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Sample records for 15o radioactive ion

  1. Study of Nuclear Reactions with 11C and 15O Radioactive Ion Beams

    Nuclear reaction study with radioactive ion beams is one of the most exciting research topics in modern nuclear physics. The development of radioactive ion beams has allowed nuclear scientists and engineers to explore many unknown exotic nuclei far from the valley of nuclear stability, and to further our understanding of the evolution of the universe. The recently developed radioactive ion beam facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-inch cyclotron is denoted as BEARS and provides 11C, 14O and 15O radioactive ion beams of high quality. These moderate to high intensity, proton-rich radioactive ion beams have been used to explore the properties of unstable nuclei such as 12N and 15F. In this work, the proton capture reaction on 11C has been evaluated via the indirect d(11C, 12N)n transfer reaction using the inverse kinematics method coupled with the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient (ANC) theoretical approach. The total effective 12N → 11C+p ANC is found to be (Ceff12N)2 = 1.83 ± 0.27 fm-1. With the high 11C beam intensity available, our experiment showed excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and previous experimental studies. This study also indirectly confirmed that the 11C(p,γ) reaction is a key step in producing CNO nuclei in supermassive low-metallicity stars, bypassing the slow triple alpha process. The newly developed 15O radioactive ion beam at BEARS was used to study the poorly known level widths of 16F via the p(15O,15O)p reaction. Among the nuclei in the A=16, T=1 isobaric triad, many states in 16N and 16O have been well established, but less has been reported on 16F. Four states of 16F below 1 MeV have been identified experimentally: 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3- (Ex = 0.0, 0.19, 0.42, and 0.72 MeV, respectively). Our study utilized R-matrix analysis and found that the 0- state has a level width of 23.1 ± 2.2 keV, and that the broader 1- state has a width of 91.1 ± 9.9 keV. The level width of the 2- state is found to be 3.3

  2. Trojan Horse method and radioactive ion beams: study of 18F(p,α)15O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Gulino, M.; Cherubini, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Kubono, S.; Lamia, L.; La Cognata, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, H.; Teranishi, T.; Coc, A.; De Séréville, N.; Hammache, F.; Spitaleri, C.

    2013-03-01

    The Trojan Horse Method was applied for the first time to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction to study the reaction 18F(p,α)15O via the three body reaction 18F(d,α 15O)n at the low energies relevant for astrophysics. The abundance of 18F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy 18F in Novae. 18F(p,α)15O is one of the main 18F destruction channels. Preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  3. Trojan Horse method and radioactive ion beams: study of $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Gulino, M; Rapisarda, G G; Kubono, S; Lamia, L; La Cognata, M; Yamaguchi, H; Hayakawa, S; Wakabayashi, Y; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, H; Teranishi, T; Coc, A; De Séréville, N; Hammache, F; Spitaleri, C

    2012-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method was applied for the first time to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction to study the reaction $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O via the three body reaction $^{18}$F(d,$\\alpha$ $^{15}$O)n at the low energies relevant for astrophysics. The abundance of $^{18}$F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy $^{18}$F in Novae. $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O is one of the main $^{18}$F destruction channels. Preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  4. First application of the Trojan horse method with a radioactive ion beam: Study of the 18F (p,α ) 15O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Teranishi, T.; Coc, A.; de Séréville, N.; Hammache, F.; Kiss, G.; Bishop, S.; Binh, D. N.

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of nuclear cross sections at astrophysical energies involving unstable species is one of the most challenging tasks in experimental nuclear physics. The use of indirect methods is often unavoidable in this scenario. In this paper the Trojan horse method is applied for the first time to a radioactive ion beam-induced reaction studying the 18F (p ,α )15O process at low energies relevant to astrophysics via the three-body reaction 2H (18F ,α15O ) n . The knowledge of the 18F (p,α ) 15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the nova explosion phenomena. The cross section of this reaction is characterized by the presence of several resonances in 19Ne and possibly interference effects among them. The results reported in literature are not satisfactory and new investigations of the 18F (p,α ) 15O reaction cross section will be useful. In the present work the spin-parity assignments of relevant levels have been discussed and the astrophysical S factor has been extracted considering also interference effects.

  5. First application of the Trojan Horse Method with a Radioactive Ion Beam: study of the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O}} reaction at astrophysical energies

    Cherubini, S; Spitaleri, C; Rapisarda, G G; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Pizzone, R G; Romano, S; Kubono, S; Yamaguchi, H; Hayakawa, S; Wakabayashi, Y; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, T; Teranishi, T; Coc, A; de Séréville, N; Hammache, F; Kiss, G; Bishop, S; Binh, D N

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear cross sections at astrophysical energies involving unstable species is one of the most challenging tasks in experimental nuclear physics. The use of indirect methods is often unavoidable in this scenario. In this paper the Trojan Horse Method is applied for the first time to a radioactive ion beam induced reaction studying the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O process at low energies relevant to astrophysics via the three body reaction $^{2}$H($^{18}$F,${\\alpha}^{15}$O)n. The knowledge of the $^{18}$F($p, {\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O reaction rate is crucial to understand the nova explosion phenomena. The cross section of this reaction is characterized by the presence of several resonances in $^{19}$Ne and possibly interference effects among them. The results reported in Literature are not satisfactory and new investigations of the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O reaction cross section will be useful. In the present work the spin-parity assignments of relevant levels have been discussed and the astro...

  6. Radioactivity distribution in human body during C15O2 and 15O2 continuous inhalation in PET studies

    Radioactivity absorption received by humans during C15O2 and 15O2 steady-state inhalation using a PET scanner was measured. Relative concentration of radioisotope absorption was measured using the profile scanning mode of the scanner. The volume (ml) of each organ was measured using computed tomography (CT). The accumulation of radioactivity (MBq·sec) in each organ was estimated from the radioactivity concentration (MBq·sec/ml) and volume (ml) of each organ. The radioactivity concentration was obtained using a brain and body emission scanning mode. In the profile image, high uptake organs, namely, the heart, brain, liver, kidneys were observed for C15O2 inhalation and for 15O2 inhalation, the heart and lungs were studied. The accumulated radioactivity in each organ was 12.3 MBq·sec for the brain, 13.7 MBq·sec for the lungs, 2.4 MBq·sec for the heart, 1.8 MBq·sec for the liver for C15O2 (185 MBq/min) inhalation, and for 15O2 (555 MBq/min) inhalation, 11.8 MBq·sec for the brain, 84.8 MBq·sec for the lungs, 5.6 MBq·sec for the heart, 17.1 MBq·sec for the liver. (author)

  7. Radioactive ion microscopy

    A novel approach has been studied for the characterization of specimens with a spatial resolution at the micron level. The technique dubbed Radioactive Ion Microscopy, (RIM) uses a beam of radioactive ions, specifically tritium ions, of sufficient energy to pass through a thick specimen (e.g. greater than or equal to 10 μm). After passage through the object, the ions are implanted in a stack of thin mylar sheets (1.5 microns thick). Their rest position is proportional to the thickness and the density of the sample transversed. The location of the radioactive species can be pinpointed by autoradiographing the successive mylar foils. The radiographs are photographed and converted into digital data which is used to generate a density map of the object. From these plots, physical and chemical features may be deduced. The feasibility of RIM has been demonstrated with specimen images obtained from different objects exposed to a 3 MeV 3H+ beam. The specimens used included metal grids to examine spatial resolution and a series of biological samples (cork, wood, mosquito wing) to explore the performance and applicability of RIM. On these samples, which were 10 to 30 microns thick with surface areas of up to 1 cm2, a lateral resolution of approx. 1.5 microns was achieved. A depth resolution or sensitivity to density gradients of 0.2 mg/cm2 was obtained. These detailed specimen images can be obtained with low beam exposures, e.g., in the case of tritium approx. 6 x 1010 ions/cm2 must be implanted, which corresponds to an irradiation of approx. 10 pA/cm2 for 1000 s. The corresponding low radiation doses and minimal heat dissipation render RIM well suited for biological specimens. In comparison to light microscopy, RIM features enhanced microscopic capabilities as it can handle objects that are at the same time opaque to light, thick (up to tens of microns), and fragile

  8. Radioactive ion beams at SPIRAL

    The radioactive ion beam facility SPIRAL, presently under construction, will be based on the very high intensity heavy-ion beams (96AMeV at 6kW from He to Ar) at GANIL, France. The facility will produce radioactive ion beams using the ISOL method and a permanent magnet ECRIS which will allow for the production of multiple charged radioactive ions. The beam will be accelerated by a K=265 compact cyclotron and delivered into the existing experimental areas. The first tests for the production of radioactive ion beams have been undertaken with the test bench separator SIRa. A description of the facility, including the first results for the production of radioactive ion beams and perspectives are given. ((orig.))

  9. Radioactive ion beams at Spiral

    The radioactive ion beam facility SPIRAL, presently under construction, will be based on the very high intensity heavy-ion beams (96A MeV at 6kW from He to Ar) at GANIL, France. The facility will produce radioactive ion beams using the ISOL method and a permanent magnet ECRIS which will allow for the production of multiple charged radioactive ions. The beam will be accelerated by a K = 265 compact cyclotron and delivered into the existing experimental areas. The first tests for the production of radioactive ion beams has been undertaken with the test bench separator SIRa. A description of the facility, including the first results for the production of radioactive ion beams and perspectives are given. (authors). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    Wenander, F. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the phy...

  11. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  12. Radioactive ion implantation of thermoplastic elastomers

    Borcea, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive ion implantation wear measuring method (RII) has been used for many years as a tool to make highly sensitive real-time in-situ measurements of wear and corrosion in metallic or ceramic materials. The method consists of the controlled implantation of radioactive ions of limited decay time in a thin layer at the surface of the material. The progressive abrasion of the material results in a decline in radioactivity which is followed to monitor material losses. The application ...

  13. Multi-shelled porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres as a 5 V cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Multi-shelled porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a co-precipitation approach combined with high-temperature calcinations. The compositions and structures of multi-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres have been investigated by a variety of characterization methods. The LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres are composed of a lot of concentric circular porous shells with constant O, Mn, and Ni concentration, which is ascribed to the fast outward diffusion of Mn and Ni atoms and the slow inward diffusion of O and Li atoms during the calcination process. Electrochemical measurements show that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres deliver good cycling stability and rate capability with discharge capacities of 137.1 (0.1 C), 133.9 (0.2 C), 124.2 (0.5 C), 114.9 (1 C), and 96.0 mAh g−1 (2 C). The LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres synthesized by the facile method may be a promising cathode candidate for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Multi-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres were prepared by a co-precipitation method. • The formation mechanism of multi-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres was illustrated. • Multi-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres exhibited good electrochemical performances

  14. Ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres as high-rate 5 V cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Highlights: • Ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres are prepared by an impregnation method. • The hollow structure and ordering are tightly relative to the calcination temperature. • Ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 has better rate capability and cyclability than the disordered. - Abstract: Ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres have been synthesized by an impregnation method followed by a simple solid-state reaction, and their electrochemical performance is investigated as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The morphologies of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 products prepared at different temperatures reveal that the formation for the hollow structure is tightly relative to the temperature for the solid-state reaction. Then ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres are formed under the solid-state reaction temperature of 800 °C along with post-annealing at 700 °C, but the sample prepared without post-annealing exists at the form of disordered structure. When the ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres were applied as the cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, they exhibited superior rate capability (116 mAh g−1 at 5 C, 85 mAh g−1 at 10 C for charge and discharge) and good cyclability, which are much better than the disordered sample. The durable high-rate capability was attributed to their single-crystal surface configuration that benefits fast Li insertion/extraction kinetics

  15. Radioactive Ion Beam Development at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Stracener, Dan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Blackmon, Jeff C; Carter, Ken; Dowling, Darryl; Juras, Raymond; Kawai, Yoko; Kronenberg, Andreas; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha; Müller, Paul; Spejewski, Eugene H; Tatum, A

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive beams are produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) technique. Radioactive nuclei are produced in a thick target via irradiation with energetic light ions (protons, deuterons, helium isotopes) and then post-accelerated to a few MeV/nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. An overview of radioactive beam development at the HRIBF will be presented, including ion source development, improvements in the ISOL production targets, and a description of techniques to improve the quality (intensity and purity) of the beams. Facilities for radioactive ion beam development include two ion source test facilities, a target/ion source preparation and quality assurance facility, and an in-beam test facility where low intensity production beams are used. A new test facility, the High Power Target Laboratory, will be available later this year. At this facility, high intensity production beams will be available t...

  16. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Status

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produces high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes for nuclear science research, and is currently unique worldwide in the ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier. HRIBF is undergoing a multi-phase upgrade. Phase I (completed 2005) was construction of the High Power Target Laboratory to provide the on-going Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) development program with a venue for testing new targets, ion sources, and radioactive ion beam (RIB) production techniques with high-power beams. Phase II, which is on schedule for completion in September 2009, is the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), a second RIB production station that will improve facility reliability and accommodate new ion sources, new RIB production targets, and some innovative RIB purification techniques, including laser applications. The Phase III goal is to substantially improve facility performance by replacing or supplementing the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) production accelerator with either a high-power 25-50 MeV electron accelerator or a high-current multi-beam commercial cyclotron. Either upgrade is applicable to R and D on isotope production for medical or other applications.

  17. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  18. The influence of holding time on the performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium ion battery

    The development of heterogeneous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel for high power lithium ion battery applications has been investigated during last decades. In this study, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials are successfully prepared with sol-gel method, and the influence of holding time on performances of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is investigated. The results show that the holding time has a remarkable effect on the crystallinity, the morphology, the purity, the Mn3+ amount, and the grain size distribution, then further impacts the related electrochemical behaviors. We find that a decomposition reaction of the spinel occurs when an overlong holding time is used to synthesize the spinel powder, and the rate performance is directly related with the Mn3+ amount. We experimentally suggest that the compound sintered for 18 h exhibits the good electrochemical response in terms of both cycling and rate properties.

  19. Electrostatic spray pyrolysis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 films for 3D Li-ion microbatteries

    Electrostatic spray pyrolysis has been used to produce high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film electrodes for 3D Li-ion microbattery application. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the structure, texture and electrochemical behavior of the produced electrode has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic measurements. A specific capacity of 135 mAh.g−1 can be achieved without any electronic conducting additive in the electrode. Moreover, a controlled deposition on a flat and 3D architecture substrate has been demonstrate and discussed showing the potential of such a deposition technique in the production of 3D all solid state Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: ► Electrostatic spray pyrolysis for 1-step Li-ion micro battery electrode deposition. ► LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film electrodes. ► Electrochemical performances related to the film texture. ► Controlled deposition on flat and 3D substrate.

  20. Opportunities with accelerated Radioactive Ion Beams

    A discussion of the exciting and rapidly developing field of accelerated Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) production for nuclear and astrophysics research is presented. In particular, some scientific opportunities with RIBs are highlighted, the methods of RIB production are reviewed, and the existing and proposed facilities for this research are described. In addition, the ORNL RIB project, the only funded ISOL project employing an electrostatic accelerator, is described in some detail

  1. Storage rings for radioactive ion beams

    Nolden, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Steck, M.

    2008-10-01

    Storage rings for radioactive heavy ions can be applied for a wide range of experiments in atomic and nuclear physics. The rare isotope beams are produced in flight via fragmentation or fission of high-intensity primary ions and they circulate in the storage ring at moderately relativistic energies (typically between 0.1 GeV/u up to 1 GeV/u). Due to their production mechanism they are usually highly charged or even fully stripped. The circulating radioactive heavy ion beams can be used to measure nuclear properties such as masses and decay times, which, in turn, can depend strongly on the ionic charge state. The storage rings must have large acceptances and dynamic apertures. The subsequent application of stochastic precooling of the secondary ions which are injected with large transverse and longitudinal emittances, and electron cooling to reach very high phase space densities has turned out to be a helpful tool for experiments with short-lived ions having lifetimes down to a few seconds. Some of these experiments have already been performed at the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI. The storage ring complex of the FAIR project is intended to enhance significantly the range of experimental possibilities. It is planned to extend the scope of experimental possibilities to collisions with electron or antiproton beams.

  2. Isobar Separators for Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities

    Garrett, J D; Wollnik, H

    1998-10-05

    A radioactive ion beam facility - in short a RIB facility - produces ions of short-lived nuclei and accelerates them to energies of 0.1...10 MeV per nucleon or even higher. In this process it is important that the resulting RIB beams are free from nuclei of neighboring isobars or of neighboring elements. This task requires the production and ionization of the nuclei of interest as well as separating them from all others with a high-mass resolving power and small-mass cross contaminations. When constructing such a facility it also is very important to find ways that allow the accelerated ions to be provided to different experiments at least quasi simultaneously.

  3. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  4. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    Reifarth, R; Göbel, K; Heftrich, T; Heil, M; Koloczek, A; Langer, C; Plag, R; Pohl, M; Sonnabend, K; Weigand, M; Adachi, T; Aksouh, F; Al-Khalili, J; AlGarawi, M; AlGhamdi, S; Alkhazov, G; Alkhomashi, N; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R; Andreev, V; Andrei, B; Atar, L; Aumann, T; Avdeichikov, V; Bacri, C; Bagchi, S; Barbieri, C; Beceiro, S; Beck, C; Beinrucker, C; Belier, G; Bemmerer, D; Bendel, M; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Berjillos, R; Bertini, D; Bertulani, C; Bishop, S; Blasi, N; Bloch, T; Blumenfeld, Y; Bonaccorso, A; Boretzky, K; Botvina, A; Boudard, A; Boutachkov, P; Boztosun, I; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Monago, J Briz; Caamano, M; Caesar, C; Camera, F; Casarejos, E; Catford, W; Cederkall, J; Cederwall, B; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Cherciu, M; Chulkov, L; Coleman-Smith, P; Cortina-Gil, D; Crespi, F; Crespo, R; Cresswell, J; Csatlós, M; Déchery, F; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Derya, V; Detistov, P; Fernandez, P Diaz; DiJulio, D; Dmitry, S; Doré, D; nas, J Due\\; Dupont, E; Egelhof, P; Egorova, I; Elekes, Z; Enders, J; Endres, J; Ershov, S; Ershova, O; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Fetisov, A; Fiori, E; Fomichev, A; Fonseca, M; Fraile, L; Freer, M; Friese, J; Borge, M G; Redondo, D Galaviz; Gannon, S; Garg, U; Gasparic, I; Gasques, L; Gastineau, B; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Ghosh, T; Gilbert, M; Glorius, J; Golubev, P; Gorshkov, A; Gourishetty, A; Grigorenko, L; Gulyas, J; Haiduc, M; Hammache, F; Harakeh, M; Hass, M; Heine, M; Hennig, A; Henriques, A; Herzberg, R; Holl, M; Ignatov, A; Ignatyuk, A; Ilieva, S; Ivanov, M; Iwasa, N; Jakobsson, B; Johansson, H; Jonson, B; Joshi, P; Junghans, A; Jurado, B; Körner, G; Kalantar, N; Kanungo, R; Kelic-Heil, A; Kezzar, K; Khan, E; Khanzadeev, A; Kiselev, O; Kogimtzis, M; Körper, D; Kräckmann, S; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Krasznahorkay, A; Kratz, J; Kresan, D; Krings, T; Krumbholz, A; Krupko, S; Kulessa, R; Kumar, S; Kurz, N; Kuzmin, E; Labiche, M; Langanke, K; Lazarus, I; Bleis, T Le; Lederer, C; Lemasson, A; Lemmon, R; Liberati, V; Litvinov, Y; Löher, B; Herraiz, J Lopez; Münzenberg, G; Machado, J; Maev, E; Mahata, K; Mancusi, D; Marganiec, J; Perez, M Martinez; Marusov, V; Mengoni, D; Million, B; Morcelle, V; Moreno, O; Movsesyan, A; Nacher, E; Najafi, M; Nakamura, T; Naqvi, F; Nikolski, E; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nolan, P; Novatsky, B; Nyman, G; Ornelas, A; Palit, R; Pandit, S; Panin, V; Paradela, C; Parkar, V; Paschalis, S; Paw\\lowski, P; Perea, A; Pereira, J; Petrache, C; Petri, M; Pickstone, S; Pietralla, N; Pietri, S; Pivovarov, Y; Potlog, P; Prokofiev, A; Rastrepina, G; Rauscher, T; Ribeiro, G; Ricciardi, M; Richter, A; Rigollet, C; Riisager, K; Rios, A; Ritter, C; Frutos, T Rodríguez; Vignote, J Rodriguez; Röder, M; Romig, C; Rossi, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Rout, P; Roy, S; Söderström, P; Sarkar, M Saha; Sakuta, S; Salsac, M; Sampson, J; Saez, J Sanchez del Rio; Rosado, J Sanchez; Sanjari, S; Sarriguren, P; Sauerwein, A; Savran, D; Scheidenberger, C; Scheit, H; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, C; Schnorrenberger, L; Schrock, P; Schwengner, R; Seddon, D; Sherrill, B; Shrivastava, A; Sidorchuk, S; Silva, J; Simon, H; Simpson, E; Singh, P; Slobodan, D; Sohler, D; Spieker, M; Stach, D; Stan, E; Stanoiu, M; Stepantsov, S; Stevenson, P; Strieder, F; Stuhl, L; Suda, T; Sümmerer, K; Streicher, B; Taieb, J; Takechi, M; Tanihata, I; Taylor, J; Tengblad, O; Ter-Akopian, G; Terashima, S; Teubig, P; Thies, R; Thoennessen, M; Thomas, T; Thornhill, J; Thungstrom, G; Timar, J; Togano, Y; Tomohiro, U; Tornyi, T; Tostevin, J; Townsley, C; Trautmann, W; Trivedi, T; Typel, S; Uberseder, E; Udias, J; Uesaka, T; Uvarov, L; Vajta, Z; Velho, P; Vikhrov, V; Volknandt, M; Volkov, V; von Neumann-Cosel, P; von Schmid, M; Wagner, A; Wamers, F; Weick, H; Wells, D; Westerberg, L; Wieland, O; Wiescher, M; Wimmer, C; Wimmer, K; Winfield, J S; Winkel, M; Woods, P; Wyss, R; Yakorev, D; Yavor, M; Cardona, J Zamora; Zartova, I; Zerguerras, T; Zgura, I; Zhdanov, A; Zhukov, M; Zieblinski, M; Zilges, A; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  5. Determination of transition metal ion distribution in cubic spinel Co1.5Fe1.5O4 using anomalous x-ray diffraction

    We report anomalous x-ray diffraction studies on Co ferrite with composition Co1.5Fe1.5O4 to obtain the distribution of transition metal ions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. We synthesize spinel oxide (Co1.5Fe1.5O4) through co-precipitation and subsequent annealing route. The imaginary part (absorption) of the energy dependent anomalous form factor is measured and the real part is calculated theoretically through Kramers–Krönig transformation to analyze anomalous x-ray diffraction peak intensities. Fe and Co K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra are used to estimate charge states of transition metals. Our analysis, within experimental errors, suggests 44% of the tetrahedral sites contain Co in +2 oxidation state and the rest 56% sites contain Fe in +2 and +3 oxidation states. Similarly, 47% of the octahedral sites contain Fe in +3 oxidation states, whereas, the rest of the sites contain Co in +2 and +3 oxidation states. While a distinct pre-edge feature in the Fe K-edge XANES is observed, Co pre-edge remains featureless. Implications of these results to magnetism are briefly discussed

  6. Determination of transition metal ion distribution in cubic spinel Co1.5Fe1.5O4 using anomalous x-ray diffraction

    M. N. Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report anomalous x-ray diffraction studies on Co ferrite with composition Co1.5Fe1.5O4 to obtain the distribution of transition metal ions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. We synthesize spinel oxide (Co1.5Fe1.5O4 through co-precipitation and subsequent annealing route. The imaginary part (absorption of the energy dependent anomalous form factor is measured and the real part is calculated theoretically through Kramers–Krönig transformation to analyze anomalous x-ray diffraction peak intensities. Fe and Co K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectra are used to estimate charge states of transition metals. Our analysis, within experimental errors, suggests 44% of the tetrahedral sites contain Co in +2 oxidation state and the rest 56% sites contain Fe in +2 and +3 oxidation states. Similarly, 47% of the octahedral sites contain Fe in +3 oxidation states, whereas, the rest of the sites contain Co in +2 and +3 oxidation states. While a distinct pre-edge feature in the Fe K-edge XANES is observed, Co pre-edge remains featureless. Implications of these results to magnetism are briefly discussed.

  7. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low-and high-spin studies in the same nucleus)

  8. Wien filter for cooled low-energy radioactive ion beams

    Nummela, S; Dendooven, P; Heikkinen, P; Huikari, J; Nieminen, A; Jokinen, A; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubchenya, V.; Aysto, J

    2002-01-01

    A Wien filter for cooled radioactive ion beams has been designed at Ion Guide Isotope Separator On Line technique (IGISOL). The purpose of such device is to eliminate doubly charged ions from the mass separated singly charged ions, based on q = +2-->q = +1 charge exchange process in an ion cooler, T

  9. Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou

    詹文龙; 郭忠言; 刘冠华; 党建荣; 何锐荣; 周嗣信; 尹全民; 罗亦孝; 王义芳; 魏宝文; 孙志宇; 肖国青; 王金川; 江山红; 李加兴; 孟祥伟; 张万生; 秦礼军; 王全进

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) has been constructed for the production of short-lived radioactive nuclei and studies of exotic nuclei far from the β-stability line. It has been put into operation recently at the National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator Lanzhou. RIBLL consists of two doubly achromatic parts with a solid acceptance ΔΩ≥6.5 msr, momentum acceptance Δp/p=±5% and maximum magnetic rigidity Bρmax=4.2 Tm. The second part of RIBLL serving as a spectrometer gives an element resolution Z/ΔZ>150 and mass resolution A/ΔA>300. The polarized secondary beams can be obtained by using a swinger dipole magnet to change the incident direction of primary projectile from 0°to 5°. The shortest lift time for secondary beams on RIBLL is less than 1μs. First experiments were performed with neutron rich nuclei for understanding the properties of halo nuclei and exotic nuclear reactions.

  10. FRS ion catcher: Ion survival efficiency of radioactive ions

    At the MATS and LaSpec experiments of the LEB of the Super-FRS, high precision experiments will be done with low-energy exotic nuclei. To reach out to the most exotic nuclei, high efficiencies in the thermalization and beam preparation (e.g., separation and identification) are of upmost importance. Therefore, these parameters are optimized and tested online with the of the FRS Ion Catcher facility and in a separate off-line experiment. An in depth study of ion survival efficiencies has been performed to characterize the cryogenic stopping cell, to understand the slowing down process and to optimize the overall efficiency of the FRS Ion Catcher. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a 223Ra source are used to determine the ion survival and transport efficiencies, which reflect the charge-exchange and stripping cross-sections during the slowing down process of the ions. These investigations as well as other efficiency optimizations of the FRS Ion Catcher are presented.

  11. Radioactive ion beam line of CSR

    A new radioactive ion beam line designed to work at higher energy equivalent up to a magnetic rigidity of 10.64 Tm is going to be constructed at Lanzhou. It is to connect the main ring and the experiment ring of the HIRFL-CSR complex. The separator is mirror-symmetrically configured both in geometry and magnet strength, achieving a point-point and parallel-parallel image at its intermediate focal plane with maximum spatial dispersion. Achromatism is automatically realized at the final focal plane. The total length is about 26 meters. Its resolution power of magnetic rigidity is 1200 at +- 1% momentum deviation and +- 25 mrad divergence simultaneously. With sextupole- and octupole- magnets carefully positioned and powered, second and third-order aberrations are corrected to a large extent. The magnet design has already fulfilled

  12. Facile synthesis of aluminum-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres and their electrochemical performance for high-voltage Li-ion batteries

    Graphical abstract: LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Al doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres as 5 V cathodes are prepared by templated transformation method using monodisperse MnCO3 microspheres as precursor. As a cathodic material for high voltage lithium ion batteries, the as-synthesized LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Al doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres are investigated by galvanostatic cycling (GC) approach to evaluate their electrochemical properties in the range of 2.7–4.8 V vs. Li/Li+ at the current rate 1 C. - Highlights: • LNMO and LANMO hollow microspheres are synthesized by template method. • The as-synthesized hollow microspheres have particle-size of 2 μm. • The hollow structure is responsible for improved electrochemical performance. - Abstract: This paper presents the preparation of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and aluminum (Al) doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres as 5 V cathodes using monodisperse MnCO3 microspheres as precursor and template, which were synthesized using MnSO4·H2O, NaHCO3 and ethanol in water at room temperature. XRD and morphology characterization results indicated that the as-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Al doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were both spinel structure, and have particle sizes of 2–3 μm. The cathode electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Al doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow microspheres (as 5 V cathodes) were evaluated and compared by galvanostatic cycling (GC) vs. Li/Li+ at the current rate 1 C in 2.7–4.8 V. The specific initial capacities of all samples were in the range of 70–120 mA h g−1. Compared to undoped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, Al doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 hollow structures can effectively improve discharge capacity (up to 140 (±5) mA h g−1) and cycling stability (70% capacity retention after 200 cycles) as high voltage cathode materials

  13. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively. PMID:26961230

  14. Understanding the capacity fading mechanism in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite Li-ion batteries

    High voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) spinel with an operating voltage of 4.7 V is a promising candidate as the positive electrode in future lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle applications. However, LNMO displays a capacity fading problem in LNMO/graphite full-cells. Understanding the capacity fading mechanism of LNMO is important for implementing it in next-generation lithium ion batteries. Performance comparisons between LNMO/Li half-cell cycled and LNMO/graphite full-cell cycled were carried out. Whereas no degradation was observed for half-cells, full-cell usable capacity decreased by >50% after 100 cycles. The performance of LNMO and graphite electrodes that experienced full-cell cycling for >100 cycles were then evaluated in fresh half-cells. Results indicated that there is no degradation of the individual LNMO and graphite electrodes. The voltage profiles and dQ/dV curves of full-cells were compared with those of simulated profiles based on half-cell data. Experimental data were successfully reproduced by simulation based on an assumption that the capacity fading in full-cells was originated from the Li+ loss in LNMO. The amount of Mn deposited on Li-metal in the LNMO/Li half-cells was determined to be ∼0.3% of the total Mn weight in the LNMO electrode after 200 cycles at 30 °C. The capacity fading of the LNMO/graphite can be explained by the impact of Mn dissolution, and active Li+ loss in the full-cell system through continuous SEI formation (electrolyte reduction) prompted by Mn reduced on top of graphite surface

  15. Bioaccumulation of the 65 Zn2+ radioactive ions

    The paper investigates the possibility of using some microbiological collectors as Calothrix marchica Lemn. sp. 1 and 2, Porphyridium cruentum (Ag.) Nag. and Spirulina platensis CNM CB-02 for purification of effluents which are contaminated with 65 Zn2+ radioactive ions in simulated conditions. It was found that the degree of reaction between these radioactive ions with the algae diminished as follows: Spirulina sp.>Porphyridium cruentum(Ag.) Nag>Calothrix sp.2>Calothrix sp.1. The complete retention of ions is achieved in 1-5 min after the contact between the algae and radioactive suspension by a chemisorption process. (authors)

  16. A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission

    Diamond, W T

    1999-01-01

    Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30 MeV and 100 kW can produce nearly 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 fissions/s from an optimized sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit of the accelerator vacuum system and transported a short distance through air to a water-cooled Bremsstrahlung-production target. The Bremsstrahlung radiation can, in turn, be transported through air to the isotope-production target. This separates the accelerator vacuum system, the Bremsstrahlung target and the isotope-production target, reducing remote handling problems. The electron beam can be scanned over a large target area to reduce the power density on both the Bremsstrahlung and isotope-production targets. These features address one of the most pressing technological challenges of a high-power RIB facility, namely the production o...

  17. Insertion of lattice strains into ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel by mechanical stress: A comparison of perfect versus imperfect structures as a cathode for Li-ion batteries

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio

    2016-07-01

    The Ni-doped lithium manganese oxide, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, has received much attention as a cathode active material in high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This active material has two different spinel structures depending on the ordering state of the Ni and Mn ions. The ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel has an inferior cathode performance than the disordered phase because of its poor electronic conductivity. However, the ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel possesses the potential advantage of avoiding dissolution of the Mn ion, which is an issue for the disordered spinel. The improvement of cathode performance is important for future applications. Here, we report a unique approach to improve the cathode performance of the ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel. The mechanical treatment using an attrition-type mill successfully inserted lattice strains into the ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel structure without a phase transformation to the disordered phase. The insertion of lattice strains by mechanical stresses provided an increased discharge capacity and a decreased charge transfer resistance. This limited crystal structure modification improved the cathode performance. The present work has the potential for application of the mechanically treated ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel as a cathode for high-energy LIBs.

  18. The LiZnxNi0.5-xMn1.5O4 spinel with improved high voltage stability for Li-ion batteries

    Highlights: • Zn is employed as dopant in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. • The effects of Zn doping on structure and performance are investigated. • LiZn0.08Ni0.42Mn1.5O4 shows excellent rate capability and cyclic performance. • The mechanism of performance improvement by Zn doping is examined. - Abstract: The effects of Zn substitution for Ni on the crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiZnxNi0.5-xMn1.5O4 (x = 0 − 0.5) are investigated. The LiZnxNi0.5-xMn1.5O4 samples, which were synthesized by a sol-gel method, were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), battery cycling test, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Of the compositions investigated, the LiZn0.08Ni0.42Mn1.5O4 delivered improved cycle-life and C-rate performance even at elevated temperature compared with those of Zn-free LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. XRD and XPS results show that a thick positive electrode/electrolyte interphase film is formed on the surface of the x = 0.08 electrode, which may prevent the continuous electrolyte oxidation during cycling

  19. Study of the on line radioactive multicharged ion production

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne) which will start at GANIL at the end of 1998. The aim of the thesis was to study the on line radioactive multicharged ion beam production stages, i.e. the production and diffusion of the radioactive nuclei in a thick target, their possible transfer up to an ECR ion source and their ionisation. Production cross sections of radioactive neutron rich nuclei, formed by fragmentation of a heavy ion beam in a thick target, were measured. An external target-ECR source system, dedicated to the radioactive noble gases production, and two internal target-ECR source systems, dedicated to the radioactive condensable element production, were built and tested on the SIRa tests bench (Separateur d'Ions Radioactifs). Different detection configurations were elaborated in order to identify the radioactive nuclei and estimate their production yields. Finally, a new method for measuring the overall efficiency of the separator was developed and allowed to study the diffusion properties of radioactive noble gases in various targets. (author)

  20. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    Huang Wan Xia; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, J P; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaeskylae, Finland. An open sup 2 sup 2 sup 3 Ra alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium. The alpha spectra demonstrate that the recoiling sup 2 sup 1 sup 9 Rn ions have been extracted out of liquid helium. This first observation of the extraction of heavy positive ions across the superfluid helium surface was possible thanks to the high sensitivity of radioactivity detection. An efficiency of 36% was obtained for the ion extraction out of liquid helium.

