristics of the drought occurrence in a given region. However, the distributions of additional meteorological elements should be also taken into account in order to describe the degree of the climate dryness. For example, the distribution of air temperature is an especially important characteristic for drought classifications. The last years in Bulgaria were drier and warmer than the normals for the period of so-called 'current climate' (1961-1990). Precipitation was approximately 80-85 % less than the normals. Statistical methods were used in order to analyze the long-term variations of precipitation, air temperature. The long-term series of data were smoothed by averages and they were also approximated by means of a polynomial. These methods eliminate the random and short periodical fluctuations of the time series. The Spearman coefficient (r) and the Kendall coefficient (rl) were used in order to investigate the existence of eventual trends. Some quantitative criteria were also used for a comparison of the drought frequency and intensity between different regions and years. As a result of the conducted analysis, the investigated period can be divided to separate sub-periods with duration of 10-15 years. These years are characterized with different moisture conditions. Three periods can be determined during the 20 th century, which are characterized by longer and severe droughts, namely 1902-1913, 1942-1953 and 1982-1994. The drought

  17. Medicine in 21st Century

    YangBinghui

    2001-01-01

    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  18. A study of the German ‘Gothic’ 15th-century equestrian armour (A21 in the Wallace Collection, London

    Edge, David

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The most famous, indeed iconic, armour in the Wallace Collection, London, is the late 15th century German armour for man and horse (inventory number A21. Unfortunately for the historian of armour, it is also one of the most composite, having been assembled in its present form in the 19th century from elements of at least five armours. Archival research in the Wallace Collection has been combined with metallography in the Conservation Department to attempt to cast some further light upon its origins.

    La armadura más famosa y emblemática de la Wallace Collection de Londres es un arnés para hombre y caballo de finales del siglo XV (inv. A.21. Desafortunadamente para la historia del arte de la armadura es también una de las más heterogéneas, compuesta en el siglo XIX con piezas procedentes de al menos otras cinco armaduras. La investigación archivística en la Wallace Collection se ha compaginado con el estudio metalográfico del Departamento de Conservación para intentar arrojar algo más de luz sobre sus orígenes.

  19. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    James Dyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.

  20. Nuclear computational science a century in review

    Azmy, Yousry

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear engineering has undergone extensive progress over the years. In the past century, colossal developments have been made and with specific reference to the mathematical theory and computational science underlying this discipline, advances in areas such as high-order discretization methods, Krylov Methods and Iteration Acceleration have steadily grown. Nuclear Computational Science: A Century in Review addresses these topics and many more; topics which hold special ties to the first half of the century, and topics focused around the unique combination of nuclear engineering, computational

  1. Revolution, Romanticism and the Long Nineteenth Century

    Adriana Craciun

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to consider the future of Victorian literary studies within the long nineteenth century, we must go back to that earlier “period” of the nineteenth century, and the French Revolution of 1789. Drawing on the aesthetic and political innovations of 1790s women's writings, this essay argues that we need to reconceive of nineteenth-century literary studies beyond the period boundaries of Romantic and Victorian. The sexualization of revolutionary Terror, and particularly of Robespierre, in Romantic-era writings by women like Helen Maria Williams, Mary Robinson and Fanny Burney, offers surprising precedents for the feminization of Terror associated with the retrospectives of Victorian writers like Carlyle and Dickens. In this respect, and given many other aesthetic continuities (for example, the crossgender and cross-period appeal of the “poetess” figure, the “Victorian period” appears increasingly unsatisfactory when compared to the merits of a long nineteenth-century model for literary studies.

  2. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  3. The century of the Petroleum in Colombia

    A recount of the big changes is made with hydrocarbons in Colombia during the X X century. The X X century it meant everything for Colombia in oil matter. In this century it took off and it consolidated their industry of the hydrocarbons and with her great part of the industrialization process and development of the country. It is undeniable that the petroleum was one of the big main characters of the century X X and Colombia has not been unaware to the sways of a highly changing industry. The creation of the OPEC, the warlike conflicts, the times of high and low prices, the technological advances, the processes of energy integration and the mega coalitions are hardly some of the ingredients that seasoned the Oil Industry in the years 1900

  4. Fire Disasters in the Twentieth Century

    Cavallini, M.; Papagni, M.F.; F.W. Baruffaldi Preis

    2007-01-01

    In the field of natural and man-made disasters, fire has played a predominant role. A report is presented of fire disasters in the twentieth century, with a chronological analysis of different worldwide typologies.

  5. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  6. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  7. Studies of Ancient Uygur Text Language in Uygur Script in the 20th Century: A Review%回鹘文文献语言研究百年回顾

    邓浩; 杨富学

    2001-01-01

    The Uygur Text Language in the Uygur Script is a language used by the Uygurs in the period from the 8th to 15th century in Central Asia, Chinese Turkestan and Hexi Corridor, etc. Since the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a large number of the Uygur texts were discovered in Dunhuang, Turpan, Hami and other areas. These texts provide old Uygur language with firsthand rich materials and bring about a great advance in the studies of the old Uygur language. It is valuable to look back and to summarize the achievements of the studies of the Uygur language made in the last century when new century is coming.%回鹘文文献语言指的是8至15世纪间用回鹘文书写的书面语言。19世纪末20世纪初以来,随着敦煌、 吐鲁番等地回鹘文文献的相继出土,这种“死文字”重新引起人们的重视,已有数千件回鹘文文献得以研 究刊布,为古代回鹘文文献语言的研究提供了最直接、最重要的第一手资料,相继涌现出一大批研究回 鹘文献语言的著作,在世纪之交,对这些成果进行回顾与总结,具有继往开来的意义。

  8. [The main sources of medieval Islamic medicine and the medical books translated into Turkish in the 10th century texts. Muslim scientists produced original medical works].

    Seşen, R

    1993-01-01

    Medieval Islamic medicine in the late Omeyad and early Abbasid periods was based on works translated from the Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Nabatean and Syriac languages, combining their own experiences in medical practice with the knowledge obtained from these. The majority of sources translated were Greek works; among them, those of Hippocrates and Galen were used prominently. From the theoretical standpoint, medieval Islamic medicine was based on the principles determined by Hippocrates. On the other hand, translations in different fields of medicine were done by specialists in those fields, who also authored their own works. Among them are such well-known figures as Abu Bakr el-Razi, Ibn Sina and Ibn el-Nafis. Islamic medicine saw a brilliant development during the Ayyubid period: with the establishment of many hospitals, clinical medicine and practical experience gained importance. these hospitals were at the same time centres of medical education and training. It is also in this period that the first medical school of the Muslim world was set up in Damascus by Mühezzebüddin el-Dahvar (d. 1231). Medical literature in Turkish originated in the framework of Islamic culture, as was in other fields of science. Early medical works in Turkish were translated from Arabic and Persian in the beginning of the 13th century. Original works in Turkish started to be produced from the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. The volume of Turkish medical literature increased considerably throughout the Ottoman period. This experience and the accumulation of references facilitated the acquisition of modern medical knowledge. This paper is an overview of thirteen major works on medicine which were translated into Turkish in the middle of the 15th century. PMID:11624884

  9. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  10. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  11. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2010-01-01

    Energy may be the most important factor that will influence the shape of society in the 21st century. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies, the relationships between nations, and the stability of our environment. What kind of energy do we want to use in our future? Will there be enough? What will be the consequences of our decisions? Everyone has a stake in the answers to these questions and the decisions that are being made to provide energy. ""Energy in the 21st Century"", in its second edition, examines the energy so

  12. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  13. Energy in the 21st century

    Fanchi, John R

    2013-01-01

    Many events that affect global energy production and consumption have occurred since the second edition of Energy in the 21st Century appeared in 2011. For example, an earthquake and tsunami in Japan led to the disruption of the Fukushima nuclear facility and a global re-examination of the safety of the nuclear industry. Oil and natural gas prices continue to be volatile, and the demand for energy has been affected by the global economy. The third edition updates data and the discussion of recent events.Energy in the 21st Century has been used as the text for an introductory energy course for

  14. Women in Eighteenth-century Scotland

    the honourable exception of Flora McDonald, remained unwritten. Over the last decade however, research on women and gender in Scotland has flourished and we have an increasingly full picture of women's lives at all social levels across the century. As a result, this is an appropriate moment to reflect...

  15. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  16. Lexicography in the 21st Century

    This is a state-of-the-art volume on lexicography at the beginning of the 21st century. It also offers proposals for future theoretical and practical work. The contributions, inspired by the ground-breaking work of Henning Bergenholtz, address topics such as dictionary functions; dictionary users...

  17. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  18. Refining Industry: Orientation for the New Century

    Wang Mingji

    2001-01-01

    @@ Challenges facing the Domestic Industry Demand for light oils to keep increasing at relatively higher rates The world crude supply would be sufficient at least for the firs 20 years of the 21st century. With an annual rate of increase averaging 2.1% over 1996 -2005, the total world demand for gasoline is foreseen to reach 962.1 Mt by 2005.

  19. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  20. Surviving 1000 centuries can we do it?

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This full color book provides a quantitative view of our civilization over the next 100,000 years. The authors present the dangers and stress the importance of taking decisions in the 21st century to ensure the long-term survival of people on Earth.

  1. The "Casa dei Bambini": A Century Concept.

    Hall, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the early history of Montessori education from the Italian State Orthophrenic School to the opening of the original Casa dei Bambini in San Lorenzo, Italy on January 6, 1907. Includes a synopsis of Maria Montessori's progressive revelations of the child's developing self over the past century. (JPB)

  2. Psychological Science in the 21st Century

    Cacioppo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

  3. Vietnam 2010 : Entering the 21st Century

    World Bank; Asian Development Bank; United Nations Development Program

    2000-01-01

    The study outlines the socioeconomic development strategy for Vietnam, during the first decade of the twenty first century, envisaging sustainable economic development, to rapidly adjust to social stability, while maintaining cultural, and traditional ties. The aim is to become a socialist market economy, fully integrated into the global economy, internationally competitive, with character...

  4. A Century of Plays by American Women.

    France, Rachel, Ed.

    Chosen for their literary quality and because they reflect the historical periods in which they were written, the 23 one-act dramas in this anthology represent the work of American female playwrights. The plays range from the realistic dramas produced in the "Little Theatres" of New York City at the turn of the century to current off-Broadway…

  5. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  6. Living oil: petroleum culture in the American century

    Straß, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Reseña de libro: Stephanie LeMenager, Living Oil: Petroleum Culture in the American Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), xi+263pp. Living oil: petroleum culture in the American century [Reseña de libro

  7. Oblivion Deferred: Altichiero in the Fifteenth Century

    Richards, John

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Altichiero was the dominant north Italian painter of the later Trecento. In Padua, in the 1370s and early 1380s, he worked for patrons close to Petrarch and his circle and perhaps in direct contact with the poet himself. By the time of the second edition of Vasari's Vite (1568 the memory of Altichiero's work had suffered significant occlusion, and Vasari's account of him is little more than an appendix to his life of Carpaccio. Only since the later nineteenth century, and particularly in the last fifty or so years, has Altichiero's reputation been restored. It is the purpose of this paper to examine aspects of that reputation throughout the century or so after the painter's death (by April 1393.

  8. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  9. Detergents of the 21st century

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  10. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few. PMID:9875187

  11. Mixed marriages in Ireland: A century ago

    Fernihough, Alan; Ó Gráda, Cormac; Walsh, Brendan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristics associated with marriages between Roman Catholics and members of other religious denominations ('mixed marriages') in 1911 Ireland. Using the recently-digitized returns of the 1911 census of population, we find that such marriages were relatively rare, varying from two to three percent of all mar- riages in Dublin to less than half a percent in Connacht. However, at the turn of the century in the Dublin area mixed marriages represented 12 per cent or mo...

  12. The 21st century chemistry journal

    Steven M. Bachrach

    1999-01-01

    Internet publication will radically alter how chemists will publish their research in the next century. In this article, we describe two fundamental changes: enhanced chemical publication which allows chemists to publish materials that cannot be published on paper and end-user customization which allows readers to read articles prepared to meet their specifications. These concepts have been implemented within the Internet Journal of Chemistry, a new journal designed to employ the latest techn...

  13. Project for the new American Century?

    Fahnøe, Sanne; Grip, Sune; Helqvist, Iben; Holton, Christina; Zidan, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Our concern is based on how the neoconservative think-tank "The Project for the New American Century" has combined their ideology from the two International Relations theories liberalism and realism. Our problem in the project is therefore on how they have combined these two theories, which we find troublesome. Their mission is democracy, which is liberalistic terminology, but their means to achieve this is realistic, by military interventions. In our project we are therefore questioning PNA...

  14. POLITICS-ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY: A CENTURY DEBATE

    Reza TAHMASEBI; Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi MUSAVI

    2011-01-01

    The issue of politics-administration dichotomy as one of the five great issues in the field of public administration has had a strange history. For more than a century it has been one of the most disreputable notions in the field of public administration. At the heart of the public administration is the relationship between administrators, on one hand, and politicians and the public on the other hand. The nature of that relationship and the proper role of political leaders and administrators ...

  15. Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century

    Shebarshin, Leonid V.

    2000-01-01

    The author concludes that the world will most probably remain rife with conflict even in the twenty first century and that the traditional role of intelligence will not only continue but will increase in importance. He characterizes the international situation as being "more of the same historically"; that is, the existence of several different centers of power and mutual conflicts based solely on national interests. In order to protect and promote one's national interests, sovereign states w...

  16. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  17. The Century Ahead: Searching for Sustainability

    Richard A. Rosen; Christi Electris; Raskin, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    The global future lies before us as a highly uncertain and contested landscape with numerous perils along the way. This study explores possible pathways to sustainability by considering in quantitative detail four contrasting scenarios for the twenty-first century. The analysis reveals vividly the risks of conventional development approaches and the real danger of socio-ecological descent. Nonetheless, the paper underscores that a Great Transition scenario—turning toward a civilization of e...

  18. Home Biases, 19th Century Style

    Marc Flandreau

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence of 'home' biases in the 19th century global capital market, whereby colonies appear to have received a 'disproportionate' amount of capital from their metropolis. Starting from a discussion of the Bulow Rogoff (1989) problem, we argue that imperial links provided a natural institutional framework to make pre-commitment credible by ensuring an adequate degree of willingness to pay. This was not because imperial rule provided coercion or punishment, but rather...