  1. First results of Trojan horse method using radioactive ion beams: 18F(p,α) at astrophysical energies

    Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G.; Romano, S.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Binh, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Bishop, S.; Coc, A.; De Séréville, N.; Hammache, F.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance of 18F in Nova explosions is considered to be an important piece of information for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. It is then necessary to study the nuclear processess that both produce and destroy this isotope in Novae. Among these latter reactions, the 18F(p,α)15O is one of the most important 18F destruction channels. Here we report on an experiment performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of the University of Tokyo. This was the first experiment that used the Trojan Horse method applied to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction.

  2. First results of Trojan horse method using radioactive ion beams: {sup 18}F(p,α) at astrophysical energies

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M. [Università KORE, Enna, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and present address RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Binh, D. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and present address Institute of Physics and Electronics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bishop, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama, Japan and present address Physik Department E12, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Coc, A. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de masse, IN2P3, Orsay (France); De Séréville, N.; Hammache, F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2014-05-02

    The abundance of {sup 18}F in Nova explosions is considered to be an important piece of information for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. It is then necessary to study the nuclear processess that both produce and destroy this isotope in Novae. Among these latter reactions, the {sup 18}F(p,α){sup 15}O is one of the most important {sup 18}F destruction channels. Here we report on an experiment performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of the University of Tokyo. This was the first experiment that used the Trojan Horse method applied to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction.

  3. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive praseodymium ions and cadmium ions

    Collinear laser spectroscopy is a tool for the model independent determination of spins, charge radii and electromagnetic moments of nuclei in ground and long-lived isomeric states. In the context of this thesis a new offline ion source for high evaporating temperatures and an ion beam analysis system were implemented at the TRIGA-LASER Experiment at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz. The main part of the thesis deals with the determination of the properties of radioactive praseodymium and cadmium isotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. The necessary test measurements for the spectroscopy of praseodymium ions have been conducted with the aforementioned offline ion source at the TRIGA-LASER experiment. The spectroscopy of the praseodymium ions was motivated by the observation of a modulation of the electron capture decay rates of hydrogen-like 140Pr58+. The nuclear magnetic moment of the nucleus is, among others, required for the explanation of the so-called GSI Oscillations and has not been studied experimentally before. Additionally, the determined electron capture decay constant of hydrogen-like 140Pr58+ is lower than the one of helium-like 140Pr57+. The explanation of this phenomenon requires a positive magnetic moment. During the experiment at the COLLAPS apparatus the magnetic moments of the neutron-deficient isotopes 135Pr, 136Pr and 137Pr could be determined for the first time. Unfortunately, due to a too low production yield the desired isotope 140Pr could not be studied.The systematic study of cadmium isotopes was motivated by nuclear physics in the tin region. With Z=48 two protons are missing for the shell closure and the isotopes extend from the magic neutron number N=50 to the magic neutron number N=82. The extracted nuclear properties allow tests of different nuclear models in this region. In this thesis the obtained results of the spectroscopy of the cadmium isotopes 106-124,126Cd and their long-lived I

  4. Urea combustion synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Kedi Yang; Jing Su; Li Zhang; Yunfei Long; Xiaoyan Lv; Yanxuan Wen

    2012-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized by combustion synthesis (UCS) using urea as fuel.X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope measurements showed that the spinel structure LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with the space group Fd(3)m was formed during urea combustion.Both structure and particle size could be adjusted by the amount of urea and the heat treatment temperature used in the UCS.For the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 sample prepared with a urea/Li molar ratio of 0.57 and a heat treatment temperature of 900 ℃,the particle-size distribution fell in a narrow range of 1-2 μm.Electrochemical tests indicated that this LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 sample delivered a discharge capacity of 133.6 mAh/g with a capacity retention rate of 99.6% after 20 cycles at 0.5 C.

  5. Radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for SPIRAL

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Lignes) of which the start up will begin in September 2001 at GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen. This thesis primarily concerns the development of radioactive ion production systems (target/ion source) by the thorough study of each production stage of the ISOL (Isotopic Separation On Line) method: target and/or projectile fragmentation production, diffusion out of target material, effusion into the ion source and finally the ionization of the radioactive atoms. A bibliographical research and thermal simulations allowed us to optimize materials and the shape of the production and diffusion targets. A first target was optimized and made reliable for the radioactive noble gases production (argon, neon...). A second target dedicated to the radioactive helium production was entirely designed and realised (from the specifications to the 'off line' and 'on line' tests). Finally, a third target source system was defined for singly-charged radioactive alkaline production. The intensities of secondary beams planned for SPIRAL are presented here. A detailed study of the diffusion effusion efficiency for these various targets showed that the use of a fine microstructure carbon (grain size of 1 μm) improved the diffusion and showed the importance of thickness of the lamella for the short lived isotope effusion. (author)

  6. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  7. Adsorption of radioactive ions on carnauba-wax aerosols

    A new method based on parallel aerosol size spectrometry and γ-spectrometry is introduced for the measurement of short-lived radioactive ions, fission products or super-heavy elements produced at accelerators. Furthermore a new aerosol generator is presented.The possibility of controlling and changing the aerosol size distribution in the helium aerosol jet produced by the aerosol generator allows the process of the adsorption and transport of radioactive ions on aerosols to be examined for the first time. This is due to the fact that the distribution is surveyed on-line using a negligible part of its total volume and parallel to the transporting flow. The radioactivity of the transported ions is measured by a germanium detector in offline position. In principle, both an on- or offline position with narrow multi-detector geometry (e.g. βγγ) is possible. (orig.)

  8. Laser Ion Source Operation at the TRIUMF Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-01

    The TRIUMF Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) for radioactive ion beam production is presented, with target ion source, laser beam transport, laser system and operation. In this context aspects of titanium sapphire (TiSa) laser based RILIS and facility requirements are discussed and results from the first years of TRILIS RIB delivery are given.

  9. Method of decomposing radioactive spent ion exchange resins

    Purpose: To improve the decomposability of spent ion exchange resins such as anionic resins, anionic - cationic mixed resins or the likes issued from nuclear power plants. Method: Spent ion exchange resins containing radioactive materials are decomposed by hydrogen peroxide. In this case, anionic exchange resins or mixture of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins are decomposed by using bivalent or trivalent iron ions coexistent with sulfate groups in excess of the amount corresponding to the molar amount of bivalent or trivalent iron ions as a catalyst. Since the anionic exchange resins or the mixture of the anionic exchange resins and cationic resins are decomposed substantially completely, the amount of residue after the decomposition is reduced and the volume-reducing property of the radioactive wastes can be improved to facilitate the solidifying treatment. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy using trapped radioactive ions

    Yee, Ryan Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy has been developed using trapped radioactive ions. The neutron energy spectrum was reconstructed by measuring the time of flight (TOF) of the nuclear recoil following neutron emission, thereby avoiding all the challenges associated with neutron detection such as backgrounds from scattered neutrons and gamma rays and complicated detector-response functions. A proof-of-principle measurement was conducted on 137I+ by delivering ions from a ...

  11. Radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    Gao B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to stored and cooled highly-charged radionuclides offers unprecedented opportunities to perform high-precision investigations of their decays. Since the few-electron ions, e.g. hydrogen- or helium-like ions, are quantum mechanical systems with clear electronic ground state configurations, the decay studies of such ions are performed under well-defined conditions and allow for addressing fundamental aspects of the decay process. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR of GSI. A particular emphasis is given to the investigations of the two-body beta decay, namely the bound-state β-decay and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron-capture.

  12. Co-axial ECR plasma system for radioactive ion implantation

    Fortin, M A [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Marion, F [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Stansfield, B [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Paynter, R W [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sarkar, D [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sarkissian, A [Plasmionique Inc., 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Terreault, B [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    A pulsed, co-axial electron cyclotron resonance (ECR, 2.45 GHz) plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation ({sup 32}P radioisotope). The geometry of the reactor was designed to produce an efficient implantation of cylindrical implants. Therefore, the reactor is cylindrical in shape, and is equipped with a cylindrical grid in a co-axial geometry. The plasma is created between the wall and the grid; the plasma surrounds the implant, allowing for a radial implantation. A 1 ms microwave pulse creates a plasma in argon, which sputters material from a radioactive cathode. A fraction of the radioisotopes is then ionized, and the ions are implanted into negatively biased metal samples. The plasma was characterized by means of electrostatic probes, giving spatial evaluations of the electron temperature, plasma potential and electron density. Titanium samples were implanted with {sup 32}P during a study that aimed at optimizing the position of the radioactive sputter cathode in the plasma. From an analysis of the distribution of the radioactive fragments, we deduce that the plasma potential has a marked effect on the ion trajectories. In particular, it provides a more uniform implantation distribution than one would otherwise expect. For plasma densities {approx}8 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}, implantation efficiencies as high as 1% are measured; this is about 100 times higher than conventional beam-line ion implantation.

  13. Study of resonant reactions with radioactive ion beams

    Galindo-Uribarri, A; Chavez, E; Gomez-Del Campo, J; Gross, C J; Huerta, A; Liang, J F; Ortiz, M E; Padilla, E; Pascual, S; Paul, S D; Shapira, D; Stracener, D W; Varner, R L

    2000-01-01

    A fast and efficient method to study (p,p) and (p,alpha) resonances with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is described. It is based on the use of thick targets and large area double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) to detect the recoiling light-charged particles and to determine precisely their scattering angle. The first nuclear physics experiments with the technique have been performed recently at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge with stable beams of sup 1 sup 7 O and radioactive beams of sup 1 sup 7 F. The high-quality resonance measurements obtained demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Pure sup 1 sup 7 F beams from HRIBF were produced by fully stripping the ions and separating the interfering and more abundant sup 1 sup 7 O ions by the beam transport system. The removal of interfering isobars is one of the various common challenges to both accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radioactive ion beam (RIB) production. Experiments done with RIBs will ben...

  14. Brain protection by magnesium ion against radioaction brain injury

    Radiation brain injury is a serious complication among the radiotherapy of brain tumors. It is demonstrated that the protective action of magnesium ion in the brain injury from some experimental studies recent years, which is the prospective neuro protective agents overall merits. This article is summarized the causes and the variance of magnesium ion in the brain tissue afterwards the radioactive brain injury, additionally the defense mechanism of magnesium ion from the aspects of inflammation reduction, encephaledema alleviation, anti-apoptosis and improvement of nerve function. (authors)

  15. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Development and Status

    Tatum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility dedicated to nuclear structure, reactions, and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) using the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique. An integrated strategic plan for physics, experimental systems, and RIB production facilities have been developed and implementation of the plan is under way. Specific research objectives are defined for studying the nature of nucleonic matter, the origin of elements, solar physics, and synthesis of heavy elements. Experimental systems upgrade plans include new detector arrays and beam lines, and expansion and upgrade of existing devices. A multifaceted facility expansion plan includes a $4.75M High Power Target Laboratory (HPTL), presently under construction, to provide a facility for testing new target materials, target geometries, ion sources, and beam preparation techniques. Additional planned upgrades include a second RIB production system (IRIS2), an external axi...

  16. Ion exchange resin for immobilizing radioactive waste

    Snyder, T.S.; Burgman, H.A.; Nahemow, M.D.

    1988-10-25

    A method of making an ion exchange material comprising: (1) implanting a ceramic material with an element selected from the group consisting of sulfur, carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen mixtures thereof; (2) oxidizing the sulfur to sulfate, the carbon to carboxylate or carbonate, the phosphorus to phosphate, the nitrogen to nitrate, or reducing the nitrogen to amine or amide, wherein the element is implanted at an energy of at least about 50 KeV and at a concentration of at least about 10/sup 12/ moieties per cm/sup 2/.

  17. Ion exchange resin for immobilizing radioactive waste

    A method of making an ion exchange material comprising: (1) implanting a ceramic material with an element selected from the group consisting of sulfur, carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen mixtures thereof; (2) oxidizing the sulfur to sulfate, the carbon to carboxylate or carbonate, the phosphorus to phosphate, the nitrogen to nitrate, or reducing the nitrogen to amine or amide, wherein the element is implanted at an energy of at least about 50 KeV and at a concentration of at least about 10/sup 12/ moieties per cm/sup 2/

  18. Research on biological effects of radioactive ion beam

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential importance of radioactive ion beams such as 9C, 8B and 8Li, representing double radiation sources coming from the external beams themselves and the delayed particles emitted internally, in medical use, cell radiobiological experiments using radioactive 8B beam and corresponding comparable 10B-ion beam were carried out in the secondary beam line (SBL) at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In these radiobiological experiments, biological endpoints such as survival fraction, micronucleus frequency and γ-H2AX focus induction at different penetration depths around the Bragg peaks along these beams were measured. Because human salivary gland (HSG) cancer cells were used in the experiments, it is hard to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the radioactive 8B beam exactly based on the results obtained in the radiobiological experiments. Therefore, normal cell line is expected to be employed in future experiments. In addition, a primary 10B beam of 100 MeV/u was used to produce radioactive 8Li beam under the conditions of 6 mm thick Beryllium target and 3.5 mm thick Aluminum degrader in the SBL at HIMAC. The lateral fluence distributions of the produced beam were measured at different penetration depths along the beam direction. To keep the uniformity of the irradiation field suitable for radiobiological experiments using the produced 8Li beam, a narrow momentum width has to be applied so that the beam intensity decreases. (author)

  19. Investigations of LiM{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (M = Fe, Co, Ni) spinels as high-volt cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Bhaskar, Aiswarya

    2011-04-06

    Development of Lithium-ion batteries for high power applications is one of the active research fields in renewable energies. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical characterization, thermal stabilities and metal ion dissolution (in the electrolyte) of a class of high-voltage materials, LiM{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (M = Fe, Co, Ni), with a spinel structure. The materials were synthesized via modified sol-gel synthesis and post-annealed at higher temperature to increase the crystallinity. They are candidates for high-power applications due to their spinel structure which facilitates a three dimensional Li diffusion. Detailed structural analyses were conducted using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. The LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} annealed at 600 C showed a partial cation ordering as revealed from the neutron diffraction analysis whereas all the other materials exhibited a cation disordered structure. Morphology and particle size of the materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopic studies and the influence of these parameters on the electrochemical cycling performance will be discussed. The LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-1000 material was found to exhibit a superior cycling performance at RT and at 55 C in comparison with the Co- and Fe-doped materials. An optimization of the electrode composition and preparation was found to bring an improvement in the rate-capability of the electrodes. Investigations were conducted on the electrochemical mechanism of LiM{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-1000 (M = Fe, Co) through in situ synchrotron diffraction and both the materials were found to have a solid-solution mechanism of electrochemical reaction even though a pseudo two-phase behavior was observed in the case of Fe-doped spinel. Metal dissolution studies in electrolyte were conducted with ICP-OES analysis and the results showed that in the delithiated state and at higher temperatures, metal

  20. Surface and Interface Studies with Radioactive Ions

    Weber, A

    2002-01-01

    Investigations on the atomic scale of magnetic surfaces and magnetic multilayers were performed by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. The unique combination of the Booster ISOLDE facility equipped with a UHV beamline and the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) is ideally suited for such microscopic studies. Main advantages are the choice of problem-oriented radioactive probes and the purity of mass-separated beams. The following results were obtained: $\\,$i) Magnetic hyperfine fields (B$_{hf}$) of Se on Fe, Co, Ni surfaces were determined. The results prompted a theoretical study on the B$_{hf}$ values of the 4sp-elements in adatom position on Ni and Fe, confirming our results and predicting unexpected behaviour for the other elements. $\\,$ii) Exemplarily we have determined B$_{hf}$ values of $^{111}$Cd at many different adsorption sites on Ni surfaces. We found a strong dependence on the coordination number of the probes. With decreasing coordination nu...

  1. Low-level radioactive wastes bituminization - ion exchange resins

    The present work describes the research and development of low level radioactive waste treatment by bituminization process in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). Low level radioactive solid waste was simulated by mixed ion exchange resin. Cation exchange and anion resin were loaded with lithium and boric acid respectively and were incorporated in bitumen of suitable rheological properties. The simulated solid wastes incorporated in bitumen were 30 to 46 weight %. The rheological properties of waste product bitumen-mixed resin have been reported. The waste product with bitumen V-65 showed best physical and rheological properties and grave lowest leaching rates of boron and lithium. (author)

  2. Charge breeding of radioactive ions with EBIS and EBIT

    Wenander, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    A charge state breeder, which transforms externally injected singly charged ions to a higher charge state q+, is an important tool which has applications within atomic, nuclear and even particle physics. The charge breeding concept of radioactive ions has already been demonstrated at REX-ISOLDE/CERN with the use of an Electron beam Ion Source (EBIS) and at several facilities employing Electron Resonance Cyclotron Ion Sources (ECRIS). As will be demonstrated in this paper, EBIS and Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT), are well suited for the task as they are capable of delivering clean, highly charged beams within a short transformation time. The increasing demand for highly charged ions of all kind of elements and isotopes, stable and radioactive, to be used for low-energy experiments such as TITAN at TRIUMF and MATS at FAIR, but also for post-acceleration to higher energies, is now pushing the development of the breeders. The next challenge will be to satisfy the needs, for example space-charge capacity, of the s...

  3. Resonant elastic scattering of 15O and a new reaction path in the CNO cycle

    This work presents a very accurate experimental method based on radioactive beams for the study of the spectroscopical properties of unbound states. It makes use of inverse kinematical elastic scattering of the ions of an radioactive beam from a target of stable nuclei. An application of the method for the study of radioactive nuclei of astrophysical interests is given, namely of 19Ne and 16F nuclei. It is shown that on the basis of the properties of proton-emitting unbound levels of 19Ne one can develop a method of experimental study of nova explosions. It is based on observation of gamma emissions following the gamma decays of the radionuclides generated in the explosion. The most interesting radioactive nucleus involved in this process is 18F the yield of which depends strongly on the rate of 18F(p,α)15O reaction. This yield depends in turn of the properties of the states of the (18F + p) compound nucleus, i.e. the 19Ne nucleus. In addition it was studied the unbound 16F nucleus also of astrophysical significance in 15O rich environment. Since 16F is an unbound nucleus the reaction of 15O with protons, although abundant in most astrophysical media, appears to be negligible. Thus the question that was posed was whether the exotic 15O(p,β+)16O resonant reaction acquires some importance in various astrophysical media. In this work one describes a novel approach to study the reaction mechanisms which could change drastically the role of non-bound nuclei in stellar processes. One implies this mechanism to the processes (p,γ)(β)+ and (p,γ) (p,γ) within 15O rich media. The experimental studies of the 19Ne and 16F were carried out with a radioactive beam of 15O ions of very low energy produced by SPIRAL at GANIL. To improve the energy resolution thin targets were used with a 0 angle of observation relative to the beam direction. There are stressed the advantages of this approach and one gives details concerning the method of separation of the reaction products

  4. Moessbauer Effect applications using intense radioactive ion beams

    The Moessbauer Effect is reviewed as a promising tool for a number of new solid state studies when used in combination with radioactive beam/implantation facilities. The usual Moessbauer Effect involves long-lived radioactive parents (days to years) that populate low-lying nuclear excited states that subsequently decay to the ground state. Resonant emission/absorption of recoil-free gamma rays from these states provide information on a number of properties of the host materials. Radioactive ion beams (RIB) produced on-line allow new Moessbauer nuclei to be studied where there is no suitable parent. The technique allows useful sources to be made having extremely low local concentrations. The ability to separate the beams in both Z and A should provide high specific activity ''conventional'' sources, a feature important in some applications such as Moessbauer studies in diamond anvil high pressure cells. Exotic chemistry is proposed using RIB and certain Krypton and Xenon Moessbauer isotopes

  5. Study of radio-active ions in the atmosphere

    A comparative study is made of active, deposits of radon and thoron in suspension in the atmosphere by means of α radiation counting, using ZELENY tubes, scattering equipment, filter papers or membranes. It has been possible to show the existence of small and large ions which are negative and positive, as well as of neutral radio-active nuclei; their properties are studied. A theoretical interpretation of the results is presented. The average content of radon (using the Ra A concentration) and of Th B in the air has been determined. The radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products in atmospheric air are examined. The techniques developed for active radon and thoron deposits are applied to the study of artificial radio-activity, the analyses being carried out by means of γ spectrometry. (author)

  6. Morphological Evolution of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Critical Effects of Surface Orientations and Particle Size.

    Liu, Haidong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Dong; Qi, Xin; Qiu, Bao; Fang, Jianhui; Kloepsch, Richard; Schumacher, Gerhard; Liu, Zhaoping; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    An evolution panorama of morphology and surface orientation of high-voltage spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cathode materials synthesized by the combination of the microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique and a postcalcination process is presented. Nanoparticles, octahedral and truncated octahedral particles with different preferential growth of surface orientations are obtained. The structures of different materials are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of various morphologies (including surface orientations and particle size) on kinetic parameters, such as electronic conductivity and Li(+) diffusion coefficients, are investigated as well. Moreover, electrochemical measurements indicate that the morphological differences result in divergent rate capabilities and cycling performances. They reveal that appropriate surface-tailoring can satisfy simultaneously the compatibility of power capability and long cycle life. The morphology design for optimizing Li(+) transport and interfacial stability is very important for high-voltage spinel material. Overall, the crystal chemistry, kinetics and electrochemical performance of the present study on various morphologies of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 spinel materials have implications for understanding the complex impacts of electrode interface and electrolyte and rational design of rechargeable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The outstanding performance of our truncated octahedral LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 materials makes them promising as cathode materials to develop long-life, high energy and high power lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26824793

  7. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source

  8. A singly charged ion source for radioactive ¹¹C ion acceleration.

    Katagiri, K; Noda, A; Nagatsu, K; Nakao, M; Hojo, S; Muramatsu, M; Suzuki, K; Wakui, T; Noda, K

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive (11)C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source. PMID:26932062

  9. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  10. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  11. Transport of radioactive ions in soil by electrokinetics

    An electrokinetic approach is being evaluated for in situ soil remediation at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The work discussed in this paper involves the development of a new method to monitor the movement of the radioactive ions within the soil during the electrokinetic process. A closed cell and a gamma counter were used to provide iii situ measurements of 137Cs and 60Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results show that for an applied potential of 200 V over approximately 200 hr, 137Cs and 6060 were transported a distance of 4 to 5 in. The monitoring technique demonstrated the feasibility of using electrokinetics for soil separation applications

  12. Method of eluting radioactive nuclide from spent ion exchange resin

    Highly radioactive spent ion exchange resins containing a great amount of cesium or strontium as radioactive nuclides are immersed in an eluting solution and, by stirring solution, cesium or strontium adsorbed to the spent ion exchange resins are eluted. The eluting solution is passed through a zeolite bed to selectively remove cesium and/or strontium. As an eluent for the eluting solution to be used, sodium salts such as sodium hydroxide or sodium sulfate is preferred. Zeolite having radiation resistance and not suffering from reduction in the absorbent performance by the presence of boric acid or sodium are used. Since the zeolite is highly stabilized with inorganic material by cement or glass solidification, the amount is remarkably reduced as compared with that of the spent resins and the administration is facilitated. (K.M.)

  13. Incorporation of radioactive spent ion exchange resins in plastics

    Experiments were undertaken on the incorporation in plastics - polyethylene in particular - of radioactive spent ion exchange resins produced in nuclear power plants. The resulting polyethylene products burdened with radioactive resin were tested to ascertain the properties considered important for radioactive waste management. The items chosen for testing were mechanical strength, leachability of radionuclide and radiation resistance. Polyethylene products burdened with 50 wt % of resin were found to possess an impact strength of 10 kg.cm/cm and a compressive strength of 300 kg/cm2, which values do not indicate any appreciable decrease in mechanical strength compared with polyethylene unburdened with resin. The leaching rate of 137Cs from the resin-burdened polyethylene product was very small - only 0.1% leached out in one year. In respect of decomposition by radiation, the amount of gases evolving upon absorbing a dose of 109 rad was 10 ml/g. The effect of radiation on the mechanical strength was also studied. It is concluded from above results that solidification of radioactive spent ion exchange resin by incorporation in plastics is one of the best methods devised so far for treating spent resins. (auth.)

  14. Ion source developments for stable and radioactive ion beams at GANIL

    Leroy, R; Lecesne, N; Jardin, P; Gaubert, G; Huguet, Y; Pacquet, J Y; Villari, A C C; Lecler, D; Been, T

    1999-01-01

    Since now many years, the Ganil ion source team has in charge to develop ion sources with three main purposes. The first one concerns the radioactive ion production that implies high efficiency ion sources as the amount of created exotic atoms is very low (between 10 to 108 particle per second). The second one deals with high intensities of stable metallic ion beams for the injectors of the accelerator while the last one tries to increase the intensities of very high charge state ion beams for atomic physic. Concerning radioactive ion production, the recent results obtained, in collaboration with the ISN Grenoble group, with the 1+/n+ method drove us to develop a new concept of ecr ion source for monocharged ion production. The results of the first tests of this source will be given. This new idea for the construction of ecr ion source can be applied to multicharged ion production. Concerning the high charge state ion beam production, a new source called SUPERSHYPIE has been built that allow to increase by a ...

  15. Some Key Problems Related to Radioactive Ion Beam Physics

    叶沿林; 吕林辉

    2012-01-01

    The latest progress made in the field of radioactive ion beam physics is outlined and the key problems still under investigation are indicated. The focal points are the limit of nuclear existence, shell evolution and new magic numbers, halo and cluster structures, new excitation modes, and strong coupling between reaction channels. This field is still at a starting phase and much more new outcomes are foreseen.

  16. Role of pH value during chemical reaction, and site occupancy of Ni2+ and Fe3+ ions in spinel structure for tuning room temperature magnetic properties in Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 ferrite

    Kumar, K. S. Aneesh; Bhowmik, R. N.; Mahmood, Sami H.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic properties of Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 ferrite have been investigated using the techniques of dc magnetometry and Mӧssbauer spectroscopy. The material has been prepared by chemical reaction of metal nitrates at different pH values and subsequently, annealed at different temperatures to improve the microstructure. The samples with single-phased cubic spinel structure have been used for magnetic study. The material showed a variety of magnetic features, including superparamagnetic and soft ferromagnetic properties. At room temperature, changes of the ferromagnetic parameters of the material have been found in the range 0-47 emu/g for spontaneous magnetization, 0-0.37 for squareness, and 0-195 Oe for coercivity. Variation of the pH value during chemical reaction and changes of the grain size by thermal treatment played an important role in tuning the coexisting superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic components in the material. Samples prepared at high pH value showed small grain size and superparamagnetic features, whereas the samples prepared at low pH value produced large grain size and better ferromagnetic features. The ferromagnetic properties of the material have been enhanced by lowering the pH value and increasing the annealing temperature. Mössbauer spectra provided insight of the local magnetic order, site occupancy of Ni and Fe ions and oxidation state of Fe ions in the spinel structure of Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 ferrite.

  17. The SPES Radioactive-Ion Beam Facility of INFN

    de Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Lollo, M.; Calderolla, M.; Vasquez, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Sarchiapone, L.; Benini, D.; Favaron, P.; Rigato, M.; Pegoraro, R.; Maniero, D.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Lombardi, A.; Piazza, L.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Pisent, A.; Galatà, A.; Giacchini, M.; Bassato, G.; Canella, S.; Gramegna, F.; Valiente, J.; Bermudez, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Esposito, J.; Wyss, J.; Russo, A.; Zanella, S.; Calabretta, L.

    2015-11-01

    A new radioactive-ion beam (RIB) facility (SPES) is presently under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of INFN. The SPES facility is based on the ISOL method using a UCx direct target able to sustain a power of 10 kW. The primary proton beam will be provided by a high-current cyclotron accelerator with energy of 35-70 MeV and a beam current of 0.2-0.5 mA. Neutron-rich radioactive ions will be produced by proton-induced fission on a uranium target at an expected fission rate of the order of 1013 fissions per second. After ionization and selection the exotic isotopes will be re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10A MeV for masses in the region A=130 amu. The expected secondary beam rates are of the order of 107-109 pps. The aim of the SPES facility is to deliver high-intensity radioactive-ion beams of neutron-rich nuclei for nuclear physics research, as well as to be an interdisciplinary research center for radioisotope production for medicine and for neutron beams.

  18. Surface-modified carbon nanotube coating on high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Hwang, Taejin; Lee, Joong Kee; Mun, Junyoung; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified carbon nanotubes were utilized as a coating for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) via a mechano-fusion method as a strategy to prevent unfavorable carbothermal reduction. Two types of carbon nanotubes were investigated as coating materials: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and oxidized carbon nanotubes (OCNTs), which were prepared by a simple re-oxidation process. The samples coated with CNTs or OCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. The OCNT-coated LNMO presented a highly enhanced discharge capacity retention (95.5%) and a coulombic efficiency of 99.9% after 80 cycles between 3.5 and 4.9 V (versus Li/Li+), whereas the CNT-coated LNMO exhibited poor retention of 47.2% and a coulombic efficiency of 95.3%. In addition, post-mortem XPS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis proved that the OCNT coating improved the surface electrochemical stability and rate capability, whereas the CNT coating formed a thick resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film by accelerating the surface side reactions.

  19. Synthesis and Characteristics of LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 Cathode Materials by Particulate Sol-Gel Method for Lithium Ion Batteries

    ZHU Xian-Jun; CHEN Hong-Hao; ZHAN Hui; LIU Han-Xing; YANG Dai-Ling; ZHOU Yun-Hong

    2005-01-01

    A particulate sol-gel (PSG) method has been successfully used to prepare LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 cathode materials,utilizing the reaction of LiOH·H2O with Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O and Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O in water-ethanol system.The thermal history of the as-prepared xerogel was established by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of layered α-NaFeO2 structure at temperature of 700℃ under flowing oxygen. Scanning electron microscope exhibited that the crystalline powder prepared by PSG method had relatively smaller particle size with narrow distribution than the one prepared by solid state reaction.The first discharge capacity of the material by PSG method was 196.4 mAh/g, and the 10th discharge capacity was 189.1 mAh/g at the current density of 18 mA/g between 3.0 and 4.3 V. Its cycling reversibility was observed to be much better than that by solid state reaction, which had 187.3 mAh/g of the first discharge capacity and 167.1mAh/g of the 10th discharge capacity.

  20. Synthesis of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with secondary plate morphology as cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Risthaus, Tim; Wang, Jun; Friesen, Alex; Wilken, Andrea; Berghus, Debbie; Winter, Martin; Li, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material has been synthesized by a spray drying process and subsequent solid state reaction. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is given as additive to the spray drying precursor solution and its effects on structural and electrochemical properties are evaluated. By using PVP in the synthesis process, the obtained sample displays a secondary plate morphology which is consisting of densely arranged primary octahedrally shaped particles. The new cathode material has a lesser degree of impurity phases, a higher discharge capacity, a superior rate capability, and a slightly better cycling performance than the sample synthesized without PVP. In more detail, by the use of PVP the ratio of Mn3+ to Mn4+ in the final product decreases from 20.8 to 9.2%. The initial discharge capacity at 0.1 C exhibits an increase of about 14%. The normalized capacity at 20 C is 84.1% instead of 67.0%. A slightly improved cycling performance with the capacity retention increase from 93.8 to 97.9% could be observed as well.

  1. A cryogenic gas catcher for high energy radioactive ions

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, will allow studies of radioactive isotopes using laser techniques and ion traps. For this purpose, we are developing an ion catcher device that will stop high-energy ions from the Super-FRS in helium gas and extract them as a low-energy beam using DC and RF electric fields. The high purity of the helium gas will be ensured by operation at low temperature. In order to demonstrate a cryogenic system that stops high-energy ions and extracts them as a low-energy beam, a cryogenic ion guide operating at liquid nitrogen temperature has been developed and has been tested at the IGISOL facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The performance of this simplified prototype at low temperature and using a high-energy ion beam will be discussed. The operational parameters for a cryogenic gas catcher have been analysed defining the electrical and mechanical specifications of the system. A conceptual design of a cryogenic gas catcher is presented.

  2. Plasma arc pyrolysis of radioactive ion exchange resin

    This paper reports on two ion exchange resins (IRN 77 and IRN 78) which were pyrolysed in a plasma-arc furnace. Both continuous and batch tests were performed. Volume reduction ratios of 10 to 1 and 10 to 3.5 were achieved for IRN 78 and IRN 77 respectively. The product of the resin pyrolysis was a char which contained the radioactive elements such as cobalt. The off-gases consisted of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There was a relatively small amount of dust in the off-gases. At the present time radioactive ion exchange resign is being kept in storage. The volume of this waste is increasing and it is important that the volume be reduce. The volume reduction ratio should be of the order of ten-to-one. Also, it is required that the radioactive elements can be collected or fixed in a form which could easily be disposed of. Plasma arc treatment offers considerable potential for the processing of the waste

  3. Enhanced high-temperature cycling of Li2O–2B2O3-coated spinel-structured LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material for application to lithium-ion batteries

    Highlights: • LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) coated with layer of Li2O–2B2O3 (LBO)–glass was synthesized. • The LBO coating layer effectively suppressed the growth of an organic CEI layer. • The LBO coated LNMO had stabilized the cell impedance during cycling. • These changes greatly enhance cyclic retention of LNMO at high temperature. - Abstract: A Li2O–2B2O3–glass-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode active material (GC-LNMO) was synthesized to enhance the thermal stability of LNMO-based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The morphologies of the surface-coating layers were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. The glass coating prevented the surface of the LNMO-based electrode from being directly exposed to the liquid electrolyte solution, preventing Mn at the electrode surface from dissolving into the electrolyte and thus preventing the cell impedance from increasing through the undesirable formation of a cathode–electrolyte-interphase layer and the development of facile charge transfer kinetics during cycling. The electrochemical performance measurements demonstrated that the GC-LNMO-based electrode exhibited remarkably enhanced electrochemical reversibly and stability at elevated temperature (60 °C)

  4. Determination of transition metal ion distribution in cubic spinel Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} using anomalous x-ray diffraction

    Singh, M. N. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore – 452013 (India); Sinha, A. K., E-mail: anil@rrcat.gov.in; Ghosh, Haranath [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore – 452013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, BARC, Mumbai-400094 (India)

    2015-08-15

    We report anomalous x-ray diffraction studies on Co ferrite with composition Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} to obtain the distribution of transition metal ions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. We synthesize spinel oxide (Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}) through co-precipitation and subsequent annealing route. The imaginary part (absorption) of the energy dependent anomalous form factor is measured and the real part is calculated theoretically through Kramers–Krönig transformation to analyze anomalous x-ray diffraction peak intensities. Fe and Co K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra are used to estimate charge states of transition metals. Our analysis, within experimental errors, suggests 44% of the tetrahedral sites contain Co in +2 oxidation state and the rest 56% sites contain Fe in +2 and +3 oxidation states. Similarly, 47% of the octahedral sites contain Fe in +3 oxidation states, whereas, the rest of the sites contain Co in +2 and +3 oxidation states. While a distinct pre-edge feature in the Fe K-edge XANES is observed, Co pre-edge remains featureless. Implications of these results to magnetism are briefly discussed.

  5. SPIRaL: A radioactive ion beam facility at GANIL

    The SPIRaL project makes use of the very high intensity ion beams soon available at GANIL (over 1013 pps at 95 MeV/u from He to Ar) to produce radioactive nuclei by the ISOL method. The facility will consist of a production target situated close to an ECRIS specially designed for this purpose, a very low energy beam line, a k=265 compact cyclotron as postaccelerator (2 to 20 MeV/u according to the Q/A factor), a medium energy beam line transferring the radioactive beams into the existing experimental rooms through the α spectrometer. The whole facility will be installed at the end of the existing machine. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  6. ADFA/ANU 150 keV radioactive ion implanter

    Wei, J.X.; Chaplin, D.H.; Hutchinson, W.D.; Stewart, G.A. [University College, UNSW, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Byrne, A.P. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Nuclear Physics, RSPhysSE and Department of Physics, the Faculties

    1998-12-31

    Full text: As foreshadowed at the 10th Australian Conference on Nuclear Techniques of Analysis (Byrne et al), the collaborative project to build a radioactive ion implanter, within the custom designed Radiation Laboratories at Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA), has recently led to the initial commissioning tests of the instrument described in that report. Primary aims are to serve the hyperfine interactions community interested in Materials Science with particular emphasis on magnetic and semiconductor materials. 2.8 day {sup 111}In will be the first radioactive probe implanted following optimization of beam transport with stable indium. The implanted {sup 111}In samples will be prepared for both time-differential, gamma-gamma, PAC studies at ANU and bruteforce NMRON spectroscopies using the top loading dilution refrigerator at ADFA. In this paper we provide further information on the capabilities of the instrument and the results of the initial commissioning tests

  7. Building a LLNL Capability in Radioactive Ion Beam Experiments

    Bernstein, L A; Becker, J A; Garrett, P E; Younes, W; Schiller, A

    2002-01-31

    The purpose of this LDRD was to establish a program at LLNL in radioactive ion beam (RIB) experiments that would use these experiments to address a wide range physics issues in both stellar nucleosynthesis and stockpile stewardship radiochemistry. The LDRD was funded for a total of two years (fiscal years 2000 and 2001) and transferred to the Physical Data Research Program in fiscal year 2002. Reactions on unstable nuclei and isomeric states play a central role in the formation of elements in both stars and nuclear devices. However, the abilities of reaction models to predict cross sections on radioactive nuclei are uncertain at best. This can be attributed to the lack of experimental data to guide reaction-modeling efforts. Only the 10% of all bound nuclei that can be formed with stable targets and beams have been accessed and studied. The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) and existing RIB facilities offer an unprecedented opportunity to address many of the outstanding questions in nuclear structure, reactions and astrophysics by enabling the observation of nuclear reactions with radioactive targets and/or beams. The primary goal of this LDRD is to develop three experimental capabilities for use with RIB experiments: (1) Level density and {gamma}-ray strength function measurements using statistical {gamma}-rays. (2) Charged particle-induced cross sections measurements on radioactive nuclei. (3) Neutron-induced cross section measurements on a radioactive target. RIA and RIB based experiments are the new frontier for nuclear physics. The joint DOE/NSF nuclear science advisory committee has named development of a RIA facility in the United States as the highest new construction priority. In addition to addressing the questions presented above, this LDRD has helped to establish a position for LLNL at the forefront of the international nuclear science community.

  8. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    For the on-line production of a 14O+ ion beam, an integrated target transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3He beam from the LBNL 88double-prime Cyclotron via the reaction 12C(3He,n)14O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar+, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O+, 0.33 for C+ have been measured. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    For the on-line production of a 14O+ ion beam, an integrated target--transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3He beam from the LBNL 88'' Cyclotron via the reaction 12C(3He,n)14O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar+, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O+, 0.33 for C+ have been measured

  10. Concept design of a radioactive ion beam thick target

    The concept design procedure of a thick target used in generating Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) is described. The harsh terms of target material and temperature condition for this purpose are discussed, and several kinds of candidate target materials are listed. Design of a carbon target matrix and its water cooling heat-sink system, and calculation of three-dimensional temperature distributions of the target system are given. The result shows that the thick target has a capacity to receive proton beam of power up to 14 kW, meanwhile its temperature can be maintained at 1300∼2000 degree C. (3 refs., 6 figs.)

  11. Low temperature plasma incineration of radioactive ion-exchange resin

    The results of the incineration studies of radioactive ion-exchange resin in an oxygen plasma atmosphere at pressures 20...50 mbar are presented. The plasma is generated using a 27.12 MHz radio frequency (RF) generator. The chamber temperature during the incineration varies between 100...140 deg C depending on the oxygen pressure in the chamber. The virtue of the low-temperature incineration is that the radioactive substances remain in the solid ash. The average retention of 60Co and 137Cs in the incineration chamber was about 94 %. The retention of 99mTc was in the average 77 % and of 131I about 70 %. The results indicate that, within the limit of the measurement accuracy, practically all Co and Cs remains in the chamber and can be recovered and further conditioned with the ash. The rest of technetium and iodine can be easily recovered on any cooled surface right after the incineration chamber. The mass reduction achievable with this method is 95 %. The ion-exchange resins in use at the Loviisa NPP were used as test samples. The activity retention and ashing experiments were made with a 1:1 mixture of granular anion and cation resin. The same kind of mixture is used for the primary water purification at the Loviisa NPP. The test resin was labelled with 60Co, 137Cs, 99mTc and 131I. Also spent Loviisa NPP resin was incinerated. The VVER-440 reactors of the Loviisa NPP use boric acid to control the reactivity of the core. The boric acid in the resin presents an extra cumber in the incineration process tending to prevent the oxygen plasma from getting into contact with the resin. The results with the granulated spent Loviisa NPP resin were drastically inferior to the results with the labelled test resin. The average unburnt residual mass was about 20 %. By prior crushing of the resin equal incineration results could be achieved with the test resin and with the spent Loviisa NPP resin. The low-temperature plasma incineration of radioactive ion-exchange resins presents

  12. Direct reaction experimental studies with beams of radioactive tin ions

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at 100Sn, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at 132Sn out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich 130Sn. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of γ rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications

  13. Targets for ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is based on the use of the well-known on-line isotope separator (ISOL) technique in which radioactive nuclei are produced by fusion type reactions in selectively chosen target materials by high-energy proton, deuteron, or He ion beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), selection of the most appropriate target material for production of the species of interest is, perhaps, the most difficult. In this report, we briefly review present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect maximum diffusion release rates of the short-lived species that can be realized at the temperature limits of specific target materials. We also describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the HRIBF as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications

  14. Cryogenic molecular separation system for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    A 11C molecular production/separation system (CMPS) has been developed as part of an isotope separation on line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. In the ISOL system, 11CH4 molecules will be produced by proton irradiation and separated from residual air impurities and impurities produced during the irradiation. The CMPS includes two cryogenic traps to separate specific molecules selectively from impurities by using vapor pressure differences among the molecular species. To investigate the fundamental performance of the CMPS, we performed separation experiments with non-radioactive 12CH4 gases, which can simulate the chemical characteristics of 11CH4 gases. We investigated the separation of CH4 molecules from impurities, which will be present as residual gases and are expected to be difficult to separate because the vapor pressure of air molecules is close to that of CH4. We determined the collection/separation efficiencies of the CMPS for various amounts of air impurities and found desirable operating conditions for the CMPS to be used as a molecular separation device in our ISOL system

  15. Ion exchangers in radioactive waste management: Natural Iranian zeolites

    Five samples of natural zeolites from different parts of Iran were chosen for this study. In order to characterize and determine their structures, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were carried out for each sample. The selective absorption properties of each zeolite were found by calculating the distribution coefficient (K d) of various simulated wastes which were prepared by spiking the radionuclides with 131I, 99Mo, 153Sm, 140La and 147Nd. All the zeolite samples used in this study had extremely high absorption value towards 140La; clinoptolite from Mianeh and analsite from Ghalehkhargoshi showed good absorption for 147Nd; clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh showed high absorption for 153Sm; mesolite from Arababad Tabas showed good absorption for 99Mo; and finally mesolite from Arababad Tabas, clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh could be used to selectively absorb 131I from the stimulated waste which was prepared. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies show a similar pattern to those synthetic ion exchangers in the literature and in some cases an extremely high selectivity towards certain radioactive elements. Hence the binary separation of radioactive elements could easily be carried out. Furthermore, these zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers, are viable economically and extremely useful alternatives in this industry

  16. Optimized conditions for glycine-nitrate-based solution combustion synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a high-voltage cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Highlights: • LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were produced by glycine-nitrate solution combustion synthesis. • Optimized production conditions were studied. • Electrochemical performance was characterized by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. • Product obtained at G/N ratio of 1 and calcined at 800 °C for 24 h showed best performance. • The sample showed an initial capacity of 124.9 mAh/g and retained 97.20% after 50 cycles at 1 C rate. - Abstract: This paper describes the glycine-nitrate-based solution combustion synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a high-voltage cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The morphology, size, and crystallinity of the products were dependent on the synthesis conditions like glycine amount and calcination temperature and duration, as investigated in particular by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which likewise influenced their electrochemical properties. The electrochemical performance was characterized by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling. The product obtained at a glycine/nitrate ratio of 1, which was calcined at 800 °C for 24 h, indicated the best charge-discharge cycling performance. The sample showed an initial discharge capacity of 124.9 mAh/g and could retained 97.20% of the capacity after 50 cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 1 C. The sample also exhibited a good high-rate capability, indicating a high discharge capacity of 98 mAh/g at a rate of 10 C

  17. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi) as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    G P Nayaka; J Manjanna; K C Anjaneya; P Manikandan; P Periasamy; V S Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 based cathode materials, we have synthesized a new composition, LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi), by the sol–gel method. The formation of solid solutions is confirmed by structural characterization using TG/DTA, XRD, FT–IR, EPR, SEM and EPR. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) showed a high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low-frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to the Li-ion migration through the interface from the surface layer of the particles to the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammogram (between 3.5 and 4.9 V) for these materials using CR2032 coin-type cell shows two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to two-step reversible intercalation process, wherein Li-ions occupy two different tetragonal 8a sites in spinel LiMn2O4 ( < 1) lattice. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves for = Al (77 mAh g-1) showed reasonably good capacity retention than that of = Bi (11 mAh g-1) at the end of 17th cycle.

  18. Simultaneous fluorination of active material and conductive agent for improving the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Song, Min Sang; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Eunjun; Choi, Jae Man; Kim, Hansu

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage cathode materials have gained much attention as one of the promising electrode materials to increase power density of lithium ion batteries by raising the working voltage. However, the use of such high-voltage cathode materials is still challenging, because their working voltage is close to the electrochemical oxidation potential of organic electrolyte used in lithium ion batteries. In this work, we demonstrated that simultaneous fluorination of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles as well as conductive agent in the electrode could significantly improve the electrochemical stability of LNMO cathode. The resulting electrode showed better cycle performance both at room temperature and elevated temperature compared to both bare LNMO electrode and the electrode with only LNMO fluorinated. These results showed that direct fluorination of high voltage cathode can reduce the side reaction of high voltage cathode electrode with the electrolyte, thereby stabilizing the surface of carbon black as well as that of high voltage cathode material.

  19. Radioactivity

    This educative booklet give a general overview of radioactivity: history, structure of matter, radiations, radioactivity law, origin of radioactivity, radioactivity uses, radioprotection and measurement units. (J.S.)

  20. Resonant elastic scattering of {sup 15}O and a new reaction path in the CNO cycle; Spectroscopie par diffusion elastique resonante d' {sup 15}O et nouveau chemin de reaction dans le cycle CNO

    Stefan, Gheorghe Iulian [Ecole doctorale SIMEM, U.F.R. Sciences, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 14032 Caen Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    This work presents a very accurate experimental method based on radioactive beams for the study of the spectroscopical properties of unbound states. It makes use of inverse kinematical elastic scattering of the ions of an radioactive beam from a target of stable nuclei. An application of the method for the study of radioactive nuclei of astrophysical interests is given, namely of {sup 19}Ne and {sup 16}F nuclei. It is shown that on the basis of the properties of proton-emitting unbound levels of {sup 19}Ne one can develop a method of experimental study of nova explosions. It is based on observation of gamma emissions following the gamma decays of the radionuclides generated in the explosion. The most interesting radioactive nucleus involved in this process is {sup 18}F the yield of which depends strongly on the rate of {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction. This yield depends in turn of the properties of the states of the ({sup 18}F + p) compound nucleus, i.e. the {sup 19}Ne nucleus. In addition it was studied the unbound {sup 16}F nucleus also of astrophysical significance in {sup 15}O rich environment. Since {sup 16}F is an unbound nucleus the reaction of {sup 15}O with protons, although abundant in most astrophysical media, appears to be negligible. Thus the question that was posed was whether the exotic {sup 15}O(p,{beta}{sup +}){sup 16}O resonant reaction acquires some importance in various astrophysical media. In this work one describes a novel approach to study the reaction mechanisms which could change drastically the role of non-bound nuclei in stellar processes. One implies this mechanism to the processes (p,{gamma})({beta}){sup +} and (p,{gamma}) (p,{gamma}) within {sup 15}O rich media. The experimental studies of the {sup 19}Ne and {sup 16}F were carried out with a radioactive beam of {sup 15}O ions of very low energy produced by SPIRAL at GANIL. To improve the energy resolution thin targets were used with a 0 angle of observation relative to the beam

  1. Conversion electron spectroscopy of isobarically purified trapped radioactive ions

    The feasibility of the JYFLTRAP for in-trap spectroscopy has been studied. Several internally converted transitions have been measured for isomers of fission products with good accuracy. High-resolution spectroscopic data free of source effects have been obtained proving that trapped radioactive ions can provide excellent conversion electron sources. The shortest-lived isomer studied in this work was 117m Pd with a half-life of 19.1 ms, for which a superior peak-to-total ratio and an excellent line shape at the 9.9 keV conversion electron line have been observed. Detection efficiencies and related phenomena of the present setup are analyzed. (orig.)

  2. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  3. Metal ion imprinted polymers for effective radioactive waste segregation in nuclear industry

    Selectivity in metal ion sorption can lead to major benefits in nuclear industry as it can lead to segregation of radioactive waste. This will in turn facilitate cost-effective and safe waste treatment procedures. While dealing with a large concentration of non-radioactive metal ion present along with very low (sub ppb) concentration of highly radioactive metal ions, any useful separation should enable complete segregation, meaning exclusion of one of the ions by the sorbent. Conventional ion-exchange resins do not offer such high selectivity. On the other hand, metal ion imprinting, a technique that involves designing polymeric sorbents with pre-determined selectivity, has the potential to yield sorbents with high orders of selectivity as required in the nuclear industry. We have earlier reported an imprinted polymer that could sorb ppb levels of cobaltous ions while completely rejecting ferrous ions present in large excess. The resin has the potential to significantly reduce the volume of radioactive waste generated due to cobaltous ions during nuclear reactor decontaminations. Using this technique, we have also succeeded in changing the selectivity of chitosan, a cheap biosorbent. Chitosan, which is generally selective towards ferrous ions, could be tuned to be selective towards cobaltous ions using metal ion imprinting, thus offering a scope for using bio-sorbents for selective sorption of radioactive metal ions.(author)

  4. Recent results on reactions with radioactive beams at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.; Arazi, A.; Barioni, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; de Faria, P. N.; Descouvemont, P.; Gasques, L. R.; E; Leistenschneider; Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Morais, M. C.; Morcelle, V.; Moro, A. M.; Pampa Condori, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Scarduelli, V.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We present a quick description of RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion beams in Brazil), which is a superconducting double solenoid system, installed at the Pelletron Laboratory of the University of São Paulo and extends the capabilities of the original Pelletron Tandem Accelerator of 8MV terminal voltage (8UD) by producing secondary beams of unstable nuclei. The experimental program of the RIBRAS covers the study of elastic and inelastic scattering with the objective to study the interaction potential and the reaction mechanisms between weakly bound (RIB) and halo (6He and 8B) projectiles on light, medium and heavy mass targets. With highly purified beams, the study of resonant elastic scattering and resonant transfer reactions, using inverse kinematics and thick targets, have also been included in our recent experimental program.

  5. Study of the Fixation and Migration of Radioactive Cations in a Natural Ion Exchanger

    With a view to utilizing lignite as a natural ion exchanger in the treatment of radioactive waste, a study was made of its physical and physico-chemical properties with reference to ion exchange. The distribution of Sr90 and Cs137 ions in the presence of Ca, Na and H was first examined and the equilibrium constants calculated. The kinetics and fixation of ions were then studied, and various parameters required for the calculation of ion-exchange beds were established. Study of the complex phenomenon of radioactive ion migration in the soil was started by the separate investigation of each component ionic equilibrium. (author)

  6. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  7. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs

  8. Low-energy radioactive ion beam production of 22Mg

    The 22Mg nucleus plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics, specially in the 22Mg(α,p)25Al and proton capture 22Mg(p,γ)23Al reactions. It is believed that 22Mg is a waiting point in the αp-process of nucleosynthesis in novae. We proposed a direct measurement of the 22Mg+α resonance reaction in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion (RI) beam. A 22Mg beam of 3.73 MeV/u was produced at CRIB (Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) low-energy RI Beam) facility of the University of Tokyo located at RIKEN (Japan) in 2011. In this paper we present the results about the production of the 22Mg beam used for the direct measurement of the scattering reaction 22Mg(α,α)22Mg, and the stellar reaction 22Mg(α,p)25Al in the energy region concerning an astrophysical temperature of T9=1–3 GK

  9. Estimation of absorbed dose using activity measured by PET for continuous inhalation of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} and {sup 15}O{sub 2}

    Hachiya, Takenori [Rehabilitation Center for Physically Disabled Persons and Medical Center for Mental Health, Kyowa, Akita (Japan); Shoji, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Nobuo; Hagami, Eiichi; Toyoshima, Hideto; Hatazawa, Jun; Kanno, Iwao; Uemura, Kazuo

    1998-06-01

    In our positron emission tomography (PET) studies, measurement is carried out during C{sup 15}O{sub 2}, {sup 15}O{sub 2} and C{sup 15}O gas inhalation. The radiation absorbed dose was estimated by the MIRD method from measured cumulative radioactivity in organs and remainder of the body. The radiation absorbed dose in 22 target organs including pharynx, larynx and trachea walls were estimated using the radioactive concentration in 7 source organs (brain, pharynx-larynx, trachea, lung, heart, liver and remainder of the body). These radioactive concentrations in organs were measured by PET scan in a normal volunteer during continuous C{sup 15}O{sub 2} and {sup 15}O{sub 2} inhalation. The effective dose equivalents for 22 minutes of inhalation were found to be 5.81 x 10{sup -4} mSv/MBq for C{sup 15}O{sub 2} at 157 MBq/min and 4.64 x 10{sup -4} mSv/MBq for {sup 15}O{sub 2} inhaled at 294 MBq/min. (author)

  10. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K1 values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (fH2O) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [15O]H2O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [18F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K1 values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (Ki), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of Ki and k3 (PH2O, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [18F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [18F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean fH2O and Ki values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [18F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [18F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy is mainly related to an up-regulation of the amount of ionic exchange of [18F]fluoride with the bone matrix, while tracer delivery remains unchanged. (orig.)

  11. Trojan Horse Method and RIBs: The {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, H.; Teranishi, T.; Coc, A.; De Sereville, N.; Hammache, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy) and UniKORE, Enna (Italy)

    2012-11-12

    The abundance of {sup 18}F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy this isotope in novae. Among these latter processes, the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O is one of the main {sup 18}F destruction channels. We report here on the preliminary results of the first experiment that applies the Trojan Horse Method to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction. The experiment was performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of The Tokyo University.

  12. Contribution to the study of radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method

    This thesis is related to the R and D program for the production of radioactive ion beams by the ISOL method at GANIL in Caen. This work concerns several different techniques based on the ISOL method. The first one is the production of radioactive ion beams with a SPIRAL target-source system (target + ECR source). The production rates of radioactive neon beams were determined on the SIRa test bench and previsions for SPIRAL were established. The feasibility of the production of radioactive condensable element beams with such target-source system, using a transport under a volatile molecular form between the target and the source, was experimentally proven by the production of radioactive oxygen beams via the CO molecule. The second technique is the production of radioactive alkaline beams with the target-source system MONOLITHE (target + hot cavity source). The production efficiencies of lithium and sodium radioactive beams were determined. A new methodology, the 'global method', has been developed as part of this thesis, for deducing diffusion, effusion and ionisation properties of these two elements with this ensemble. It is shown that the evolution of diffusion properties between different alkali elements is similar to noble gases. The third one is the IGISOL technique (target + ion guide). The MI-GI-CHEMIN code was created for simulating the movement of ions in an ion guide filled with helium and a given concentration of impurities, including electric and magnetic fields. A first IGISOL prototype is in realisation at GANIL. (author)

  13. Research and development for the production of radioactive ions for SPIRAL

    This thesis is related to the research and development program for the production of radioactive ion beams by the ISOL method for SPIRAL at GANIL. Two studies concerning improvements to the performance of SPIRAL target-source system have been made, using a statistical approach to the atoms-to-ions transformation. The first study concerns the transformation time between the production of the radioactive atoms of Ar35 inside a target and the extraction of the radioactive ions from the source with the TARGISOL set-up (target + ECR source). The goal was to determine the diffusion coefficients of the Ar for the carbon target. The results that are presented illustrate the difficulty of this work. The second study is the application of the statistical approach to the surface ionization source. It allowed one to define and to build a new MonoNaKe set-up for the production of 1+ radioactive alkaline ions. Radioactive ions of K37,47, Na25,26,27,28,30, Li8,9 and Al28,29,30,31 were produced. For the production of the multicharged radioactive alkali ions, the MonoNaKe target/ion-source system was coupled to the ECR source of SPIRAL-1 without a mass separator (1+/N+ direct method). A first radioactive ion beam of 47K5+ was extracted at the SIRa test bench. A surface ionization test source based on the same technical characteristics of MonoNaKe has been built. The goal of this system will be to define a prototype of source adapted to the constraints of SPIRAL-2 (ionization efficiency and lifetime). (author)

  14. Recent developments of SOLEROO: Australia’s first high energy radioactive Ion Beam capability

    Carter I. P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first measurements of the Australian National University’s new radioactive ion beam capability were carried out using elastic scattering of a 8Li radioactive beam from a 197Au target. The purpose of this experiment was to test the radioactive ion beam capability as a complete system, which uses a pair of twin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters as tracking detectors along with a highly pixelated double sided Si detector array. The tracking detector system allows us to have extremely high purity secondary radioactive ion beams by electronically tagging the reaction products of interest, thus allowing complete separation from the unwanted contaminant beam species of similar mass and charge. Here, some recent developments and characteristics of this system are presented.

  15. P.I.A.F.E. project: production of highly charged particles for radioactive ion beams

    The transformation of a mono-charged ion beam into a multicharged ion beam is an important problem in the projects of radioactive beams acceleration. This transformation must be performed with the best possible efficiency and in the shortest possible time to avoid the loss of particles by radioactive degenerescence. A ionization method using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source is proposed. It consists in the fast capture by the ECR plasma of the radioactive elements injected inside this source in the form of a mono-charged ion beam. This method gives good results (2 to 6% efficiency to move from the 1+ to the 9+ charge state) for the ionization of alkaline elements, rare and metallic gases, with fast times of response allowing the ionization of radioactive products with a lifetime inferior to 1 s. (J.S.)

  16. High intensity ion guides and purification techniques for low energy radioactive ion beams

    Grévy, S.

    2016-06-01

    This report gives an overview of the different devices which can be used for the purification of high intensity low energy radioactive ion beams: high resolution magnetic separators (HRS), multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separators (MR-TOF-MS) and Penning traps (PT). An overview of HRS, existing or in development, and the methods to increase the resolving power are presented. The MR-TOF-MS of ISOLTRAP and other projects having been presented during this conference, only the main characteristics of such devices are discussed. Concerning the PT, intensively used to measure masses with high precisions, we will present the PIPERADE project which aims to provide pure beams of exotic nuclei with unprecedent intensities at the future DESIR/SPIRAL2 facility.

  17. Radioactive waste immobilization using ion-exchange materials which form glass-ceramics

    This invention provides a process for the production of a glass-ceramic composite product in which the crystalline phase is thermodynamically stable and compatible with the host rock. The process comprises: (a) passing liquid radioactive waste materials through an inorganic ion exchange medium; (b) heating the ion exchange materials with sufficient glass-forming materials to form a melt; (c) cooling the melt to form a glass; and (d) heat treating the glass to crystallize sphene crystallites in a protective glassy matrix that contains the radioactive materials. There is also provided a cartridge containing the ion exchange medium

  18. Problems raised by radioactive ion acceleration in the SPIRAL project. Accelerator tuning and stabilisation

    This study is related to the SPIRAL project. This facility uses a cyclotron to accelerate radioactive ion beams produced in a thick target by the Grant Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds primary beam. The low intensity of radioactive beams and the mixing of several species imply special tuning methods and associated diagnostics. Also, a cyclotron and the beam line will be used to switch from this tuning beam to the radioactive one. We present a theoretical study and a numerical simulation of the tuning of five radioactive beams using three different methods. the beam dynamic is performed through the injection beam line and the cyclotron up to the electrostatic deflector. Within the frame of these methods we have described all the SPIRAL beam diagnostics. Construction and test of a new low intensity diagnosis based on a plastic scintillator for phase measurement inside the cyclotron is described in details. (author)

  19. X-ray absorption near-edge structures of LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel oxides for lithium-ion batteries: the first-principles calculation study.

    Okumura, Toyoki; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Hironori

    2016-07-21

    Experimental Mn and Ni K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were well reproduced for 5 V-class LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinels as well as 4 V-class LixMn2O4 spinels using density functional theory. Local environmental changes around the Mn or Ni centres due to differences in the locations of Li ions and/or phase transitions in the spinel oxides were found to be very important contributors to the XANES shapes, in addition to the valence states of the metal ions. PMID:27333155

  20. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams for spiral: studies and realization of the first target-ion source system

    In the framework of the SPIRAL project, which concerns the production and the acceleration of a multicharged radioactive ions beam, the following part has been studied: production and ionization of the radioactive ions beam. A first target-source (nanogan II), devoted exclusively to the production of multicharged radioactive ions gas type beams, has been studied and tested. The diffusion efficiency has been deduced from the diffusion equations (Fick laws). This efficiency is governed by the following parameters: the temperature, the grains size of the target, the Arrhenius parameters and the radioactive period. Another study concerning the production targets is presented. It deals with the temperature distribution allowing an utilization of more than one month at a temperature of 2400 K. Another development (SPIRAL II) is devoted to the production of high neutron content radioactive atoms created by the uranium fission, from fast neutrons. The neutrons beam is produced by the ''stripping break-up'' of a deutons beam in a converter. (A.L.B.)

  1. One-step synthesis and effect of heat-treatment on the structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Highlights: • A one-step sol-gel route with resorcinol-formaldehyde resin is designed to synthesis LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. • Fd-3 m phase delivers an excellent high rate performance and stable cycling retention. • A double “w”-shape R-V curve is a potential tool to indicate structure transition. - Abstract: Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (Fd-3 m) powders are synthesized by a facile one-step sol-gel approach with a resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) resin as a chelating agent. The cross-linked metal-containing RF xerogel particles are sintered at different high temperatures from 750 to 950 °C to produce several micron-sized LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders. Electrochemical measurements suggest that the 850 °C-sintered (in air) sample (Fd-3 m phase) performs the best with a discharge capacity of 141 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 110 mAh g−1 at 10 C, and capacity-retention of 96.3% after 60 cycles at 0.25 C and 89% after 200 cycles at 1 C. For comparison, the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 sample sintered at 850 °C in O2 (P4332 phase) presents limited rate performance (45 mAh g−1 at 10 C) and higher values in both AC impedance and DC-method derived resistance. A characteristic double “w”-shape curve of DC resistance against cell potential can be possibly considered as an indicator to probe the material structure transition during the charge/discharge process of the cell

  2. Improved cycling and rate performance of Sm-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials for 5 V lithium ion batteries

    Spinel powders of Sm-doped LiNi0.5SmxMn1.5−xO4 with different Sm contents (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) have been synthesized by a gelatin-assisted solid-state method. The structural and electrochemical properties of the electrode materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge/discharge testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The partial substitution of Sm3+ for Mn3+ in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 leads to a decrease in the lattice parameter and unit cell volumes, resulting in an improvement of structural stability, enhance the electronic conductivity and diminish the polarization and the charge transfer resistance. As a result, the cyclic ability at 25 °C performances and rate performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode materials are significantly improved with the increasing Sm addition, compared to the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, though high doping gives rise to a small reduction of the initial discharge capacity.

  3. Improved cycling and rate performance of Sm-doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode materials for 5 V lithium ion batteries

    Mo, Mingyue [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hui, K.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Xiaoting; Guo, Junsheng; Ye, Chengcong; Li, Aiju [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Nanqian; Huang, Zhenze; Jiang, Jianhui; Liang, Jingzhi [Guangdong Testing Institute of Product Quality Supervision, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Hongyu, E-mail: hychen1234@163.com [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Base of Production, Education and Research on Energy Storage and Power Battery of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Spinel powders of Sm-doped LiNi{sub 0.5}Sm{sub x}Mn{sub 1.5−x}O{sub 4} with different Sm contents (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) have been synthesized by a gelatin-assisted solid-state method. The structural and electrochemical properties of the electrode materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge/discharge testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The partial substitution of Sm{sup 3+} for Mn{sup 3+} in LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} leads to a decrease in the lattice parameter and unit cell volumes, resulting in an improvement of structural stability, enhance the electronic conductivity and diminish the polarization and the charge transfer resistance. As a result, the cyclic ability at 25 °C performances and rate performances of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} electrode materials are significantly improved with the increasing Sm addition, compared to the pristine LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}, though high doping gives rise to a small reduction of the initial discharge capacity.

  4. The Acceleration and Storage of Radioactive Ions for a Beta-Beam Facility

    Lindroos, M; Napoly, O; Payet, J; Benedikt, Michael; Butler, P; Garoby, R; Hancock, S; Köster, U; Lindroos, M; Magistris, M; Nilsson, T; Wenander, F; Blondel, A; Gilardoni, S S; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Franzke, B; Höllinger, R; Steck, Markus; Spiller, P J; Weick, H; Burguet, J; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Hernández, P; Laune, B; Müller, A; Sortais, P; Villari, A C C; Volpe, C; Facco, A; Mezzetto, Mauro; Palladino, V; Pisent, A; Zucchelli, P; Delbar, T; Ryckewaert, G; Chartier, M; Prior, C; Reistad, D; Baartman, R A; Jansson, A

    2004-01-01

    The term beta-beam has been coined for the production of a pure beam of electron neutrinos or their antiparticles through the decay of radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring. This concept requires radioactive ions to be accelerated to as high Lorentz  as 150. The neutrino source itself consists of a storage ring for this energy range, with long straight sections in line with the experiment(s). Such a decay ring does not exist at CERN today, nor does a high-intensity proton source for the production of the radioactive ions. Nevertheless, the existing CERN accelerator infrastructure could be used as this would still represent an important saving for a beta-beam facility.

  5. The Acceleration and Storage of Radioactive Ions for a Neutrino Factory

    Autin, Bruno; Hancock, S; Haseroth, H; Jansson, A; Köster, U; Lindroos, M; Russenschuck, Stephan; Wenander, F; Grieser, M

    2003-01-01

    The term beta-beam has been coined for the production of a pure beam of electron neutrinos or their antiparticles through the decay of radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring. This concept requires radioactive ions to be accelerated to a Lorentz gamma of 150 for 6He and 60 for 18Ne. The neutrino source itself consists of a storage ring for this energy range, with long straight sections in line with the experiment(s). Such a decay ring does not exist at CERN today, nor does a high-intensity proton source for the production of the radioactive ions. Nevertheless, the existing CERN accelerator infrastructure could be used as this would still represent an important saving for a beta-beam facility. This paper outlines the first study, while some of the more speculative ideas will need further investigations.

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    Nitschke, J.M. (ed.)

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  8. Latest developments at GANIL for stable and radioactive ion beam production

    In the frame of the SPIRAL II (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne Partie II) project, several developments of stable and radioactive ion production systems have been started up. In parallel, GANIL has the ambition to preserve the existing stable and radioactive beams and also to increase its range by offering new ones. In order to identify the best directions for this development, a new group called GANISOL has been formed. Its preliminary conclusions and the latest developments at GANIL are presented.

  9. Relativistic radioactive heavy ion beams at the Bevalac

    The Bevalac has been demonstrated to be an efficient source of radioactive beams of good quality, and is attracting a growing body of users of this capability. Immediately on the table are an increasing demand by biomedical experimenters, leading up to eventual clinical use; and two most interesting nuclear science experiments. We are anticipating a substantial increase in interest and demand in coming years, and are planning beam line improvements to enhance transmission and purification efficiencies. 8 references, 3 figures

  10. Treatment of radioactive wastewaters by chemical precipitation and ion exchange

    Precipitation and ion exchange methods are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to decontaminate wastewaters containing small amounts of 90Sr and 137Cs while minimizing waste generation. Distribution coefficients have been determined for strontium and cesium as functions of Ca, Na, and Mg concentrations from bench- and pilot-scale data for ion exchange resins and zeolites using actual wastewaters. Models have been used to estimate the total amount of waste that would be generated at full-scale operation. Based on these data, four process flowsheets are being tested at full-scale. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Effusive-Flow of Pure Elemental Species in Tubular Transport Systems: Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    Maximum practically achievable intensities are required for research with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Time delays due to diffusion of radioactive species from solid or liquid target materials and their effusive-flow transport to the ion source can severely limit intensities of short-lived radioactive beams, and therefore, such delays must be minimized. An analytical formula has been developed that can be used to calculate characteristic effusive-flow times through tubular transport systems, independent of species, tube material, and operational temperature for ideal cases. Thus, the equation permits choice of materials of construction on a relative basis that minimize transport times of atoms or molecules moving through the system, independent of transport system geometry and size. In this report, we describe the formula and compare results derived by its use with those determined by use of Monte-Carlo techniques

  12. Exploiting neutron-rich radioactive ion beams to constrain the symmetry energy

    Kohley, Z; Baumann, T; DeYoung, P A; Finck, J E; Frank, N; Jones, M; Smith, J K; Snyder, J; Spyrou, A; Thoennessen, M

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and 4 Tm Sweeper magnet were used to measure the free neutrons and heavy charged particles from the radioactive ion beam induced 32Mg + 9Be reaction. The fragmentation reaction was simulated with the Constrained Molecular Dynamics model(CoMD), which demonstrated that the of the heavy fragments and free neutron multiplicities were observables sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities. Through comparison of these simulations with the experimental data constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy were extracted. The advantage of radioactive ion beams as a probe of the symmetry energy is demonstrated through examination of CoMD calculations for stable and radioactive beam induced reactions.

  13. Progress Report of Beijing Radioactive Ion-Beam Facility (BRIF) in 2012

    YI; Hui; SUN; Yang

    2012-01-01

    <正>The year 2012 is featured with several important events for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility (BRIF) project. With joint efforts from all sides, the team has made significant progress in the construction, the main equipment manufacturing, installation and assembly throughout the year.

  14. Progress Report of Beijing Radioactive Ion-Beam Facility (BRIF) in 2011

    2011-01-01

    The year 2011 is featured with several important events for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility (BRIF) project. At the beginning of the year, the two divisions of the BRIF project, i.e. Engineering Division and Technology Division, have been merged into one as the BRIF Division.