  19. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  20. A typology of nineteenth-century police

    Emsley, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Taking as its starting points the Bobby in Victorian England and some of the general conclusions of David H. Bayley's comparative work, this essay suggests that three basic types of police developed in nineteenth-century Europe. Focussing primarily on England, France, Italy and Prussia it argues that, in terms of accountability, control and form, state civilian, state military, and civilian municipal police can be delineated as Weberian ideal types. Individual states did not necessarily devel...

  1. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    Greenberg, J. Mayo; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the prope...

  2. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Johnson, David W.; JOHNSON, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1) a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2) the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3) the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4) the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges includ...

  3. Twentieth century monetary regimes in Canadian perspective

    Harley, C. Knick

    2001-01-01

    Three monetary regimes - the gold standard, a regime of 'socialism in many countries' and the post-Bretton Woods regime - and difficult transitions between them have shaped the economic history of the twentieth century. The regimes consisted of coherent sets of government policies and equally importantly, the publics expectations about policy and each made different decisions about which of the trilemma of policy goals - fixed exchange rates, domestic policy independence and integrated capita...

  4. Metropolitan Taxation in the 21st Century

    Brunori, David

    1998-01-01

    As we enter the 21st Century, local governments will face challenges to how they raise revenue. Existing local tax systems are ill equipped to meet future basic revenue needs. Moreover, economic and technological changes will inevitably and profoundly alter tax systems of all governments. The problems with existing tax systems and future economic challenges will likely lead to an environment in which local taxation will be limited to an extent unseen in American history. The limitations will ...

  5. Exotic Animals in Eighteenth-Century Britain

    Plumb, Christopher Jonathan Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Exotic animals are conspicuously absent in economic histories and discussions of material culture in eighteenth-century Britain, even though they were highly sought-after luxury goods. As a response, this cultural history is a step towards a fuller understanding of the broad yet related meanings that a range of exotic animals held in Georgian Britain. A study is structured around four themes of meaning. The significance of exotic animals is explored, in turn, through their function as commodi...

  6. Mammalian Developmental Genetics in the Twentieth Century

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of ...

  7. Science for the 21st Century

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  8. The physiognomist's kidney in the fifteenth century.

    Ziegler, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Physiognomy, the art of deciphering a person's character and potential behavior by his or her external appearance, is an ancient body of knowledge which was gradually revived in the Latin West in the twelfth and particularly in the thirteenth century. This is a philological study of the scientific discourse about the physiognomy of the kidney in physiognomic sources from Pseudo-Aristotle's Physiognomonics (third century B.C.) through Pietro d'Abano's Liber compilationis phisonomie (ca 1295) to Rolandus Scriptoris's Reductorium phisonomie (ca 1430). Fifteenth-century learned physiognomists devoted specific chapters to the kidney. The physiognomists analyzed the fleshiness of the body-surface outside the kidneys (i.e. the loins and their vicinity). Firm loins denoted boldness, agility, and good fighting capacity and vice versa. The pre-modern kidney was of interest not only to physicians and surgeons wishing to treat kidney conditions and other pathologies arising from the urinary system. There were learned physicians who examined the body not to diagnose diseases, but to decipher their patient's personality. When engaged in this activity the kidneys, that is, the loins or the external area of the kidneys, were one of the body parts that could provide vital physiognomic information. PMID:15372426

  9. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  10. Famous Funerals in 19th Century Cracow

    Bernadeta Wilk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cracow, the old capital of Polish Kingdom, has always performed a particular role in the Polish history and culture. In the nineteenth century, particulary in the period of galician autonomy 1860-1914, Cracow became the spiritual capital of Poland for generations of Poles who lived in the partitioned country, which was ruled by the three foreign powers together. About this phenomenon decided not only the autonomy but also the old tradition and the symbolism of this town. In the 19 th century and before the First World War, Cracow was the most influential centre of the Polish national life. In this time Crakow’s citizens decided to continue the old tradition of the royal burial. Since there were no longer any Polish monarchs, they resolved that the remains of the greatest national heroes, of writers and artists be buried on the Wawel Cathedral in the cemetery Rakowice and later in the Church of Paulinites fathers “on the rock”. Famous funerals in 19 th century Cracow, of which the best known were those of prince Joseph Poniatowski in 1817, general Thaddeus Kosciusko in 1818, king Casmir the Great in 1869 and of poet Adam Mickiewicz in 1890 alluded to royal ceremonies from the time of Polish independence. These funerals have been one of the main elements in patriotic and religious ceremonies and important part of the nation’s patriotic educations.

  11. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  12. Sites of Chemistry in the Nineteenth Century

    García Belmar, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The three articles in this special issue of Ambix were among the twenty-one papers presented at the conference “Sites of Chemistry in the Nineteenth Century,” held in Valencia at the Institute for the History of Medicine and Science ‘López Piñero’ in July 2012. This meeting was the second of the series of conferences organised as part of the project Sites of Chemistry, 1600–2000, the aim of which was to investigate the wide and diverse range of physical spaces and places where chemistry has b...

  13. Urban Regeneration in the Twentieth Century

    Mee, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Directed urban regeneration in Ireland only began in the later part of the twentieth century, driven by a combination of public policy, tax incentives, and pressure to respond to inner-city decay. The term urban regeneration here is taken to mean the conscious project, a publicly directed, area-based initiative to revitalize parts of the city in social, physical and economic terms. Generally this regeneration had a city-wide impact, and key sites or areas came to represent wider changes in ho...

  14. Art in France in XXe Century

    Kramer, Antje

    2012-01-01

    While the current day and age marked by a booming globalization is ceaselessly calling for an expansion of the field of vision where the prefixes “post” and “trans” have pride of place, the moment has come for the art historian to size up the past century. If it is time to take stock, what could be more tangible than to start with the huge art production of a single country, in this instance, France? By delivering a very dense overview, Philippe Dagen revisits French art under the sign of dou...

  15. The greenhouse effect century, myth or reality

    The different scenarios describing the human activities evolution in the next decades allow to assess the future climate system components; it is shown that, if we do not modify our development policy (deforestation and desertification), the earth system will be significantly perturbed during the 21st century; emissions of greenhouse gases such as CH4, N2O, CFC, ozone may represent in 2030 the CO2 amount produced by man since the industrial revolution. In that case, the air temperature increase will be comprised between 1.5 and 4.5 deg C in 2050

  16. Which energy for the 21 century transports

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO2 by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  17. The development of science during this century

    This is a slightly revised version of a talk delivered at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Boston, on 14 February 1993, and at a CERN Colloquium, on 5 August 1993, entitled 'Science -yesterday, today and tomorrow'. It describes the tremendous growth of scientific knowledge and insights acquired since the beginning of this century. The changes in the character, sociology and support, of science are discussed, including the growing predominance of American science and the recent trend away from basic science towards applied research. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear power engineering in the 21 century

    Analysis and main aspects of comprehending the role and structure of nuclear power (NP) in solution of crucial problems in power generation of the new century are presented briefly. The following problems are considered, in particular: requirements for future NP; optimal structure and major elements of future NP; solution of nuclear weapons nonproliferation problem; main tasks and anticipated results of the international project implemented for providing solutions to vital problems of NP, suggested by president of the RF; arrangement of collaboration in the framework of the international project

  19. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    The major technological developments in equipment, designed to harness new and renewable sources of energy, have only taken place in the last four decades of the twentieth century, although the principles involved have been previously known for many centuries and were clearly formulated in many of the ancient civilizations. The term renewable energy (RE) itself is of relatively recent origin and only came into widespread use worldwide in the eighties, after the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1981, Ref 1. Currently, the term renewable s is extensively used to describe the full range of direct and indirect uses of solar radiation incident on the earth's surface, and is often extended to include energy resources, such as tidal power or geothermal energy, neither of which is strictly renewable in the true sense of the word. Energy extracted from biomass is also generally included under this heading, although biomass is truly renewable only if continuous plantation development and replanting is carried out as the biomass is harvested. On a global scale, relatively extensive teaching about renewable energy started in the late seventies and early eighties, after the first impact of the OPEC oil price shock. Up till this time, there were only a few centres around the world where individual dedicated researchers and university teachers were involved in such activity. The next impetus to course and teaching material development came with national movements for energy independence and finally, in the latter years of this century, considerable stimulation has been given due to the increasing realisation of global environmental factors such as global warming, ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, acid rain formation, and many other environmental degradation effects due to the increasing use of fossil fuel reserves. Considerable attention has been focused in the last twenty years through the many national and

  20. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  1. Haphazard Reality Half a Century of Science

    Casimir, HBG

    2010-01-01

    Casimir, himself a famous physician, studied and worked with three great physicists of the twentieth century: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli and Paul Ehrenfest. In his autobiography, the brilliant theoretician lets the reader witness the revolution that led to quantum physics, whose influence on modern society turned out to be many times larger than the first atomic physicists could have imagined. Through his involvement in the technical-scientific and the business aspects of physics, through management positions at Philips Research Laboratory and as a member of the Board of Directors of Philips,

  2. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  3. Twentieth century sea level: An enigma

    Munk, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Changes in sea level (relative to the moving crust) are associated with changes in ocean volume (mostly thermal expansion) and in ocean mass (melting and continental storage): ζ(t) = ζsteric(t) + ζeustatic(t). Recent compilations of global ocean temperatures by Levitus and coworkers are in accord with coupled ocean/atmosphere modeling of greenhouse warming; they yield an increase in 20th century ocean heat content by 2 × 1023 J (compared to 0.1 × 1023 J of atmospheric storage), which correspo...

  4. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    During the 1800’s – before the well-known genocide, planned in the twentieth century – there were massacres and persecution on Armenian villages. It is important to underline that many Christian Armenians lived in Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of 1800’s they paid many taxes and felt themselves an important part of the Empire. Thus they would have liked to achieve more significant public roles, without losing their religion and cultural background. Howewer, the Turkish leaders and populatio...

  5. History of twentieth-century physics

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  6. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  7. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  8. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  9. Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Cervantine

    Asier Altuna-García de Salazar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the fourth centenary of the publication of the first part of the Spanish masterpiece of all times Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, this article approaches in an introductory manner some of the literary productions which sprang from Cervantes’s original within the Irish context. In the case of Ireland the Cervantine inspiration, albeit minor and neglected, has also been present; and, it is most probably the nineteenth century which provides the most ample and varied response to Cervantes’s masterpiece in many a different way. Our aim is to see briefly how the legacy of Don Quixote found distinct expression on the Emerald Isle. Indeed, all these Cervantine contributions from Ireland during the nineteenth century were also deeply imbued with the politics of literature and society in a country which experienced historical, social and cultural turmoil. The reference to Cervantes as a key writer in Spanish letters will not only be reduced to his masterpiece of all times; but, will also be tackled in critical pieces of importance in Ireland.

  10. The twenty-first century in space

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  11. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  12. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  13. A century of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma?

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2015-01-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. Growing evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised two questions: What is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? How much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? In this article, we show that (1) seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the twentieth century; (2) several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant earthquakes in Oklahoma during the twentieth century were likely induced by oil production activities, as they exhibit statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence with disposal wells, and intensity measurements for the 1952 El Reno earthquake and possibly the 1956 Tulsa County earthquake follow the pattern observed in other induced earthquakes; and (3) there is evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt. The 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw 4.8, occurred in this zone.

  14. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  15. Nineteenth-Century Agrarian Populism and Twentieth-Century Communitarianism: Points of Contact and Contrast.

    Johnson, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    Connects contemporary communitarian ideas to the agenda of the 19th-century populist movement. The populist educational agenda (the agrarian revolt and Farmers' Alliance) provides historical examples of the implementation of communitarian educational theory. The populist movement as an example of communitarianism highlights an instance of a…

  16. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  17. The relationship between the single level of serum human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) at 14~15th day after embryo transfer and the multiple-pregnancy, the gender of fetal, the clinic abortion%胚胎移植术14~16天后单次血HCG值与多胎,胎儿性别和临床流产之关系

    贾婵维; 王树玉; 马延敏; 兰永连; 周丽颖; 刘英; 张军; 余兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between serum human chorionic gonadotrop (HCG) at 14 days - 16 days after embryo transfer and pregnancy outcome in long run. Methods: The pregnancy outcomes of 329 cases whose gestational sacs were detected and the serum HCG levels of 14 days - 16 days after fresh cycle IVF/ICSI - ET were retrospectively analyzed. Among 329 cases, there were 145 case detected the serum HCG level at the 14th day after embryo transfer, 102 cases detected the serum HCG level at the 15th day after embryo transfer and 82 cases at the 16th day after embryo transfer. According to the day of detecting serum HCG. We divided the 329 cases into four groups by their outcomes: multiple pregnancy, singleton female infant, singleton male infant, clinical abortion. And according the day of detecting serum HCG we compared their levels of serum HCG after embryo transfer using One - Way ANOVA test. Results: 1. The levels of serum HCG went down according to multiple pregnancies, singleton female infants, singleton male infants, clinical abortions. There was the significant difference between multiple pregnancies and other groups. 2. At the 14th day after embryo - transfer, there was the significant difference of the serum HCG levels between singleton female infants and singleton male infants, clinical abortions but there was no significant difference between singleton male infants and clinical abortions. 3. At 15th and 16th day after embryo -transfer, there was the significant difference of the serum HCG levels between singleton female infants and clinical abortions but no significant difference between singleton male infants and clinical abortions.There was also no significant difference between singleton female infants and singleton male infants. Conclusion: 1. The levels of serum HCG at the 14 - 16th day after embryo - transfer were correlated with their pregnancy outcome. The mean levels of serum HCG step down according multiple pregnancy, singleton female

  18. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  19. [Demography and society in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Cambodia].

    Nepote, J

    1979-01-01

    The author analyzes the demography of Cambodia in relation to social changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Three phases are examined: the opening of Cambodia to the outside world and the reversal of the demographic situation in the nineteenth century; modernization and accelerated population growth in the twentieth century up to 1970; and recent events, particularly political upheavals, and the new reversal of the demographic situation PMID:12279292

  20. The Editor as Producer: Nineteenth-Century British Literary Editors

    Bartels, Gretchen Christine

    2013-01-01

    To more fully understand nineteenth-century literary production, literary scholars must consider periodical editing as more than biographical footnotes to the lives of famous Victorian authors or secondary details in a text’s publishing history. In The Editor as Producer: Nineteenth-Century British Literary Editors, I seek to render more visible the work of the periodical editor, positing this figure as pivotal to the nineteenth-century literary scene. A single metanarrative of the ed...