  15. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given

  16. The latest from the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    The status of new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late in 1996 is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program is also given

  17. Radioactive ion exchange resin pretreatment and treatment system and corresponding process

    Spent organic ion exchange resins contain Li (cationic resins) and B (amionic resins) which interfere with cement after encapsulation. Radioactive anionic and cationic resins or their mixture are treated by a soluble aluminum salt for precipitation of insoluble lithium aluminate, then neutralized and mixed with the cement containing calcium oxide for precipitation of boron

  18. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Garrett, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given.

  19. Effects of the Fluorine-Substitution and Acid Treatment on the Electrochemical Performances of 0.3Li2MnO3·0.7LiMn0.60Ni0.25Co0.15O2 Cathode Material for Li-Ion Battery

    The 0.3Li2MnO3·0.7Li[Mn0.60Ni0.25Co0.15]O1.975F0.025 cathode materials were synthesized by using a co-precipitation process in a Couette-Taylor reactor. Fluorine was substituted to facilitate the movement of lithium ions by forming more compact SEI layer and reduce the dissolution of transition metals, and lower internal impedance with charging/discharging cycling. In order to chemically remove the Li2O, the 0.3Li2MnO3·0.7Li [Mn0.60Ni0.25Co0.15]O1.975F0.025 composites was preconditioned by a HNO3 solution. The acid-treated 0.3Li2MnO3·0.7Li[Mn0.60Ni0.25Co0.15]O1.975F0.025 was showed the low initial irreversible capacity and the higher discharge capacity. The acid-treated and fluorine-substituted materials delivered the low initial discharge capacities, but it gradually increased during cycles

  20. Biosorption of some ions on different bacterial species from aqueous and radioactive waste solutions

    The uptake of metal ions, cerium, Ce(III); cobalt, Co(II); thorium, Th(IV); and uranium U(VI) by Bacillus pumilus-LRW1, Bacillus cereus-LRW2 and Micrococcus lylae-LRW3 from aqueous solution was examined as a function of metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, and the presence of some foreign ions. The bacterial species exhibited high affinity to accumulate metal ions from their solutions at pH 4-5.0 ± 0.5. The amount of each ion (in mg) accumulated by one gram dry weight of each bacteria was calculated. The uptake by the Bacillus cereus-LRW2 from aqueous solutions and simulated radioactive wastes were also investigated. Electron microscopic investigations showed that the ions were accumulated around the cell wall. (author)

  1. Development of volume reduction system for spent radioactive ion-exchange resins

    This paper describes the development of the volume reduction system for spent radioactive ion-exchange resins originating from atomic energy facilities. The volume of ion-exchange resins can be reduced by chemical decomposition with hydrogen peroxide used as the oxidizing agent in the presence of iron and copper ions used as the catalyst. Comparing with the combustion method, the chemical decomposition method have the advantage of requring no complicated off-gas line and smaller installation area. The results of experiments of the prototype volume reduction system show high decomposition rate and volume reduction rate. (author)

  2. Precision mass measurements at TITAN with radioactive ions

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Andreoiu, C.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mané, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of the atomic mass further our understanding in many disciplines from metrology to physics beyond the standard model. The accuracy and precision of Penning trap mass spectrometry have been well demonstrated at TITAN, including measurements of neutron-rich calcium and potassium isotopes to investigate three-body forces in nuclear structure and within the island of inversion to study the mechanism of shell quenching and deformation. By charge breeding ions, TITAN has enhanced the precision of the measurement technique. The precision achieved in the measurement of the superallowed β-emitter 74Rb in the 8+ charge state rivaled earlier measurements with singly charged ions in a fraction of the time. By breeding 78Rb to the same charge state, the ground state could be easily distinguished from the isomer. Further developments led to threshold charge breeding, which permitted capturing and measuring isobarically and elementally pure ion samples in the Penning trap. This was demonstrated via the Q-value determination of 71Ge. An overview of the TITAN facility and recent results are presented herein.

  3. Al2O3 Coated Concentration-Gradient Li[Ni0.73Co0.12Mn0.15]O2 Cathode Material by Freeze Drying for Long-Life Lithium Ion Batteries

    Highlights: • Al2O3-coated concentration-gradient oxide is synthesized by a freeze drying method. • The effect of Al2O3-coating on concentration-gradient cathode is firstly studied. • Al2O3-coated sample exhibits high capacity and significantly enhanced cyclability. • Improved cyclability is ascribed to the effective protection of uniform Al2O3 layer. - Abstract: In order to enhance the electrochemical performance of the high capacity layered oxide cathode with a Ni-rich core and a concentration-gradient shell (NRC-CGS), we use a freeze drying method to coat Al2O3 layer onto the surface of NRC-CGS Li[Ni0.73Co0.12Mn0.15]O2 material. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, charge-discharge measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is revealed that an amorphous Al2O3 layer of about 5 nm in thickness is uniformly formed on the surface of NRC-CGS Li[Ni0.73Co0.12Mn0.15]O2 material by the freeze drying procedure. The freeze drying Al2O3-coated (FD-Al2O3-coated) sample demonstrates similar discharge capacity and significantly enhanced cycling performances, in comparison to the pristine and conventional heating drying Al2O3-coated (HD-Al2O3-coated) samples. The capacity decay rate of FD-Al2O3-coated Li[Ni0.73Co0.12Mn0.15]O2 material is 1.7% after 150 cycles at 55 °C, which is 9 and 12 times lower than that of the pristine and HD-Al2O3-coated samples. The superior electrochemical stability of the FD-Al2O3-coated sample is attributed to the synergistic protection of CGS and high-quality Al2O3 coating that effectively protect the active material from electrolyte attack. The freeze drying process provides an effective method to prepare the high performance surface-coated electrode materials

  4. Ion exchanger material based on Titanium phosphate for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    A comparative study of the physicochemical and service properties of samples of Ti(OH) 1.36(HPO4) 1.32 * 2.3H2O sorbent in the finely dispersed and granulated forms, mastered for commercial production, was made. The sorption of Cs and Sr cations from solutions of various, compositions was studied in batch experiments, and the diffusion coefficients of the exchanging ions were determined. The hydrolytic stability of the. sorbents was examined with the aim to determine the optimal operation conditions. Experiments showed that the cation exchangers based on titanium phosphate are the most efficient in removal from liquid radioactive waste of induced radioactive isotopes of corrosion products, which is due to formation of weakly dissociating compounds of nonferrous metal ions with functional groups of the ion exchangers in the sorbent phase. (author)

  5. On the retention of uranyl and thorium ions from radioactive solution on peat moss

    Humelnicu, Doina, E-mail: doinah@uaic.ro [' Al.I. Cuza' University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. 11 Carol I Boulevard, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Bulgariu, Laura; Macoveanu, Matei [Technical University ' Gh. Asachi' of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Bd. D. Mangeron, 71A, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2010-02-15

    The efficiency of the radioactive uranyl and thorium ions on the peat moss from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different experimental conditions. The sorption and desorption of uranyl and thorium ions on three types (unmodified peat moss, peat moss treated with HNO{sub 3} and peat moss treated with NaOH) of peat moss were studied by the static method. Peat moss was selected as it is available in nature, in any amount, as a cheap and accessible sorbent. Study on desorption of such ions led to the conclusion that the most favourable desorptive reagent for the uranyl ions is Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} 1 M while, for the thorium ions is HCl 1 M. The results obtained show that the parameters here under investigation exercise a significant effect on the sorption process of the two ions. Also, the investigations performed recommend the peat moss treated with a base as a potential sorbent for the uranyl and thorium ions from a radioactive aqueous solution.

  6. Waste management of radioactive residual material at a research center operating a heavy ion accelerator

    Since the 70th GSI in Darmstadt succesfully operates a large heavy ion accelerator. Limited amounts of Radioactive residual material and waste is produced in addition to great and numerous research results. These residual materials have to be measured, described and declared in order to safely reuse these materials or to dispose them in a controlled way. This is a challenge for the radioactive waste management group. The application areas at the research facility are divided in groups with similar radioactive inventory: - The ion sources with depleted uranium; - The beam line an the surrounding areas with mainly activation nuclides; - The caves for the experiments with activation products as well as contaminations from target material or open sources in rare occasions; - the radiochemical laboratories where all nuclides especially transuranium targets are handled. These nuclides are partially difficult to detect. One of the problems for radioactive waste management is the determination of nuclides and their activities. Another one is the chemical composition of the waste material. Materials with different properties must be strictly separated and described. In this paper the specific problems for all 4 groups are discussed and the characteristic solutions presented. In the future with the new facility FAIR higher beam energies and intensities will require an efficient radioactive waste management for optimised waste reduction and effective handling methods. (orig.)

  7. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Akira Ozawa

    2001-08-01

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been done. Recently, nuclear structure for unstable nuclei has been paid much attention. In special, disappearance and appearance of magic numbers are discussed experimentally and theoretically. Thus, in this review, related experiments concerning disappearance and appearance of magic numbers are described. Finally, future project in RIKEN, RI-beam factory, is introduced briefly.

  8. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The 132Sn+ case study

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards

  9. Radioactivity

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  10. Ion exchange in ultramarine blue. Studies using radioactive tracers (1963)

    A study has been made of the exchange reaction between the constituent sodium in ultramarine blue, and silver in the form of a silver nitrate solution; an attempt hat been made to define the influence of the solvent of the silver nitrate on the kinetics of the exchange reaction. Five solvents have been used: water, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and acetone. The reaction rates are controlled by a diffusion process inside the ultramarine grains, whatever the solvent used. It seems that the solvated ionic radius of the diffusing ion is one of the factors influencing the rate of reaction. Furthermore, the solvated ionic radius varies with temperature; this variation is different for each solvent and should explain the differences observed in the activation energies. (author)

  11. Physics prospects from accelerated radioactive Ions at CERN

    Butler, P A

    2004-01-01

    Through the advent of post-accelerated beams with REX-ISOLDE at CERN, probing nuclear properties using transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation of exotic nuclear species is now possible. REX ISOLDE currently provides beams of energy 2.2 MeV/u (soon be upgraded to 3.1 MeV/u) into the $\\gamma$-ray MINIBALL array, and other instrumentation, at the secondary target position. Examples of research topics currently addressed using REX are presented. Scheduled energy up-grades will increase the physics potential even further. The goal for the next five years will be to accelerate ions up to 5 MeV/A and higher energies. Increase of primary beam intensity will also be achieved in a phased approach, with a significant enhancement provided by the proposed Superconducting Proton Linac as the primary accelerator.

  12. Radioactivity

    Tables are presented of trends in annual emissions of radioactive gaseous effluents at sites of civil establishments in the U.K. Trends in the discharge to surface and coastal water sites in the U.K. and trends in the radioactivity of solid wastes dumped in the N.E. Atlantic and in the volume and activity level of wastes disposed at sites in the U.K. are presented. Tables of radioactivity in samples of fish and shellfish at selected sites are presented. Radioactivity from global fallout and the annual mean ratio of 90Sr to calcium, and concentrations of 137Cs in milk are given. Trends in estimated collective doses from the consumption of fish and shellfish in the U.K. and Europe are presented. (U.K.)

  13. IRACM : A code system to calculate induced radioactivity produced by ions and neutrons

    It is essential to estimate of radioactivity induced in accelerator components and samples bombarded by energetic ion beams and the secondary neutrons of high-energy accelerator facilities in order to reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and to minimize radiation exposure to personnel. A computer code system IRACM has been developed to estimate product nuclides and induced radioactivity in various radiation environments of accelerator facilities. Nuclide transmutation with incident particles of neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne and 40Ar can be computed for arbitrary multi-layer target system in a one-dimensional geometry. The code system consists of calculation modules and libraries including activation cross sections, decay data and photon emission data. The system can be executed in both FACOM-M780 mainframe and DEC workstations. (author)

  14. Key strategies for enhancing the cycling stability and rate capacity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high-voltage cathode materials for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Mei, Jie; Zhu, Yan-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for future application due to its advantages of large reversible capacity, high thermal stability, low cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density. LNMO can provide 20% and 30% higher energy density than traditional cathode materials LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, respectively. Unfortunately, LNMO-based batteries with LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes always suffer from severe capacity deterioration and poor thermostability because of the oxidization of organic carbonate solvents and decomposition of LiPF6, especially at elevated temperatures and water-containing environment. Hence, it is necessary to systematically and comprehensively summarize the progress in understanding and modifying LNMO cathode from various aspects. In this review, the structure, transport properties and different reported possible fading mechanisms of LNMO cathode are first discussed detailedly. And then, the major goal of this review is to highlight new progress in using proposed strategies to improve the cycling stability and rate capacity of LNMO-based batteries, including synthesis, control of special morphologies, element doping and surface coating etc., especially at elevated temperatures. Finally, an insight into the future research and further development of LNMO cathode is discussed.

  15. Long-range plans for research with radioactive ion beams at JINR

    Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams (DRIBs) is a general name for initiative to develop a complex of experimental facilities in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, which should enable world-class research with Radioactive Ion Beams at JINR (Dubna, Russia). The first stage of this initiative (DRIBs-1) operates successfully. However, to meet the requests of the modern research, a new project DRIBs-3 is now being developed. It is based on the in-flight RIB production technique augmented with an ISOL-type second stage. The new fragment-separator ACCULINNA-2 comprising important part of the prospective facility is now under construction with an expected commissioning date in 2015. The long-range plans for experimental research at DRIBs-3 and the program for further development of this facility are discussed

  16. The radioactive ion beam project at VECC, Kolkata – A status report

    Alok Chakrabarti

    2002-12-01

    A project to build an ISOL-post accelerator type of radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility has been undertaken at VECC, Kolkata. The funding for the first phase of the project was approved in August 1997. This phase will be the R&D phase and will be completed by December 2003. The present status of development of the various sub-systems of the RIB facility will be discussed.

  17. Selective isobar suppression for accelerator mass spectrometry and radioactive ion-beam science

    A new method of selective isobar suppression by photodetachment in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion cooler is being developed at HRIBF with a twofold purpose: (1) increasing the AMS sensitivity for certain isotopes of interest and (2) purifying radioactive ion beams for nuclear science. The potential of suppressing the 36S contaminants in a 36Cl beam using this method has been explored with stable S- and Cl- ions and a Nd:YLF laser. In the study, the laser beam was directed along the experiment's beam line and through a RF quadrupole ion cooler. Negative 32S and 35Cl ions produced by a Cs sputter ion source were focused into the ion cooler where they were slowed by collisions with He buffer gas; this increased the interaction time between the negative-ion beam and the laser beam. As a result, suppression of S- by a factor of 3000 was obtained with about 2.5 W average laser power in the cooler while no reduction in Cl- current was observed.

  18. The SPES radioactive ion beam project of LNL: status and perspectives

    de Angelis, Giacomo; Prete, G.; Andrigetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Lollo, M.; Calderolla, M.; Vasquez, J.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Sarchiapone, L.; Benini, D.; Favaron, P.; Rigato, M.; Pegoraro, R.; Maniero, D.; Calabretta, L.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Lombardi, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Pisent, A.; Galatà, A.; Giacchini, M.; Bassato, G.; Canella, S.; Gramegna, F.; Valiente, J.; Bermudez, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Esposito, J.; Wyss, J.; Russo, A.; Zanella, S.

    2016-01-01

    A new Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility (SPES) is presently under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of INFN. The SPES facility is based on the ISOL method using an UCx Direct Target able to sustain a power of 8 kW. The primary proton beam is provided by a high current Cyclotron accelerator with energy of 35-70 MeV and a beam current of 0.2-0.7 mA. Neutron-rich radioactive ions are produced by proton induced fission on an Uranium target at an expected fission rate of the order of 1013 fissions per second. After ionization and selection the exotic isotopes are re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10A MeV for masses in the region A=130 amu. The expected secondary beam rates are of the order of 107 - 109 pps. Aim of the SPES facility is to deliver high intensity radioactive ion beams of neutron rich nuclei for nuclear physics research as well as to be an interdisciplinary research centre for radio-isotopes production for medicine and for neutron beams.

  19. A concept for emittance reduction of DC radioactive heavy-ion beams

    Numerical simulations indicate that it should be possible to use an electron beam to strip 1+ DC radioactive ion beams to 2+ or higher charge states with on the order of 50% efficiency. The device, which the authors call an Electron-Beam Charge-State Amplifier, is similar to an Electron Beam Ion Source, except that it is not pulsed, the beams are continuous. The 2+ beams are obtained in a single pass through a magnetic solenoid while higher charge states may be reached via multiple passes. An unexpected result of the ion optics simulations is that the normalized transverse emittance of the ion beam is reduced in proportion to the charge-state gain. Ion beams with realistic emittances and zero angular momentum relative to the optic axis before entering the solenoid will travel though the solenoid on helical orbits which intercept the axis once per cycle. With an ion beam about 2 mm in diameter and an electron beam about 0.2 mm in diameter, the ion stripping only occurs very near the optic axis, resulting in the emittance reduction

  20. Radiolytic effects on ion exchangers during the storage of radioactive wastes

    Radiolytic effects on ion exchangers are being recognized as a significant problem in the processing and storage of high-specific-activity radioactive waste forms. Two major literature surveys and a series of scoping experiments conducted during this investigation indicate that radiation decomposition of ion exchange materials has the potential for a variety of undesirable consequences. These include the ready dispersion of adsorbed radionuclides to the environment, corrosion and pressurization of waste canisters, and generation of flammable and explosive gases, as well as agglomeration of ion exchangers to a rigid monolith with the partitioning of a liquid phase. Some of the highlights of the literature surveys and the major findings of the experimental studies are reported here

  1. Research and development for the production of radioactive ions for SPIRAL; Recherche et developpement concernant la production d'ions radioactifs dans le cadre de SPIRAL

    Eleon, C

    2007-12-15

    This thesis is related to the research and development program for the production of radioactive ion beams by the ISOL method for SPIRAL at GANIL. Two studies concerning improvements to the performance of SPIRAL target-source system have been made, using a statistical approach to the atoms-to-ions transformation. The first study concerns the transformation time between the production of the radioactive atoms of Ar{sup 35} inside a target and the extraction of the radioactive ions from the source with the TARGISOL set-up (target + ECR source). The goal was to determine the diffusion coefficients of the Ar for the carbon target. The results that are presented illustrate the difficulty of this work. The second study is the application of the statistical approach to the surface ionization source. It allowed one to define and to build a new MonoNaKe set-up for the production of 1{sup +} radioactive alkaline ions. Radioactive ions of K{sup 37,47}, Na{sup 25,26,27,28,30}, Li{sup 8,9} and Al{sup 28,29,30,31} were produced. For the production of the multicharged radioactive alkali ions, the MonoNaKe target/ion-source system was coupled to the ECR source of SPIRAL-1 without a mass separator (1{sup +}/N{sup +} direct method). A first radioactive ion beam of {sup 47}K{sup 5+} was extracted at the SIRa test bench. A surface ionization test source based on the same technical characteristics of MonoNaKe has been built. The goal of this system will be to define a prototype of source adapted to the constraints of SPIRAL-2 (ionization efficiency and lifetime). (author)

  2. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

  3. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV reg-sign IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV reg-sign IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies

  4. On-line detection of small radioactive ions by capillary electrophoresis

    Worldwide environmental interests have placed a great demand on developing techniques for rapid characterization of contaminated soil and groundwater. Detection of radioactive contaminants is necessary for monitoring effluents from nuclear processes or to assure proper long term storage of radioactive waste. The authors have been investigating the chemistry required to separate representative radioactive small cations and anions by capillary electrophoresis. In order to evaluate the separation chemistry, detection of stable isotopes of the representative ions was achieved by indirect absorption for cations and direct absorption for anions. Several buffer systems which have been considered in the optimization of the separations will be discussed. The authors have designed and tested two on-line radioactivity detectors for capillary electrophoresis. An on-line solid state CdTe detector was constructed for this study and a scintillation detector has been designed using a high gain photodiode light sensor. Different scintillation materials have been tested. Comparison of the detectors, design considerations, efficiency and limits of detection will be presented

  5. Radioactive ion beam transportation for the fundamental symmetry study with laser-trapped atoms

    Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The search for the violation of the fundamental symmetry in a radioactive atom is the promising candidate for precision tests of the standard model and its possible extensions. The subtle signal arising from the symmetry violation is enhanced in heavy atoms, such as a francium (Fr). To realize high precision measurements, a large amount of radioactive isotopes is required. The Fr is produced via a nuclear fusion reaction using a melted gold target with a 18O primary beam at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The maximum extraction efficiency of the Fr ion was achieved at approximately 35%. The beam line consists of an electrostatic deflector, three electrostatic quadrupole triplets to the measurement area at 10 m away from the reaction point, and several beam diagnosis systems. We optimized parameters of the beam line.

  6. New reaction chamber for transient field g-factor measurements with radioactive ion beams

    Illana, A., E-mail: a.illana@csic.es; Perea, A.; Nácher, E.; Orlandi, R.; Jungclaus, A.

    2015-06-11

    A new reaction chamber has been designed and constructed to measure g-factors of short-lived excited states using the Transient Field technique in combination with Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics. In this paper we will discuss several important aspects which have to be considered in order to successfully carry out this type of measurement with radioactive ion beams, instead of the stable beams used in a wide range of experiments in the past. The technical solutions to the problems arising from the use of such radioactive beams will be exposed in detail and the first successful experiment using the new chamber in combination with MINIBALL cluster detectors at REX-ISOLDE (CERN) will be reported on.

  7. Purification of radioactive decontamination liquids from NPP Paks with reactive adsorption and ion-exchange process

    In nuclear power plant Paks, Hungary, alkaline oxidative (NaOH, KMnO4, H2O) and acidic reductive (citric- and oxalic acid, water) liquids are using for the decontamination of primary circuit equipment (main liquid circulating pumps, steam generators, pipelines etc). The above mentioned decontamination liquids are containing 110mAg, 95Nb, 54Mn, 58 Co, 60Co, 51 Cr, 124 Sb radioisotopes, summarized radioactivity is between 103-8x104 kBq/dm3 liquid. The decontamination liquid can be cleaned with reactive adsorption (active carbon) and ion-exchange process at elevated temperature (333-368 K) in multilayered columns. After purification the summarized radioactivity for 54Mn, 60Co, and 110mAg are in the outlet liquid below 1 kBq/dm3. Decontamination factor DF≅103-104, volumetric reduction factor VRF≅50-500

  8. Development of radioactive ion beam production systems for Tokai Radioactive Ion Acceleration Complex--High temperature ion source for short-lived isotopes

    We have developed a new ion source system in the isotope separator on-line at Japan Atomic Energy Agency, for separation of short-lived isotopes produced by proton-induced fission of 238U. The ion source system is a forced electron beam induced arc discharge version E type ion source with a target container. We successfully operated this system at 2000 deg. C as a result of reductions in volume of the ion source and the target container, introduction of heating method by electron bombardment, and improvement to the heat shield. This new ion source system was tested using 238U of 640 mg/cm2 with a proton primary beam of 30 MeV, 350 nA. Release times were measured for Kr, In, and Xe. The values of release times are 2.6 s for Kr, 1.8 s for In, and 4.6 s for Xe. In this work, the ion source system enabled us to mass-separate short-lived isotopes such as 93Kr(T1/2=1.286 s), 129In(T1/2=0.61 s), and 141Xe(T1/2=1.73 s) with intensity of 103 ions/s.

  9. Upgrade of the facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light Radioactive Ion Beams

    Highlights: • Production of in-flight Radioactive Ion Beams via two-body reactions. • Development of a cryogenic gas target. • Event-by-event tracking via Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs). -- Abstract: The facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) has been operating at INFN-LNL since 2004. RIBs are produced via two-body reactions induced by high intensity heavy-ion beams impinging on light gas targets and selected by means of a 30°-dipole bending magnet and a 1-m long Wien filter. The facility has been recently upgraded (i) by developing a cryogenic gas target, (ii) by replacing the power supplies of the middle lenses of the two quadrupole triplets, (iii) by installing two y-steerers and (iv) by placing two Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters upstream the secondary target to provide an event-by-event reconstruction of the position hit on the target. So far, RIBs of 7Be, 8B and 17F in the energy range 3–5 MeV/u have been produced with intensities about 3 × 105, 1.6 × 103 and 105 pps, respectively. Possible light RIBs (up to Z = 10) deliverable by the facility EXOTIC are also reviewed

  10. Radioactive sputter cathodes for {sup 32}P plasma-based ion implantation

    Fortin, M.A. [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)]. E-mail: fortin@bms.uu.se; Paynter, R.W. [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sarkissian, A. [Plasmionique Inc., 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Stansfield, B.L. [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    The development of clinical treatments involving the use of beta-emitting millimetric and sub-millimetric devices has been a continuing trend in nuclear medicine. Implanted a few nanometers below the surface of endovascular implants, seeds or beads, beta-emitting radioisotopes can be used in a variety of biomedical applications. Recently, new technologies have emerged to enable the rapid and efficient activation of such devices. A pulsed, coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (PBRII). It has been shown that such plasma reactors allow for the implantation of radioisotopes ({sup 32}P) into biomedical devices with higher efficiencies than those obtained with conventional ion beams. Fragments containing radioactive atoms are produced in the implanter by means of a negatively biased solid sputter cathode that is inserted into an argon plasma. Dilute orthophosphoric acid solutions (H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}) are used for the fabrication of flat sputter targets, since they offer a high radioisotope content. However, the aggregation of the radioactive solute into highly hygroscopic ring-like deposits rather than flat, thin radioactive films is observed on certain substrates. This article describes the effect of this nonuniform distribution of the radioisotopes on the efficiency of PBRII, and presents a technique which enables a better distribution of {sup 32}P by coating the substrates with iron. The iron coating is shown to enable optimal radioisotope sputtering rates, which are essential in {sup 32}P-PBRII for the efficient activation of millimetric biomedical devices such as stents or coils.

  11. Radioactive sputter cathodes for 32P plasma-based ion implantation

    The development of clinical treatments involving the use of beta-emitting millimetric and sub-millimetric devices has been a continuing trend in nuclear medicine. Implanted a few nanometers below the surface of endovascular implants, seeds or beads, beta-emitting radioisotopes can be used in a variety of biomedical applications. Recently, new technologies have emerged to enable the rapid and efficient activation of such devices. A pulsed, coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (PBRII). It has been shown that such plasma reactors allow for the implantation of radioisotopes (32P) into biomedical devices with higher efficiencies than those obtained with conventional ion beams. Fragments containing radioactive atoms are produced in the implanter by means of a negatively biased solid sputter cathode that is inserted into an argon plasma. Dilute orthophosphoric acid solutions (H332PO4) are used for the fabrication of flat sputter targets, since they offer a high radioisotope content. However, the aggregation of the radioactive solute into highly hygroscopic ring-like deposits rather than flat, thin radioactive films is observed on certain substrates. This article describes the effect of this nonuniform distribution of the radioisotopes on the efficiency of PBRII, and presents a technique which enables a better distribution of 32P by coating the substrates with iron. The iron coating is shown to enable optimal radioisotope sputtering rates, which are essential in 32P-PBRII for the efficient activation of millimetric biomedical devices such as stents or coils

  12. A study of the wet chemical oxidation and solidification of radioactive spent ion exchange resins

    This paper describes the research works on the decomposition of Ion-Exchange Resins (IERs) in H2O2-Fe2+/Cu2+ catalysis systems for volume reduction and improvement of immobilization in cement. The resins used in the study were polystyrene strong acidic and basic resins containing about 45% of water. The radioactive spent resins loading 60Co, 137Cs, 134Cs, 90Sr and 51Cr with a radioactive activity level of 4GBq/m3 were obtained from a reactor installation. It has been found in batch scale experiment that many factors has influence on the decomposition of IERs, and the most important ones are H2O2 dosage, H2O2 dose rate, temperature and pH value. The best temperature range is 97-99 deg. C. The pH-value of resin slurry chosen in this study is 2.0-3.0. The appropriate dosage of H2O2(30% vol.) is 200 ml/25 g wet mixed resins. The decomposition ratio is 100% and more than 90% for cation and anion IERs respectively, while it is 85% for mixed resins (as TOC-value). The analytical results indicates that the radioactive nuclides loaded in the spent resins are concentrated in decomposition solution and solid residues. No radioactivity enters into the off-gas, while the condensate from the reaction system has a radioactive activity of 1.65 Bq/l. Foaming is a problem associated with resin dissolution. Addition of a little amount of anti-foam agent can solve this problem very well. Three cementation materials have been chosen for encapsulation of decomposition residue. All of the tree kind of solidification materials can produce qualified cemented products with excellent properties for long term storage. The adopted volume reduction (VR) process can significantly reduce waste volume of solidified product decreases by 40% compared with that of original spent resin. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Immobilization of ion exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor

    This work has the objective to develop the process and to define the agglutinating material which allows the immobilization of the ion exchange radioactive resins coming from the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor contaminated with Ba-133, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Mn-54 through the behavior analysis of different immobilization agents such as: bitumens, cement and polyester resin. According to the International Standardization the archetype samples were observed with the following tests: determination of free liquid, leaching, charge resistance, biodegradation, irradiation, thermal cycle, burned resistance. Generally all the tests were satisfactorily achieved, for each agent. Therefore, the polyester resin could be considered as the main immobilizing. (Author)

  14. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  15. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Wahl, U

    2011-01-01

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...

  16. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO2, Nb, Ti, V,TiO2, CeOx, ThO2, C, ZrC4 and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams

    This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort

  18. Cryogenic molecular separation system for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Suzuki, K.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263–8555 (Japan); Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A {sup 11}C molecular production/separation system (CMPS) has been developed as part of an isotope separation on line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. In the ISOL system, {sup 11}CH{sub 4} molecules will be produced by proton irradiation and separated from residual air impurities and impurities produced during the irradiation. The CMPS includes two cryogenic traps to separate specific molecules selectively from impurities by using vapor pressure differences among the molecular species. To investigate the fundamental performance of the CMPS, we performed separation experiments with non-radioactive {sup 12}CH{sub 4} gases, which can simulate the chemical characteristics of {sup 11}CH{sub 4} gases. We investigated the separation of CH{sub 4} molecules from impurities, which will be present as residual gases and are expected to be difficult to separate because the vapor pressure of air molecules is close to that of CH{sub 4}. We determined the collection/separation efficiencies of the CMPS for various amounts of air impurities and found desirable operating conditions for the CMPS to be used as a molecular separation device in our ISOL system.

  19. Preliminary shielding estimates for the proposed National ISOL Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) Facility at Oak Ridge

    ORNL built a first-generation Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility for astrophysics and nuclear physics research; it was named Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) and is based on the Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) technique. Planning is underway for a second- generation facility, the National ISOL RIB facility at Oak Ridge; it will build on the existing HRIBF and may utilize many existing components and shielded areas. Preliminary upgrade plan for the new facility includes: adding a superconducting booster for the tandem accelerator; replacing the 1960-vintage, 60-MeV proton, 50-microamp ORIC (Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron) with a modern 200-MeV proton, 200-microamp cyclotron; and building a high-power 238U fission target to accept the 200-MeV proton beam. This report summarizes the results of a preliminary 1-D shielding analysis of the proposed upgrade, to determine the shielding requirements for a 0.25 mrem/h dose rate at the external surface of the exclusion area. Steel shielding weights ranging from 60 to 100 metric tons, were considered manageable; these could be reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 if the orientation of the proposed target station was changed

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams

    McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J. (comps.)

    1990-10-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort.

  1. Radioactive Ion Beam Production by Fast-Neutron-Induced Fission in Actinide Targets at EURISOL

    Herrera-Martínez, Adonai

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, the production of high-intensity RIBs of specific neutron-rich isotopes is obtained by inducing fission in large-mass actinide targets. In our contribution, the use of uranium targets is shown to be advantageous to other materials, such as thorium. Therefore, in order to produce fissions in U-238 and reduce the plutonium inventory, a fast neutron energy spectrum is necessary. The large beam power required to achieve these RIB levels requires the use of a liquid proton-to-neutron converter. This article details the design parameters of the converter, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the liquid converter and fission target. Calculations performed with the ...

  2. Development of composite ion exchangers and their use in treatment of liquid radioactive wastes

    Composite inorganic-organic absorbers represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified by using binding organic material for preparation of larger size particles having higher granular strength. Such modification of originally powdered or microcrystalline inorganic ion exchangers makes their application in packed beds possible. Modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been used as a universal binding polymer for a number of inorganic ion exchangers. The kinetics of ion exchange and sorption capacity of such composite absorbers is not influenced by the binding polymer mentioned above. The contents of active component in composite absorber can be varied over a very broad range (5-95% of the dry weight of the composite absorber). These composite absorbers have been tested for separation and concentration of various contaminants from aqueous solutions. Their high selectivity and sorption efficiency are advantageous for treatment of various radioactive and/or industrial waste waters, removal of natural and/or artificial radionuclides and heavy or toxic metals from underground water, determination of radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co, U, Ra) in the environment, etc. Examples of some of these applications are presented in this report. (author). 21 refs, 9 figs, 10 tabs

  3. Review of Electret ion chamber technology for measuring technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

    Electret ion chamber (EIC) is a passive integrating ionization chamber used extensively for measuring technologically enhanced radioactivity. Commercially available electret ion chambers called 1E-PERM (Electret-Passive Environmental Radiation Monitors) electret ion chambers are relatively new and are in use only from the past 10 years. The EIC consists of a stable electret (electrically charged Teflon disc) mounted inside an electrically conducting chamber. The electret serves both as a source of the electric field and as a sensor. The ions produced inside the chamber are collected by the electret. The reduction in charge of the electret is related to total ionization during the period of exposure. This charge reduction is measured using a battery operated electret reader. Using appropriate calibration factors and the exposure time, the desired parameters such as radon concentration in air is calculated. These low cost monitors require neither power nor battery and several hundreds of these can be used simultaneously and serviced by one reader. These monitors do not provide on line readings, but provide an average value over a period of time. The EICs have been used for measuring: (a) indoor and outdoor radon, (b) thoron, (c) dissolved radon and radium in water, (d) environmental gamma, (e) radon emanating radon concentration in soil samples and in pipes, (f) radon flux from surfaces and building materials. The purpose of this paper is to describe these methods and give selected reference to the related publications for more detailed reading. (author)

  4. Testing fundamental symmetries using radioactive ion beams at TRIUMF-ISAC

    Full text: The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, British Columbia, makes use of a 500 MeV proton beam with intensities up to 100 μA to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs) by the Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) technique. At present, low energy ion beams from the ion source are delivered to several experimental stations that address a range of nuclear physics issues, many of which are important for precision tests of the Standard Model of particle physics. These include the TRIUMF Neutral Atom Trap (TRINAT) facility, the TRIUMF Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN) facility, the 8π gamma-ray spectrometer, the General Purpose Station (GPS) 4π gas counter, and the Radon-Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) set up. There exists significant collaboration amongst the members of these facilities in various experiments. In this talk I will present an overview of the scientific motivation of the above mentioned experimental facilities, and their relevance to the broad rubric of Standard Model tests. I will also present results from a few recently concluded experiments

  5. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  6. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  7. Low-energy and secondary (radioactive) ion-beam profile measurements and optimization using modified Gafchromic EBT film

    Jiang, Hao [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Becchetti, F.D., E-mail: fdb@umich.ed [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ojaruega, M.; Torres-Isea, R.; Raymond, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Villano, A.N. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Kolata, J.J.; Roberts, A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2010-08-21

    A modified version of Gafchromic EBT radiochromic medical imaging film, which is light insensitive and requires no special development or processing, is shown to be useful for imaging low-energy (few MeV) ion beams and radioactive sources. It appears especially well suited for use with low-intensity short-lived (radioactive) secondary beams (RNB). The film can assist in optimizing the collimation needed to minimize unwanted background ions, and to accurately determine the ion-optical alignment of RNB production and transport systems. It allows for effective imaging of beam profiles and relative intensities throughout the beam-transport system and especially at locations not readily accessible to electronic imaging detectors. The special advantages of using the film for RNBs, which often are spatially extended and contaminated with unwanted ions, are demonstrated.

  8. A study on wet catalysis oxidation of spent radioactive ion-exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    Spent radioactive ion-exchange resin (IER) is one of the main kinds of wastes produced by nuclear installations. The authors describe the study on decomposition behaviors of cationic, anionic and mixed IER in H2O2-Ni2+/Cu2+, H2O2-Mn2+/Cu2+, H2O2-Fe2+/Cu2+ and H2O2-Cu2+ systems, analyzes the effects on reaction process and consequence of many factors such as amount of H2O2, catalyst, temperature, pH-value, NaOH and so on. The relation between cementation process and the amount of decomposition residuals was studied. It provided the possible maximum COD-value under which the solidification process would not be affected. The reaction mechanism of the wet chemical oxidation of IER was discussed preliminarily

  9. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross sections with low-energy light radioactive ion beams.

    Guimarães Valdir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastic scattering experiments have being performed with low-energy radioactive ion beams produced by the RIBRAS facility in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Here I present the results for elastic scattering of 6He on several targets and light beams on 12C target. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of experiments were angular distributions for the elastic scattering of beryllium isotopes projectiles, 7Be, 9Be and 10Be, on a light target 12C were obtained. These elastic scattering angular distributions have been analysed in terms of optical model using the double-folding Sao Paulo potential. From this analysis, the total reaction cross section were also deduced and compared to the total reaction cross sections for many other light projectiles on 12C target. The comparison was made in terms of Universal Function reduction method.

  10. Lifetime measurements using radioactive ion beams at intermediate energies and the Doppler shift method

    Absolute transition probabilities are crucial quantities in nuclear structure physics. Therefore, it is important to establish Doppler shift (plunger) techniques also for the measurement of level lifetimes in radioactive ion beam experiments. After a first successful test of the Doppler Shift technique at intermediate energy (52MeV/u) with a stable 124Xe beam, a plunger has been built and used in two experiments, performed at the NSCL/MSU with the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the plunger technique after a knock-out reaction using a radioactive 65Ge beam at 100 MeV/u for populating excited states in 64Ge. The second experiment aimed to measure the lifetimes of the first 2+ states in 110,114Pd with the plunger technique after Coulomb excitation at beam energies of 54 MeV/u. First results of both experiments will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

  11. Design of an equipment for the testing of target dedicated to the production of radioactive ions through the ISOL method

    In the ISOL (isotope separation on line) technique, a primary ion beam impinges on a thick target, the incident ions are stopped through fragmentation reactions that generate radioactive nuclei. As soon as they have collected enough electrons, the radioactive nuclei begin diffusing outside the target as radioactive atoms. In order to improve this diffusion the target is strongly heated. The radioactive atoms diffuse till a ion source that ionize them, they are then accelerated to form a secondary beam that is delivered to the experimental area. This work deals with the design of an equipment able to measure the diffusion capacities of various targets, it is made up of -) a high temperature (> 2300 K) oven that will contain the target, -) a ionization source for ionizing radioactive atoms and -) a target dispatcher able to introduce in the oven or remove from the oven any target of a set of 12 targets. This equipment has proved to be able to test during a single experiment several primary beams and target materials. Measurements will be performed in a sequential way for the different projectile-target couples which will assure very closed experimental conditions for each measuring campaign. (A.C.)

  12. SPIRAL2 at GANIL: next generation of ISOL facility for intense secondary radioactive ion beams

    During the last two decades, secondary Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) has allowed the investigation of a new territory of nuclei with extreme N/Z called *terra incognita*. The quest for Rare Isotope Beams (RIB), which are orders of magnitude more intense than those currently available, is the main motivation behind the design and construction of the next generation of RIB facilities. As selected by the ESFRI committee, the next generation of ISOL facility in Europe is represented by the SPIRAL2 project to be built at GANIL (Caen, France). SPIRAL 2 is based on a high power, CW, superconducting LINAC,delivering 5 mA of deuteron beams at 40 MeV (200 kW) directed on a C converter+Uranium target and producing more 1013 fissions/s. The expected radioactive beams intensities in the mass range from A=60 to A=140, will surpass by two order of magnitude any existing facilities in the world. These unstable atoms will be available at energies between few keV/n to 15 MeV/n. The same driver will accelerate high intensity (100*A to 1 mA), heavier ions up to Ar at 14 MeV/n. Under the 7FP program of European Union called *Preparatory phase*, the SPIRAL2 project has been granted a budget of about 4MEUR to build up an international consortium around this new venture. The status of the construction of SPIRAL2 accelerator and associated physics instruments in collaboration with EU and International partners are presented.

  13. SHyPIE: a new source for on-line production of multicharged radioactive condensable ion beams

    In order to define the future intensity and reliability of the on line radioactive beams for the SPIRAL project, an intense activity of research and development is being done around the target and the ion source problems. The main instrument for this purpose is the isotopic separator SIRa (Separateur d'Ions Radioactifs) installed in the D2 experimental cave at GANIL. One of the research axis is the production of multicharged radioactive condensable ions. In this aim, we have built a new compact ECR ion source, SHyPIE (Source Hybride pour la Production d'Ions Exotiques), whose original magnetic configuration is under patent since 1997. This new magnetic structure allows to place an internal production target very close to the plasma, while avoiding radiation damages of the sensitive permanent magnets. A series of on line experiments have been done, using SHyPIE with several internal target systems, and around thirty species of condensable and noble gases radioactive multicharged ion beams have been produced. The behaviour of the plasma in a close geometry with the production target has been studied. (authors)

  14. Ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on the acid-treated 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}⋅0.7LiMn{sub 0.60}Ni{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} electrode for Li-ion batteries

    Choi, Mansoo [Battery Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Giyul [Dept. of Materials and Science Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Bong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Min [Battery Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Moo [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Kim, Hyun-Soo, E-mail: hskim@keri.re.kr [Battery Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}⋅0.7LiMn{sub 0.60}Ni{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} composites were preconditioned by HNO{sub 3}. • The alumina thin film was directly coated on the electrode by an atomic layer deposition. • The acid-treated samples showed significantly higher discharge capacity. • The alumina-coated electrode showed the improved capacity retention ratio. - Abstract: The Li and Mn-rich layered composites represented by Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}–LiMO{sub 2} has been attracting great interests owing to its exceptional high capacity (⩾250 mA h g{sup −1}) and enhanced structural stability. In order to improve the initial coulombic efficiency and cyclability of the composites, the material has been activated by an acid-treatment and coated with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using an atomic layer deposition (ALD). The acid-treated electrode showed a higher discharge capacity than the as-prepared electrode. The alumina-coated electrode provided an improved specific capacity of the electrode but also cycling stability, when compared with the bare electrode. The electrode coated with the alumina could lead to a decrease in undesirable reactions, thereby acting as a stable protecting layer that could quickly transport Li{sup +} ions during charge and discharge process.

  15. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    Guo, Fanqing

    2004-12-09

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z

  16. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z = 8

  17. Review of disposal techniques for radioactively contaminated organic ion-exchange resins

    Organic ion-exchange resins are used in the UK nuclear industry to remove radioactive nuclides from dilute aqueous solution. Resins represent a significant proportion of the organic content of ILW and LLW, particularly ILW. Spent resins are destined to be disposed of in the UK deep repository. There are concerns regarding the potential effects of organic materials on long-term repository performance, and these effects have been the subject of much recent research work. The object of this study has been to conduct a worldwide review of treatment and conditioning techniques available for spent organic ion-exchange resins with the intention of recommending the best option for dealing with the waste in the UK. Data on available techniques have been gathered together, and are presented in tabular form at the back of the report. The techniques have been reviewed and compared considering safety, practicality and cost, and a best option selected on the basis of current knowledge. On balance it would appear that wet oxidation using hydrogen peroxide with residue encapsulation in BFS/OPC is the most appropriate technique, probably implemented using a mobile plant. This conclusion and recommendation is not however clear cut and further advice regarding the acceptability of organic material in the repository is necessary before a definite recommendation can be made. (Author)

  18. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Present status and future plans

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a first generation national user facility for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The reconfiguration, construction, and equipment commissioning phases have been completed and the beam development program is in progress. In this article, descriptions of the facility and newly implemented experimental equipment for use in the nuclear and astrophysics programs will be given and an outline of the initial experimental program will be presented. Special target ion source related problems, endemic to the production of specific short lived RIBs will be discussed. In addition, plans, which involve either a 200 MeV or a 1 GeV proton linac driver for a second generation ISOL facility, will be presented

  19. Study of chemically synthesized ZnO nano particles under a bio template using radioactive ion beam

    This is a project proposal to study nano sized semiconductor ZnO system, useful in biology and medicinal purposes, using radioactive ion beam from ISOLDE. Doping of the nano particles with Cu, Cd and Ga ions (in their variable valancy states) are expected to impart changes in the electrical structure and properties in the said system under study. The morphological changes, chemical environment, micro structure, electrical and optical properties of the nano size particles of ZnO system (developed under a bio template of folic acid) after the interaction with radioactive ion beam will be studied. The provision of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) study with respect to the changes in chemical environment, where ever possible will be attempted.

  20. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Present status and future plans

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a first generation national user facility for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBS). The reconfiguration, construction, and equipment-commissioning phases have been completed and the beam development program is in progress. In this article, descriptions of the facility and newly implemented experimental equipment for use in the nuclear and astrophysics programs will be given and an outline of the initial experimental program will be presented. Special target/ion source related problems, endemic to the production of specific short-lived RIBs will be discussed. In addition, plans, which involve either a 200-MeV or a 1-GeV proton-linac driver for a second-generation ISOL facility, will be presented

  1. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive praseodymium ions and cadmium ions; Kollineare Laserspektroskopie an radioaktiven Praseodymionen und Cadmiumatomen

    Froemmgen, Nadja

    2013-11-21

    Collinear laser spectroscopy is a tool for the model independent determination of spins, charge radii and electromagnetic moments of nuclei in ground and long-lived isomeric states. In the context of this thesis a new offline ion source for high evaporating temperatures and an ion beam analysis system were implemented at the TRIGA-LASER Experiment at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz. The main part of the thesis deals with the determination of the properties of radioactive praseodymium and cadmium isotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. The necessary test measurements for the spectroscopy of praseodymium ions have been conducted with the aforementioned offline ion source at the TRIGA-LASER experiment. The spectroscopy of the praseodymium ions was motivated by the observation of a modulation of the electron capture decay rates of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}. The nuclear magnetic moment of the nucleus is, among others, required for the explanation of the so-called GSI Oscillations and has not been studied experimentally before. Additionally, the determined electron capture decay constant of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} is lower than the one of helium-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+}. The explanation of this phenomenon requires a positive magnetic moment. During the experiment at the COLLAPS apparatus the magnetic moments of the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 135}Pr, {sup 136}Pr and {sup 137}Pr could be determined for the first time. Unfortunately, due to a too low production yield the desired isotope {sup 140}Pr could not be studied.The systematic study of cadmium isotopes was motivated by nuclear physics in the tin region. With Z=48 two protons are missing for the shell closure and the isotopes extend from the magic neutron number N=50 to the magic neutron number N=82. The extracted nuclear properties allow tests of different nuclear models in this region. In this thesis the obtained results of the spectroscopy of

  2. New pathway to bypass the 15O waiting point

    Stefan, I; Pellegriti, M G; Dumitru, G; Navin, A; Angélique, J C; Angélique, M; Berthoumieux, E; Butà, A; Borcea, R; Coc, A; Daugas, J M; Davinson, T; Fadil, M; Grévy, S; Kiener, J; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A; Lenhardt, M; Lewitowicz, M; Negoita, F; Pantelica, D; Perrot, L; Roig, O; Laurent, M G S; Ray, I; Sorlin, O; Stanoiu, M; Stodel, C; Tatischeff, V; Thomas, J C

    2006-01-01

    Two reactions $^{15}$O(p,$\\beta^{+}$)$^{16}$O and $^{15}$O(p,$\\gamma)(\\beta^{+}$)$^{16}$O are presented as new paths to bypass the $^{15}$O waiting point in the CNO cycles. Precise measurements of the ground and excited states in $^{16}$F, obtained using H($^{15}$O,p)$^{15}$O reaction, were used to calculate the cross sections. Surprisingly the second reaction has a cross section $\\simeq$ 10$^{10}$ times larger. This can be understood to arise from the more effective feeding of the low energy wing of the ground state resonance. The implications of the latter reaction in novae explosions and x-ray bursts sites is discussed.

  3. Positron emission tomography in Huntington's chorea using C15O2, 15O2 and 18 FDG

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using C15 O2, 15O2 and 18FDG was performed in a father and his son with Huntington's chorea. It was suggested that striatal atrophy occurred before the extensive atrophy of the cerebral cortex and that the progression of atrophy of the right and left cerebral hemispheric cortexes was not uniform. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Alternative solidification techniques for radioactive ion exchange resins and liquid concentrates

    Methods, that are used or are under development for solidification of radioactive ion exchange resins or liquid concentrates, utilize normally cement, bitumen or some polymere as matrix material. This report contains a review and a description of these solidification processes and their products, especially of relatively new techniques that are under development in different countries. It is possible that solidification in thermosetting resins will be more used in the future, especially when product quality requirements are high (for instance when solidifying medium level resins) or when special waste categories has to be solidified. However it is not probable that thermosetting resins will be extensively used in a broad application as matrix material. In that case the methods are to complicated and expensive compared to, for instance, solidification in concrete. Systems for incorporation in polyesteremulsions (Dow-process) have a potential as they are quite simple and can accept a large variation of liquid wastes. Some methods in an early stage of development (for instance Inert Carrier Radwaste Process) will have to be tested in active application before they can be further evaluated. (author)

  5. EPICOR-II: a field leaching test of solidified radioactively loaded ion exchange resin

    As part of an ongoing research program investigating the disposal of radioactive solid wastes in the environment' the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is participating with Argonne National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in a study of the leachability of solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resin under simulated disposal conditions. To simulate disposal, a group of five 2-m3 soil lysimeters has been installed in Solid Waste Storage Area Six at ORNL, with each lysimeter containing a small sample of solidified resin at its center. Two solidification techniques are being investigated: a Portland cement and a vinyl ester-styrene treatment. During construction, soil moisture temperature cells were placed in each lysimeter, along with five porous ceramic tubes for sampling water near the waste source. A meteorological station was set up at the study site to monitor climatic conditions (primarily precipitation and air temperature), and a data acquisition system was installed to keep daily records of these meteorological parameters as well as lysimeter soil moisture and temperature conditions. This report documents the first year of the long-term field study and includes discussions of lysimeter installation, calibration of soil moisture probes, installation of the site meteorological station, and the results of the first-quarter sampling for radionuclides in lysimeter leachate. In addition, the data collection and processing system developed for this study is documented, and the results of the first three months of data collection are summarized in Appendix D

  6. Nuclear Structure Studies of Exotic Nuclei with Radioactive Ion Beams A Final Report

    Winger, Jeff Allen [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2016-04-21

    Beta-decay spectroscopy provides important information on nuclear structure and properties needed to understand topics as widely varied as fundamental nuclear astrophysics to applied nuclear reactor design. However, there are significant limitations of our knowledge due to an inability to experimentally measure everything. Therefore, it is often necessary to rely on theoretical calculations which need to be vetted with experimental results. The focus of this report will be results from experimental research performed by the Principal Investigator (PI) and his research group at Mississippi State University in which the group played the lead role in proposing, implementing, performing and analyzing the experiment. This research was carried out at both the National Superconduction Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University and the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The primary emphasis of the research was the use of \\bdec spectroscopy as a tool to understand the evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich nuclei which could then be applied to improve theory and to increase the overall knowledge of nuclear structure.

  7. Advanced target concepts for production of radioactive ions and neutrino beams

    The 1-20 MW of proton beam power which modern accelerator technology put at our disposal for production of intense secondary beams presents a major technically challenge to the production targets. A conceptual design is presented for a high power pion production target and collection system, which was originally suggested to be used as the source for the proposed CERN muon-neutrino factory. It will be shown that the major parts of this target could also serve as an efficient spallation neutron source for production of 6He and fission products in the two-step converter target concept. The heart of the system consists of a free surface mercury jet with a high axial velocity, which allows the heat to be carried away efficiently from the production region. For the neutrino factory the secondary pions are collected and injected into the pion decay channel by means of a magnetic horn. For the radioactive ion-beam facility the Hg-jet is surrounded by the high-temperature isotope separator on-line (ISOL) production target. The suggested mechanical layout and technical parameters of the Hg-jet, ISOL target, horn and cooling system are discussed. The critical issues are identified and a description of the R and D program designed to provide experimental proof of the principle as well as providing engineering parameters is given

  8. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  9. 用于产生放射性离子束ECR离子源%ECR Ion Sources for Radioactive Ion Beam Production

    P.Jardin; F.Lemagnen; R.Leroy; J.Y.Pacquet; M.G.Saint Laurent; A.C.C.Villari; C.Canet; J.C.Cornell; M.Dupuis; C.Eleon; J.L.Flambard; G.Gaubert; N.Lecesne; P.Leherissier

    2007-01-01

    ECRIS's dedicated to radioactive ion production must be as efficient as those used for production of stable elements,but in addition they are subject to more specific constraints such as radiation hardness,short atom-to-ion transformation time,beam purity and low cost.Up to now,different target/ion-source systems(TISSs)have been designed,using singly-charged ECRISs,multi.charged ion sources or an association of singly-to-multi-charged ECRISs.The main goals,constraints and advantages of different existing ECR setups will be compared before a more detailed description is given of the one designed for the SPIRAL Ⅱ project and its future improvements.

  10. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Manzolaro, M., E-mail: mattia.manzolaro@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Meneghetti, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Vivian, G.; D’Agostini, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2, Legnaro, 35020 Padova (Italy); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.

  11. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed

  12. Thermal-electric coupled-field finite element modeling and experimental testing of high-temperature ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G; D'Agostini, F

    2016-02-01

    In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed. PMID:26932055

  13. Performance test of silver ion-exchanged zeolite for the removal of gaseous radioactive methyl iodide at high temperature condition

    Performance tests of silver ion-exchanged zeolite (AgX) adsorbent for the control of radioiodine gas generated from a high-temperature process were carried out using both non-radioactive and a radioactive methyl iodide tracers. From the identification of SEM-EDAX analysis, an experimental result of silver ion-exchanged ratio containing 10∼30 wt% of Ag was fit to that calculated by the weight increment, and it was confirmed that the silver was uniformly distributed inside the pores of the adsorbent. Demonstration test of AgX-10 adsorbent using radioactive methyl iodide tracer was performed. The removal efficiency of radioiodine with AgX-10 in the temperature ranges of 150 to 300 deg C was in the ranges of 99.9% to 99.99%, except for 300 deg C. The influence of the long-term weathering and the poisoning with NO2 gas (200 ppm) on adsorption capacity of AgX-10 was also analyzed. The removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide by AgX-10 weathered for 14 weeks was 99.95%. Long-term poisoning test showed that the adsorption efficiency of methyl iodide started to decrease after 10 weeks, and the removal efficiency of radioiodine by AgX-10, poisoned for 16 weeks, was 99% (DF=100). (author)

  14. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-01

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution. PMID:26999358

  16. Isobar separation by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Czok, Ulrich; Geissel, Hans; Petrick, Martin; Reinheimer, Katrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2008-10-01

    A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) system for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities has been developed, which can be used for (i) isobar separation and (ii) direct mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei with half-lives of about 1 ms or longer, and (iii) for identification and diagnosis of the ion beam by mass spectrometry. The system has been designed and simulated, and individual subsystems have been built and characterized experimentally. An injection trap for cooling and bunching of the ion beam has been developed, and cooling times of less than one millisecond have been achieved. The performance of the MR-TOF-MS was characterized using the isobaric doublet of carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecular ions. A mass resolving power of 105 (FWHM) has been obtained even with an uncooled ion population. The separator capabilities of the MR-TOF-MS have been demonstrated by removing either carbon monoxide or nitrogen ions from the beam in a Bradbury-Nielsen Gate after a flight time of 320 μs. The separation power achieved is thus at least 7000 (FWHM) and increases for longer time-of-flight. An energy buncher stage has been designed that compresses the energy spread of the beam after the separation and facilitates efficient injection of the selected ions into an accumulation trap prior to transfer of the ions to experiments downstream of the MR-TOF-MS.

  17. Isobar separation by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities

    Plass, Wolfgang R. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: Wolfgang.R.Plass@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de; Dickel, Timo [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Czok, Ulrich; Geissel, Hans [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Petrick, Martin; Reinheimer, Katrin [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Scheidenberger, Christoph [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Yavor, Mikhail I. [Institute of Analytical Instrument Making, Russian Academy of Sciences, 190103 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-10-15

    A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) system for low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities has been developed, which can be used for (i) isobar separation and (ii) direct mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei with half-lives of about 1 ms or longer, and (iii) for identification and diagnosis of the ion beam by mass spectrometry. The system has been designed and simulated, and individual subsystems have been built and characterized experimentally. An injection trap for cooling and bunching of the ion beam has been developed, and cooling times of less than one millisecond have been achieved. The performance of the MR-TOF-MS was characterized using the isobaric doublet of carbon monoxide and nitrogen molecular ions. A mass resolving power of 10{sup 5} (FWHM) has been obtained even with an uncooled ion population. The separator capabilities of the MR-TOF-MS have been demonstrated by removing either carbon monoxide or nitrogen ions from the beam in a Bradbury-Nielsen Gate after a flight time of 320 {mu}s. The separation power achieved is thus at least 7000 (FWHM) and increases for longer time-of-flight. An energy buncher stage has been designed that compresses the energy spread of the beam after the separation and facilitates efficient injection of the selected ions into an accumulation trap prior to transfer of the ions to experiments downstream of the MR-TOF-MS.

  18. Mapping 15O Production Rate for Proton Therapy Verification

    Purpose: This work was a proof-of-principle study for the evaluation of oxygen-15 (15O) production as an imaging target through the use of positron emission tomography (PET), to improve verification of proton treatment plans and to study the effects of perfusion. Methods and Materials: Dynamic PET measurements of irradiation-produced isotopes were made for a phantom and rabbit thigh muscles. The rabbit muscle was irradiated and imaged under both live and dead conditions. A differential equation was fitted to phantom and in vivo data, yielding estimates of 15O production and clearance rates, which were compared to live versus dead rates for the rabbit and to Monte Carlo predictions. Results: PET clearance rates agreed with decay constants of the dominant radionuclide species in 3 different phantom materials. In 2 oxygen-rich materials, the ratio of 15O production rates agreed with the expected ratio. In the dead rabbit thighs, the dynamic PET concentration histories were accurately described using 15O decay constant, whereas the live thigh activity decayed faster. Most importantly, the 15O production rates agreed within 2% (P>.5) between conditions. Conclusions: We developed a new method for quantitative measurement of 15O production and clearance rates in the period immediately following proton therapy. Measurements in the phantom and rabbits were well described in terms of 15O production and clearance rates, plus a correction for other isotopes. These proof-of-principle results support the feasibility of detailed verification of proton therapy treatment delivery. In addition, 15O clearance rates may be useful in monitoring permeability changes due to therapy

  19. Mapping {sup 15}O Production Rate for Proton Therapy Verification

    Grogg, Kira; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Zhu, Xuping [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Min, Chul Hee [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of); Testa, Mauro; Winey, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Normandin, Marc D. [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A.; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); El Fakhri, Georges, E-mail: elfakhri@pet.mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: This work was a proof-of-principle study for the evaluation of oxygen-15 ({sup 15}O) production as an imaging target through the use of positron emission tomography (PET), to improve verification of proton treatment plans and to study the effects of perfusion. Methods and Materials: Dynamic PET measurements of irradiation-produced isotopes were made for a phantom and rabbit thigh muscles. The rabbit muscle was irradiated and imaged under both live and dead conditions. A differential equation was fitted to phantom and in vivo data, yielding estimates of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, which were compared to live versus dead rates for the rabbit and to Monte Carlo predictions. Results: PET clearance rates agreed with decay constants of the dominant radionuclide species in 3 different phantom materials. In 2 oxygen-rich materials, the ratio of {sup 15}O production rates agreed with the expected ratio. In the dead rabbit thighs, the dynamic PET concentration histories were accurately described using {sup 15}O decay constant, whereas the live thigh activity decayed faster. Most importantly, the {sup 15}O production rates agreed within 2% (P>.5) between conditions. Conclusions: We developed a new method for quantitative measurement of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates in the period immediately following proton therapy. Measurements in the phantom and rabbits were well described in terms of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, plus a correction for other isotopes. These proof-of-principle results support the feasibility of detailed verification of proton therapy treatment delivery. In addition, {sup 15}O clearance rates may be useful in monitoring permeability changes due to therapy.

  20. Influence of residual oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide radioactivity on cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in a dual-tracer autoradiographic method

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are quantitatively measured with positron emission tomography (PET) with 15O gases. Kudomi et al. developed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) protocol that enables the duration of a PET study to be shortened by sequentially administrating 15O2 and C15O2 gases. In this protocol, before the sequential PET scan with 15O2 and C15O2 gases (15O2-C15O2 PET scan), a PET scan with C15O should be preceded to obtain CBV image. C15O has a high affinity for red blood cells and a very slow washout rate, and residual radioactivity from C15O might exist during a 15O2-C15O2 PET scan. As the current DARG method assumes no residual C15O radioactivity before scanning, we performed computer simulations to evaluate the influence of the residual C15O radioactivity on the accuracy of measured CBF and OEF values with DARG method and also proposed a subtraction technique to minimize the error due to the residual C15O radioactivity. In the simulation, normal and ischemic conditions were considered. The 15O2 and C15O2 PET count curves with the residual C15O PET counts were generated by the arterial input function with the residual C15O radioactivity. The amounts of residual C15O radioactivity were varied by changing the interval between the C15O PET scan and 15O2-C15O2 PET scan, and the absolute inhaled radioactivity of the C15O gas. Using the simulated input functions and the PET counts, the CBF and OEF were computed by the DARG method. Furthermore, we evaluated a subtraction method that subtracts the influence of the C15O gas in the input function and PET counts. Our simulations revealed that the CBF and OEF values were underestimated by the residual C15O radioactivity. The magnitude of this underestimation depended on the amount of C15O radioactivity and the physiological conditions. This underestimation was corrected by the subtraction method. This

  1. Root - shoot - signaling in Chenopodium rubrum L. as studied by 15O labeled water uptake

    Full text: It has been demonstrated with C. rubrum that the different organ systems are transmitting surface action potentials which might be the basis for systemic signal transduction. Shoot tip respectively root generated action potentials travel along the stem axis. Shoot tip generated action potentials arriving at the basis can be reflected and travel upwards. The radioactive labeling technique was established at the NIRS in Inage, Japan. About 2 GBq of 15O labeled Hoagland's solution was supplied to the plant root or cut stem in a phytotron at 25oC with 45 % of relative humidity and continuous light. By cutting the shoot apical bud and the apices of main side branches the uptake of 15O labeled water was inhibited in plants with intact roots but not in plants with roots cut. Because of the short half-life of 15O (2 min), experiments could be repeated in hourly intervals. Cutting the apex probably limits root water uptake via a hydraulic-electrochemical signal. The results are discussed with respect to the significance of a continuous communication between the root system and the shoot apical meristem(s) in the adaptation of plants to their environment. (author)

  2. Decontamination of radioactive waste oil using a membrane and ion exchange resin assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Nuclear power is an intrinsically clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry has grown, a variety of radioactive wastes have gradually increased. Pollutants in radioactive waste oil are generally heavy as are radioactive metals, metal oxides or ions in impure water. These radioactive waste oils are highly viscous fluids that are similar to used motor oil. Reducing radioactive waste is important from both economical and environmental viewpoints. Several processes have been developed for the regeneration of used motor oil, such as acid-clay treatment, chemical addition, vacuum distillation, thermal cracking and hydro finishing. However, these technologies are difficult to apply to the separation of nuclides from radioactive waste oils. In recent years, a few laboratories have tried to use membrane for the regeneration of used motor oil. The membrane filtration of viscous fluids, however, demands high temperatures to increase the permeate flow rate. Generally, the viscosity of fluids decreased with increased process temperatures of fluids up to 350 .deg.. Consequently, the membrane filtration of viscous fluids is difficult in commercial operation because of high energy consumption. Hence, a new method of separation of used oils which overcomes these disadvantages is urgently needed. Also we need environmentally-friendly and efficient processes for the separation of waste oils. The present work has used supercritical CO2 (scCO2) as a viscosity-reducing agent at lower process temperatures in order to improve the membrane permeability and to decrease the energy consumption in the filtration process. scCO2 is considered an alternative process medium since it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide manipulation of pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting many organic materials

  3. Development of materials for the removal of metal ions from radioactive and non-radioactive waste streams

    Hasan, Md. Shameem

    Nuclear wastes that were generated during cold-war era from various nuclear weapon programs are presently stored in hundreds of tanks across the United States. The composition of these wastes is rather complex containing both radionuclides and heavy metals, such as 137Cs, 90Sr, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd. In this study, chitosan based biosorbents were prepared to adsorb some of these metal ions. Chitosan is a partially acetylated glucosamine biopolymer encountered in the cell walls of fungi. In its natural form this material is soft and has a tendency to agglomerate or form gels. Various methods were used to modify chitosan to avoid these problems. Chitosan is generally available commercially in the form of flakes. For use in an adsorption system, chitosan was made in the form of beads to reduce the pressure drop in an adsorption column. In this research, spherical beads were prepared by mixing chitosan with perlite and then by dropwise addition of the slurry mixture into a NaOH precipitation bath. Beads were characterized using Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The SEM, EDS, and TEM data indicated that the beads were porous in nature. The TGA data showed that bead contained about 32% chitosan. The surface area, pore volume, and porosity of the beads were determined from the BET surface area that was measured using N2 as adsorbate at 77K. Adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Cd(II), U(VI), Cu(II), from aqueous solutions of these metal ions were studied to evaluate the adsorption capacities of the beads for these metals ions. Equilibrium adsorption data of these metals on the beads were found to correlate well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. Chitosan coated perlite beads had negligible adsorption capacity for Sr(II) and Cs(I). It was found that Fullers earth

  4. Composite ion-exchangers and their possible use in treatment of low/intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    Sebesta, F.; Motl, A.; John, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Prazsky, M.; Binka, J. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Inst., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1993-12-31

    A new method of preparation of composite inorganic-organic ion exchangers using modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for the inorganic active component is described. This method enables incorporation of very fine to colloidal particles of active component in the binding polymer which increases the capacity and improves the kinetics of ion exchange of the resulting absorber. The proposed method can be applied on most of the inorganic ion exchangers known. Results of tests of some absorbers for treatment of radioactive wastes produced in the nuclear industry are given. For the removal of radiocesium from Long Term Fuel Storage Pond water at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) NiFC-PAN composite ion exchanger has been tested. Excellent results have been achieved both at low and high (floating bed) flow rates in the course of treatment of up to 45,000 BV of pond water. The possibility of decreasing the total activity of the Biological Shield water from the same NPP below the 37 Bq/l discharge limit has been proved using NiFC-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite ion exchangers. NiFC-PAN, NaTiO-PAN, MnO-PAN, M315-PAN and Na-Y-PAN composite ion exchangers were tested for removal of radiocesium, radiocobalt and radiomanganese from standard liquid radioactive wastes and concentrates from NPP Krsko, Croatia. Different combinations of absorbers have been tested for the treatment of Boron Recycle Hold-up, Waste Condensate and Waste Hold-up Tanks. Radium could be quantitatively removed from highly saline acid waste water from uranium underground leaching on Ba(Ca)SO{sub 4}-PAN absorber.

  5. Composite ion-exchangers and their possible use in treatment of low/intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    A new method of preparation of composite inorganic-organic ion exchangers using modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for the inorganic active component is described. This method enables incorporation of very fine to colloidal particles of active component in the binding polymer which increases the capacity and improves the kinetics of ion exchange of the resulting absorber. The proposed method can be applied on most of the inorganic ion exchangers known. Results of tests of some absorbers for treatment of radioactive wastes produced in the nuclear industry are given. For the removal of radiocesium from Long Term Fuel Storage Pond water at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) NiFC-PAN composite ion exchanger has been tested. Excellent results have been achieved both at low and high (floating bed) flow rates in the course of treatment of up to 45,000 BV of pond water. The possibility of decreasing the total activity of the Biological Shield water from the same NPP below the 37 Bq/l discharge limit has been proved using NiFC-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite ion exchangers. NiFC-PAN, NaTiO-PAN, MnO-PAN, M315-PAN and Na-Y-PAN composite ion exchangers were tested for removal of radiocesium, radiocobalt and radiomanganese from standard liquid radioactive wastes and concentrates from NPP Krsko, Croatia. Different combinations of absorbers have been tested for the treatment of Boron Recycle Hold-up, Waste Condensate and Waste Hold-up Tanks. Radium could be quantitatively removed from highly saline acid waste water from uranium underground leaching on Ba(Ca)SO4-PAN absorber

  6. The Prototype Active-Target Time-Projection Chamber used with TwinSol radioactive-ion beams

    Ahn, T.; Bardayan, D. W.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro Novo, S.; Becchetti, F. D.; Bradt, J.; Brodeur, M.; Carpenter, L.; Chajecki, Z.; Cortesi, M.; Fritsch, A.; Hall, M. R.; Hall, O.; Jensen, L.; Kolata, J. J.; Lynch, W.; Mittig, W.; O'Malley, P.; Suzuki, D.

    2016-06-01

    The study of low-energy reactions with radioactive-ion beams has been greatly enhanced by the recent use of active-target detectors, which have high efficiency and low thresholds to detect low-energy charged-particle decays. Both of these features have been used in experiments with the Prototype Active-Target Time-Projection Chamber to study α -cluster structure in unstable nuclei and 3-body charged-particle decays after implantation. Predicted α -cluster structures in 14 C were probed using resonant α scattering and the nature of the 3- α breakup of the 02+ Hoyle state in 12 C after the beta decay of 12 N and 12 B was studied. These experiments used in-flight radioactive-ion beams that were produced using the dual superconducting solenoid magnets TwinSol at the University of Notre Dame. Preliminary results from these experiments as well as the development of future radioactive beams to be used in conjunction with the PAT-TPC are presented.