  1. Financial crises of XIX century in Ukraine

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article systematically examines the course of major financial crises of the late nineteenth century (the crises of 1848, 1857, 1873 in the financial centers of Ukraine at that time, namely Kуiv, Lviv, Odessa. The paper shows the specifics of these financial centers connected with the investments in profitable sugar industry of Kyiv; with the international trade and massive exports of grain in Odessa; with the beginning of Galician oil extraction and the creation of numerous oil companies in Lviv. After brief description of these crises in the world the author provides the numerous examples for each of the financial centers revealing their specificity inUkraine. The main emphasis is given on the impact of the crises on securities markets, particularly on the dynamics of stock prices.

  2. Nuclear energy for the 21. century

    This document gathers 5 introductory papers to this conference about nuclear energy for the 21. century: the French energy policy during the last 30 years (situation of France with respect to the energy supply and demand, main trends of the French energy policy, future of the French nuclear policy); presentation of IAEA (technology transfer, nuclear safety, non-proliferation policy, structure and financial resources, council of governors, general conference, secretariat); nuclear power and sustainable development; promoting safety at nuclear facilities (promoting safety, basics of safety, safety at the design stage, risk management, regulatory control and efficiency of the regulation organization, role of IAEA); nuclear energy today (contribution to sustainable development, safety, best solution for the management of radioactive wastes, future of nuclear energy). (J.S.)

  3. Towards a nuclear-weapon-free century

    In the last century, the rapid progress in science and technology enabled richer and more comfortable lives, but the other side of this double-edged sword is that science and technology have also been used to develop and improve high-tech weaponry. Due to this fact, deployed around the world are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, and detonation of only a few of them would kill some hundreds of million of people and destroy out civilization. The human race stands at a crossroad. What should be done? It is a crucially important responsibility for the Japanese government to work for peace in which there will be no fear or threat of nuclear weapons

  4. Indoor climate in the 21th century

    Field studies have shown that in many buildings there are people who are annoyed by poor indoor climate even if the buildings satisfy all standards and guidelines. This is because the present requirements are quite mild. A shift of paradigm is foreseen to take place in the 21th century - from a mediocre to an excellent indoor climate. The article proposes five principles as elements of a new philosophy about the optimum indoor climate: (1) Improved indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases sick building syndrome symptoms, (2) Unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided, (3) The air should be served cool and dry to the occupants, (4) Personalized air, that is, a small amount of clean air, should be served gently, close to the breathing zone of each person, (5) Individual control of the thermal environment should be provided. The principles are compatible with energy efficiency and sustainability

  5. Neutron Physics Entering the XXI Century

    Aksenov, V L

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of present-day neutron physics are neutron-aided investigations of fundamental interactions and symmetries, high excited states of nuclei, crystalline and magnetic structures, dynamic excitations in solids and liquids over a wide range of energies. The state-of-art and perspectives of the solution of most topical and principle problems of neutron physics are analyzed. The main conclusion is that neutron physics provides rich information for nuclear particle physics, physics of nucleus, condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and earth sciences. In the next century, however, new higher flux neutron sources must be created. By the year 2010 the number of nuclear reactors used for physical research will reduce to 10-15 reactors over the world. Trends in the development of neutron sources are analyzed. The possibilities of leading neutron research centers in the world are considered and most promising projects of neutron sources are discussed.

  6. Radiology in the 21st century

    On the leading edge in ''high-tech'' medicine, radiology is experiencing several revolutions simultaneously that promise an exciting future. New imaging methods and digital technologies not only offer novel ways to view tissues but also provide opportunities for quantitative evaluation of function and even permit determination of metabolic status. New approaches to technology assessment are being explored that alter the ways in which equipment and procedures are introduced into clinical medicine. With the plethora of radiology services available, the radiologist must serve as a consultant in the triage of patients in radiology and the dissemination of information from radiology. For similar reasons, training in diagnostic radiology may eventually accommodate to the concept of specialization along organ-system lines. Without question, radiology is destined for an exciting period as it moves into the 21st century

  7. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material are not...... digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison of...... the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  8. Engineering in the 21st century

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  9. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  10. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  11. A century of the edgewise appliance

    James L Vaden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The edgewise appliance, born in the mind of Dr. Edward Angle and first introduced on June 2, 1925, has withstood the test of almost a century of time and usage. The 022 standard appliance that Angle described in a series of four articles in Dental Cosmos is being used by many orthodontic clinicians in fundamentally the same form as it was presented in 1928 and 1929 in Dental Cosmos. Yes, it has been modified in innumerable ways. However, to use one of the modifications, the clinician must understand and respect the fundamentals of its use. This treatise describes the appliance′s evolution from Angle to its use today. The force system of today is simpler and more refined than what Angle envisioned but the appliance is "intact." It is as modern as tomorrow and will continue to be used as long as the specialty exists. It was Angle′s greatest contribution.

  12. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths. PMID:26203983

  13. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  14. Revolutions in twentieth-century physics

    Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, elementary-particle physics, and cosmology are the four pillars of modern physics. The life in the 21th century is without them no more conceivable: The special relativity theory renewed our understanding of space and time, on the laws of quantum mechanics are based countless everyday objects like transistors, computer chips, and mobile telephones; in particle accelerators we study the components oof matter, and with telescopes we take an ever deeper look in the past of the universe. Taking reference books to these themes at hand, one is overwhelmed by the plethora and complexity of the mathematical formulas. This book of the renowned professor of physics David J. Griffiths id refreshingly different. By means of many illustrative examples and entertaining stories it introducts to the themes and helps the reader also without a large mathematical apparatus to a fundamental understanding of that, about which Einstein, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, and Hubble actually thought and spoke. In each chapter numerous, pedagogically selected examples are completely worked out, in order to fill the matter with life. Moreover the text contains a manifold of problems, which allow the reader to deepen his knowledge and apply immediately. Griffith's ''Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics'' appeals not only to pupils and future studyings of natural sciences, who want to get an appetite for what lies ahead, but also to interested readers, which have already heared in the media from quarks and quanta, the curved space-time, Albert Einstein, and the big bang and now want to understandably know what is at stake in all the excitement.

  15. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    Drouillard, T.F.

    1994-08-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  16. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    Drouillard, Thomas F.

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  17. Commerce and morality in eighteenth-century Italian political thought

    K.H. Stapelbroek (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue presents a number of studies by young scholars in the history of eighteenth-century Italian political thought, a field that was put on the map in the second half of the twentieth century by the efforts of Franco Venturi. By taking up the theme of commerce and morality,

  18. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  19. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  20. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  1. Women and Madness in Nineteenth-Century Ireland

    Parry, Joanne

    1997-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the experience of women regarding mental disorder in nineteenth-century Ireland. The central argument of this thesis is based on two claims. First, that mental disorder was socially constructed in nineteenth-century Ireland, and second, that the social construction of mental disorder was permeated by gender and other social phenomena .

  2. Nuclear Reactor Empowerment in The 21st Century

    Scenarios of global energy need in the 21st century are discussed. Nuclear reactors will have important roles in supplying energy need in the 21st century if its evolutionary and innovative developments are continued to achieve economical competitiveness, high safety, positive environmental impacts, and ensuring sustain ability of innovation in the future energy supply

  3. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  4. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  5. 15th Czechoslovak seminar on plasma physics and technology. Part 1

    Of the 17 papers contained in the proceedings, 8 papers deal with various technological applications of a low-temperature plasma, e.g., the synthesis of very high-purity materials and ultrafine powders, plasma polymerization, and plasma deposition of composite superconducting films. Two papers review the activity in the field of mathematical modeling and experimental investigation of electric arcs used in industrial and laboratory plasmatrons. Other papers report the results of varous diagnostic methods (IR and optical spectroscopy, CARS spectroscopy, probes and interferometry) applied to low-temperature laboratory and technological plasmas. In one paper the positive streamer phenomenon in electric discharges is discussed. (J.U.)

  6. 15th Czechoslovak seminar on plasma physics and technology. Part 2

    Of the 27 contributions contained in the second part of the Proceedings, 8 papers deal with the plasma arc spraying technology and with the diagnostics of sprayed coatings. Seven papers discuss various diagnostic methods used in experiments on plasma heating by relativistic electron beams (optical spectroscopy, diamagnetic and soft X-ray diagnostics). In 8 papers the experimental results on lower hybrid current drive in the Castor tokamak are described. The remaining 4 papers concern experiments on ion implosion on the SOWA facility, soft X-ray measurements in the gas-puff Z pinch, theoretical analysis of effects in a plasma with structured magnetic fields, and computer simulation of plasma dynamics in tokamak reactors. (J.U.)

  7. 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering

    Dhillon, Balbir

    2015-01-01

    This research topic was first established in China by Professor ShengZhao Long in 1981, with direct support from one of the greatest modern Chinese scientists, XueSen Qian. In a letter to ShengZhao Long from October 22nd, 1993, XueSen Qian wrote: “You have created a very important modern science subject and technology in China!” MMESE primarily focuses on the relationship between Man, Machine and Environment, studying the optimum combination of man-machine-environment systems. In this system, “Man” refers to working people as the subject in the workplace (e.g. operators, decision-makers); “Machine” is the general name for any object controlled by Man (including tools, machinery, computers, systems and technologies), and “Environment” describes the specific working conditions under which Man and Machine interact (e.g. temperature, noise, vibration, hazardous gases etc.). The three goals of optimization are to ensure safety, efficiency and economy. These proceedings are an academic showcase of t...

  8. Learning to Listen: 15th Annual Peggy Glanville-Hicks Address 2013

    Lacey, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    The New Music Network established the Peggy Glanville-Hicks Address in 1999 in honour of one of Australia's great international composers. It is an annual forum for ideas relating to the creation and performance of Australian music. In the spirit of the great Australian composer Peggy Glanville-Hicks, an outstanding advocate of Australian music…

  9. Proceedings of the 15th workshop of the Mexican Society of Radiological Safety C.A

    The basic safety standards have the purpose to establish the fundamental requirements in order to protect vs. ionizing radiations derived of the risks by exposure to the radiations and to maintain the safety of the radiation sources which can generate such exposure. With base on principles thoroughly accepted, like the established for the ICRP and the IAEA, it pretend to maintain the safety of the several types of radiation sources and as complement for other standards, already established, destined to specific facilities like reactors, irradiators and radioactive waste store, regarding which they are appropriate. (author)

  10. Proceedings of 15th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy perspectives are in the focus of the whole energy community. Facing te growing needs for energy, limits to reserves, terrorist of war threats, and climate changes is the main driver in searching for long-term solutions which would make energy development less uncertain and less risky. Technological development is one of the answers to energy problems, but it is not the only one. Enhancing energy efficiency is a social challenge that goes beyond technology problem. Equally, accepting locations for construction of energy facilities is also a social challenge, because, together with other social challenges, may give am answer how to develop stable energy industry. Energy security is synergy of various factors: energy market, infrastructure which facilitates good connectivity, diversification of resources, enhanced use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, and it is important to stress that the only secure energy systems are well-balanced ones. World Energy Council initiated the global study Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 with the aim to overview the future energy at global and regional levels

  11. PREFACE: 15th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb)

    Sokolovskii, Grigorii; Averkiev, Nikita

    2013-08-01

    The fifteenth Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy PhysicA.SPb was held 23-24 October 2012 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint-Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from the mid-90s. The main feature of PhysicA.SPb since then, remains the combination of both scientific and educational quality of the contributions delivered to the young audience. This feature makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one conference. PhysicA.SPb 2012 has brought together more than 150 students, young scientists and their professors from many universities and research institutes across Russia, as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, France and the United Kingdom. Oral and poster presentations were combined into a few well-defined sections among which one should name Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics of semiconductors, Physics of solid state, Physics and technology of the alternative energetics, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, THz and UHF materials and devices, and Physics of the quantum-sized structures. This issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb 2012 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards. Grigorii S. Sokolovskii and Nikita S. Averkiev Editors

  12. The 15 TH annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: intelligent ground robots created by intelligent students

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2007-09-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 15 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  13. Security politics and conspiracy theories in the emerging European state system (15th/ 16th c.)

    Zwierlein, Cornel

    2013-01-01

    "The article develops a new definition of conspiracy theory more apt for historicizing purposes than the existing systematic and philosophical ones. It shows that modern conspiracy narratives do appear only with the Renaissance. Also, 'security' as the aim of state and international politics became important only now during the Italian Renaissance while the term and concept had been nearly forgotten during the Middle Ages. The article shows then that both, security politics in practice and po...

  14. NEIGHBORHOOD 15th Anniversary 15周年纪念系列

    2009-01-01

    为了庆祝品牌成立15周年,NEIGHBORHOOD近日推出了一系列纪念Tee,据说共有15款。日前又有几款全新的设计在网络上首度曝光。以品牌的存在与创立日期等为灵感,两款Tee呈现“Fuck NH”与“Cruel World”的设计主题,一共各推出黑白两种配色。借着周年庆推出产品.NEIGHBORHOOD不再局限于数字上的纪念。衣服上都是大胆的叫骂和非常讽刺幽默的插画。显然很符合他们一贯以来的口号和风格定位。

  15. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April 15th, 1997

    Shibu K. Mathew; Ashok Ambastha

    2000-09-01

    The active region NOAA 8032 of April 15, 1997 was observed to evolve rapidly. The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. The magnetic evolution of this region is studied to ascertain its role in flare production. Large changes were observed in magnetic field configuration due to the emergence of new magnetic flux regions (EFR). Most of the new emergence occured very close to the existing magnetic regions, which resulted in strong magnetic field gradients in this region. EFR driven reconnection of the field lines and subsequent flux cancellation might be the reason for the continuous occurrence of sub-flares and other related activities.

  16. 77 FR 45582 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Preliminary Results of the 15th (2010) Countervailing Duty...

    2012-08-01

    ... Contributions on Bank Loans Under Law 675/77 R. Preferential Financing for Export Promotion Under Law 394/81 S... allocated the benefits over time. See Pasta Prelim 14, 76 FR at 48135, unchanged in the final results; and... ``Benchmarks for Long-Term Loans and Discount Rates'' section of this notice above. We divided the...

  17. The ESA Hubble 15th Anniversary Campaign: A Trans-European collaboration project

    Zoulias, Manolis; Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Kornmesser, Martin

    2006-08-01

    On April 24th 2005, NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope had been in orbit for 15 years. The anniversary was celebrated by ESA with the production of an 83 min. scientific movie and a 120 pages book, both titled ``Hubble, 15 years of discovery''. In order to cross language and distribution barriers a network of 16 translators and 22 partners from more than 10 countries was established. The DVD was distributed in approximately 700,000 copies throughout Europe. The project was amongst the largest of its kind with respect to collaboration, distribution and audience impact. It clearly demonstrated how international collaboration can produce effective cross-cultural educational and outreach products for astronomy.