  7. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  8. Evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion using 15O-labeled water and positron emission tomography

    The newly developed technique is presented of measuring regional myocardial blood flow (rMBF) using oxygen-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron computed tomography (PET), and potential difficulties encountered in the use of this technique are investigated. A single compartment model, so-called PET-autoradiographic method for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, was used. In healthy volunteers, a 4.5-sec sequential PET scanning was performed immediately after iv bolus injection of 10 - 15 mCi of H215O. Simultaneously, a separate blood pool scanning was performed by the inhalation of oxygen-15 labeled carbon monoxide (C15O). Using the C15O blood pool scans, the partial volume effect was corrected to obtain time course radioactivity in the arterial blood, an input function of the myocardium, on the H215O images. However, a simple subtraction underestimated radioactivity of the ventricular septum and right ventricular wall. Another approach to independently subtracting the blood pool for the left or right ventricular component provided satisfactory myocardial H215O scans. The value of rMBF obtained was 50 - 55 ml/min/100 g in the normal site. The value is, however, likely to be influenced by various errors, especially being largely dependent on quantity of the data obtained from PET. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Validity of using a 3-dimensional PET scanner during inhalation of 15O-labeled oxygen for quantitative assessment of regional metabolic rate of oxygen in man

    Use of 15O labeled oxygen (15O2) and positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative assessment of the regional metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in vivo, which is essential to understanding the pathological status of patients with cerebral vascular and neurological disorders. The method has, however, been challenging, when a 3D PET scanner is employed, largely attributed to the presence of gaseous radioactivity in the trachea and the inhalation system, which results in a large amount of scatter and random events in the PET assessment. The present study was intended to evaluate the adequacy of using a recently available commercial 3D PET scanner in the assessment of regional cerebral radioactivity distribution during an inhalation of 15O2. Systematic experiments were carried out on a brain phantom. Experiments were also performed on a healthy volunteer following a recently developed protocol for simultaneous assessment of CMRO2 and cerebral blood flow, which involves sequential administration of 15O2 and C15O2. A particular intention was to evaluate the adequacy of the scatter-correction procedures. The phantom experiment demonstrated that errors were within 3% at the practically maximum radioactivity in the face mask, with the greatest radioactivity in the lung. The volunteer experiment demonstrated that the counting rate was at peak during the 15O gas inhalation period, within a verified range. Tomographic images represented good quality over the entire FOV, including the lower part of the cerebral structures and the carotid artery regions. The scatter-correction procedures appeared to be important, particularly in the process to compensate for the scatter originating outside the FOV. Reconstructed images dramatically changed if the correction was carried out using inappropriate procedures. This study demonstrated that accurate reconstruction could be obtained when the scatter compensation was appropriately carried out. This study also suggested the

  10. Recent results in the study of exotic nuclei using the 'Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil' (RIBRAS) facility

    Full text: The 'Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil' (RIBRAS) facility consists of two super-conducting solenoids of maxi- mum magnetic field B 6.5T, coupled to the 8UD-Pelletron tandem Accelerator installed at the University of Sao Paulo Physics Institute. It is the first radioactive beam facility of the Southern Hemisphere. The production mechanism of the radioactive ions is by transfer reactions, using 9Be, 3He, LiF and other production targets, and the forward focused reaction products are selected and focalized by the solenoids into a scattering chamber. Low energy (3-5 MeV/u) radioactive beams of 6He, 8Li, 7,10Be and 8,12B are produced currently and used to study elastic, inelastic, and transfer reactions on a variety of light, medium mass and heavy (9Be, 12C, 27Al, 51V and 120Sn) secondary targets. The data are analyzed, using most of the time, the Sao Paulo Potential (SPP) and compared to optical model and continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) calculations. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Some examples of reactions recently studied are 1H(8Li,4He)5He, 1H(8Li,1H)8Li using thick (CH2)n targets to measure their excitation functions. The transfer reaction 12C(8Li,4He)16N, leading to well defined excited states of 16N, through the transfer of 4H or the sequential decay 3H+n, is also being studied. (author)

  11. Production of and studies with secondary radioactive ion beams at Lise

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE, installed at GANIL has delivered secondary radioactive beams for the past 6 years. Essentially, it consists of by two dipole magnets selecting (in A/Z) and refocusing (achromatically) the projectile-like fragment-beams emitted at 00. Important features of LISE and selected experimental results will be discussed. LISE was substantially upgraded, recently, by adding a Wien-filter, providing secondary radioactive beams of still increased intensity and isotopic purity. (6 figs)

  12. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    Catherall, Richard; Köster, U; Lettry, Jacques; Suberlucq, Guy; Marsh, Bruce A; Tengborn, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    The production of radioactive ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility was investigated. The RILIS setup included three dye lasers and ionization schemes which employ three resonant transitions were also used. The RILIS efficiency could be reduced by nuclear effects such as hyperfine splitting and isotope shifts. The off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy determined optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium and antimony and antimony. The results show that best ionization schemes of Y provided gain factor of 15 with respect to surface ionization. (Edited abstract) 8 Refs.

  13. Target chamber and rotating target wheel for synthesis of superheavy elements at radioactive ion beam line of Lanzhou

    The target chamber and the rotating target wheel for synthesis of superheavy elements at Radioactive Ion Beam Line of Lanzhou (RIBLL) are described in the paper. The modified vacuum isolating magnetic coupling rotation device driven by step-motor is also shown. The rotating target wheel is composed of a programmable brushless motor, a vacuum sealing magnetic liquid feed-through and high torque-drive (HTD) strap. The rotation speed of the wheel can be turned from 0 to 600 r·min-1. The vibration of the target wheel is <0.2 mm. (authors)

  14. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam 7Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    Mazzocco, M.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Di Meo, P.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Keeley, N.; Lay, J. A.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Nicoletto, M.; Pakou, A.; Parkar, V. V.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Sava, T.; Sgouros, O.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Stroe, L.; Toniolo, N.; Zerva, K.

    2015-10-01

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be (Sα = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass (58Ni) and heavy (208Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×105 pps 7Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems.

  15. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam 7Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam 7Be (Sα = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass (58Ni) and heavy (208Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×105 pps 7Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems

  16. New Constraints on the 18F(p,alpha) 15O Rate in Novae from (d,p) Reaction Sum Rules

    Kozub, R L; Batchelder, J C; Blackmon, J C; Brune, C R; Champagne, A E; Cizewski, J A; Davinson, T; Greife, U; Gross, C J; Jewett, C C; Livesay, R J; Ma, Z; Moazen, B H; Nesaraja, C D; Sahin, L; Scott, J P; Shapira, D; Smith, M S; Thomas, J S; Woods, P J

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which the (p,gamma) and (p,alpha) reactions destroy 18F at temperatures 1-4x10^8 K is important for understanding the synthesis of nuclei in nova explosions and for using the long-lived radionuclide 18F, a target of gamma-ray astronomy, as a diagnostic of nova mechanisms. The reactions are dominated by low-lying proton resonances near the 18F+p threshold (E_x=6.411 MeV in 19Ne). To gain further information about these resonances, we have used a radioactive 18F beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility to selectively populate corresponding mirror states in 19F via the inverse d(18F,p)19F neutron transfer reaction. Neutron spectroscopic factors were measured for states in 19F in the excitation energy range 0-9 MeV and appropriately scaled to conform to sum rule limits. The results would suggest significantly lower 18F(p,gamma)19Ne and 18F(p,alpha)15O reaction rates than reported previously, thereby increasing the prospect of observing the 511-keV annihilation radiation associated with ...

  17. High energy beams of radioactive nuclei and their biomedical applications

    The availability of high-energy beams of radioactive species is the most recent advancement in the field of accelerator physics. One of the primary interactions experienced by relativistic heavy ions is the peripheral nuclear collision. Thus, radioactive nuclei are produced as secondary particles from peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions. These nuclei have trajectories and energies differing little from that of the parent particle. Various radioactive beams produced as a result of these reactions, now available on a regular basis from the Bevalac, are: 11C, 13N, 15O, and 19Ne with sufficient intensity. Besides the interest in such beams for nuclear physics, important applications in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology and in nuclear medicine are discussed

  18. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Assmann, W. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Schubert, M. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Held, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Pichler, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Chill, A. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kiermaier, S. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schloesser, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Busch, H. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Schenk, K. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Streufert, D. [Acri.Tec GmbH, 16761 Hennigsdorf (Germany); Lanzl, I. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    A biodegradable, {beta}-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the {beta}-emitter {sup 32}P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and {sup 32}P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  19. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    A biodegradable, β-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the β-emitter 32P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and 32P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (1015 ions/cm2) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable

  20. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Assmann, W.; Schubert, M.; Held, A.; Pichler, A.; Chill, A.; Kiermaier, S.; Schlösser, K.; Busch, H.; Schenk, K.; Streufert, D.; Lanzl, I.

    2007-04-01

    A biodegradable, β-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the β-emitter 32P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and 32P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (1015 ions/cm2) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  1. Production of chemically reactive radioactive ion beams through on-line separation; Production de faisceaux d'ions radioactifs chimiquement reactifs par separation en ligne

    Joinet, A

    2003-10-01

    The ISOL (isotope separation on line) allows the production of secondary radioactive ion beams through spallation or fragmentation or fission reactions that take place in a thick target bombarded by a high intensity primary beam. The challenge is to increase the intensity and purity of the radioactive beam. The optimization of the system target/source requires the right choice of material for the target by taking into account the stability of the material, its reactivity and the ionization method used. The target is an essential part of the system because radioactive elements are generated in it and are released more or less quickly. Tests have been made in order to select the best fitted material for the release of S, Se, Te, Ge and Sn. Materials tested as target filling are: ZrO{sub 2}, Nb, Ti, V,TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub x}, ThO{sub 2}, C, ZrC{sub 4} and VC). Other molecules such as: COSe, COS, SeS, COTe, GeS, SiS, SnS have been studied to ease the extraction of recoil nuclei (Se, S, Te, Ge and Sn) produced inside the target.

  2. Immobilization of Ion Exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor

    In the last decades many countries in the world have taken interest in the use, availability, and final disposal of dangerous wastes in the environment, within these, those dangerous wastes that contain radioactive material. That is why studies have been made on materials used as immobilization agent of radioactive waste that may guarantee its storage for long periods of time under drastic conditions of humidity, temperature change and biodegradation. In mexico, the development of different applications of radioactive material in the industry, medicine and investigation, have generated radioactive waste, sealed and open sources, whose require a special technological development for its management and final disposal. The present work has as a finality to develop the process and define the agglutinating material, bitumen, cement and polyester resin that permits immobilization of resins of Ionic Exchange contaminated by Barium 153, Cesium 137, Europium 152, Cobalt 60 and Manganese 54 generated from the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III. Ionic interchange contaminated resin must be immobilized and is analysed under different established tests by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-019-NUCL-1995 Low level radioactive wastes package requirements for its near-surface final disposal. Immobilization of ionic interchange contaminated resins must count with the International Standards applicable in this process; in these standards, the following test must be taken in prototype examples: Free-standing water, leachability, compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, thermal stability and burning rate. (Author)

  3. Soft-landing ion deposition of isolated radioactive probe atoms on surfaces : A novel method

    Laurens, CR; Rosu, MF; Pleiter, F; Niesen, L

    1997-01-01

    We present a method to deposit a wide range of radioactive probe atoms on surfaces, without introducing lattice damage or contaminating the surface with other elements or isotopes. In this method, the probe atoms are mass separated using an isotope separator, decelerated to 5 eV, and directly deposi

  4. Application of Diamond Detectors in Tracking of Heavy Ion Slowed Down Radioactive Beams

    Results of irradiation of thin Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors with low energy: p, α and 7Li beams are presented. Energy resolution: Δ E / E 9 particles/s cm2 the tested detectors showed low dead-time and satisfactory radiation hardness. Perspectives of applying thin CVD diamond detectors in monitoring of a slowed down radioactive beam (RIB) are discussed. (author)

  5. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) for cyclotrons and radioactive beam production

    Improvements in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources are discussed. These improvements include improvements in the charge-state distribution to increase the fraction of high charge-state current, improvement in production of beams of metallic ions, and reduction of construction cost and energy consumption for such sources

  6. Production of radioactive ion beams and resonance ionization spectroscopy with the laser ion source at on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    Full text: The resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility at CERN is based on the method of laser step-wise resonance ionisation of atoms in a hot metal cavity. Using the system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapour lasers the ion beams of many different metallic elements have been produced at ISOLDE with an ionization efficiency of up to 27%. The high selectivity of the resonance ionization is an important asset for the study of short-lived nuclides produced in targets bombarded by the proton beam of the CERN Booster accelerator. Radioactive ion beams of Be, Mg, Al, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Tb, Yb, Tl, Pb and Bi have been generated with the RILIS. Setting the RILIS laser in the narrow line-width mode provides conditions for a high-resolution study of hyperfine structure and isotopic shifts of atomic lines for short-lived isotopes. The isomer selective ionization of Cu, Ag and Pb isotopes has been achieved by appropriate tuning of laser wavelengths

  7. Problems raised by radioactive ion acceleration in the SPIRAL project. Accelerator tuning and stabilisation; Problemes poses par l`acceleration d`ions radioactifs dans le project SPIRAL. Reglage et stabilisation de l`accelerateur

    Boy, L. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-12-31

    This study is related to the SPIRAL project. This facility uses a cyclotron to accelerate radioactive ion beams produced in a thick target by the Grant Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds primary beam. The low intensity of radioactive beams and the mixing of several species imply special tuning methods and associated diagnostics. Also, a cyclotron and the beam line will be used to switch from this tuning beam to the radioactive one. We present a theoretical study and a numerical simulation of the tuning of five radioactive beams using three different methods. the beam dynamic is performed through the injection beam line and the cyclotron up to the electrostatic deflector. Within the frame of these methods we have described all the SPIRAL beam diagnostics. Construction and test of a new low intensity diagnosis based on a plastic scintillator for phase measurement inside the cyclotron is described in details. (author). 63 refs.

  8. ''Spray'' drying unit for spent ion-exchange resins sludges and radioactive concentrates

    The procedure consisting in drying radwaste either in liquid form or in aqueous suspension is a very attractive solution for volume Reduction. Technicatome presents an experimental spray drying station for 50 kg/hr, using the LEAFLASH process, developed by Rhone Poulenc Recherches. This process, used at full scale in a large number of branches in industry, is applicable to the drying of various materials: bead type ion-echange resins, powered ion exchange resins, centrifuge sludges, filter sludges, evaporator bottoms

  9. Determination of the amount of ion exchange resin in concrete containing radioactive wastes

    A method for determining the amount of ion exchange resin in waste concrete was tested on a (approximately 2 g) piece of concrete containing a known amount of ion exchange resin. The difference between the reference and the analysis values was less than ten per cent, and it seems likely that the reproducibility is considerably better. It was concluded that the method is suitable for homogeneity determinations, although some further experiments are needed before it can be used as a standard method. (Auth.)

  10. Northeast utilities, Millstone Station's experience with Eichrom Industries' Diphonixtrademark selective ion-exchange resin in liquid radioactive waste

    Three nuclear units at Northeast Utilities' Millstone Station-the General Electric boiling water reactor (Unit 1), the Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor (Unit 2) and the Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (Unit 3)-completed a series of bench-top and side-stream pilot scale tests of Eichrom Industries Diphonixtrademark resin, a novel gel-type ion-exchange resin. This testing was part of an overall optimization of their radioactive waste (radwaste) systems including use of coagulants and cesium-specific zeolite materials. These tests projected significant improvements over traditional, strong-acid cation-exchange resins. By installing Diphonix resin, Millstone addressed its goals of minimizing the spent resin generated from its liquid radwaste systems and minimizing the activity discharged into the environment from these systems while continuing to use existing capital equipment

  11. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam {sup 7}Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    Mazzocco, M., E-mail: marco.mazzocco@pd.infn.it; Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Lay, J. A.; Molini, P.; Soramel, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Boiano, A.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Di Meo, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN-Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133, Napoli (Italy); La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Silvestri, R. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Acosta, L. [Departamento de Fìsica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); INFN-Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Fernandez-Garcia, J. P. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), 30 Reactorului St., 077125 Magurele (Romania); and others

    2015-10-15

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam {sup 7}Be (S{sub α} = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass ({sup 58}Ni) and heavy ({sup 208}Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×10{sup 5} pps {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems.

  12. Use of ion exchange and early treatment of radioactive contamination in the digestive tract

    The efficiency of cation exchange resins for the treatment of digestive contamination with strontium has been studied on rats. The results obtained show that the most efficient resins are those of sulfonic type when administered in the ammonium form. The treatment is still efficient when applied 45 minutes after the ingestion of strontium. In the most favourable cases, the radioactivity of the skeleton was lower by a factor 6 in the treated animals than in controls. This easily applicable, rather safe and non specific treatment deserves to be retained for use. (author)

  13. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    Othman, Sameh H. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt)]. E-mail: othman_sameh@yahoo.com; Sohsah, Mustfa A. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt); Ghoneim, Mohammad M. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt); Sokkar, Hesham H. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Badawy, Sayed M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Anadouli, Bahgat E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacylic acid (AN/MAA {approx}80%/20% molar ratio) onto cotton cloth using a radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of adsorption of radionuclide (e.g. U(VI)) on chelating cloth filter (CCF) from radioactive waste was investigated. The adsorption ability of the CCF increases as pH increases from 6 to 10. The predominant composition of the resulting complex was determined. A chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of radionuclide and the contact time.

  14. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacylic acid (AN/MAA ∼80%/20% molar ratio) onto cotton cloth using a radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of adsorption of radionuclide (e.g. U(VI)) on chelating cloth filter (CCF) from radioactive waste was investigated. The adsorption ability of the CCF increases as pH increases from 6 to 10. The predominant composition of the resulting complex was determined. A chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of radionuclide and the contact time

  15. Application of inorganic ion exchangers for low and medium activity radioactive effluent decontamination

    This study proposes an alternative pretreatment or treatment for low and medium activity liquid wastes, allowing to improve the quality of containment and decrease the cost of storage. Inorganic ion exchangers are used to remove alpha emitters and long lived fission products and concentrate them in a small volume; these exchangers can be converted into a stable matrix by thermal treatment. This treatment, at least for some liquid wastes, don't exclude a complementary decontamination by chemical precipitation. Sludges, arising from precipitation, exempt from alpha emitters and long lived fission products can be stored in a shallow land burial. This study includes two parts: - Measurements of distribution coefficients for the main nuclides in order to choose, for each liquid wastes, the most suitable ion exchanger. - Estimation of performances of selected inorganic ion exchangers, from tests of percolation of genuine effluents

  16. possibilities of isotope separation of radioactive cesium by ion cyclotron resonance

    The transmutation of radioactive wastes is of high interest in order to reduce as much as possible the difficulties induced by their storage. In the case of radioactive cesium waste, cesium 137 which presents a short life time (30 years) is difficult to handle due to its high thermal load and and radiation level; cesium 135 is a long life time isotope with high mobility in storage glasses. As the processes of transmutation are different for cesium 135 and cesium 137 and as the neutron consumption is very high, it would be necessary to proceed to a preliminary isotope separation and it would not be worth to transmute the stable 133 isotope of cesium. Peculiar problems linked with cesium physico-chemical properties such as ionisation rat, vapour pressure, cooling of the components of the separation elements, especially the collector part, are discussed. It is shown that a high density plasma (1012 cm -3), with low ionic temperature (1 eV), good for isotope separation, can be achieved easily. It must be noticed that the cooling with water has to be avoided due to chemical reactions. After having defined the unitary separative element, different enrichment strategies and arrangements of the separative elements are proposed. An economic estimation with our code RICAN is given. (author)

  17. Method of separating useful radioactive nuclide in radioactive liquid waste

    Purpose: To separate useful radioactive nuclides from radioactive liquid wastes for reducing the amount of radioactive secondary wastes generated upon disposal of radioactive liquid wastes. Method: Nitric acid is added to radioactive liquid wastes containing radioactive metal ions, iron ions, nickel ion, chromium ions and oxidative tetravalent serium ions dissolved therein, to convert tetravalent serium ions into complex ions. The liquid wastes are circulated through an ion exchange resin column. This enables to efficiently recover tetravalent serium ions which are useful oxidative nuclides thereby enabling the reuse of serium. Further, since the oxidative nature of the radioactive liquid wastes is eliminated, there is no requirement of adding a reducing agent and it is possible for drying treatment and solidification processing such as plastic solidification. (Takahashi, M.)

  18. Device for conditioning toxic or radioactive wastes containing borate ions and its fabrication process

    Wastes, especially spent ion exchange resins, are mixed in a container with Portland cement, aluminous cement and water to form a cement matrix containing stable phases of borated ettringite type and/or calcium monoboroaluminate. Mechanical resistance is obtained by subsequent encapsulation of the whole in a mortar

  19. Breakout from the hot CNO cycle: the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}) and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p) reactions

    Bradfield-Smith, W.; Laird, A.M.; Davinson, T.; Pietro, A. di; Ostrowski, A.N.; Shotter, A.C.; Woods, P.J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cherubini, S.; Galster, W.; Graulich, J.S.; Leleux, P.; Michel, L.; Ninane, A.; Vervier, J. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aliotta, M.; Cali, D.; Cappussello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Gorres, J.; Wiescher, M. [Notre Dame Univ. (United States); Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaf Lab., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hinnefeld, J. [Indiana Univ., South Bend (United States)

    1998-06-01

    One of the most important reactions which determines the rate of breakout from the hot CNO cycle is the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}Ne. The reaction {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na may also provide an alternative breakout route. Experiments are being undertaken at Louvain-La-Neuve using the radioactive {sup 18}Ne beam to study these reactions by measurement of {alpha}({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 21}Na and d({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 19}Ne{sup *} {yields} {sup 15}O + {alpha} (orig.)

  20. Research progress in high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material

    Lithium-ion batteries are now considered to be the technology of choice for future hybrid electric and full electric vehicles to address global warming. LiCoO2 has been the most widely used cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Since LiCoO2 has economic and environmental issues, intensive research has been directed towards the development of alternative low cost, environmentally friendly cathode materials as possible replacement of LiCoO2. Among them, spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material is one of the promising and attractive cathode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries because of its high voltage (4.7 V), acceptable stability, and good cycling performance. Research advances in high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 are reviewed in this paper. Developments in synthesis, structural characterization, effect of doping, and effect of coating are presented. In addition to conventional synthesis methods, several alternative synthesis methods are also summarized. Apart from battery performance, the application of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material in asymmetric supercapacitors is also discussed. (author)

  1. Ultra thin layer activation by recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions: applicability in wear and corrosion studies

    Lacroix, O.; Sauvage, T.; Blondiaux, G.; Guinard, L.

    1997-02-01

    A new calibration procedure is proposed for the application of recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions (energies between a few hundred keV and a few MeV) into the near surface of materials as part of a research programme on submicrometric wear or corrosion phenomena. The depth profile of implanted radioelements is performed by using ultra thin deposited films obtained by cathode sputtering under argon plasma. Two curves for 56Co ion in nickel have been determined for implantation depths of 110 and 200 nm, respectively, and stress the feasibility and reproductibility of this method for such activated depths. The achieved surface loss detection sensitivities are about 1 and 2 nm respectively. The on line detection mode is performed directly on the sample of interest. A general description of the method is presented. A study of the reaction kinematics followed by a general treatment on the irradiation parameters to be adopted are also developed with the intention of using the ultra thin layer activation method (UTLA) to further applications in research and industry.

  2. Ultra thin layer activation by recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions. Applicability in wear and corrosion studies

    A new calibration procedure is proposed for the application of recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions (energies between a few hundred keV and a few MeV) into the near surface of materials as part of a research programme on sub-micrometric wear or corrosion phenomena. The depth profile of implanted radioelements is performed by using ultra thin deposited films obtained by cathode sputtering under argon plasma. Two curves for 56Co ion in nickel have been determined for implantation depths of 110 and 200 nm, respectively, and stress the feasibility and reproducibility of this method for such activated depths. The achieved surface loss detection sensitivities are about 1 and 2 nm respectively. The on line detection mode is performed directly on the sample of interest. A general description of the method is presented. A study of the reaction kinematics followed by a general treatment on the irradiation parameters to be adopted are also developed with the intention of using the ultra thin layer activation method (UTLA) to further applications in research and industry. (author)

  3. Dynamical Dipole mode in heavy-ion fusion reactions by using stable and radioactive beams

    The existence of the dynamical dipole mode in the 192Pb composite system was investigated through the study of its prompt decay employing the 40Ca + 152Sm and 48Ca + 144Sm reactions at E(lab)=11 and 10.1 MeV/u, respectively. The γ-rays and light charged particles were detected in coincidence with evaporation residues and fission fragments. First results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through 'hot' fusion reactions. Furthermore, by using radioactive beams and the prompt radiation as a probe we could get information on the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities. (authors)

  4. Mathematical simulation of hazardous ion retention from radioactive waste in fixed bed reactor

    Reactor design for fluid-solid, noncatalytic reaction depends on the prediction of the performance of the reactor kinetically. The most mathematical models used to handle fixed bed reactor in which the solid bed constitute one of the reactants, while a second reactant is in the fluid phase are complex and difficult to handle. A new mathematical model which easier to handle has been developed to describe the system under investigation. The model was examined theoretically and experimentally. A column backed with chelating cloth filter to separate radionuclide form radioactive waste solution is used as a practical application for the model. Comparison of the model predictions with the experimental results gives satisfactory agreement at most of the process stages

  5. Transportation of a radioactive ion beam for precise laser-trapping experiments

    Kawamura, Hirokazu; Inoue, T. [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences (FRIS), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Köhler, L.; Sakamoto, K.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakemi, Y. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Francium is the heaviest species among the alkali elements. Due to its properties, francium is said to be of advantage in measurements of tiny observations, such as atomic parity violation and electric dipole moment. Before executing experiments with francium, it must be produced artificially because it is one of the most unstable elements. We produced francium with the nuclear fusion reaction of an oxygen beam and gold target, ionized the produced francium through a thermal ionization process, and extracted the ion with electrostatic fields. However, the thermal ionization process is known to ionize not only an objective atom but also other atomic species. Therefore, a Wien filter was installed to analyze the composition of the ion beam and purify the beam. This allowed us to improve the beam purity from ∼10{sup −6} to ∼10{sup −3}.

  6. Shape coexistence in krypton and selenium light isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions beams

    The light krypton isotopes show two minima in their potential energy corresponding to elongated (prolate) and compressed (oblate) quadrupole deformation. Both configuration are almost equally bound and occur within an energy range of less than 1 MeV. Such phenomenon is called shape coexistence. An inversion of the ground state deformation from prolate in Kr78 to oblate in Kr72 with strong mixing of the configurations in Kr74 and Kr76 was proposed based on the systematic of isotopic chain. Coulomb excitation experiments are sensitive to the quadrupole moment. Coulomb excitation experiments of radioactive Kr74 and Kr76 beam were performed at GANIL using the SPIRAL facility and the EXOGAM spectrometer. The analysis of these experiments resulted in a complete description of the transition strength and quadrupole moments of the low-lying states. They establish the prolate character of the ground state and an oblate excited state. A complementary lifetime measurement using a 'plunger' device was also performed. Transition strength in neighboring nuclei were measured using the technique of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation at GANIL. The results on the Se68 nucleus show a sharp change in structure with respects to heavier neighboring nuclei. (author)

  7. Production of fast neutrons from deuteron beams in view of producing radioactive heavy ions beams

    This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable 238U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)

  8. Storage ion trap of an 'In-Flight Capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclear reaction products and fission fragments

    Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system of FLNR comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass-spectrometric ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a possible complex for producing of the short-lived nuclei in fragmentation reactions by heavy ions and for precise mass measurement of these nuclei. The plan of scientific and technical FLNR research includes a project DRIBs for producing beams of accelerated radioactive nuclear reaction products and photofission fragments. This project proposes also precise mass measurements of the fission fragment with the help of the ion trap. The in-flight entrance of the ions and their capture in the mass-spectrometric ion trap using the monochromatizing degrader, the static electric and magnetic fields and a new invention, a magnetic unidirectional transporting ventil, is considered

  9. The Role of Diffusion in ISOL Targets for the Production of radioactive Ions Beams

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; Novgorodov, A F; Ravn, H L

    2003-01-01

    On line isotope separation techniques (ISOL) for production of ion beams of short-lived radionuclides require fast separation of nuclear reaction products from irradiated target materials followed by a transfer into an ion source. As a first step in this transport chain the release of nuclear reaction products from refractory metals has been studied systematically and will be reviewed. High-energy protons (500-1000MeV) produce a large number of radionuclides in irradiated materials via the nuclear reactions spallation, fission and fragmentation. Foils and powder of Re, W, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and C were irradiated with protons (600-1000MeV) at the Dubna synchrocyclotron and at the CERN PS-booster to produce different nuclear reaction products. The main topic of the paper is the determination of diffusion coefficients of the nuclear reaction products in the target matrix, data evaluation and a systematic interpretation of the data. The influence of the ionic radius of the diffusing species and the lattice...

  10. Irradiation effects in the storage and disposal of radioactive ion-exchange resins

    Research is under way to characterize the effects of self-irradiation on radwastes which may be generated when organic ion-exchange media are used in water demineralization or decontamination operations at nuclear facilities. External factors affecting the relation between laboratory evaluations and field performance are emphasized. Initial experiments do not yet indicate substantial radiation dose-rate effects on radiolytic gas yields or acid product formation, when (fully swollen) sulfonic acid resins are irradiated in a sealed air environment. At the same time, oxygen gas is removed from the environment of irradiated resins. Interaction between mild steel coupons and acidic species produced in the irradiation induced decomposition of sulfonic acid resin results in irradiation enhanced corrosion. Corrosion rates depend on radiation dose rate, moisture content and resin chemical loading. In some cases, corrosion rates decrease with time, suggesting depletion of acidic species within the resin bed, or a synergistic interaction between resin and corrosion coupon. Implications of these and other results on evaluating field behavior of radwaste containing ion-exchange media are discussed. 4 figures, 2 tables

  11. Irradiation effects in the storage and disposal of radioactive ion-exchange resins

    Swyler, K.J.; Dodge, C.E.; Dayal, R.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Research is under way to characterize the effects of self-irradiation on radwastes which may be generated when organic ion-exchange media are used in water demineralization or decontamination operations at nuclear facilities. External factors affecting the relation between laboratory evaluations and field performance are emphasized. Initial experiments do not yet indicate substantial radiation dose-rate effects on radiolytic gas yields or acid product formation, when (fully swollen) sulfonic acid resins are irradiated in a sealed air environment. At the same time, oxygen gas is removed from the environment of irradiated resins. Interaction between mild steel coupons and acidic species produced in the irradiation induced decomposition of sulfonic acid resin results in irradiation enhanced corrosion. Corrosion rates depend on radiation dose rate, moisture content and resin chemical loading. In some cases, corrosion rates decrease with time, suggesting depletion of acidic species within the resin bed, or a synergistic interaction between resin and corrosion coupon. Implications of these and other results on evaluating field behavior of radwaste containing ion-exchange media are discussed. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Spray-type drying unit for spent ion exchange resins, sludges and radioactive concentrates

    The process for drying radwaste in the liquid form or in aqueous suspension is a very attractive solution from the standpoint of volume reduction. Most of the existing drying facilities are not well adapted for drying the varieties of aqueous waste produced by the nuclear research centres and nuclear power plants, such as: - ion exchange resins, bead type or powdered resins, - centrifuge sludges, - settling sludges, - evaporator bottoms. Technicatome has selected the LEAFLASH process developed by Rhone Poulenc Recherches for drying the nuclear aqueous waste. This process has been well tried at full scale in a large number of industrial branches. The advantages of the process have been confirmed by the results obtained in operating a pilot facility. They include: - high flexibility in operation: - quick start-up and stoppage procedures, - adaptation to a wide spectrum of liquid waste without significant changes in the adjustment of the device. - compactness, - low power consumption, - complete drying of the waste for any initial concentration

  13. A study on free radical oxidation of spent radioactive ion-exchange resins

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in bench-scale tests. The polystyrene based strong acid cation-exchange resins with water content of about 58% (wt) were dissolved by hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions as catalyst under pH of 2.0∼3.0 adjusted by sulphuric acid. For the same objective of dissolution of the strong basic anion-exchange resins with water content about 63% (wt), citric acid was the best choice for pH control, and the use of Fe2+ and Cu2+ was verified having a synergetic effect. Mixed resins were also dissolved successfully under proper conditions. The dissolution temperature was generally below 99 degree C. The COD and TOC levels of the dissolution residues depended on the doses and dosing rate of hydrogen peroxide as well as the catalyst supplied. All the three types of dissolution reactions gave the similar degradation pattern

  14. The Eurisol report. A feasibility study for a European isotope-separation-on-line radioactive ion beam facility

    The Eurisol project aims at a preliminary design study of the next-generation European isotope separation on-line (ISOL) radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. In this document, the scientific case of high-intensity RIBs using the ISOL method is first summarised, more details being given in appendix A. It includes: 1) the study of atomic nuclei under extreme and so-far unexplored conditions of composition (i.e. as a function of the numbers of protons and neutrons, or the so-called isospin), rotational angular velocity (or spin), density and temperature, 2) the investigation of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the Universe, an important part of nuclear astrophysics, 3) a study of the properties of the fundamental interactions which govern the properties of the universe, and in particular of the violation of some of their symmetries, 4) potential applications of RIBs in solid-state physics and in nuclear medicine, for example, where completely new fields could be opened up by the availability of high-intensity RIBs produced by the ISOL method. The proposed Eurisol facility is then presented, with particular emphasis on its main components: the driver accelerator, the target/ion-source assembly, the mass-selection system and post-accelerator, and the required scientific instrumentation. Special details of these components are given in appendices B to E, respectively. The estimates of the costs of the Eurisol, construction and running costs, have been performed in as much details as is presently possible. The total capital cost (installation manpower cost included) of the project is estimated to be of the order of 630 million Euros within 20%. In general, experience has shown that operational costs per annum for large accelerator facilities are about 10% of the capital cost. (A.C.)

  15. The Eurisol report. A feasibility study for a European isotope-separation-on-line radioactive ion beam facility

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The Eurisol project aims at a preliminary design study of the next-generation European isotope separation on-line (ISOL) radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. In this document, the scientific case of high-intensity RIBs using the ISOL method is first summarised, more details being given in appendix A. It includes: 1) the study of atomic nuclei under extreme and so-far unexplored conditions of composition (i.e. as a function of the numbers of protons and neutrons, or the so-called isospin), rotational angular velocity (or spin), density and temperature, 2) the investigation of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the Universe, an important part of nuclear astrophysics, 3) a study of the properties of the fundamental interactions which govern the properties of the universe, and in particular of the violation of some of their symmetries, 4) potential applications of RIBs in solid-state physics and in nuclear medicine, for example, where completely new fields could be opened up by the availability of high-intensity RIBs produced by the ISOL method. The proposed Eurisol facility is then presented, with particular emphasis on its main components: the driver accelerator, the target/ion-source assembly, the mass-selection system and post-accelerator, and the required scientific instrumentation. Special details of these components are given in appendices B to E, respectively. The estimates of the costs of the Eurisol, construction and running costs, have been performed in as much details as is presently possible. The total capital cost (installation manpower cost included) of the project is estimated to be of the order of 630 million Euros within 20%. In general, experience has shown that operational costs per annum for large accelerator facilities are about 10% of the capital cost. (A.C.)

  16. Automatic labeling method for injectable 15O-oxygen using hemoglobin-containing liposome vesicles and its application for measurement of brain oxygen consumption by PET

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop an injectable 15O-O2 system using hemoglobin-containing vesicles (HbV), a type of artificial red blood cell, and to investigate the feasibility of 15O2-labeled HbV (15O2-HbV) to measure cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in rats. Methods: The direct bubbling method was combined with vortexing to enhance labeling efficiency of HbV with 15O-O2 gas. L-Cysteine was added as a reductant to protect hemoglobin molecules in HbV from oxidation at different concentrations, and labeling efficiencies were also compared. Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO2 in five normal rats was performed using a small animal PET scanner after the injection of H215O and 15O2-HbV to evaluate the precision of hemodynamic parameters quantitatively. Results: The labeling efficiency of HbV was significantly increased when vortexing and bubbling were combined compared with the simple bubbling method (P15O-O2 combined with vortexing and the addition of 2.8 mM L-cysteine in HbV solution. The mean radioactivity of 214.4±7.8 MBq/mL HbV was obtained using this method. PET scans using 15O2-HbV and H215O yielded a mean CMRO2 value of 6.8±1.4 (mL/min per 100 g) in rats with normal CBF of 51.4±7.9 (mL/min per 100 g). Conclusion: Addition of L-cysteine to HbV and simple direct bubbling of 15O-O2 gas combined with vortexing was the most efficient method for preparation of 15O2-HbV. The present injectable system using 15O2-HbV was successfully utilized to measure CMRO2 in rats, indicating that this new method could be useful for animal models to measure oxygen metabolism in the brain.

  17. The role of diffusion in ISOL targets for the production of radioactive ion beams

    On-line isotope separation techniques (ISOL) for production of ion beams of short-lived radionuclides require fast separation of nuclear reaction products from irradiated target materials followed by a transfer into an ion source. As a first step in this transport chain the release of nuclear reaction products from refractory metals has been studied systematically and will be reviewed. High-energy protons (500-1000 MeV) produce a large number of radionuclides in irradiated materials via the nuclear reactions spallation, fission and fragmentation. Foils and powders of Re, W, Ta, Hf, Mo, Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and C were irradiated with protons (600-1000 MeV) at the Dubna synchrocyclotron, the CERN synchrocyclotron and at the CERN PS-booster to produce different nuclear reaction products. The main topic of the paper is the determination of diffusion coefficients of the nuclear reaction products in the target matrix, data evaluation and a systematic interpretation of the data. The influence of the ionic radius of the diffusing species and the lattice type of the host material used as matrix or target on the diffusion will be evaluated from these systematics. Special attention was directed to the release of group I-, II- and III-elements. Arrhenius plots lead to activation energies of the diffusion process. Results: 1. A strong radius determined diffusion behaviour was found: DIIIB>DIIA>DIA>DVIIIA; (DY>DSr>DRb>DKr). Rare earth elements diffuse as Me3+-species. 2. Within the host elements of one period of the periodic table the diffusion of the trace elements changes in the following order: DIIIB>DIVB>>DVB>DVIB. 3. In a given target trace elements of group I and II of a lower period diffuse faster than the corresponding elements of the higher period of the periodic table. D2ndperiod>D5thperiod>D6thperiod; (DBe>>DSr>DBa). The diffusion determined transport rate of nuclear reaction products in solid target materials is often satisfactory, and consequently several refractory metals

  18. Investigation of the immobilization of the radioactive ion exchange resins into specific cement using the mixture response surface approach

    This study was conducted to assess a kind of specific cement (ASC) extensively and recommend a suitable formula for the immobilization of the radioactive ion exchange resins from China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A mixture response surface approach was employed to design the experiment and interpret the results. Compared with the blend composed of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), an optimum combination, resin: .17 (dry wt/wt); ASC: .43; zeolite: .10, and water: .30, was determined within a series of restrictions for such properties as the slump, the 28-d compressive strength, the water immersion, the thaw-freeze resistance, the irradiation resistance, and the leaching rate. The diffusivities of 137Cs and 60Co of the waste forms resulting from the formula were 2.72E-06 (cm2/d) and 1.63E-07 (cm2/d) after 123 d, respectively. The loading amount of spent resins in the ASC form was larger than that in the OPC form by 5% under the equal performance indexes. The microanalysis indicated that there were many interlaced columnlike crystals (ettringites) developed in ASC-resin concrete. This structure could enhance the strength and stabilization of the waste forms significantly. (author)

  19. Treatment and conditioning of spent ion exchange resins from research reactors, precipitation sludges and other radioactive concentrates

    Spent radioactive ion exchange resins, precipitation sludges and evaporator concentrates are generated from the treatment of aqueous waste streams at nuclear research centres and from the use of radioisotopes in research and medical or industrial applications. A strategy for the effective management of these wastes from generation to disposal is necessary to ensure their safe handling, conditioning, storage and disposal to avoid detrimental effects on health and the environment. This report describes the factors to be considered in the development and selection of appropriate strategies for managing these types of wastes. Waste characteristics, pretreatment requirements, conditioning processes, packaging, and properties of the conditioned products are discussed. In addition, safety considerations and quality assurance needs are addressed. The report is intended to provide guidance to Member States that do not have nuclear power generation programmes. Several processes and procedures are presented, though preference is given to the simpler, easy-to-operate processes requiring relatively unsophisticated and inexpensive equipment. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  20. Immobilization of radioactive ion exchange resins in glass. Part I: Pretreatment of the resins

    Full Text: The ion exchange resins are used to retain the radionuclides that contaminate the water in primary and secondary circuits and storage pools of the Argentine nuclear reactors. Once used, this resins are an intermediate level waste. Due to the generated volume of resins during the reactor life, it is necessary to have a proper method for management and final disposal of these wastes. Up to now in National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the most studied process is cementation. However, this method increases the waste volume and the final product has low compression hardness. The immobilization in glass of these wastes is attractive because of the volume reduction that could be attained and because of the well known durability of glass. In this work we prepared a mixed bed of resins, similar to those used in Argentina nuclear reactors. We use cesium as a simulant for the active elements present in the resins. Absorption of lithium and cesium was controlled by conductivity and/or ph measurements. The so charged resins were thermally decomposed. This process was studied by Dta/T G experiments. Some potentially problematic effects were founded (foam formation, particle explosion), regarding the possibility of immobilisation of the resins in glass by sintering. Finally, the calcination products were analyzed by Sem and X-ray diffraction. This analysis showed that lithium and cesium remain as sulfates. For this reason we decided to use those chemical compounds as simulant s of the calcination products in the following sintering experiments

  1. Application of mixture design to optimize cementation of simulated spent radioactive ion exchange resins

    GAN Xue-Ying; BAO Liang-Jin; LIN Mei-Qiong; James D.NAVRATIL

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a mixture design for spent resin immobilization in cement as well as to examine the cement-slag-ash system for spent resin solidification. Eighteen distinct combinations, consisting of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash, organic ion exchange resins and water, were selected by a mixture design computer procedure to compose representative experiment points. The measured properties of solidified forms resulting from the combinations included 28-day compressive strength, 42-day immersion strength,42-day immersion weight and slump. These data were fit to a mathematic model with the aid of Scheffe quadratic polynomial, and the effects of each ingredient on the measured properties were identified through an analysis of the response trace plots and contour plots. Utilization of an optimality function singled out an optimal combination comprising water=0.16(wt/wt), slag=0.21, ash=0.10, cement=0.27 and resin=0.26 from which the resulting response was 1 1MPa for the 28-day strength, 110mm for the slump and 5.4% for the 42-day increase in strength.

  2. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 1. in vivo labelling of monoclonal antibodies with radio-lanthanides and $^{225}$Ac

    2002-01-01

    % IS330 \\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate} \\item The aim of this study was to contribute to developments of new radiopharmaceuticals for tumour diagnosis and therapy. CERN-ISOLDE is the leading facility in the world to provide radioactive ion beams with high selectivity, purity and intensity. Radioisotope production by spallation makes available a complete range of rare earth isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. The availability of exotic nuclei, e.g. radionuclides of rare earth elements and $^{225}$Ac, opens new possibilities for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy.\\\\ \\\\ \\item Two approaches were followed within the experimental program. The radioactive metal ions are bound either to bio-specific ligands (monoclonal antibodies or peptides) or to unspecific low molecular weight form. The aim of the experimental program is to evaluate relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the tracer m...

  3. Treatment of low-level radioactive cesium-137 and technetium-99 liquid wastes by inorganic ion-exchangers

    This study has been directed towards the testing and evaluation of selected inorganic ion-exchangers that are inexpensive and suitable for the conditioning and disposal of radioactive wastes. The experiments were based on sorption characteristics of inorganic ion-exchange materials and their ability to retain radionuclides. The sorption efficiency of cesium-137 and technetium-99 on exchangers was tested under various conditions including the effect of pH, equilibrium time, temperature and concentration for bentonite, kaolinite, sand and sandy soil, which are classified as natural inorganic exchangers. Titanium dioxide, zeolite, antimony pentioxide and hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) were used as synthetic inorganic exchangers. This report also includes a basic study of the cementation process along with the measurement of several important waste from properties such as physical stability, compressive strength and leachability. The percentage sorption efficiency of cesium-137 was found to be 99, 98, 88, 87, 86 and 85 respectively for zeolite, kaolinite, antimony pentoxide, sandy soil, sand and HAP, at 25-500C, pH range 3-9 and 10-20 minutes contact time. The sorption of technetium-99 on antimony pentoxide was 80-90, at 250 C, pH range 1-9 and 5 days contact time. The physical stability tests indicated that all specimens had good homogeneity. Percentages of weight-loss after 28 day cure times at ambient room temperature were in the range of 7-15, 2-6, 6-9, 3-10 and 4-5 for bentonite, kaolinite, zeolite, titanium dioxide and sand respectively. The compressive strength of conditioned waste form consisting of various simulated waste compositions are reported. For the purpose of this study, an arbitrary compressive strength value of 150 kgm/cm2 was established. The proper percentage composition of cemented wastes were 19, 24, 25, 45 and 54 for bentonite, kaolinite, zeolite, titanium dioxide and sand respectively. The leachability for kaolinite cemented waste containing

  4. Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-06-15

    The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C. PMID:19056176

  5. Recent results in the study of exotic nuclei using the 'Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil' (RIBRAS) facility

    Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Benjamim, E.A.; Faria, P.N. de; Leistenschneider, E.; Gasques, L.R.; Morais, M.C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Pires, K.C.C.; Scarduelli, V.; Zamora, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Morcelle, V. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (IF/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Descouvemont, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Matematique; Assuncao, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil); Moro, A.M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Fac. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear (FAMN); Arazi, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Barioni, A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The 'Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil' (RIBRAS) facility consists of two super-conducting solenoids of maxi- mum magnetic field B 6.5T, coupled to the 8UD-Pelletron tandem Accelerator installed at the University of Sao Paulo Physics Institute. It is the first radioactive beam facility of the Southern Hemisphere. The production mechanism of the radioactive ions is by transfer reactions, using {sup 9}Be, {sup 3}He, LiF and other production targets, and the forward focused reaction products are selected and focalized by the solenoids into a scattering chamber. Low energy (3-5 MeV/u) radioactive beams of {sup 6}He, {sup 8}Li, {sup 7,10}Be and {sup 8,12}B are produced currently and used to study elastic, inelastic, and transfer reactions on a variety of light, medium mass and heavy ({sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup 51}V and {sup 120}Sn) secondary targets. The data are analyzed, using most of the time, the Sao Paulo Potential (SPP) and compared to optical model and continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) calculations. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Some examples of reactions recently studied are {sup 1}H({sup 8}Li,{sup 4}He){sup 5}He, {sup 1}H({sup 8}Li,{sup 1}H){sup 8}Li using thick (CH{sub 2}){sub n} targets to measure their excitation functions. The transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 4}He){sup 16}N, leading to well defined excited states of {sup 16}N, through the transfer of {sup 4}H or the sequential decay {sup 3}H+n, is also being studied. (author)

  6. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Immobilization of ion exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor; Inmovilizacion de resinas de intercambio ionico radiactivas del reactor nuclear Triga Mark III

    Garcia M, H.; Emeterio H, M.; Canizal S, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective to develop the process and to define the agglutinating material which allows the immobilization of the ion exchange radioactive resins coming from the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor contaminated with Ba-133, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Mn-54 through the behavior analysis of different immobilization agents such as: bitumens, cement and polyester resin. According to the International Standardization the archetype samples were observed with the following tests: determination of free liquid, leaching, charge resistance, biodegradation, irradiation, thermal cycle, burned resistance. Generally all the tests were satisfactorily achieved, for each agent. Therefore, the polyester resin could be considered as the main immobilizing. (Author)

  8. Trojan Horse measurement of the 18F(p, α)15O astrophysical S(E)-factor

    Crucial information on novae nucleosynthesis is linked to the abundance of 18F, which, due to great improvements in gamma-ray astronomy, can be detected in explosive environments. Therefore, the reaction network producing and destroying this radioactive isotope has been extensively studied in the last years. Among those reactions, the 18F(p, α)15O cross section has been measured by means of several dedicated experiments, both using direct and indirect methods. The presence of resonances in the energy region of astrophysical interest has been reported by many authors. In the present work a report on a recent experiment performed via the Trojan Horse Method (THM) is presented and the results are given and compared with the ones known in the literature, both direct and indirect. Data arising from THM measurements are then averaged and the reaction rate calculated in the novae energy range. (orig.)

  9. Trojan Horse measurement of the 18F(p,α)15O astrophysical S(E)-factor

    Pizzone, R. G.; Roeder, B. T.; McCleskey, M.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Indelicato, I.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Spartá, R.

    2016-02-01

    Crucial information on novae nucleosynthesis is linked to the abundance of 18F , which, due to great improvements in gamma-ray astronomy, can be detected in explosive environments. Therefore, the reaction network producing and destroying this radioactive isotope has been extensively studied in the last years. Among those reactions, the 18F(p,α)15O cross section has been measured by means of several dedicated experiments, both using direct and indirect methods. The presence of resonances in the energy region of astrophysical interest has been reported by many authors. In the present work a report on a recent experiment performed via the Trojan Horse Method (THM) is presented and the results are given and compared with the ones known in the literature, both direct and indirect. Data arising from THM measurements are then averaged and the reaction rate calculated in the novae energy range.

  10. Trojan Horse measurement of the {sup 18}F(p, α){sup 15}O astrophysical S(E)-factor

    Pizzone, R.G. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Roeder, B.T.; McCleskey, M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); Trache, L. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Tribble, R.E. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Spitaleri, C.; Indelicato, I.; Rapisarda, G.G.; Sparta, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Bertulani, C.A. [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); Cherubini, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Gulino, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); KORE University, Enna (Italy); La Cognata, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Crucial information on novae nucleosynthesis is linked to the abundance of {sup 18}F, which, due to great improvements in gamma-ray astronomy, can be detected in explosive environments. Therefore, the reaction network producing and destroying this radioactive isotope has been extensively studied in the last years. Among those reactions, the {sup 18}F(p, α){sup 15}O cross section has been measured by means of several dedicated experiments, both using direct and indirect methods. The presence of resonances in the energy region of astrophysical interest has been reported by many authors. In the present work a report on a recent experiment performed via the Trojan Horse Method (THM) is presented and the results are given and compared with the ones known in the literature, both direct and indirect. Data arising from THM measurements are then averaged and the reaction rate calculated in the novae energy range. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic and thermal properties of Dy3A15O12 as a magnetic refrigerant

    We investigated the magnetic entropy of Dy3A15O12 (DAG), which is one of the most promising refrigerants for the Carnot-type magnetic refrigerator. In the present investigation we measured the specific heat in zero magnetic field and the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field, and from the analysis of these experimental results, the magnetic entropy change ΔS /SUB J/ and entropy S are obtained. The values of ΔS /SUB J/ and S of DAG were compared with those of Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), which is frequently used as a refrigerant for the Carnot-type magnetic refrigerator. The g-factor of the magnetic ion in DAG was shown to play a more important role in determining ΔS /SUB J/ near 20 K than the J-value. It is therefore clear that DAG is a more useful refrigerant than GGG for the Carnot-type refrigerator having a broad temperature span from about20 K to 4.2 K

  12. Remediation of alkaline intermediate level radioactive aqueous liquid waste stored along with organic waste at PREFRE Tarapur for ion exchange process: a laboratory scale study

    Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) and monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are formed during reprocessing of spent fuel as degradation products of Tributyl phosphate (TBP). To maintain the efficiency of TBP solvent during its repeated use, the degraded products are removed by sodium carbonate washing of the solvent. This radioactive sodium carbonate solution is stored in a separate tank along with the exhausted TBP solvent. The presence of degraded products of TBP and their complexes, ion exchange treatment of this waste is creating problems during alpha decontamination step. The present paper deals with the remediation of the aqueous phase of the above waste. For the treatment of the aqueous phase of waste, first the TBP degraded products are required to be removed so that the normal ion exchange treatment can be adopted. (author)

  13. Elaboration of y-fanjasite catalysts containing radioactive elements such as uranyl ion in order to obtain aromatic solvents and heavy amines

    The present work has shown the possibility of ammonia alkylation by n-octanol-l in gaseous phase, in presence of zeolitic catalysts. These catalysts are Y faujasitic types being used in waste water demineralization containing radioactive elements such as uranyl ion. This ion gives to the Y faujasite similar activity and selectivity as those of catalysts containing rare earths or transition metals. Toluene disproportionation has permitted to test beforehand catalysts destined to ammonia alkylation and to compare their mechanism. We have also proved the possibility to produce heavy amines such as tertiary amines which are used as uranium extractant agent. Some zeolites such as ZSM-5, beta, X, A, analcime, HS and Y faujasite type are prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method and characterized by some analysis techniques

  14. Motion detection and correction for dynamic 15O-water myocardial perfusion PET studies

    Patient motion during dynamic PET studies is a well-documented source of errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of frame-to-frame motion in dynamic 15O-water myocardial perfusion PET studies, to test the efficacy of motion correction methods and to study whether implementation of motion correction would have an impact on the perfusion results. We developed a motion detection procedure using external radioactive skin markers and frame-to-frame alignment. To evaluate motion, marker coordinates inside the field of view were determined in each frame for each study. The highest number of frames with identical spatial coordinates during the study were defined as ''non-moved''. Movement was considered present if even one marker changed position, by one pixel/frame compared with reference, in one axis, and such frames were defined as ''moved''. We tested manual, in-house-developed motion correction software and an automatic motion correction using a rigid body point model implemented in MIPAV (Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualisation) software. After motion correction, remaining motion was re-analysed. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) values were calculated for both non-corrected and motion-corrected datasets. At rest, patient motion was found in 18% of the frames, but during pharmacological stress the fraction increased to 45% and during physical exercise it rose to 80%. Both motion correction algorithms significantly decreased (p<0.006) the number of moved frames and the amplitude of motion (p<0.04). Motion correction significantly increased MBF results during bicycle exercise (p<0.02). At rest or during adenosine infusion, the motion correction had no significant effects on MBF values. Significant motion is a common phenomenon in dynamic cardiac studies during adenosine infusion but especially during exercise. Applying motion correction for the data acquired during exercise clearly changed the MBF results, indicating that motion

  15. Adsorption characteristics of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} ions from simulated radioactive solutions onto chitosan/clinoptilolite sorbents

    Humelnicu, Doina, E-mail: doinah@uaic.ro [' Al. I. Cuza' University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. 11 Carol I, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Dinu, Maria Valentina, E-mail: vdinu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Dragan, Ecaterina Stela, E-mail: sdragan@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2011-01-15

    Adsorption features of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} ions from simulated radioactive solutions onto a novel chitosan/clinoptilolite (CS/CPL) composite as beads have been investigated compared with chitosan cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The effects of contact time, the initial metal ion concentration, sorbent mass and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the CS-based sorbents were investigated. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second order equation, and the adsorption isotherms were better fitted by the Sips model. The maximum experimental adsorption capacities were 328.32 mg Th{sup 4+}/g composite, and 408.62 mg UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/g composite. The overall adsorption tendency of CS/CPL composite toward UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} radiocations in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+}, under competitive conditions, followed the order: Cu{sup 2+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} > Fe{sup 2+} > Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} > Th{sup 4+} > Fe{sup 2+} > Al{sup 3+}, respectively. The negative values of Gibbs free energy of adsorption indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of radioactive ions on both the CS/CPL composite and the cross-linked CS. The desorption level of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} from the composite CS/CPL, by using 0.1 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, was around 92%, and that of Th{sup 4+} ions, performed by 0.1 M HCl, was around 85%, both values being higher than the desorption level of radiocations from the cross-linked CS, which were 89% and 83%, respectively.

  16. Long life radioactive nuclides in the regenerant of ion exchange column for purifying the KUR primary cooling water

    The radioactive regenerant, sampled in July 30, 1978 from the regeneration of KUR primary coolant purifying system, was analysed to investigate the long life radioactive nuclides. In this sample, in addition to the activated products of 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 51Cr, such products as 125Sb, 124Sb, 137Cs, and 90Sr-90Y which seem to be fission products were detected. This result was similar to those of past experiences. The main nuclides in this sample, however, were 65Zn, 54Mn, 51Cr, etc. that emit little or no β-rays. It seems that there would be considerable error in the determination of radioactive concentration only by β-rays measurement using GM counter in such sample. (author)

  17. Remote processing, delivery and injection of H2[15O] produced from a N2/H2 gas target using a simple and compact apparatus.

    Ferrieri, R A; Alexoff, D L; Schlyer, D J; Wolf, A P

    1994-12-01

    We report here a simple apparatus for remote trapping and processing of H2[15O] produced from the N2/H2 target. The system performs a three step operation for H2[15O] delivery at the PET imaging facility which includes the following: (i) collecting the radiotracer in sterile water; (ii) adjusting preparation pH through removal of radiolytically produced ammonia, while at the same time adjusting solution isotonicity; and (iii) delivery of the radiotracer preparation to the injection syringe in a sterile and pyrogen-free form suitable for human studies. The processing apparatus is simple, can be remotely operated and fits inside a Capintec Dose Monitoring Chamber for direct measurement of accumulated radioactivity. Using this system, 300 mCi of H2[15O] (15 microA of 8 MeV D+ on target) is transferred from target through 120 m x 3.18 mm o.d. Impolene tubing to yield 100 mCi of H2[15O] which is isotonic, neutral and suitable for human studies. A remote hydraulically driven system for i.v. injection of the H2[15O] is also described. The device allows for direct measurement of syringe dose while filling, and for easy, as well as safe transport of the injection syringe assembly to the patient's bedside via a shielded delivery cart. This cart houses a hydraulic piston that allows the physician to "manually" inject the radiotracer without directly handling the syringe. PMID:7894394

  18. Phase transition kinetics of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 analyzed by temperature-controlled operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Takahashi, Ikuma; Arai, Hajime; Murayama, Haruno; Sato, Kenji; Komatsu, Hideyuki; Tanida, Hajime; Koyama, Yukinori; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-01-21

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is a promising positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries because it shows a high potential of 4.7 V vs. Li/Li(+). Its charge-discharge reaction includes two consecutive phase transitions between LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li1) ↔ Li0.5Ni0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li0.5) and Li0.5 ↔ Ni0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li0) and the complex transition kinetics that governs the rate capability of LNMO can hardly be analyzed by simple electrochemical techniques. Herein, we apply temperature-controlled operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy to directly capture the reacting phases from -20 °C to 40 °C under potential step (chronoamperometric) conditions and evaluate the phase transition kinetics using the apparent first-order rate constants at various temperatures. The constant for the Li1 ↔ Li0.5 transition (process 1) is larger than that for the Li0.5 ↔ Li0 transition (process 2) at all the measured temperatures, and the corresponding activation energies are 29 and 46 kJ mol(-1) for processes 1 and 2, respectively. The results obtained are discussed to elucidate the limiting factor in this system as well as in other electrode systems. PMID:26686382

  19. A complete process for the treatment of low level radioactive wastes using composite ion exchange resins based on polyurethane foam

    The CFC-PU foam and HMO-PU foams have been employed for the removal of radioactive cesium and strontium respectively from actual Cat. III radioactive liquid waste received from reprocessing plant. Batch studies have been carried out in order to optimize the loading of above chemicals. The results of column and batch studies have indicated that there is a good agreement between them. After passing about 1000 bed volumes, the average DF and volume reduction factor obtained were 20 and 200 respectively. A method has been developed for the wet digestion of spent resins in alkaline KMnO4 medium. The digested foam has been immobilized in cement matrix and the matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength and leach resistance. (author)

  20. The in-gas-jet laser ion source: resonance ionization spectroscopy of radioactive atoms in supersonic gas jets

    Kudryavtsev, Yu; Ferrer, R; Huyse, M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.(KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven, 3001, Belgium)

    2012-01-01

    New approaches to perform efficient and selective step-wise Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) of radioactive atoms in different types of supersonic gas jets are proposed. This novel application results in a major expansion of the In-Gas Laser Ionization and Spectroscopy (IGLIS) method developed at KU Leuven. Implementation of resonance ionization in the supersonic gas jet allows to increase the spectral resolution by one order of magnitude in comparison with the currently performed in-g...

  1. Precision Measurement of the Hyperfine Structure of Laser-Cooled Radioactive 7Be+ Ions Produced by Projectile Fragmentation

    The ground state hyperfine splitting of 7Be+ has been measured by laser-microwave double-resonance spectroscopy in the online rf trap of RIKEN's slow RI-beam facility. Be ions produced by projectile fragmentation of 13C at ≅1 GeV were thermalized in a rf ion guide gas cell and subsequently laser cooled in the ion trap to ≅1 μeV. This 1015-fold reduction of the kinetic energy allows precision spectroscopy of these ions. A magnetic hfs constant of A=-742.772 28(43) MHz was measured for 7Be+, from which a nuclear magnetic moment of μI=-1.399 28(2)μN was deduced

  2. Method and techniques of radioactive waste treatment

    This study illustrates the characterization of radioactive wastes produced by the application of radioisotopes in industry and research. The treatment methods of such radioactive wastes, chemical co-precipitation and ion exchange depending on the technical state of radioactive waste management facility in Syria were described. The disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes, in a safe way, has been discussed including the disposal of the radioactive sources. The characterizations of the repository to stock conditioned radioactive wastes were mentioned. (author)

  3. A preliminary study of an Al effect on 15O-labeled water uptake in a soybean plant by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System)

    Analysis of biological activity in intact cells or tissues is essential to understand many life processes. Techniques for these in vivo measurements have not been well developed. We present here a nondestructive method to image real-time water movement in living plants by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System), using a positron emitting nuclide, 15O (half-life: 2 min.). 15O-labeled water was produced by a cyclotron through 14N(d, n)15O reaction and the gamma-rays emitted from the sample was measured by a pair of BGO counters. Then the labeled water was supplied to the plant and the radioactivity from the plant was accumulated every 15 sec until 20 min. The water uptake speed in the plant was very slow and most of the labeled water was found to be transferred only to the lowest internode, between a root and the first leaves, even after 20 min. There was not any change of water uptake manner when Al (400 μ M) was supplied to the solution after 8 min of the measurement. However, when the root was cut off and the water was supplied from the bottom part of the stem, inhibition of water uptake was observed by addition of Al. Aluminum accumulation in the stem was doubled when the Al solution was supplied from the bottom part of the stem, compared to that supplied form the root, suggesting inhibition activity of Al for water uptake. (author)

  4. The effect of theophylline and dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the uptake of radioactive calcium and phosphate ions by boar and human spermatozoa

    Radioactive calcium uptake by suspensions of washed boar and human spermatozoa was inhibited by the mitochondrial uncoupling agent carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone (FCCP). Theophylline + dibutyryl cyclic AMP also inhibited calcium uptake in the presence or absence of FCCP. Uptake of low concentrations of calcium (0.1 mM) was inhibited by the calcium ionophore A23187, but at high calcium concentrations the ionophore stimulated calcium uptake. These observations are explained in terms of a mechanism for the regulation of calcium uptake in spermatozoa based on competing mitochondrial and plasma membrane pumps. Uptake of 32P was also inhibited. These effects provide evidence that cyclic AMP plays a role in the transport of ions across the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. (author)

  5. Basic study on the adsorption of radioactive phosphate ion from the water by the ancient shellfish fossil and its application for the decontamination agent

    Removal/adsorption of 32PO43- from the water by the naturally occurring ancient shellfish fossil (ASF) was examined. As a result, selective adsorption ability of ASF for 32PO43- was revealed. Then, the ASF containing soap was prepared, and its usefulness as decontamination agent was investigated, using various 32PO43- contaminated plates consisting of different materials. The ASF containing soap had a remarkable decontamination effect on lead plate, aluminum plates, and the floor material in radioisotope facility, which were generally hard to be decontaminated. Besides, though 20 - 40% of pollution remained in latex gloves, human hand skin, and stainless steel (SUS) plate by the twice washing with the water, the contaminations were decontaminated with the ASF containing soap by more than 90%, suggesting the usefulness of ASF as the decontamination agent for the contamination with radioactive phosphate ion. (author)

  6. Post-acceleration of sup 7 Be at the Louvain-la-Neuve radioactive ion beam facility

    Gaelens, M; Loiselet, M; Ryckewaert, G

    2003-01-01

    The development of an intense and pure post-accelerated sup 7 Be beam at Louvain-la-Neuve will be discussed. Given its properties (metallic nature, long half-life (53 days)) and the special beam parameters required (multi-charge ions, high purity), a range of special techniques had to be investigated. At Louvain-la-Neuve, sup 7 Be is produced by irradiating a lithium target with 30 mu A of 27 MeV protons and is extracted using offline chemical separation techniques. Because of the large amounts of activity required, the chemistry has to be adapted for use in hotcells. The ionization is performed with an Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with the sup 7 Be injected in the source by means of sputtering. Special techniques have to be used to prevent the beryllium atoms from being lost on the plasma chamber walls. A dedicated heated plasma chamber for the ion source was developed. The ionization efficiency was increased by studying the chemistry involved in the ion source. The atoms are ionized to the 1+ or ...

  7. Regional pulmonary function assessed by C15O2 and 11CO inhalation

    Regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusion were measured using positron imaging of C15O2 and 11CO. Blood flow was estimated from the monoexponential clearance rate of C15O2. The alveolar transfer rate (diffusion) was calculated by the clearance curve of 11CO and the clearance rate of C15O2 using a non-linear least-aquares fitting method. Six normal volunteers and nineteen patients with various pulmonary disorders underwent C15O2 and 11CO inhalation. In normal subjects, the alveolar transfer rates and blood flow in the lower lung field were significantly greater than those in the upper lung field. Pulmonary emboli were demonstrated as ''hot spots'' on serial positron images. In patients with interstitial fibrosis, the alveolar transfer rate was not different from that in normal subjects. However, blood flow was significantly lower than in the normals. In patients with pulmonary emphysema, the alveolar transfer rate was lower suggesting the decreased alveolar capillary beds. Thus, dynamic study using C15O2 and 11CO inhalation provides regional blood flow and diffusion, which may permit the differentiation of various pulmonary disorders. (author)

  8. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility is based on the method of laser stepwise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity. The atomic selectivity of the RILIS compliments the mass selection process of the ISOLDE separator magnets to provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. Using a system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers, ion beams of 22 elements have been generated at ISOLDE with ionization efficiencies in the range of 0.5%-30%. As part of the ongoing RILIS development, recent off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy studies have determined the optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium, and antimony

  9. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    Catherall, R.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Köster, U.; Lettry, J.; Suberlucq, G.; Marsh, B. A.; Tengborn, E.

    2004-05-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility is based on the method of laser stepwise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity. The atomic selectivity of the RILIS compliments the mass selection process of the ISOLDE separator magnets to provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. Using a system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers, ion beams of 22 elements have been generated at ISOLDE with ionization efficiencies in the range of 0.5%-30%. As part of the ongoing RILIS development, recent off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy studies have determined the optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium, and antimony.

  10. Inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium to be used in radioactive waste

    This work presents the results of synthesis and characterization of an inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxides doped with europium (SnO2/TiO2:Eu3+) to be used in environmental field. The adsorption study of nickel was realized in this exchanger to recover the nickel metal which is in thorium-nickel alloys used as electrode of discharge lamps. The studied exchanger was synthesized by neutralization of tin chloride (IV) and titanium chloride (III) mixed solution and characterized by thermogravimetric measurement (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The adsorption study showed that these inorganic ion exchangers are good materials to recovery nickel with high weight distribution ratios (DwNi2+) and percent adsorption. (author)

  11. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator for isobaric purification of radioactive ion beams

    A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF-MS) for the enhancement of the performance of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN has been built and investigated at an off-line test facility. The MR-ToF-MS consists of two ion-optical mirrors between which oscillating ions are separated according to their different mass-over-charge ratios m/q. Flight paths of several hundreds of meters are folded to an apparatus length of less than one meter. Preliminary tests resulted in a mass-resolving power of up to m/Δm ≈ 80,000, and the separation was demonstrated for the isobaric ions CO +  and N2+. The MR-ToF-MS will support the existing purification methods of ISOLTRAP and will extend the access to nuclides produced with high isobaric contamination yields at the ISOLDE facility.

  12. The sorption behavior of Cs+ ion on clay minerals and zeolite in radioactive waste management: sorption kinetics and thermodynamics

    In this work, Cs+ ion sorption on some clays and zeolite were investigated. 137Cs was used as a tracer. Activities were measured with a NaI crystal gamma counter. The particle size distribution was determined by a laser sizer. Surface area of the particles were determined by BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method). Structure analysis was made by using X-ray diffraction. The chemical compositions of the solid samples were determined using a ICAP-OE spectrometer. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined. Due to very high uptake results; clay and zeolite can be proposed as a good sorbents in waste management considerations. (author)

  13. The in-gas-jet laser ion source: resonance ionization spectroscopy of radioactive atoms in supersonic gas jets

    Kudryavtsev, Yu; Huyse, M; Bergh, P Van den; Van Duppen, P

    2012-01-01

    New approaches to perform efficient and selective step-wise Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) of radioactive atoms in different types of supersonic gas jets are proposed. This novel application results in a major expansion of the In-Gas Laser Ionization and Spectroscopy (IGLIS) method developed at KU Leuven. Implementation of resonance ionization in the supersonic gas jet allows to increase the spectral resolution by one order of magnitude in comparison with the currently performed in-gas-cell ionization spectroscopy. Properties of supersonic beams, obtained from the de Laval-, the spike-, and the free jet nozzles that are important for the reduction of the spectral line broadening mechanisms in cold and low density environments are discussed. Requirements for the laser radiation and for the vacuum pumping system are also examined. Finally, first results of high-resolution spectroscopy in the supersonic free jet are presented for the 327.4 nm 3d^{10}4s^{2}S_{1/2} \\rightarrow 3d^{10}4p^{2}P_{1/2} transit...