  18. Summary Record of the 15th Meeting of the Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK)

    The main mission of the working group on risk assessment (WGRISK) is to advance the understanding and utilisation of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in ensuring the continued safety of nuclear installations in member countries. While PSA methodology has matured greatly over the years, further work is required. WGRISK has been active in several of these areas, including: human reliability; software reliability; low power and shutdown risk. In order to maintain a current perspective, the working group collaborates and assists other working groups within the CSNI, such as operating experience and organisational factors as well as keeping close co-ordination with other international organisations. Over the past twenty years, the NEA PWG5 and now WGRISK have looked at the technology and methods used for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance. Work during much of this period was concentrated on Level-1 PSA methodology. In recent years the focus has shifted into more specific PSA methodologies and risk-informed applications. This document summarizes the content of the 15. Meeting of WGRISK: - presentation of the new WGRISK Bureau, - Approval of the 14. WGRISK Meeting Summary Record [NEA/SEN/SIN/WGRISK (2013)1], - Use and Development of PSA in NEA Member Countries and by other International Organisations, - Report by the WGRISK Secretariat on the current WGRISK programme of work, actions taken by CSNI and CNRA and other recent developments in OECD/NEA, - Development of BPGs on failure mode taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I and C systems for PSA [Task 2010-3], - Update Use of OECD Data Project Products in PSA [Task 2011-1], - Status report on the common WGHOF/WGRISK HRA Task, - Outcome on the International Workshop on PSA of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes, April 2014 [Task 2012-1], - Status report on the International Workshop on Fire PRA [Task 2012-2], - PSA insights relating to the loss of electrical sources [Task 2013(1)], - WGRISK participation to international conferences, workshops, etc. and Outcome of Other International Meetings/Activities relevant to WGRISK, - Cooperation with other NEA Working Groups, Task Groups or Expert Groups (ROBELSYS, WGAMA, WGOE, CSNI post-Fukushima activities..), - WGRISK Discussion 2014 - Risk Metrics for Level 3 PSA, - WGRISK Planning, Integrated Plan, future work, New Activities, working methods and Next Meetings

  19. ASDEX contributions to the 15th European conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    This report is a collection of 23 IPP Garching contributions concerning confinement studies, plasma heating, impurity studies, plasma stability, and plasma diagnostics. 5 of these contributions have been separately indexed into the data base. (GG)

  20. Flows in the solar atmosphere due to the eruptions on the 15th July, 2002

    L. K. Harra; Demoulin, P.; Mandrini, C.H.; Matthews, S. A.; L. van Driel-Gesztelyi; Culhane, J. L.; Fletcher, L.

    2005-01-01

    Which kind of flows are present during flares? Are they compatible with the present understanding of energy release and which model best describes the observations? We analyze successive flare events in order to answer these questions. The flares were observed in the magnetically complex NOAA active region (AR) 10030 on 15 July 2002. One of them is of GOES X-class. The description of these flares and how they relate to the break-out model is presented in Gary & Moore (2004). The Coronal D...

  1. 15th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems

    2015-01-01

    ICALEPCS is a biennial series of conferences that is intended to: * Provide a forum for the interchange of ideas and information between control system specialists working on large experimental physics facilities around the world (accelerators, particle detectors, fusion reactors, telescopes, etc.); * Create an archival literature of developments and progress in this rapidly changing discipline; * Promote, where practical, standardization in both hardware and software; Promote collaboration between laboratories, institutes and industry.

  2. Neutron scattering in the 21st century

    Full text: The watchwords for neutron scattering in the 21st Century will be complementarity and computing. Despite the enormous impact that is coming in condensed matter science, chemistry and biology from synchrotron light sources, the essential complementarity between x-ray and neutron scattering is likely to be not only preserved but enhanced. This will be achieved by current and foreseen investments in new neutron sources of high intensity and by technique developments involving neutron polarisation, neutron optics and neutron detection. The complementary relationship between neutrons and x-rays - especially using isotopic and spin polarisation contrast will be illustrated along with some challenges which might well be met in the next ten to 15 years. In meeting these challenges it is inevitable that the enormous growth in power of computing systems will play a key part. Computing must be combined very intimately in the design and interpretation of scattering experiments as well as the retention and the retrieval of experimental data. International organisations such as the International Union of Crystallography will play a part in this

  3. Cold fusion labeled fiasco of century

    The gamble of researchers B. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann to go public with their announcement of excess power from nuclear fusion at room temperature before they had solid evidence of fusion products is the scientific fiasco of the century, charges John R. Huizenga of the University of Rochester. He describes the claims of Pons and Fleischmann as a delusion and as pathological science. It would require belief in miracle after miracle for one to accept their discovery, he charges. Huizenga criticizes the researchers on several counts: they failed to challenge their own findings with control experiments and presentations to colleagues; they rushed to publication with unchecked and inaccurate data; they chose an unconventional method, a public press conference, to release scientific findings; their claims were not easily reproduced by others; and they lobbied Congress for funds before their claims were confirmed by independent researchers. Cold fusion producing excess power is an example of bad science where the normal rules and procedures of the scientific process were violated, Huizenga says

  4. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  5. Global phytoplankton decline over the past century.

    Boyce, Daniel G; Lewis, Marlon R; Worm, Boris

    2010-07-29

    In the oceans, ubiquitous microscopic phototrophs (phytoplankton) account for approximately half the production of organic matter on Earth. Analyses of satellite-derived phytoplankton concentration (available since 1979) have suggested decadal-scale fluctuations linked to climate forcing, but the length of this record is insufficient to resolve longer-term trends. Here we combine available ocean transparency measurements and in situ chlorophyll observations to estimate the time dependence of phytoplankton biomass at local, regional and global scales since 1899. We observe declines in eight out of ten ocean regions, and estimate a global rate of decline of approximately 1% of the global median per year. Our analyses further reveal interannual to decadal phytoplankton fluctuations superimposed on long-term trends. These fluctuations are strongly correlated with basin-scale climate indices, whereas long-term declining trends are related to increasing sea surface temperatures. We conclude that global phytoplankton concentration has declined over the past century; this decline will need to be considered in future studies of marine ecosystems, geochemical cycling, ocean circulation and fisheries. PMID:20671703

  6. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  7. [Physicians' households in the 16th century].

    Walter, Tilmann

    2008-01-01

    16th-century's medicine was marked by a wave of professionalization: besides scientific influences--evident by new ambitious texts on botany, anatomy, and chemiatry--functions of medical expertise for political purposes were an important factor. Based on findings made in my DFG-funded project "Arztliche Autorität in der Frühen Neuzeit" (medical authority in early modem times) is discussed how these influences altered the professional conditions for physicians. "Haushalt" (household) can be understood as a social community as well as a monetary budget in this context: physicians earned their money with a lot of different ventures beside medical practice, as commerce, farming, banking, or mining etc. Expenses for houses, gardens, interior etc. were based on needs of everyday life but could also be signs of luxury. Thus the physicians demonstrated the high social status they had acquired, and some of them thereby placed themselves at one social level with the nobility. Even scientific books can be estimated as a special case of such a conspicuous consumption for in most cases publishing made high investments without monetary benefit necessary. Thus scientific reputation was to some degree foreseeable: epoch-making books like above all Andreas Vesalius' "De humani Corporis fabrica libri septem" (Basel 1543) had to be financed out of the assets of the family (in Vesalius' case: a high-standing family in the emperor's services). Other sources show clearly that many doctors were not able to afford publishing comparable elaborated and expensive books. PMID:19830955

  8. Oil, gas and the environment: what approach by R and D in exploration-production for the end of the century

    This article begins by recalling a statement made at the 15th World Energy Council (Madrid, September 1992): 'during the next 30 years, fossil energy sources will continue to be the basis for all energy supplies'. By looking at the conditions of this assertion within a difficult geopolitical context, it shows that one of the privileged routes is to increase research efforts to make scientific and technological advances that will make it possible to fulfill the demand for oil and gas at the start of the 21st century. The R and D effort required to make oil and gas technologies available for the next decade calls for concerted research to be done, for only coordinated research will prevent the dispersal of French efforts. Increasing economically exploitable reserves, mastering production costs and reducing the costs of 'gas chains' from producing fields to consumer regions, while ensuring environmental production, are the challenges that have to be faced. To cope with these expectations for the industry, great research efforts must be made in the corresponding scientific areas so as to gain a better understanding of phenomena and to develop the most suitable solutions. All in all, scientific and technological progress required for the increasing of economically exploitable reserves, for gaining greater accessibility to oil and gas resources, and to better target use of energy in the face of environmental production, require an appreciable increase in research efforts. Such a policy is inconceivable without having recourse to more widespread partnership and without incentives and substantial financing by both French and European public authorities. 11 figs., 3 plates

  9. The Nabataean Age (4th century BC - 1st century AD)

    Augé, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We do not know the exact origins of the Nabataeans; they are a nomadic people from Arabia who settled in present-day Jordan between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. In 312, they already occupied the former lands of the Edomites, between Wadi al-Hasa (Zered) and the Gulf of Aqaba (Aila), and resisted Antigone, one of Alexander’s successors. The control of trade routes ensured their wealth. During the Hellenistic period, Petra, a storage area and shelter, became the capital of a kingdom that exten...

  10. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  11. Nuclear power in the 21st century

    Full text: All plausible long term energy scenarios project significant growth of global energy, especially if the Millennium Declaration on poverty eradication and the Plan of Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) are to be met. Projected growth is the fastest in developing countries. While growth for affordable energy services is not subject to debate really - the question is rather by how much - this is not the case for energy supply. 21st century energy supply systems face several challenges and uncertainties including energy resource availability, technology change, environmental compliance, reliability and security, political and social acceptance. One of the uncertainties concerns the role of nuclear power in 21st century energy supplies. Paradoxically, its near term role appears less certain that its longer term role. In the short-run, i.e., until 2020, most studies project either a slight increase, a slight decrease or no change at all. Though regional differences exist in terms of growth and decline, the effectively balance each other. Longer-term energy demand and supply studies, however, paint a different future. Analyses developed by international working groups generally project a potentially significant increase in the use of nuclear power. There are several reasons for this. Foremost, longer-term studies are not subjected to short-term policy constraints. Next, they do factor anticipated technology change and innovation into the analysis. Then resource depletion effects become more visible and environmental constraints become more stringent. The starting point of this paper is the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Based on four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families, this paper discusses the compatibility requirements of each for nuclear energy in terms of economics, environment, supply security, resources, waste

  12. The general physics theory for 21 century

    By solving the coupled system of kinetic equations for interacting system of electrons positrons (holes) and photons (phonons) at high external electric, arbitrary magnetic and at the propagation of strong electromagnetic waves non-equilibrium and non-stationary distribution function of photons (phonons) and charge carriers by taking into account of arbitrary heating and mutual drag of carriers and photons (phonons) was found. Author was sure that received him in 1976 distribution function of photons (phonons) must lay on the basis of Theoretical Physics of 21 Century, as the equilibrium Planck's distribution function of black-body radiation received in 1900 lied on the basis of Quantum Physics of 20 Century. Authors many years mental work (from 1976 till today) confirmed the rightness of searched him way and leads to the conclusion that Kinetic Theory is more general and fundamental theory of nature, which unificated Non-stationary Dynamics (the left-hand side) with Non-stationary Statistical Mechanics (the right-hand side) of Kinetic Equation. It is shown that other sections of Theoretical Physics such as Newtonian, Hamiltonian and Relativistic Classical Mechanics, Quantum Physics, Optics, Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Particle Physics may be received from Kinetic Theory under the special conditions and are the special parts of this theory. The problems such as the irreversibility and instability, the paradox of time, quantum paradox and others are solved. This new General Theory explains all the problems and troubles contents with the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics and relativity. It was found the mechanism of quantization and transition from one energetic level to another,the squeezed effect, the transition of particles wave-packets through the energetic barriers. It is shown the possibility of superluminal motion of light pulses and wave-packets through the medium and photonic barriers. It is well known that the experiments

  13. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  14. Network Medium and New Century Literature Reforming

    Zhen-bang JIN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Media determines the artistic configuration and the developmental rhythm of literature. Web literature, as being developed from the new media, has brought crisis to traditional mainstream literature. Internet has expanded new living space for literature and accelerated the artistic fission and historical transformation of literature in the new century. Web media is changing the content, form and method of literature comprehensively. The new media has brought new concept, expressional means, style, aesthetic taste,critical perspective and exploring space. Media theory, as a brand new perspective of literature study, is not only one of the current scientific theories in literature study, it will also revert the traditional literary history and redescribe the evolutional path of the world literature.
    Key words: web media; the new century; literature; transformation
    Résumé: Le média détermine la configuration artistique et le rythme du développement de la littérature. Etant développé à partir des nouveaux médias, le Web littérature a mis la littérature traditionnelle dans la crise. Internet a élargi nouvel espace de vie pour la littérature et accéléré la fission artistique et la transformation historique de la littérature dans le nouveau siècle. Web média est en train de changer le contenu, la forme et la méthode de la littérature. Les nouveaux médias ont créé de nouveaux concepts, de nouveaux moyens d’expression, du style, des goûts esthétiques, des perspectives critiques et des espaces d’exploration. La théorie des médias, comme une toute nouvelle perspective d'études de la littérature, n'est pas seulement l'une des théories scientifiques actuelles en littérature, mais aussi le retour de l’histoire de la littérature traditionnelle et une nouvelle description du trajet évolutif de la littérature mondiale.
    Mots-clés: web média; le nouveau siècle; littérature; transformation

  15. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  16. New Century Local Government: Commonwealth Perspectives

    Gareth Wall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This ambitious and highly informative volume is premised on both the seismic shift in the perceived developmental role of local government across the globe, and the challenges that local governments will face as their key role in achieving the post-2015 sustainable development goals is increasingly being recognised within the global policy fora. New Century Local Government brings together an impressively wide geographic spread of country case studies from across the four regions of the Commonwealth, and pulls together work by leading scholars of local government who are all members of the Commonwealth Local Government Research Advisory Group (CLGF-RAG. It provides a plethora of detailed country case studies arranged around three themes: decentralisation in the Caribbean, Pakistan and England, local government finance and local economic development in India, South Africa and Tanzania, and new approaches to governance in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Not only do the papers provide detailed accounts of the changes in policy and practice within their focus country cases – but many of them, notably the papers by Brown, Reid, McKinlay and Sansom include a comparative perspective with developments from Commonwealth countries in other regions, which is one of the key strengths of the volume. It is also the raison d’être of comparative work across the countries of the Commonwealth, given the shared legal and administrative histories and the dominance of English as the academic and often administrative lingua franca. It would have been great to see more of the cross-regional and cross-country lessons being drawn out from across the contributions in a final concluding chapter, but the editors leave this to the reader – possibly to ensure they read the volume in full.

  17. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  18. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  19. The development of clocks into the eighteenth century

    Dugan, David

    2004-01-01

    The advantages of clocks with escapements over water clocks, that they can be miniaturized. The superb chronometers of the seventeenth century onwards, Harrison and others. The emergence of clockmakers and precise engineering. Superb luxury goods. Simon Schaffer explains.

  20. Management of proximal humeral fractures in the nineteenth century

    Brorson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus have troubled patients and medical practitioners since antiquity. Preradiographic diagnosis relied on surface anatomy, pain localization, crepitus, and impaired function. During the nineteenth century, a more thorough understanding ...

  1. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  2. Regulating Homeopathic Products - A Century of Dilute Interest.

    Podolsky, Scott H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-01-21

    In 2015, U.S. government agencies began considering greater regulation of both homeopathic drugs and the advertising of such products. These actions came after more than a century of missed opportunities to regulate homeopathic medicines. PMID:26789866

  3. Psychological symptoms and medical responses in nineteenth-century India.

    Radhika, P; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-03-01

    The article documents medical approaches to mental illness in mid- to late-nineteenth-century India through examining the Indian Medical Gazette and other medical accounts. By the late nineteenth century, psychiatry in Europe moved from discussions around asylum-based care to a nuanced and informed debate about the nature of mental symptoms. This included ideas on phrenology and craniometry, biological and psycho-social causes, physical and drug treatments, many of which travelled to India. Simultaneously, indigenous socio-medical ideas were being debated. From the early to the mid-nineteenth century, not much distinction was made between the Western and the native 'mind', and consequently the diagnosis and investigation of mental symptoms did not differ. However, by the late nineteenth century Western medicine considered the 'Western mind' as more civilized and sophisticated than the 'native mind. PMID:25698688

  4. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  5. Timeliness: Interpretations from a Sample of 19th Century Newspapers.

    Brooker-Gross, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes a sample of nineteenth-century newspapers and argues that timeliness varied in value according to the origin of news such that technological improvements alone did not explain the decrease in time lag in news reporting. (FL)

  6. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  7. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  8. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  9. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  10. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  11. Power generation alternatives for the XXI century

    , that are everywhere are free, could be a limited source of energy free of CO2. Unfortunately these sources have several disadvantages that prevent them to be used efficiently for base load Power Generation. Another alternative, available right now, affordable and safe that proved to be reliable and economically competitive is Nuclear Power. In Argentina, thanks to Power generated by the Atucha and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, we avoid contaminating the air with 70.000.000 tons of Carbon Dioxide. Although we cannot assert that Nuclear Power alone will solve the Greenhouse effect, what we can conclude is that without an increasing participation of it, the global warming effect will not have a positive solution in the next century

  12. Alan Turing: person of the XXth century?

    Sánchez Ron, José M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Time” magazine chose Albert Einstein as “Person of the Century.” This was undoubtedly a reasonable choice, but as I will argue in this article, there are also good reasons for contending that Turing might have received this honor. One such reason I consider here is his purely scientific work, which stems from the greatest mathematical tradition, and how it affected the development of mathematics itself and was finally instrumental in shaping a new technological world. This is true both as regards the computation and treatment of information as well as the establishment of new forms of social relations. In relation to the foregoing, we have Turing’s contributions to the deciphering of secret codes during the Second World War, which in a somewhat metaphorical sense may be regarded as a new tool for undermining personal privacy, that civil right whose denial finally ruined his lifeEn diciembre de 1999, la revista Time eligió a Albert Einstein “The Person of the Century”. Fue, no cabe duda, una elección razonable, pero, como se argumenta en este artículo, existen también buenos argumentos para sostener que Turing podría haber recibido tal honor. En apoyo de semejante tesis están sus trabajos puramente científicos, que se esbozan aquí, trabajos que entroncan con la mejor tradición matemática, y cómo afectaron al desarrollo matemático, siendo finalmente instrumentales en la configuración de un nuevo mundo tecnológico, tanto en lo que al cálculo y manejo de información se refiere, como en lo relativo al establecimiento de nuevas formas de relaciones sociales. Relacionadas con lo anterior, se encuentran las aportaciones que hizo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial al desciframiento de códigos secretos, que, en cierto sentido, metafórico, se pueden considerar como una nueva herramienta para socavar la privacidad, ese derecho civil cuya negación arruinó su propia vida.

  13. Innovative fission reactors for this century

    of the 21st Century both innovative fission reactors and fusion reactors. For 2025, it seems that many countries of EU will have to construct NPPs until 40 GWe: France, UK, Germany, North Europe, Russia, Spain, Rumania and Turkey, between others. The viability of these innovative concepts will be presented in this paper

  14. Challenges for chemical sciences in the 21st century

    Čeković Živorad

    2004-01-01

    Chemistry and chemical engineering have changed very significantly in the last half century. From classical sciences they have broadened their scope into biology, medicine, physics, material science, nanotechnology, computation and advanced methods of process engineering and control. The applications of chemical compounds, materials and knowledge have also dramatically increased. The development of chemical sciences in the scientifically most advanced countries, at the end of the last century...

  15. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Helen Emasealu; Susan Nnadozie Umeozor

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, car...

  16. How urban was fifth-century BC Bourges?

    Kaenel, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    These two simultaneously published works mark an important stage in French Iron Age research, for the end of the early (or first) Iron Age and beginning of the later (or second) Iron Age, i.e. the Hallstatt D and La Tene A phases. The discoveries made since the nineteenth century in Bourges in central France carried out as a prerequisite of urban and suburban redevelopment since the 1980s, have radically altered our understanding of the sixth and fifth centuries BC.

  17. Through Travelogues in the Holy Land (XVI-XIX centuries)

    François Laplanche

    2008-01-01

    The ternary division of this article is both chronological and thematic: in the Middle Ages, a pilgrimage was an act of penitence associated with the doctrine of indulgences, and devout motivation dominates travels in the Holy Land up to and including the 17th century. Curiosity was kindled along with humanism and the return to the Scriptures, but it did not really expand until the end of the seventeenth century, in a political context characterized by the stagnation and decline of the Ottoma...

  18. Geotectonic hypotheses at the beginning of the 21st century

    Strutinski, C.; Stan, R.; Puste, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution to the volume honouring Ott Ch. Hilgenberg the main directions of thought in the field of geotectonics at the beginning of the 21st century are reviewed. However, because of its seminal importance for the geological thinking during most of the last century, the Wegener (continental drift) hypothesis is also included and opens the review. It is followed by the critical presentation of Plate tectonics and the hypotheses of Earth expansion, Surge tectonics and Wrench tectoni...

  19. Danish ferocity and abandoned monasteries: the twelfth-century view

    Barrow, J

    2015-01-01

    Apart from brief accounts of attacks on Lindisfarne and Donemutha in the 790s, there are almost no accounts of Viking attacks on Anglo-Saxon monasteries in contemporary sources. There are however many in twelfth century sources, most of them fictive or largely so. This article tries to explain why twelfth-century authors found it so important to invent stories of Viking brutality towards monks and nuns and what ideas and material they used to create their stories.

  20. Nineteenth century criminal justice: uniquely Irish or simply not English?

    Howlin, Niamh

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the supposed uniqueness of the Irish criminal justice system in the nineteenth century. Although the English and Irish systems of criminal justice shared common roots, by the nineteenth century it was becoming apparent that there were differences in the way that law and justice were perceived and administered. The post-Famine years had a significant (and arguably negative) impact upon British perceptions of the Irish. This article examines both general ...

  1. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    Fedoroff, N. V.

    2010-02-11

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century\\'s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn of the century.

  3. Monetary thought of the sixteenth century muslim scholars

    Islahi, Abdul Azim

    2006-01-01

    Muslim scholars of the sixteenth century continued the tradition of writing on economic issues. Their work, however is characterized by the period's overall feature of imitation and repetition and thus reflects hardly any advancement of monetary thought since the works of earlier Muslim scholars. This is clearly reflected in the two representative treatises on money: those of al-Suyuti (d. 1506) written at the beginning of the century, and al-Tumurtashi (d. 1598), written at its the end. ...

  4. Scientific instrument collections in nineteenth-century Spanish secondary schools

    Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón; Mar CUENCA LORENTE; García Belmar, Antonio; Josep SIMON CASTEL

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the history of scientific instrument collections in Spanish secondary schools, focusing especially on the period around their establishment in the mid-nineteenth century. It describes their most important features as well as their promoters and main users. Attention is also paid to the teaching practices which encouraged different uses of scientific instruments in nineteenth-century classrooms and the reasons that lead to the progressive abandonment of ninet...

  5. The Long Twentieth Century and Barriers to China's Hegemonic Accession

    John Gulick

    2015-01-01

    Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century is an almost unfathomably ambitious andcomplex work. Its monumentality derives from Arrighi 's conviction that the best way to handicapthe possible futures of the world capitalist geo-economy is to analyze the structural evolution ofthis global system, an evolution spanning more than five centuries; the genius of the work rests inthe distinctive approach that Arrighi takes. At the core of his approach is the identification ofthose long-term trends...

  6. The gas industry at the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    The beginning of gas industry in nineteenth and twentieth centuries is related here and opens on the nowadays natural gas industry. Clean, cheap, easy to handle, the only problems seem to be the transport and the storage but technologies work to solve them. The natural gas should take an important place in the next century and seems to be the only substitution energy source for some countries where pollution is a big problem such eastern Europe countries. (N.C.)

  7. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-01-01

    Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of lon...

  8. Court Intervention, The Consent Decree, and The Century Freeway

    Baker, Jace; Detlefson, Robert; Van Hengel, Dru; Hestermann, Dean; Nordenstam, Brenda

    1991-01-01

    The Glenn Anderson Freeway-Transitway (the Century Freeway or 1-105) an Los Angeles County, to cost over two billion dollars, traverses nine cities and the County of Los Angeles. At completion in 1993, the Century Freeway will be seventeen miles long, six lanes wide, contain areas for high occupancy vehicles and for rail transit; it will be landscaped and noise attenuated, and it will be surrounded by thousands of units of housing which are linked to its development.

  9. Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes

    Forest, Chris E.; Stone, Peter H; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change observations from the 20th century. First, we compare observed changes in surface, upper-air, and deep-ocean temperature changes against simulations of 20th century climate in which the climate model parameters were systematically varied. The estimated 90% range of effecti...

  10. The Higher Spaces of the Late Nineteenth-Century Novel

    Mark Blacklock

    2013-01-01

    This essay builds from Isobel Armstrong’s identification of Kantian space as ‘foundational’ for the nineteenth-century novel to consider what happens to the novel after the emergence of a new type of space. It shows how the development of 'n'-dimensional space in a variety of cultural contexts in the second half of the nineteenth century complicated key Kantian propositions and specifically the idea of incongruent counterparts. It reads a deliberately esoteric array of fictions concerned with...

  11. Deliberate birth spacing in nineteenth century northern Sweden

    Kolk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fertility in nineteenth century Europe before the fertility transition has been described as high, unregulated, and stable; the extent of fertility control remains a controversial topic. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is evidence of deliberate birth spacing in northern Sweden prior to the onset of the fertility transition. This study analyses micro-level parish records of 9,636 women in nineteenth century northern Sweden?a remote but, at the time, econ...

  12. Ethnocultural processes of the Evenks in XIX century

    Belyanskaya M. H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the ethno-cultural processes of the Evenks of Siberia in the XIX century article are showed. Being a nomadic reindeer herders, the Evenks conducted the traditional way of life, based on the traditions and customs of their people. In XIX cen-tury there was a change in the culture of the ethnic group, which was reflected in the materials of the census of the population of Russia 1897.

  13. External forcing of the early 20th century Arctic warming

    Lingling Suo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The observed Arctic warming during the early 20th century was comparable to present-day warming in terms of magnitude. The causes and mechanisms for the early 20th century Arctic warming are less clear and need to be better understood when considering projections of future climate change in the Arctic. The simulations using the Bergen Climate Model (BCM can reproduce the surface air temperature (SAT fluctuations in the Arctic during the 20th century reasonably well. The results presented here, based on the model simulations and observations, indicate that intensified solar radiation and a lull in volcanic activity during the 1920s–1950s can explain much of the early 20th century Arctic warming. The anthropogenic forcing could play a role in getting the timing of the peak warming correct. According to the model the local solar irradiation changes play a crucial role in driving the Arctic early 20th century warming. The SAT co-varied closely with local solar irradiation changes when natural external forcings are included in the model either alone or in combination with anthropogenic external forcings. The increased Barents Sea warm inflow and the anomalous atmosphere circulation patterns in the northern Europe and north Atlantic can also contribute to the warming. In summary, the early 20th century warming was largely externally forced.

  14. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  15. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  16. The Second Century of Ability Testing: Some Predictions and Speculations. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series.

    Embretson, Susan E.

    This report asserts that rapid changes in many areas, such as technology and communications, marked the 20th century, the first century of ability testing. Predictions about the second century of testing seem difficult in such a context. Yet, looking back to the turn of the last century, E. Kirkpatrick (1900) in his American Psychological…

  17. Italian musicians in Greece during the nineteenth century

    Romanou Ekaterini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, the monophonic chant of the Orthodox church and its neumatic notation have been transmitted as a popular tradition up to the first decades of the 20th century. The transformation of Greek musical tradition to a Western type of urban culture and the introduction of harmony, staff notation and western instruments and performance practices in the country began in the 19th century. Italian musicians played a central role in that process. A large number of them lived and worked on the Ionian Islands. Those Italian musicians have left a considerable number of transcriptions and original compositions. Quite a different cultural background existed in Athens. Education was in most cases connected to the church - the institution that during the four centuries of Turkish occupation kept Greeks united and nationally conscious. The neumatic notation was used for all music sung by the people, music of both western and eastern origin. The assimilation of staff notation and harmony was accelerated in the last quarter of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century in Athens a violent cultural clash was provoked by the reformers of music education all of them belonging to German culture. The clash ended with the displacement of the Italian and Greek musicians from the Ionian Islands working at the time in Athens, and the defamation of their fundamental work in music education.

  18. Scientific instrument collections in nineteenth-century Spanish secondary schools

    José Ramón BERTOMEU SÁNCHEZ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on the history of scientific instrument collections in Spanish secondary schools, focusing especially on the period around their establishment in the mid-nineteenth century. It describes their most important features as well as their promoters and main users. Attention is also paid to the teaching practices which encouraged different uses of scientific instruments in nineteenth-century classrooms and the reasons that lead to the progressive abandonment of nineteenth-century collections along with the advent of new pedagogical ideas. First, we briefly describe the collections created at the end of the 18th century. Then we evaluate the mid nineteenth-century situation, when the Spanish Government supported several projects to provide the new secondary schools with comprehensive physics and chemistry cabinets. Finally, we offer a general overview of the current state of the collections and of several projects and proposals aimed at their use as historical sources, pedagogical tools and objects with great patrimonial and museum value.

  19. A century of trends in adult human height

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  20. Global Energy Challenges of the 21. Century and Nuclear Energy

    The paper considers the world energy demand till the middle of the century, as well as possible forecasting solution for this challenge. On the base of the mathematical model developed in the Kurchatov Institute in 2003- 2006, the vision of the global nuclear energy system and its potential contribution in the energy mix was analyzed. The rate of rapprochement between specific energy consumptions in different countries of the world is a key parameter determining the energy market strain. It was shown that a continuation of the current world trends of this rapprochement would result in an energy resource deficit already in the nearest future. The energy mix picture would contain an 'unsatisfied demand' area of about 10 000 Mtoe of total energy to be consumed by the mid-century Supposing that the mankind has to meet the 'unsatisfied demand' by nuclear energy, the global energy challenges of the 21. century energy do not impose any upper limit on nuclear energy development, the scale of which would be determined by development opportunities. Russia, as one of the pioneers of the First Nuclear Era, possesses great experience of solving the key issues of nuclear energy of the 20. century, and is capable to play an important role in dealing with the challenges faced by nuclear in the 21. century. (authors)

  1. From Sentiment to Sentimentality: A Nineteenth-Century Lexicographical Search

    Marie Banfield

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief account of the lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' in the nineteenth century, and the table of definitions which follows it, grew from my increasing sense of the shifting and ambivalent nature of the term in the literature of the period, despite the resonance and the proverbial solidity of phrases such as ‘Victorian sentiment' and ‘Victorian sentimentality'. The table is self explanatory, representing the findings of a search, among a wide range of nineteenth-century dictionaries over the period, for the changing meanings accrued by the word ‘sentiment' over time, its extensions and its modifications. The nineteenth-century lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' has its chief roots in the Eighteenth-century enlightenment, with definitions from Samuel Johnson and quotations from John Locke, chiefly based on intellect and reason. The nineteenth century generated a number of derivatives of the word over a period of time to express altered modes of feeling, thought and moral concern. The history of the word ‘sentiment' offers a psychological as well as a linguistic narrative.

  2. GENESIS OF HEALTH - ORIENTED PHYSICAL CULTURE AT SCHOOLS OF RUSSIA (THE END OF THE XIX CENTURY - THE 80S OF THE XX CENTURY)

    Irina Irhina; Vladimir Irhin

    2011-01-01

    This work is devoted to genesis of ideas of Russian schoolchildren health maintenance, promotion and formation by physical training means within the period from the end of the XIX century till the 80s of the XX century. At the beginning of the XX century one of the perspective directions in development of the Russian physical training theory was scientific investigation of schoolchildren’s health improvement by physical culture means. At the end of the XIX century in the Russian physical cult...

  3. Philosophical roots of the "eternal" questions in the XX-century theoretical physics

    Ihnatovych, V.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of theoretical physics in the XX century differs significantly from that in XVII-XIX centuries. While continuous progress is observed for theoretical physics in XVII-XIX centuries, modern physics contains many questions that have not been resolved despite many decades of discussion. Based upon the analysis of works by the founders of the XX-century physics, the conclusion is made that the roots of the "eternal" questions by the XX-century theoretical physics lie in the philosoph...

  4. Thermal power - emerging scenario in the 21st Century

    The developing countries have to ensure that their development in the new millennium is supported by a strong infrastructure to meet the challenges of this century where survival would be of the fittest. In India, globalization of economy will be the main thrust in this century. Today self reliance and determination is needed to develop, adopt and implement new technologies which are more efficient and eco-friendly. The economy of the country calls for a higher rate of growth in the power infrastructure. To ensure the momentum of 7 per cent overall growth in the economy, India need about 12-14 per cent growth in power generation. In power sector, selection of resources, systems, fuel options and appropriate technology would be major determinants that will decide the success for sustained development in the new century

  5. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes. PMID:17152882

  6. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  7. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  8. A History of the Danubian Costume in the XIXth Century

    Cristina Partenie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we attach a great importance to the clothes we wear from the moment we buy or make them, to the moment we decide if they are appropriate with our personal style, the place where we wear them or when we use them. If the XIXth century tries to preserve the tradition with great accuracy the way it was transmitted from generation to generation, in the tumultuous XXth century we attend to the birth of a real industry of fashion. Some reminiscences remain, however, which gives us the opportunity to draw up a study in this regard. The present paper intends to add information regarding the folk costumes in Galati County, especially in the XIXth century. It is a short presentation of some of the most traditional clothes such as: skirt, apron, hood, shirt male and shirt female, decorative designs, footwear; without claiming to have finished the subject we intend to go on with further research.

  9. Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries.

    Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier; Krusic, Paul J; Sundqvist, Hanna S; Zorita, Eduardo; Brattström, Gudrun; Frank, David

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling and prediction of the local to continental-scale hydroclimate response to global warming is essential given the strong impact of hydroclimate on ecosystem functioning, crop yields, water resources, and economic security. However, uncertainty in hydroclimate projections remains large, in part due to the short length of instrumental measurements available with which to assess climate models. Here we present a spatial reconstruction of hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries across the Northern Hemisphere derived from a network of 196 at least millennium-long proxy records. We use this reconstruction to place recent hydrological changes and future precipitation scenarios in a long-term context of spatially resolved and temporally persistent hydroclimate patterns. We find a larger percentage of land area with relatively wetter conditions in the ninth to eleventh and the twentieth centuries, whereas drier conditions are more widespread between the twelfth and nineteenth centuries. Our reconstruction reveals that prominent seesaw patterns of alternating moisture regimes observed in instrumental data across the Mediterranean, western USA, and China have operated consistently over the past twelve centuries. Using an updated compilation of 128 temperature proxy records, we assess the relationship between the reconstructed centennial-scale Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate and temperature variability. Even though dry and wet conditions occurred over extensive areas under both warm and cold climate regimes, a statistically significant co-variability of hydroclimate and temperature is evident for particular regions. We compare the reconstructed hydroclimate anomalies with coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations and find reasonable agreement during pre-industrial times. However, the intensification of the twentieth-century-mean hydroclimate anomalies in the simulations, as compared to previous centuries, is not supported

  10. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  11. Theories of Space and the Nineteenth-Century Novel

    Isobel Armstrong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the construction of a spatial and interspatial subject in the nineteenth-century novel, examining initially the epistemologies of space developed by Kant and Hegel, and concluding with discussion of two further theorists of space, Bachelard and Lefebvre. It deploys this rich array of theorization to illuminate strategies through which the nineteenth-century novelist creates situatedness in language, asking how 'does' the novel represent space, and arguing that if we take away this almost miraculous verbal construction of space there is not much left to the novel.

  12. Five centuries of ways to the revival of the Olympics

    Bubka S.N.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the revival of the Olympic Games in the countries of Western, Central Europe and North America in the period from XV to XIX centuries. Prerequisites including society humanization, development of education, science and major national systems of physical education, development of competitive sports in different organizational forms and scales, which contributed to the creation of the environment initiating the revival of the Olympics, have been considered. The role of personalities in the revival of the Olympic movement during five centuries of the historical development of the society has been shown.

  13. Lucas and patriotism in mid-eighteenth century Ireland.

    Magennis, E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the extent to which Charles Lucas can be described as a typical patriot in mid-eighteenth century Ireland. The political ideas and practices of Irish patriots of the mid-eighteenth century belong to broad spectrum including opposition MPs, anti-Catholic rhetoricians and questioners of the usefulness of the penal laws, economic pamphleteers and individuals interested in recovering Ireland's history and antiquities. Lucas was significant in that he sometimes inhabited all of these political and cultural guises, but also mobilised the Dublin public in political campaigns and was striking in his voluminous output in newspapers and pamphlets. PMID:25609188

  14. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century

    Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

    2012-01-01

    The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

  15. Book advertisements in Osijek’s 19th century newspapers

    Maja Krtalić

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the promotion of books through advertising in the newspapers published in Osijek in the second half of the 19th century. From late 18th century and in the course of the 19th century’s intense developments in the publishing of newspapers and journals, advertising in this medium was one of the ways to promote books. Booksellers and publishers advertised books in newspaper ads, relying on the fact that newspapers had become a common and omnipresent medium for disseminating...

  16. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    1990-01-01

    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  17. Immigration and Crime in Early 20th Century America

    MOEHLING, CAROLYN; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  18. Palaeopathology of human remains of the 1st century BC–3rd century AD from Armenia (Beniamin, Shirakavan I)

    Khudaverdyan Anahit Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to document the pathology of the individuals from the archeological sites of Beniamin and Shirakavan I, Armenia, dated on the 1st century BC - 3rd century AD. The findings revealed that two groups differed in mean age at death of adults. At Beniamin it was 24 years, 40.8 years for males and 30.9 years for females, whereas at Shirakavanit it was 29.3 years, 29.6 years for males and 35.8 years for females. The greatest mortality appeared to have occurred when the chi...

  19. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

    John O. Voll

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to a long jihad tradition in West Africa. Its emergence follows well-established patterns of older militant Muslim groups, but it also departs significantly from those patterns as it shapes itself as a movement in the patterns of contemporary, twenty-first century modes of religious violence. Boko Haram is also identified, in twenty-first century terms, as a religious terrorist organization. As a religious terrorist group, it fits the pattern of what David Rapoport calls the fourth wave—the religious wave—of modern terrorism. However, in the second decade of the twenty-first century, Boko Haram exhibits characteristics of a new style of religious terrorism that is more like the so-called Islamic State than the older type of terrorist organization of al-Qa’idah.

  20. 21st Century Readers' Aids: Past History and Future Directions

    Smith, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of library subject guides (often referred to as pathfinders) from the late 1800s to the present. During this period, subject guides have changed both their focus and format. The needs of academic institutions at the turn of the 20th century were very different than they are today, and…

  1. Antikythera Calculator advances modern science of 19 centuries

    Pastore, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The Greek astronomic calculator, discovered in the depth of the sea in a naval wreckage of the 1st century B.C. in front of the island of Antikythera, is the most amazing among the archaeological discoveries of last century. The mechanism immediately appeared like a device out of its time. After years of study this devise is still provoking a discussion between scientists and archaeologists because of the complexity and the modernity of the scientific knowledge the work presupposes. Its epicyclical gearings show the high level of the scientific culture reached in that period of history. The knowledge of the planetary motion, necessary to the design of the epicyclic gearing of the Calculator of Antikythera, presumes that ancient Greek scientists knew the planetary motion of the celestial bodies and had already achieved the same results that have been attributed to scientists 19 centuries later. The scientific value of this gear mechanism is indisputable because the inventor of the Calculator of Antikythera had the knowledge that was "re-discovered" centuries later as the heliocentric theory proposed by Niccolò Copernicus in 1543 ( De revolutionibus orbium coelestium), the universal gravitation law formulated by Isaac Newton in 1687 ( Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica), and the kinematic study of the epicyclical gearings published by Robert Willis in 1841 ( Principles of mechanism).

  2. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  3. ASBO at 100: A Century of School Business Management

    School Business Affairs, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO) at a century of school business management. As ASBO International celebrates its centennial, one should reflect on the truth of this often-heard quote and how it applies to the field of school business management in general and the association in particular.…

  4. A Century of Xenophobia in Fiction Series for Young People.

    Deane, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the treatment of foreign characters in adolescent fiction series of the twentieth century. Numerous examples of stereotypical images, portrayals of foreign inferiority, dialect, and derogatory designations are provided, along with some positive images. The potential impact on adolescent readers is discussed. (43 references) (CLB)

  5. Tidal power - a major prospect for the 21st century

    Tidal power technology is reviewed and its prospects for the next century assessed. It is concluded that the technology is now in place and, given the political will to secure financing, tidal power offers a clean, renewable and sustainable source of power for the near future. (UK)

  6. Interactionism in Personality in the Twentieth Century. Research Report #146.

    Endler, Norman S.; Edwards, Jean M.

    This paper examines the historical development of the interaction model of personality in the 20th century. The philosophical roots of interactionism can be traced to the writings of Aristotle and Descartes. One of the earliest interactionist positions in psychology can be found in the works of Kantor (1924, 1926). Although theoretical interest in…

  7. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  8. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  9. Educational Expansion and Social Mobility in the 20th Century

    Breen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists consider inequality in educational attainment to be a major cause of inequality between people in their chances of occupying a more advantageous class position. However, there is dispute as to whether educational inequality according to social class background declined during the 20th century. What is not in doubt is the expansion of…

  10. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  11. Tree fruit breeding for the 21st Century

    Fruit producers world-wide are facing challenges including climate change, reductions in available labor, the need for reduced chemical inputs, the spread of native and exotic pests and pathogens, and consumer demands for improved fruit quality and health benefits. Over the past quarter century, ou...

  12. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  13. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  14. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  15. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  16. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  17. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  18. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  19. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  20. 21st Century Skills and the Physics Classroom

    Rigeman, Sally; Bruecken, Peter

    2009-11-01

    What content knowledge and skills will today's physics students need to acquire to be successful employees in the 21st century? How can today's physics classrooms prepare students for collaboration in a global work environment? What kind of instruction can engage physics students in learning that supports these demands? Attend this session to find out what motivates today's Net Generation.

  1. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

  2. Local/global: women artists in the nineteenth century

    D. Cherry; J. Helland

    2006-01-01

    Local/Global: Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century is the first book to investigate women artists working in disparate parts of the world. This major new book offers a dazzling array of compelling essays on art, architecture and design by leading writers: Joan Kerr on art in Australia by resident

  3. The Metaphysical Structure of Education in the 20th Century.

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Lists presuppositions or assumptions that have been fundamental to educational thought in this century. Explores the "metaphysics of education" through a historical comparison and contrast of Eastern and Western educational thought and development. Discusses universal schooling as necessary for economic success and industrialization in the…

  4. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  5. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

    Alicja Przybyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  6. Feeding the world in the twenty-first century.

    Conway, G; Toenniessen, G

    1999-12-01

    The gains in food production provided by the Green Revolution have reached their ceiling while world population continues to rise. To ensure that the world's poorest people do not still go hungry in the twenty-first century, advances in plant biotechnology must be deployed for their benefit by a strong public-sector agricultural research effort. PMID:10591226

  7. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  8. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  9. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  10. Teachers' Lyceums in Early Nineteenth-Century America

    Spearman, Mindy

    2009-01-01

    Most historians interested in the cultural history of nineteenth-century America are familiar with the lyceum movement, first popularized by Massachusetts' Josiah Holbrook. While lyceums were extremely popular during the 1820s and 1830s, they disappeared with the advent of the Civil War--though later providing inspiration for Chautauquan lectures…

  11. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  12. Vision for a 21st Century Information Infrastructure.

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    In order to ensure that the United States maintains an advanced information infrastructure, the Council on Competitiveness has started a project on the 21st century infrastructure. Participating in this project are the many different parties who are providing and using the infrastructure, including cable companies, regional Bell companies, long…

  13. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  14. A Quarter Century of TV Food Advertising Targeted at Children.

    Gamble, Margaret; Cotugna, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed current trends in television advertising targeting children, comparing results to the historical perspective of the last quarter century. Researchers evaluated 16 hours of Saturday morning children's programming on four network channels for commercial content based on Food Guide Pyramid and USDA Child Nutrition criteria. Overall,…

  15. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  16. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  17. Twenty-first Century Ethical Challenges for Psychology

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    2007-01-01

    Foreseeable social and technological changes will force us to reevaluate our thinking about ethically appropriate ways to fulfill our mission of using psychology to advance human health and welfare in the twenty-first century. Three categories of challenge related to societal and technological changes have become particularly evident. First,…

  18. Psychological Testing and Assessment in the Twenty-first Century.

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.

    As spinoffs of the current revolution in the cognitive and neurosciences, clinical neuropsychologists in the 21st century will be employing biological tests of intelligence and cognition which record individual differences in brain functions at the neuromolecular, neurophysiologic, and neurochemical levels. Assessment of patients will focus more…

  19. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  20. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...

  1. Monetary Romanticism, Currency and Central Banks in the Nineteenth Century

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    How do monetary institutions, such as currencies and central banks, interrelate to the construction of national communities? Using the national conflict between the Danish state and the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein in the nineteenth century as an exemplary case, this article demonstrates how bot...

  2. Time, Domesticity and Print Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Damkjær, Maria

    In this innovative study, Damkjær shows that nineteenth-century texts gave domesticity not just a spatial, but also a temporal dimension. Novels by Dickens and Gaskell, as well as periodicals, cookery books and albums, all showed domesticity as a process. Damkjær argues that texts’ material form...

  3. Representations in the Sixteenth-Century Arithmetic Books

    Madrid, María José; Maz-Machado, Alexander; León-Mantero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The research on the History of Mathematics and Mathematics Education has on textbook a useful tool to provide diverse types of information; this fact has led to the realization of many different studies focus on them. In this context, this work analyzes eight different sixteenth-century arithmetic books to know the different types of…

  4. Maria Edgeworth: Nineteenth Century Irish Female Pioneer of Science Education

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Murphy, Collette

    2009-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth was a nineteenth century novelist, primarily remembered for her adult and children's novels. Yet her book, "Letters for literary ladies" discussed the importance of science education for girls and in conjunction with her father, Richard Edgeworth, she wrote several treatises on education. Their book "Practical education" advocates…

  5. US Environmental Legislation and Biodiversity over the 20th Century

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    back throughout the development of the United States over the 20th century and continues into the present. We trace this evolution of federal political action to ask how the evolution of U.S. wildlife legislation reflects the tradeoffs between environment and development in spatial and temporal...

  6. The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century

    Resta, Paul; Flowers, Betty S.; Tothero, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the "The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century," a newly unveiled website jointly created by the Learning Technology Center of The University of Texas at Austin and The National Archives' 12 presidential libraries. This web-based resource provides access to the continually growing store of digitized assets from the…

  7. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  8. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  9. Forestry: from its origins to the XIX century

    Secondary information published in periodicals and books about the origin of the silvicultural activity. Which came along and even before the development of agriculture. Was used for this essay emphasis is put on the transformation of such activity into a science. silviculture or even better, forestry which is consolidated since the middle of the 18th- century when it is formally taught in Germany and other Germanic countries, and forestal services like the Prussian are created. The first theoretical concepts of sustainable development come from this time (G.L. Harting, H, Von Cotta) although since the 13th century forests organized with this philosophy already existed in central Europe. This is where sustainability, so much in fashion nowadays in ecology and economics. has its most remote antecedent. France also played an important role in the development of forestry specially for having included watershed management within forest sciences whereas German contributions were regarding economics and forest measurement. The origin of the profession seems to be in the English forest keepers and the French water and forest masters, from the beginning of the 12th and 13th century respectively. During the period of time studied, forest sciences had close relations with biological. Mathematical and economical sciences but not with the agricultural with which they seemed lo associate only towards the beginning of this century for circumstantial reasons tropical silviculture was born in India in the 19th century where the first teachers and researchers were German foresters hired by the English crown. In America it was also German foresters who founded the first forestry school in the United States and contributed to the creation of the forestry service in this country

  10. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  11. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century Century

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century.I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  12. Doctors and Their Patients in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries.

    Baschin, Marion; Dietrich-Daum, Elisabeth; Ritzmann, Iris

    2016-01-01

    How can these finings be interpreted in conclusion? Analysis has revealed firstly that, depending on the chosen period, the socio-geographical situation and the profile of the individual doctor's practice, the clientele varied widely in terms of gender, age and social rank. The consultation behaviour of men and women changed noticeably. Findings overall suggest that up until t8o the gender distribution varied in the individual practices. There was a trend for women to be overrepresented in urban practices during the earlier period. But in general, from the mid-nineteenth century they predominated - in towns as well as in the country in allopathic as well as homeopathic practices. The absence of children, which was bemoaned by many physicians, did not apply to the practices under investigation. On the contrary: the percentage is consistently high while older patients remained underrepresented right up until the end of the period under investigation, even though their proportion increased in the individual practices during the course of the nineteenth century In each of the nineteenth century practices investigated - and increasingly among the lower and middle classes - the physicians' services were used by several members of the same family. We have found no evidence to support the thesis that up until the nineteenth century academic physicians were mainly consulted by aristocratic or wealthy bourgeois patients. The theory probably applies only to early modern urban doctors. In the practices examined here, from the middle of the eighteenth century, patients from all social strata went to consult physicians. The participation of members of the lower classes or from an artisanal, (proto) industrial or agricultural background clearly increased over time 'despite ubiquitous economic and cultural barriers. That the annual numbers of consultations per physician increased - despite the growing number of physicians available - suggests that for economically disadvantaged

  13. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    Ryuto Shimada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together with the scattered data available on the first half of the nineteenth century. This paper suggests, first, that while it is known that Java’s economic relations with the outside world were heavily oriented toward trade with the Netherlands, this trend began in the late eighteenth century rather than with the introduction of the Cultivation System in 1830. Second, Java’s coastal trade also began to develop in the late eighteenth century. This trade was conducted by European traders and Asian indigenous traders, including overseas Chinese traders settled in Java. Third, trade with the Outer Islands declined in the late eighteenth century but resumed its expansion in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Fourth, intra-Asian trade with the region outside insular Southeast Asia declined in the long run, along with the decline and bankruptcy of the VOC, which had successfully engaged in this branch of intra-Asian trade since the seventeenth century.

  14. Landscape practices and representations in eighteenth-century Dongchuan, Southwest China

    Huang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    My doctorial thesis, entitled ‘Landscape Practices and Representations in Dongchuan, Southwest Eighteenth-Century China’, focuses on the interdisciplinary study of landscape, space and architecture in Southwest eighteenth-century China. Through intensive archival research and contemporary ethnograph

  15. Hypothesis Bound: Trial and Error in the Nineteenth Century.

    Cowles, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Like so many things, "trial and error" has a history. The term first emerged as the name for a technique in eighteenth-century mathematics pedagogy. In the nineteenth century, psychologists and biologists transformed "trial and error" from a mathematical tool into a developmental theory, one that could explain both the learning mind and life on earth. "Trial and error" can thus be seen as a case of the larger process whereby the tools we use to explain the world do not just influence but in many ways become our explanations--a process that the psychologist Gerd Gigerenzer has called the "tools-to-theories" heuristic. This essay uses Gigerenzer's concept to frame the evolution of "trial and error." By the end, it suggests how the historical relationship between tools and theories prompts a reconsideration of the terms and assumptions historians of science use in their own work. PMID:26685522

  16. CORRUPTION ONSET IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Gaukhar Kaliyeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discloses the public officers’ corruption at the end of 19th century. I have post-evaluated tsarist Russia legislative acts. We have emphasized legal-social essence of corruption. We have tried to reveal and proof that giving presents and gifts in return for various assistance in a Kazakh society is a regular thing. We have manifested the reasons for corruption among the governmental officials. Based on the research we have concluded that corruption was distinctive for the governmental officials of the peripheral region because of its specific features, legal traditions and incomplete legislative system of Russia, which by the end of the 19th century spread in Kazakhstan.

  17. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  18. [The interpretation of pulmonary tuberculosis in the 18th century].

    Bernier, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis took on alarming proportions in the 18th-century Europe. This study examines the ways learned medical practitioners presented the causes of the malady in Great Britain and France, by analyzing 12 medical treatises. Four etiological models appears to have dominated medical thinking in this context: theories that emphasize contagion; those which attribute the cause to physiological disorders; those which find the origin in hereditary predispositions; and those theories which observe a link with behaviour and lifestyles. The study also shows how one of these theories - the hereditary theory - eventually triumphed over the others and became the dominant for the better part of the 19th century, and will be examined within the context of the growth of liberal and individualist ideology. PMID:15977379

  19. Governance and Tradition in Nineteenth-Century Greenland

    Rud, Søren

    2014-01-01

    century reflect a fundamental shift in the rationality behind the colonial project in Greenland. This analytical point is reached through the deployment of the theoretical concept colonial governmentality. Following the work of scholars such as Nicholas Thomas, David Scott and Gyan Prakash, it is argued......: This article investigates the way in which the concept of tradition was evoked in the colonial policies in nineteenth-century Greenland. The author argues that ‘tradition’ provided colonial officials in Greenland with a strategy that enabled them to make fundamental changes appear as a...... that a significant shift toward social engineering techniques (of governance) happened in the period. The new techniques were employed in order to structure of the life world of the Greenlanders, and ultimately shape their individuality. Finally the article draws attention to the short and long term...

  20. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  1. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  2. Answering a century old riddle:brachydactyly type A1

    Bo GAO; Lin HE

    2004-01-01

    In 1903, Farabee analyzed the heredity of the human digital malformation, brachydactyly, the first recorded disorder of the autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. In 1951, Bell classified this type of brachydactyly as type A1 (BDA1). Over 100 cases from different ethnic groups have so far been reported. However, the real breakthrough in identifying the cause of BDA1 has only taken place in the last few years with the progress of the mapping and identification of one of the genes responsible for this disorder, thus providing an answer for a century old riddle. In this article, we attempt to review the current state of knowledge on the genetic features of BDA1 with its century-old history and signalling pathway of IHH, and also discuss genotype-phenotype correlation not only of BDA l, but also of all types of brachydactyly.

  3. Gerbert of Aurillac: astronomy and geometry in tenth century Europe

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    Gerbert of Aurillac was the most prominent personality of the tenth century: astronomer, organ builder and music theoretician, mathematician, philosopher, and finally pope with the name of Silvester II (999-1003). Gerbert introduced firstly the arabic numbers in Europe, invented an abacus for speeding the calculations and found a rational approximation for the equilateral triangle area, in the letter to Adelbold here discussed. Gerbert described a semi-sphere to Constantine of Fleury with built-in sighting tubes, used for astronomical observations. The procedure to identify the star nearest to the North celestial pole is very accurate and still in use in the XII century, when Computarix was the name of Polaris. For didactical purposes the Polaris would have been precise enough and much less time consuming, but here Gerbert was clearly aligning a precise equatorial mount for a fixed instrument for accurate daytime observations. Through the sighting tubes it was possible to detect equinoxes and solstices by obs...

  4. SN 1987A: The Supernova of the Century

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    Supernova 1987 A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most intensively studied objects in the universe and a Rosetta Stone for understanding the explosions of massive stars. Approaching its 25th anniversary, SN 1987 A is a very young supernova remnant, a phase previously unobserved in any other supernova. The supernova of the 20th Century is now the supernova remnant of the 21st Century. In this talk I will discuss recent observations from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared with HST, the VLT, Spitzer, and the Herschel Space Observatory. These data reveal new insights into the composition, geometry, and heating of the explosion debris, the shock interaction with circumstellar material, and dust in the SN 1987 A system.

  5. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  6. Javanese Women and Islam: Identity Formation since the Twentieth Century

    Kurniawati Hastuti Dewi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast research over the last three decades devoted to the lives and social interaction of Javanese women, little has been written on the formation of these women’s identity by focusing on its development from the twentieth century up to the early twenty-first. This paper endeavors to show that the religio-cultural identity of Javanese women was forged through a number of sociocultural circumstances. While revealing different features of the relationship between Javanese women and Islam, I shed light on the role Islam played, particularly since the early twentieth century, in providing transformative power to the role and status of Javanese Muslim women, manifested by the adoption of such Islamic dress codes as veiling, as also an important means of identity politics. I argue that new Islamic discourses have always been born out of the desire to challenge the conservative understanding of the role and status of Javanese women in different historical periods.

  7. Asymmetric Threats and Risks of the XXI Century

    The rapid technology development in the 21st century has a great influence over the dynamic arm competition, thus threats and risks increasing. They are sublimated in different forms of international terrorism and could produce crisis in the Region, and furthermore all round the world. The international community is faced with new challenges. Now, the territories are not the only targets of attacks. The result of the theoretical and empirical research leads towards to the non-existence of national crisis management capacity. The paper identifies the international scenario which is very complex and unpredictable in the diapason of the asymmetric threats, as well as a new priorities agenda of the international community in the 21st century. Therefore, a risk management model is suggested, too.(author)

  8. John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

  9. Societal response to wastes in the 20. century

    The generation and management of wastes has become one of the most pressing problems facing modern society. Though often depicted as a problem of a technical and environmental management nature, many aspects of the issue can be framed is sociological terms. This paper attempts to track the path of social perceptions of, and response to, wastes in western democracies from the turn of the century until the present day, and concludes by offering some ideas as to how perceptions and the consequent demands for information and involvement in decision-making on waste management may develop as we move into the 21. century. The focus of the paper is non-radioactive wastes, however, there is considerable overlap and commonalty with social responses to nuclear wastes. (authors)

  10. Advocating Inoculation in the Eighteenth Century: Exemplarity and Quantification.

    Eriksen, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Argument Smallpox inoculation was introduced in Europe in the early eighteenth century and has been considered the first mass treatment of disease based on practical use of probability calculations and mathematical tools of computation. The article argues that these new approaches were deeply entangled with other rationalities, most emphatically that of exemplarity. Changes in inoculation methods around mid-century gradually changed the conceptualization of disease, seeing all cases as fundamentally equal, and thus making it more relevant to count them. Arithmetic changed the ways of thinking about smallpox epidemics, but new ways of conceptualizing disease were vital to making it a matter of arithmetic at all. The article investigates what happened when numbers and figures were introduced into medical matters: Who did the figures really concern, and what types of argument were they fitted into? How were numbers transformed into metaphors, and how did quantitative argument work together with arguments from exemplarity? PMID:27171893

  11. Can we conquer cancer in the twenty-first century?

    Freireich, E J

    2001-08-01

    The twentieth century recorded the greatest advance in the control of human disease. From the beginning of recorded time, the human life-span changed little until the twentieth century. In the USA, it increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 76.4 years in 2000. The answer to the question of "Can we cure cancer in the twenty-first century?" requires an appreciation of the contemporary nature of our knowledge. At the beginning of the twentieth century, major problems were nutrition and infection. By 1950, the major causes of mortality and morbidity were still infectious diseases, such as syphilis, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, and influenza. The 1950s and 1960s were the golden age of control of infectious diseases, while cancer, because of the aging of the population and the strong association between cancer and age, has become the major healthcare problem of the twenty-first century. Until 1960, no one had proposed or demonstrated that a systemic or metastatic form of cancer could be cured. In only 35-40 years not only have techniques for the early detection, prevention, and surgical and radiation therapy treatments improved, but at least 15-20% of patients with systemic/metastatic cancers can be cured with our current primitive systemic treatments. Prior to 1943, there was no chemotherapy. Prior to 1948, no one had described complete regression of a systemic cancer. There were no multi-institution, randomized clinical trials prior to 1949. Additionally, combination chemotherapy, new drugs, bone marrow transplantation, broad-spectrum antibiotics to control infections, and platelets to control hemorrhage have been added in the past 50 years. The pace of progress extrapolates to a prediction of cancer control in the twenty-first century. The human genome has been sequenced, and it will be possible to identify expression profiles not only for malignant cells but for their normal counterparts. It is certain that interventions specific for control of the malignant

  12. The academician astronomers travelling in the 18th century.

    Dumont, S.; Débarbat, S.

    1999-04-01

    In the 18th century, astronomers of the Académie des sciences of Paris made various contributions to the improvement of navigation: terrestrial determinations of longitude which improved charts for navigators, testing of marine clocks for longitude determinations at sea. In order to resolve the Cassini-Newton controversy regarding the shape of the Earth, the Académie proposed in 1735, that two expeditions should be made with a view to measuring a meridian arc. The results concluded that the Earth was flat on the sides of the poles, as predicted by Newton. By the mid-18th century, the first purely astronomical expedition (La Caille, Cap of Good Hope) led to the creation of an austral celestial map and new parallaxes. Later, Chappe d'Auteroche, Le Gentil and Pingré travelled to observe two transits of Venus over the Sun (1761, 1769) for the improvement of the solar parallax.

  13. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  14. Topology and the Web of Twentieth Century Science

    Phillips, J C

    2009-01-01

    Scientific communication is an essential part of modern science: whereas Archimedes worked alone, Newton (1676) acknowledged that "If I have seen a little further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants." How is scientific communication reflected in the patterns of citations in scientific papers? How have these patterns changed in the 20th century, as both means of communication and individual transportation changed rapidly, compared to the earlier post-Newton 18th and 19th centuries? Here we discuss a physical model for scientific communications, based on an informetric study of 25 million papers and 600 million citations; the physical model itself relies on analogies with glass relaxation, where virtually identical patterns have been identified in 50 well designed experiments. The model reveals a surprisingly universal internal structure in the development of scientific research, which is essentially constant across the natural sciences, but which changed qualitatively around 1960.

  15. One century of cosmic rays – A particle physicist's view

    Sutton Christine

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on cosmic rays and the elementary particles share a common history that dates back to the 19th century. Following the discovery of radioactivity in the 1890s, the paths of the two fields intertwined, especially during the decades after the discovery of cosmic rays. Experiments demonstrated that the primary cosmic rays are positively charged particles, while other studies of cosmic rays revealed various new sub-atomic particles, including the first antiparticle. Techniques develope...

  16. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

    John O. Voll

    2015-01-01

    Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to ...

  17. New Testament Studies in the 20th Century

    Hurtado, Larry W

    2009-01-01

    Considered diachronically, NT studies in the twentieth century is a story of vigorous scholarship. Especially after World War II, there is increasing diversification in approach and in the makeup of scholars, with a noticeable shift of centre to English-speaking settings (especially North America), and greater involvement of Roman Catholic, Evangelical, and Jewish scholars, a growing prominence of women, and a proliferation of approaches.

  18. Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes

    A. B. A. Slangen; Carson, M; Katsman, C.A.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Köhl, A.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Stammer, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present regional sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates for the end of the 21 (st) century. We show regional projections of sea-level change resulting from changing ocean circulation, increased heat uptake and atmospheric pressure in CMIP5 climate models. These are combined with model- and observation-based regional contributions of land ice, groundwater depletion and glacial isostatic adjustment, including gravitational effects due to mass redistribution. A moderate an...

  19. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise.

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2015-01-22

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records.The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise. PMID:25629092

  20. Clothing the Poor in Nineteenth-Century England

    Richmond, Vivienne

    2013-01-01

    In this pioneering study Vivienne Richmond reveals the importance of dress to the nineteenth-century English poor, who valued clothing not only for its practical utility, but also as a central element in the creation and assertion of collective and individual identities. During this period of rapid industrialisation and urbanisation formal dress codes, corporate and institutional uniforms and the spread of urban fashions replaced the informal dress of agricultural England. This laid the found...

  1. Models of Utopia: Representations of Nineteenth-Century Paris

    Stone, Shiloh Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In the texts analyzed in this thesis, nineteenth-century Paris illustrates the utopian principles formulated by Karl Mannheim whose conceptualizations concern the social and moral order that makes up human existence. His utopia is characterized by human thoughts, behaviors, and actions. In our analysis of the works by Charles Fourier, Victor Hugo, and Emile Zola, common themes emerge as each writer undertakes the task of representing the past, present, and future Paris. They describe ideas of...

  2. Hermeneutics of differential calculus in eighteenth-century northern Germany.

    Blanco, Mónica

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies comparative textbook analysis to studying the mathematical development of differential calculus in northern German states during the eighteenth century. It begins with describing how the four textbooks analyzed presented the foundations of calculus and continues with assessing the influence each of these foundational approaches exerted on the resolution of problems, such as the determination of tangents and extreme values, and even on the choice of coordinates for both algebraic and transcendental curves. PMID:19244874

  3. Smelting Furnaces between XVI and XVIII century in New Spain

    Andrea Monroy Braham

    2015-01-01

    The Sixteenth century brought new techniques of mining extraction and transformation that substitute the ancient form of mining, handle by prehispanic cultures -like surface mining and small blast furnaces- to the New World. Although in all cases they were replaced, the old methods served to face the new conditions resulting in new extractive and transformation metallurgist constructions and new methods for drifting mining on barely develop mineral deposits in Nueva España. The study of the p...

  4. The XXI century guidance and its social responsibility

    Vallejo, Grisel; Oliveros, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to consider the XXI century guidance in Venezuela as a discipline with a high social commitment. As a program, must now be redefined in order to push for proposals leading to the inclusion of all those people, who have traditionally been excluded because of their race, ethnicity, gender or physical disability and social praxis as is aimed at facilitating the processes of human development dimensions of Being, Living, Serving, Knowing and Doing in the personal, family and commu...

  5. Death in the eighteenth-century novel, 1740-1800

    Moore, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis examines the development of the novel in the eighteenth century in relation to changing attitudes to death, and looks at how far shifting notions of the moral purpose of the novel and subsequent changes in its treatment of deathbed scenes, murders, duels, suicides and speculations about heaven and hell reflect changing beliefs and the modification of strict Christian ideals to accommodate or combat new feelings and philosophies. In establishing this backgroun...

  6. Self-organization of progress across the century of physics

    Matjaž Perc

    2013-01-01

    We make use of information provided in the titles and abstracts of over half a million publications that were published by the American Physical Society during the past 119 years. By identifying all unique words and phrases and determining their monthly usage patterns, we obtain quantifiable insights into the trends of physics discovery from the end of the 19th century to today. We show that the magnitudes of upward and downward trends yield heavy-tailed distributions, and that their emergenc...

  7. National schools of the XX century overseas human geography

    Шевчук, Сергій

    2016-01-01

    In the period between two world wars there was a final design of national schools in overseas human geography: German, American, British, French and Soviet. German human geography during the late nineteenth – early twentieth century most experienced revolutionary changes in its methodology, which was connected with the socio-political life of the country at that time. In the 1960s mathematical and statistical methods of social phenomena became particularly popular in the human-geographic stud...

  8. Five Centuries of Economic Growth in India: The Institutions Perspective

    Bhattacharyya, Sambit

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I present an analytical growth narrative of India since the sixteenth century. I argue that post independence economic performance is not entirely decoupled from the growth experiences in India during the Mughal and the colonial periods. Institutions perhaps play a key role in explaining economic performance over these periods. I present an analytical framework to understand how institutional change and other deep factors may have influenced economic performance in India during ...

  9. The phenomenon of biological evolution: 19th century misconception

    Balciunas, Dalius

    2009-01-01

    Scientists still think that biological evolution is driven by the process named natural selection. Perhaps this 19th century notion was indeed a revolutionary idea at the time when it has been introduced. However, now it seems that natural selection hypothesis most probably is wrong. It does not explain, above all, why biological organization arise in the course of evolution. I show, on a rather abstract level of consideration, that exists another explanation why this intriguing phenomenon -...

  10. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  11. Musical iconography by travel artists in nineteenth century Brazil

    Renato Moreira Varoni de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This article examines musical scenes with plucked chordophones in the works of the two most important travel artists in nineteenth century Brazil, the French painter Jean-Baptiste Debret, and the German artist Johann Moritz Rugendas. Differently from expected, their illustrations do not register any figure eight-shaped chordophone as the traditional viola and violão. Rather, one finds unknown, oval and piriform, instruments. However, beyond classificatory organology interests, this article po...

  12. Foreign Infusion: Overseas Foods and Drugs in Seventeenth Century England

    Azevedo, Jillian Michelle

    2014-01-01

    During the seventeenth century, the English were integrating foreign foods into their lives at an unprecedented, and previously unacknowledged, rate. This is apparent in both English homes and popular culture, as foreign foods were featured in contemporary recipe books, medical manuals, treatises, travel narratives, and even in plays performed during the period. Their inclusion in the English home and in popular culture is important; it illustrates that there was a general fascination with th...

  13. X Syndrome. The epidemic of the XXI century.

    Mirian Belkis Nápoles; Oscar D. Pérez Rodríguez; Misladys O. Santos

    2013-01-01

    The humanity has always been tied to the emergence of epidemics and pandemics that affect the course of the history, of the development in entire civilizations. In the epidemiologic transition that happened in last century, the control of transmissible illnesses with the progress of the science and the prevention, it brought about the appearance of chronic not transmissible illnesses. The metabolic syndrome (SM) also known as Multimetabolic Syndrome or X Syndrome, is only a constellation of f...

  14. Seventeenth-century telescope optics of Torricelli, Divini, and Campani

    Miniati, Mara; van Helden, Albert; Greco, Vincenzo; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2002-02-01

    Optics of telescope makers Torricelli, Divini, and Campani dating back to the 17th century have been tested interferometrically. It was found that the optical polishing technology had progressed to thorough control over the surface figure and finish, while the nearly paraxial conditions of the aperture remained constant. The instruments that were examined exemplify the knowledge of optics of that time, particularly with respect to the early use of erector units in terrestrial telescopes.

  15. Is Comparative Literature Ready for the Twenty-First Century?

    Kushner, Eva

    2000-01-01

    In her article, "Is Comparative Literature Ready for the Twenty-First Century?" Eva Kushner observes that throughout its history, comparative literature has internalized as part of its own objectives and directives a major challenge: The need to renew its problematics and curriculums in response to the inherent diversity of literature within culture. She emphasizes that the vitality of the discipline depends on an authentic pluralism capable of resisting the dominance of unanalyzed hierarchie...

  16. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  17. The role of nuclear energy in the next century

    This presentation perform a forecasting on the role of nuclear energy in the next century. The overview covers cost analysis of the different energy sources oriented to globalization, comparison, sensitiveness trends and risks. The second part spots on the decision making, involved organizations, criteria and the economic parameter to be taken into consideration in the definition process for energy planning. Another part considers the globalization from the nuclear energy viewpoint

  18. A century of sprawl in the United States

    Barrington-Leigh, Christopher; Millard-Ball, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Urban development patterns in the 20th century have been increasingly typified by urban sprawl, which exacerbates climate change, energy and material consumption, and public health challenges. We construct the first long-run, high-resolution time series of street-network sprawl in the United States. We find that even in the absence of a coordinated policy effort, new developments have already turned the corner toward less sprawl. Initial impacts on vehicle travel and greenhouse gas emissions ...

  19. Australia: Identity, Fear and Governance in the 21st Century

    Pietsch, Juliet; Aarons, Haydn

    2012-01-01

    The latter years of the first decade of the twenty-first century were characterised by an enormous amount of challenge and change to Australia and Australians. Australia’s part in these challenges and changes is borne of our domestic and global ties, our orientation towards ourselves and others, and an ever increasing awareness of the interdependency of our world. Challenges and changes such as terrorism, climate change, human rights, community breakdown, work and livelihood, and crime are no...

  20. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn o...