  14. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid wastes using composite ion-exchange resins based on polyurethane foam

    Composite ion-exchange resins were prepared by coating copper-ferrocyanide (CFC) and hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) powders on polyurethane (PU) foam. Polyvinyl acetate/Acetone was used as a binder. The foam was loaded with about five times its weight with CFC and HMO powders. The distribution coefficients of CFC-PU foam and HMO-PU foam for cesium and strontium respectively were estimated. Under similar conditions the HMO-PU foam showed higher capacity as well as better kinetics for removal of strontium than CFC-PU foam for Cs. The pilot plant scale studies were conducted using a mixed composite ion-exchange resin bed. About 1000 bed volumes could be passed before attaining a DF of 10 from an initial value of 60-80. The spent resin was digested in alkaline KMnO4 and the digested liquid was fixed in cement matrix. The matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength and leach resistance. (author)

  15. Using radioactivity

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  16. Removal efficiency of radioactive cesium and iodine ions by a flow-type apparatus designed for electrochemically reduced water production.

    Takeki Hamasaki

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 attracted people's attention, with anxiety over possible radiation hazards. Immediate and long-term concerns are around protection from external and internal exposure by the liberated radionuclides. In particular, residents living in the affected regions are most concerned about ingesting contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water. Efficient removal of radionuclides from rainwater and drinking water has been reported using several pot-type filtration devices. A currently used flow-type test apparatus is expected to simultaneously provide radionuclide elimination prior to ingestion and protection from internal exposure by accidental ingestion of radionuclides through the use of a micro-carbon carboxymethyl cartridge unit and an electrochemically reduced water production unit, respectively. However, the removability of radionuclides from contaminated tap water has not been tested to date. Thus, the current research was undertaken to assess the capability of the apparatus to remove radionuclides from artificially contaminated tap water. The results presented here demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce radioactivity levels to below the detection limit in applied tap water containing either 300 Bq/kg of 137Cs or 150 Bq/kg of 125I. The apparatus had a removal efficiency of over 90% for all concentration ranges of radio-cesium and -iodine tested. The results showing efficient radionuclide removability, together with previous studies on molecular hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles as reactive oxygen species scavengers, strongly suggest that the test apparatus has the potential to offer maximum safety against radionuclide-contaminated foodstuffs, including drinking water.

  17. Effects of precursor treatment with reductant or oxidant on the structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, a lithium-ion battery cathode material, is prepared using co-precipitation via a two-step drying method with Ni-Mn mixed hydroxide as the precursor. This study examines the effects of precursor pretreatment with hydrazine (a reductant) or with H2O2 (an oxidant) in solutions of NiSO4 and MnSO4. The results indicate substantial differences in the structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 depending on whether the precursor is pretreated with reductant or oxidant. For the hydrazine-treated precursor, the synthesized LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 has a very pure spinel phase and an ordered, octahedral crystal morphology (ca. 100-300 nm). In contrast, the material synthesized using the H2O2-treated precursor shows numerous impurity phases (Na0.7MnO2.05) with a layer-by-layer crystal structure. The control sample (prepared without precursor pretreatment) maintains an octahedral structure but still retains a few impurity phases of Na0.7MnO2.05. The electrochemical results show that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized using a hydrazine-treated precursor has a higher specific capacity (especially under high discharge current) and a higher cyclic life than the control sample, whereas the sample using H2O2-treated precursor shows almost no special capacity due to changes in crystal structure.

  18. Low energy proton capture study of the 14N(p, gamma)15O reaction

    Daigle, Stephen Michael

    The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction regulates the rate of energy production for stars slightly more massive than the sun throughout stable hydrogen burning on the main sequence. The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction rate also determines the luminosity for all stars after leaving the main sequence when their cores have exhausted hydrogen fuel, and later when they become red giant stars. The significant role that this reaction plays in stellar evolution has far-reaching consequences, from neutrino production in our Sun, to age estimates of globular clusters in our Galaxy. The weak cross section and inherent coincidence summing in the 15O gamma-ray decay scheme make a precision measurement of the astrophysical S-factor especially challenging, particularly for the ground-state transition. The present study, performed in the Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA), was aimed at measuring the ground-state transition at low energy by utilizing a new 24-element, position-sensitive, NaI(Tl) detector array. Because the array is highly segmented, the 14N( p,gamma)15O S-factor was evaluated for transitions to the ground, 5.18, 6.18, and 6.79 MeV states without the need for coincidence summing corrections. Additionally, the position-sensitivity of the detector was exploited to measure the angular correlation of the two-photon cascades. Software cuts were made to the data in order to identify single and coincident gamma-ray events and a fraction fit analysis technique was used to extract the characteristic 15O peaks from the composite gamma-ray spectrum. The results from the current work demonstrated a new approach to measuring weak nuclear cross sections near astrophysically relevant energies that, with refinements, has broader applications in gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  19. Spectroscopy of $^{19}$Ne for the thermonuclear $^{15}$O($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{19}$Ne and $^{18}$F($p,\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reaction rates

    Parikh, A; de Séréville, N; Wimmer, K; Faestermann, T; Hertenberger, R; Seiler, D; Wirth, H -F; Adsley, P; Fulton, B R; Hammache, F; Kiener, J; Stefan, I

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in the thermonuclear rates of the $^{15}$O($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{19}$Ne and $^{18}$F($p,\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reactions affect model predictions of light curves from type I X-ray bursts and the amount of the observable radioisotope $^{18}$F produced in classical novae, respectively. To address these uncertainties, we have studied the nuclear structure of $^{19}$Ne over $E_{x} = 4.0 - 5.1$ MeV and $6.1 - 7.3$ MeV using the $^{19}$F($^{3}$He,t)$^{19}$Ne reaction. We find the $J^{\\pi}$ values of the 4.14 and 4.20 MeV levels to be consistent with $9/2^{-}$ and $7/2^{-}$ respectively, in contrast to previous assumptions. We confirm the recently observed triplet of states around 6.4 MeV, and find evidence that the state at 6.29 MeV, just below the proton threshold, is either broad or a doublet. Our data also suggest that predicted but yet unobserved levels may exist near the 6.86 MeV state. Higher resolution experiments are urgently needed to further clarify the structure of $^{19}$Ne around the proton thresh...

  20. Design of an equipment for the testing of target dedicated to the production of radioactive ions through the ISOL method; Realisation d'un dispositif de test de cibles pour la production d'ions radioactifs par la methode ISOL

    Durantel, F

    2005-01-15

    In the ISOL (isotope separation on line) technique, a primary ion beam impinges on a thick target, the incident ions are stopped through fragmentation reactions that generate radioactive nuclei. As soon as they have collected enough electrons, the radioactive nuclei begin diffusing outside the target as radioactive atoms. In order to improve this diffusion the target is strongly heated. The radioactive atoms diffuse till a ion source that ionize them, they are then accelerated to form a secondary beam that is delivered to the experimental area. This work deals with the design of an equipment able to measure the diffusion capacities of various targets, it is made up of -) a high temperature (> 2300 K) oven that will contain the target, -) a ionization source for ionizing radioactive atoms and -) a target dispatcher able to introduce in the oven or remove from the oven any target of a set of 12 targets. This equipment has proved to be able to test during a single experiment several primary beams and target materials. Measurements will be performed in a sequential way for the different projectile-target couples which will assure very closed experimental conditions for each measuring campaign. (A.C.)

  1. Resonant ionization by laser beams: application to ions sources and to study the nuclear structure of radioactive tellurium isotopes; Ionisation resonante par faisceaux laser: application aux sources d'ions et a l'etude de la structure des noyaux radioactifs de tellure

    Sifi, R

    2007-07-15

    The radioactive ion beams that are produced through current isotope separators are well separated according to the A mass but not according to the Z parameter. The resonant ionization through laser beams applied to ion sources allows the production of radioactive ion beam in a very selective and efficient way by eliminating the isobaric contamination. The first chapter is dedicated to the resonant ionization by laser beams, we describe the principle, the experimental setting, the lasers used, the ionization schemes and the domain of application. The second chapter deals with the application of resonant ionization to laser ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams. We present experimental tests performed for getting copper ion beams. Resonant ionization through laser is also used in the spectroscopy experiments performed at the Isolde (isotope separation on-line device) installation in CERN where more than 20 elements are ionized very efficiently. The technique is based on a frequency scanning around the excitation transition of the atoms in order to probe the hyperfine structure. Laser spectroscopy allows the determination of the hyperfine structure as well as the isotopic shift of atoms. In the third chapter the method is applied to the spectroscopy of tellurium atoms. First, we define the 2 parameters on which the extraction is based: charge radius and nuclear moments, then we present several theoretical models that we have used to assess our experimental results. (A.C.)

  2. North American radioactive beam initiatives

    After a brief review of existing radioactive beam facilities in North America, two new initiative (the Oak Ridge Radioactive Ion Beam Facility and the IsoSpin Laboratory) are described in some detail. An evaluation of which nuclei these facilities will be able to study, that cannot be studied with stable targets and beams, also is presented

  3. The extended storage of radioactive ion-exchange resins in polyethylene high-integrity containers. Final report

    This research and development program was carried out by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation to evaluate the use of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a container material for the extended storage of waste ion-exchange resins at nuclear reactor sites. The resins are produced as a consequence of reactor coolant and liquid waste stream cleanup. Resin storage for periods of less than 5 years does not add significant additional regulatory burdens on the generator. However, for longer storage times, extra information will be required to demonstrate that the containers maintain their integrity. At this time, HDPE is the material of choice for storage at many nuclear power plants. It was selected because it combines low cost compared with high-integrity containers fabricated from metallic or composite, materials, and superior resistance to corrosion from a very wide range of environments. In addition, HDPE high-integrity containers have been developed for the disposal of low-level wastes under shallow-land burial environments for which a 300-year minimum lifetime is expected. Thus, many of the technical considerations for storage have already been addressed during container licensing activities for disposal. From a detailed analysis of the expected types of resin wastes and the expected storage conditions, it is concluded from the current research effort that HDPE containers may be used to store the majority of resins for many decades without incurring failure if the container is left undisturbed. During storage, radiation-induced losses in ductility were determined to be the principal degradation mode. The severity depended on both the dose rate and the dose level achieved. The major potential for container failure will occur during times when container transport is carried out. During these periods, lifting stresses will be applied and accidental dropping is also a possibility

  4. Human hemispheric infarction studied by positron emission tomography and the 15O continuous inhalation technique

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers an entirely new approach to the study of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic disorders. For the first time it is possible to obtain functional tomographic images that represent cerebral perfusion and metabolism on a regional basis. We report here a study of cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction by means of the 15O inhalation technique in a large number of human hemispheric infarctions. (orig.)

  5. Production of [15O]Water at Low-Energy Proton Cyclotrons

    Powell, James; O' Neil, James P.

    2005-12-12

    We report a simple system for producing [15O]H2O from nitrogen-15 in a nitrogen/hydrogen gas target with recycling of the target nitrogen, allowing production on low-energy proton-only accelerators with minimal consumption of isotopically enriched nitrogen-15. The radiolabeled water is separated from the target gas and radiolytically produced ammonia by temporary freezing in a small trap at -40 C.

  6. Enhanced rate performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 fibers synthesized by electrospinning

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Shui, Jianglan; Li, James; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, IB

    2015-05-29

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) provides a high working potential as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Yet there is a phase transition from cubic to tetragonal structure in LNMO during the ~3 V charge/discharge region. To suppress the large volume change and capacity fade inherent with bulk-sized LNMO particles when discharged to below 3.0 V, one-dimensional nano-structured LNMO was prepared by an electrospinning method and a subsequent heat treatment. The well-separated nanofiber precursors combat the growth and aggregation of LNMO particles during the heating procedure and lead to improved capacity, better cycling stability, and improved rate capability of the final LMNO nanofibers. The as-prepared LMNO nanofibers have a diameter as thin as 50–100 nm, which is the thinnest of this kind of complex compounds that contain multi-transition metal elements produced through the electrospinning method. In coin cell tests of this material at a current density of 27 mA g-1, the initial discharge capacity was 130 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 3.5–4.8 V and 300 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 2.0–4.8 V.

  7. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.

  8. Remote processing, delivery and injection of H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced from a N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas target using a simple and compact apparatus

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-01

    We report here a simple apparatus for remote trapping and processing of H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced from the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} target. The system performs a three step operation for H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] delivery at the PET imaging facility which includes the following: (i) collecting the radiotracer in sterile water; (ii) adjusting preparation pH through removal of radiolytically produced ammonia, while at the same time adjusting solution isotonicity; and (iii) delivery of the radiotracer preparation to the injection syringe in a sterile and pyrogen-free form suitable for human studies. The processing apparatus is simple, can be remotely operated and fits inside a Capintec Dose Monitoring Chamber for direct measurement of accumulated radioactivity. Using this system, 300 mCi of H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] (15 {mu}A of 8 MeV D{sup +} on target) is transferred from target through 120 m x 3.18 mm o.d. Impolene tubing to yield 100 mCi of H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] which is isotonic, neutral and suitable for human studies. A remote hydraulically driven system for i.v. injection of the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] is also described. The device allows for direct measurement of syringe dose while filling, and for easy, as well as safe transport of the injection syringe assembly to the patient`s bedside via a shielded delivery cart. This cart houses a hydraulic piston that allows the physician to ``manually`` inject the radiotracer without directly handling the syringe. (Author).

  9. Production, administration and disposal of cyclotron produced shortlived radioactive gases for positron emission tomography studies at the Austin Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Centre is operational at the Austin Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne. The major equipment consists of a 10 MeV cyclotron and a whole body PET scanner. Radioactive gases produced and used directly in clinical studies include [15O]O2, [15O]CO, and [15O]CO2, whilst [11C]CO2 is also produced for use in radiochemistry syntheses. Radioactivity delivery rates of 3.7, 3.3, and 1.6 GBq/min to the scanner suite have been achieved for [15O]O2, [15O]CO2, and [15O]CO respectively, and batch productions of 36.3 GBq of [11C]CO2 have been produced. The production. patient administration and disposal of the short-lived radioactive gases has been achieved in compliance with radiation protection principles. Radioactive gas doses of 1.7 GBq are administered to patients with less than 0.02 MBq/m3 leakage into the scanner suite. Less than 13 MBq of [ 15O]-labelled gases are released into the environment per patient study at a concentration of 0.018 MBq/m3. Annually less than 2 GBq is expected to be released into the environment. The centre design and first four months' experience of radioactive gas production, administration and disposal is presented. 5 refs., 4 tab., 1 fig

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with intravenous [15O]water bolus and [18F]fluoromethane inhalation

    In 20 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, classic migraine, or angiomas, we compared paired dynamic positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using both [15O]water and [18F]fluoromethane as tracers. Cerebral blood flow was also determined according to the autoradiographic technique with a bolus injection of [15O]water. There were reasonable overall correlations between dynamic [15O]water and [18F]fluoromethane values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.82) and between dynamic and autoradiographic [15O]water values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.83). We found a close correspondence between abnormal pathologic findings and visually evaluated cerebral blood flow tomograms obtained with the two tracers. On average, dynamic [15O]water cerebral blood flow was 6% lower than that measured with [18F]fluoromethane. There also was a general trend toward a greater underestimation with [15O]water in high-flow areas, particularly in hyperemic areas, probably due to incomplete first-pass extraction of [15O]water. Underestimation was not detected in low-flow areas or in the cerebellum. Absolute cerebral blood flow values were less closely correlated between tracers and techniques than cerebral blood flow patterns. The variability of the relation between absolute flow values was probably caused by confounding effects of the variation in the circulatory delay time. The autoradiographic technique was most sensitive to this type error

  11. Radioactivity yesterday and today

    As an exhibition on the history of radioactivity from Homer to Oppenheimer has been organised in the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris, this article first recalls some atom characteristics and interactions between electrostatic forces within the atom. The author recalls how radioactivity has been unexpectedly discovered at the end of the 19. century, recalls the first works of characterization performed by Marie Curie and those performed by other scientists who perceived the opportunities for various applications. More recent works are also addressed like other forms of nucleus disintegrations, the generation of heavy ion beams, and double beta decay

  12. Fusion using radioactive ion beams

    A M Vinodkumar

    2010-07-01

    The capture-fission cross-section is measured for the collision of the massive nucleus 132Sn with 96Zr at near-barrier energies and compared with the collision of 124Sn with 96Zr. This study gives insight into fusion enhancement and hindrance in systems involving neutron-rich nuclei. The dinuclear system model (DNS) calculations describe the excitation function reasonably well and if we use the barrier heights predicted by this model we can conclude that fusion hindrance (represented by extra push energy) is greater for the more neutron-rich systems. The fusion excitation function for 9Li+70Zn and 9Li+208Pb systems are measured for near-barrier energies using ISAC1 and ISAC2 Facilities at TRIUMF. The -emitting evaporation residues (211−214At) are stopped in the 208Pb target and their decay is measured. The measured excitation function shows evidence for large enhancements in the sub-barrier energies, which is not accounted by current theoretical models. Suppression of the above-barrier cross-section with respect to these theoretical models are also seen.

  13. Assessment of auditory cortical function in cochlear implant patients using 15O PET

    Full text: Cochlear implantation has been an extraordinarily successful method of restoring hearing and the potential for full language development in pre-lingually and post-lingually deaf individuals (Gibson 1996). Post-lingually deaf patients, who develop their hearing loss later in life, respond best to cochlear implantation within the first few years of their deafness, but are less responsive to implantation after several years of deafness (Gibson 1996). In pre-lingually deaf children, cochlear implantation is most effect in allowing the full development language skills when performed within a critical period, in the first 8 years of life. These clinical observations suggest considerable neural plasticity of the human auditory cortex in acquiring and retaining language skills (Gibson 1996, Buchwald 1990). Currently, electrocochleography is used to determine the integrity of the auditory pathways to the auditory cortex. However, the functional integrity of the auditory cortex cannot be determined by this method. We have defined the extent of activation of the auditory cortex and auditory association cortex in 6 normal controls and 6 cochlear implant patients using 15O PET functional brain imaging methods. Preliminary results have indicated the potential clinical utility of 15O PET cortical mapping in the pre-surgical assessment and post-surgical follow up of cochlear implant patients. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  14. The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction studied with a composite germanium detector

    Marta, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Elekes, Z; Fulop, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyurky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A

    2011-01-01

    The rate of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle of hydrogen burning is controlled by the 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction. The reaction proceeds by capture to the ground states and several excited states in O-15. In order to obtain a reliable extrapolation of the excitation curve to astrophysical energy, fits in the R-matrix framework are needed. In an energy range that sensitively tests such fits, new cross section data are reported here for the four major transitions in the 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction. The experiment has been performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator placed deep underground in the Gran Sasso facility in Italy. Using a composite germanium detector, summing corrections have been considerably reduced with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the 5181, 6172, and 6792 keV excited states in O-15 have been determined at 359, 380, and 399 keV beam energy. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the...

  15. Dielectric properties of calcium doped BaTi0.85Sn0.15O3: A diffuse phase transition

    Effect of calcium substitution on dielectric behavior of BaTi0.85Sn0.15O3 was studied over 1-106 Hz and 120-370 K. Compositions with x=0.00, 0.14, 0.16 and 0.20 in the system (Ba1-xCax)(Ti0.85Sn0.15)O3 were prepared by solid state reaction route. Compositions with x=0.00,0.14 and 0.16 are found to be cubic single phase at room temperature which is confirmed by their X-ray diffraction studies. However, the sample with x=0.20 shows lines of constituent oxides. The SEM micrographs of the investigated systems show the existence of ferroelectric domains at room temperature. The temperature dependence of ε' of this system exhibits a broad maxima near room temperature. Diffuseness of phase transition increases with increasing calcium substitution. A dielectric relaxation due to rattling of Ca ion is observed in x=0.14 and 0.16 at low temperatures. The diffuse phase transition (DPT) behavior observed in the investigated compositions is also confirmed by the hysteresis loop measurement. Moreover, hysteresis loop measurement shows that coercivity and remanent polarization both decrease with increasing Ca concentration.

  16. Soil contamination. part 1. changes in the humidity of non saturated soils after reject in a limited space. part 2. movements of radioactive ions in non saturated soils after reject in a limited space

    An important feature in radiological safety studies of sites is the knowledge of water movements in the unsaturated layer surmounting aquifer; this zone of aerated soil can be effective as a protection against aquifer contamination. Utilizing a neutron-moisture meter, a method was developed permitting to build graphically the hydric states of soil and the moistened volume evolution with time in the particular case of a limited feeding surface. It is also possible to measure moisture gradients, drying kinetics, the retention capacity of soil and the gravific water content achieved by a given water head. The initial hydric state has an effect only upon the infiltration rate and neither upon the moistened front position nor upon the volume of moistened soil; consequently, the storable water amount in soil can be calculated. When water feeding has been stopped, the volume of moistened soil increases to an equilibrium state restricted by the moistened front and all the other water movements occur exclusively inside this volume. Consequently in case of radioactive waste disposal, the ionic pollution will be confined inside a measurable volume, the moistened front being the maximum limits of this volume. Part 2. Following up the report on water movements in non-saturated s o i l s after reject on a limited space - CEA R 3635 (1) - the radioactive ions movements in these soils are studied in using an anion and a cation of reference: iodine 131 and strontium 85. The experimental method is founded on the simultaneous measurements of moisture and radioactivity fronts by means of a neutrons moisture meter and an specially conceived radioactivity probe. It has so been possible to measure: the relative velocities of moisture and radioactivity fronts; the contaminated soil volume inside the moistened oil volume; the concentration gradients; the contamination changes upon watering; the effect of chemical composition of water upon this ions movements and the effect of soil moisture

  17. Radioactive waste processing device

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  18. Management on radioactive wastes

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  19. NRI's research on radioactive wastes

    A survey is given (including 41 references) of work carried out at the Nuclear Research Institute. Discussed are sorption processes (a selective sorbent for 90Sr based on BaSO4, etc.), sorption on inorganic ion exchangers (heteropolyacid salts, ferrocyanides for 137Cs capture), on organic cation exchangers (separation of lanthanides), electrocoagulation. The process is described of vitrification of highly radioactive wastes, the arrest of emissions, the deposition of radioactive wastes and surface decontamination. (M.K.)

  20. Immobilization of Ion Exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor; Inmovilizacion de resinas de intercambio ionico radiactivas del reactor nuclear TRIGA Mark III

    Garcia Martinez, H

    1999-07-01

    In the last decades many countries in the world have taken interest in the use, availability, and final disposal of dangerous wastes in the environment, within these, those dangerous wastes that contain radioactive material. That is why studies have been made on materials used as immobilization agent of radioactive waste that may guarantee its storage for long periods of time under drastic conditions of humidity, temperature change and biodegradation. In mexico, the development of different applications of radioactive material in the industry, medicine and investigation, have generated radioactive waste, sealed and open sources, whose require a special technological development for its management and final disposal. The present work has as a finality to develop the process and define the agglutinating material, bitumen, cement and polyester resin that permits immobilization of resins of Ionic Exchange contaminated by Barium 153, Cesium 137, Europium 152, Cobalt 60 and Manganese 54 generated from the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III. Ionic interchange contaminated resin must be immobilized and is analysed under different established tests by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-019-NUCL-1995 {sup L}ow level radioactive wastes package requirements for its near-surface final disposal. Immobilization of ionic interchange contaminated resins must count with the International Standards applicable in this process; in these standards, the following test must be taken in prototype examples: Free-standing water, leachability, compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, thermal stability and burning rate. (Author)

  1. Effects of attention on dichotic listening: an 15O-PET study

    Hugdahl, K; Law, I; Kyllingsbæk, Søren;

    2000-01-01

    listened to lists of consonant-vowel syllables, or short musical instrument passages, with the task of detecting a "target" syllable or musical instrument by pressing a button. The target stimulus appeared an equal number of times in the left and right ear. The subjects were instructed to either......The present study investigated the effect of attention on brain activation in a dichotic listening situation. Dichotic listening is a technique to study laterality effects in the auditory sensory modality. Two different stimuli were presented simultaneously, one in each ear. Twelve subjects...... concentrate on the stimuli presented in both ears, or only on the left or right ear stimulus. Brain activation was measured with 15O-PET, and significant changes in regional normalized counts (rNC) were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) software. Concentrating on either the right or left...

  2. The 14N(p, γ)15O reaction studied at low and high beam energy

    The Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle consists of a set of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium and release energy in the stars. It determines the luminosity of low-metal stars at their turn-off from the main-sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, so its rate enters the calculation of the globular clusters' age, an independent lower limit on the age of the universe. The cycle contributes less than 1% to our Sun's luminosity, but it produces neutrinos that can in principle be measured on Earth in underground experiments and bring direct information of the physical conditions in the solar core, provided that the nuclear reaction rate is known with sufficient precision. The 14N(p,γ)15O reaction is the slowest reaction of the Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle and establishes its rate. Its cross section is the sum of the contributions by capture to different excited levels and to the ground state in 15O. Recent experiments studied the region of the resonance at Ep = 278 keV. Only one modern data set from an experiment performed in 1987 is available for the high-energy domain. Both energy ranges are needed to constrain the fit of the excitation function in the R-matrix framework and to obtain a reliable extrapolated S-factor at the very low astrophysical energies. The present research work studied the 14N(p,γ)15O reaction in the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) underground facility at three proton energies 0.36, 0.38, 0.40MeV, and in Dresden in the energy range Ep = 0.6 - 2MeV. In both cases, an intense proton beam was sent on solid titanium nitride sputtered targets, and the prompt photons emitted from the reaction were detected with germanium detectors. At LUNA, a composite germanium detector was used. This enabled a measurement with dramatically reduced summing corrections with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the excited states at 5181, 6172, and 6792 keV in 15O have been determined. An R

  3. Standarization of Mn-54 by liquid scintillation counting using organic samples of (C8H15 O2)2 Mn-54

    A new method of standardization of Mn 54 by liquid scintillation counting with an organic sample of (C8H15 O2)2 Mn 54 is described. This procedure shows a good long term stability of samples, over 20 days, and counting efficiencies between 10% and 24% for PCS e INSTAGEL and 10% 32% for a toluene-based scintillator. The discrepancies between experimental and computed values are less that 0,9% for PCS and INSTAGEL and less than 1,2% for Toluene, in the 5-2,5 interval of quenching parameter. The global uncertainty on the activity concentrat-ion of a sample standardized by this method has been lower than 3% (Author)

  4. Gelatin-assisted synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material for 5V lithium rechargeable batteries

    In this work, gelatin is for the first time utilized to conduct polymer-assisted synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as the cathode material for 5 V lithium rechargeable batteries. The effect of different amounts of gelatin on structural and morphological properties, electrochemical characterization of the obtained products are investigated by XRD, SEM, charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. It's found that with the addition of moderate amount of gelatin, the sample displays a higher degree of crystallinity and phase purity, more uniform shape and monodispersed nanometric size. As a result, electrochemical cycling stability and rate performance are significantly enhanced. CV and EIS measurements further demonstrate that using an optimal amount of gelatin can improve electrochemical performance due to the reversible reaction, faster insertion/extraction of Li ions in the spinel structure and decreased interface independence.

  5. Superspin glassy behaviour of La0.7Ca0.3Mn0.85Al0.15O3 thin film

    Here, we present the low temperature magnetic behaviour of epitaxial La0.7Ca0.3Mn0.85Al0.15O3 (LCMAO) thin film through a series of DC magnetic measurements. Overall behaviour inferred from the magnetization measurements indicate that the magnetic phases created due to Al doping induced inhomogeneous distribution of Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions and oxygen vacancies present in the system act like superspins, and the strong interaction among themselves results in the superspin glassy behaviour. Interactions among the superspins are marked by the aging and zero filed memory effects. The glassy magnetic phase in LCMAO is found to follow the hierarchical model of spin glasses.

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  7. Radioactive Wastes.

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  8. The coagulation of radioactive aerosols

    Radioactive aerosols can become charged by emitting charges during the decay process, and the resulting electrostatic forces will modify coagulation rates. For Brownian coagulation, calculations for nuclear containment aerosols show that rates averaged over charge distributions can be strongly reduced between particles of the same size, but that increases in average rates can occur for particles of different sizes. The increases arise from small, but significant, negative charging of non-radioactive and small-sized radioactive particles, and are sensitive to the asymmetry between the positive and negative ion mobilities. (Author)

  9. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  10. Simulated Radioactivity

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  11. Radioactivity Calculations

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  12. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of surface active agents required for solidifying sodium sulfate-containing concentrated radioactive liquid wastes with asphalts. Method: Water soluble calcium compounds (calcium nitrate, etc.) are added to alkaline radioactive concentrated liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium sulfate to adjust the pH value of the liquid wastes to 4.5 - 8.5. The addition amount of the water soluble calcium compounds (based on the weight of the calcium ions) is set to about 2 - 5% of the sulfate ions in the liquid wastes. Then, surface active agents are added by 3 - 10 weight % to the solid contents in the liquid wastes. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Single Particle Strengths and Mirror States in $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O below 12.0 MeV

    Mertin, C E; Crisp, A M; Keeley, N; Kemper, K W; Momtyuk, O; Roeder, B T; Volya, A

    2014-01-01

    New $^{14}$N(d,p) angular distribution data were taken at a deuteron bombarding energy of 16 MeV to locate all narrow single particle neutron states up to 15 MeV in excitation. A new shell model calculation is able to reproduce all levels in $^{15}$N up to 11.5 MeV and is used to characterize a narrow single particle level at 11.236 MeV and to provide a map of the single particle strengths. The known levels in $^{15}$N are then used to determine their mirrors in the lesser known nucleus $^{15}$O. The 2s$_{1/2}$ and 1d$_{5/2}$ single particle centroid energies are determined for the $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O mirror pair as: $^{15}$N $(\\text{2s}_{1/2}) = 8.08$ MeV, $^{15}$O $(\\text{2s}_{1/2}) = 7.43$ MeV, $^{15}$N $(\\text{1d}_{5/2}) = 7.97$ MeV, and $^{15}$O $(\\text{1d}_{5/2}) = 7.47$ MeV. These results confirm the degeneracy of these orbits and that the $^{15}$N$-^{15}$O nuclei are where the transition between the $\\text{2s}_{1/2}$ lying below the $\\text{1d}_{5/2}$ to lying above it, takes place. The $\\text{1d}_{3/2}$...

  14. Regional pulmonary function assessed by C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO inhalation

    Murata, Kiyoshi; Todo, Giro; Senda, Michio

    1984-08-01

    Regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusion were measured using positron imaging of C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO. Blood flow was estimated from the monoexponential clearance rate of C/sup 15/O/sub 2/. The alveolar transfer rate (diffusion) was calculated by the clearance curve of /sup 11/CO and the clearance rate of C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ using a non-linear least-aquares fitting method. Six normal volunteers and nineteen patients with various pulmonary disorders underwent C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO inhalation. In normal subjects, the alveolar transfer rates and blood flow in the lower lung field were significantly greater than those in the upper lung field. Pulmonary emboli were demonstrated as hot spots on serial positron images. In patients with interstitial fibrosis, the alveolar transfer rate was not different from that in normal subjects. However, blood flow was significantly lower than in the normals. In patients with pulmonary emphysema, the alveolar transfer rate was lower suggesting the decreased alveolar capillary beds. Thus, dynamic study using C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ and /sup 11/CO inhalation provides regional blood flow and diffusion, which may permit the differentiation of various pulmonary disorders.

  15. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a 12C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u‑1. Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  16. Cross section measurement of 14N(p ,γ )15O in the CNO cycle

    Li, Q.; Görres, J.; deBoer, R. J.; Imbriani, G.; Best, A.; Kontos, A.; LeBlanc, P. J.; Uberseder, E.; Wiescher, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: The CNO cycle is the main energy source in stars more massive than our sun; it defines the energy production and the cycle time that lead to the lifetime of massive stars, and it is an important tool for the determination of the age of globular clusters. In our sun about 1.6% of the total solar neutrino flux comes from the CNO cycle. The largest uncertainty in the prediction of this CNO flux from the standard solar model comes from the uncertainty in the 14N(p ,γ )15O reaction rate; thus, the determination of the cross section at astrophysical temperatures is of great interest. Purpose: The total cross section of the 14N(p ,γ )15O reaction has large contributions from the transitions to the Ex=6.79 MeV excited state and the ground state of 15O. The Ex=6.79 MeV transition is dominated by radiative direct capture, while the ground state is a complex mixture of direct and resonance capture components and the interferences between them. Recent studies have concentrated on cross-section measurements at very low energies, but broad resonances at higher energy may also play a role. A single measurement has been made that covers a broad higher-energy range but it has large uncertainties stemming from uncorrected summing effects. Furthermore, the extrapolations of the cross section vary significantly depending on the data sets considered. Thus, new direct measurements have been made to improve the previous high-energy studies and to better constrain the extrapolation. Methods: Measurements were performed at the low-energy accelerator facilities of the nuclear science laboratory at the University of Notre Dame. The cross section was measured over the proton energy range from Ep=0.7 to 3.6 MeV for both the ground state and the Ex=6.79 MeV transitions at θlab=0∘ , 45∘, 90∘, 135∘, and 150∘. Both TiN and implanted-14N targets were utilized. γ rays were detected by using an array of high-purity germanium detectors. Results: The excitation function as

  17. Solidification method and device for radioactive wastes

    As factors for degrading the integrity of radioactive waste solidification products include degradation of a cement solidification product of radioactive liquid wastes mainly comprising sodium sulfate and degradation of materials of solidification products by the formation of ettringite. In the present invention, large ions such as iodic acid ions, perrhenium acid ions, periodic acid ions are added, in the form of their salts, into the solidification products and mixed with sulfuric acid ions and nitric acid ions which combine with Ca and Al in the solidification material to form an ettringite. Formation of highly expandable ettringite-type compounds, among calcium aluminate-type compounds, is suppressed, and less expandable monosulfate-type compounds are formed. This can suppress the formation of the highly expandable ettringite-type compounds, as well as prevent leaching of anions including those of radioactive nuclides to the outside of the solidification product. (T.M.)

  18. The removal of the pertechnetate ion and actinides from radioactive waste streams at Hanford, Washington, USA and Sellafield, Cumbria, UK: the role of ron-sulfide-containing adsorbent materials

    In previous work the adsorption of a number of radioactive ions from solution by a strongly-magnetic iron sulfide material has been studied. The material was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a novel bioreactor. The uptake is rapid and the loading on the adsorbent is high due to the high surface area of the adsorbent and because many of the ions are chemisorbed. The structural properties have been examined using high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetisation versus field and temperature, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and neutron diffraction have been reported previously. The surface area is of the order of 400-500 m2 g-1, as determined by the adsorption of heavy metals, the magnetic properties, neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Following the success of the biologically-generated material, Lidzey at Bio Separation Ltd. was able to produce an iron sulfide material with the tochilinite structure which has similar adsorption properties for cations, but not anions, as the biologically-generated material but the Lidzey material is considerably cheaper to produce. One of the radionuclides of particular interest is the pertechnetate ion TcO4-. 99Tc is a radionuclide determining the long-term environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle because of its long half-life and because it occurs normally in the form of the highly soluble pertechnetate ion which can enter the food chain. This paper examines methods by which adsorbent materials containing iron sulfide can play a part in the extraction and the safe long-term storage of many radionuclides and in particular the pertechnetate ion occuring at the Hanford Plant, Washington, USA and the Sellafield Plant, Cumbria, UK

  19. Preparation and testing of poly(4-vinylpyridine-DVB) based anion exchangers with enhanced selectivity for 99TcO4- ions present in radioactive effluents

    Three strong-base anion exchange resins were prepared by quaternization of poly(4-vinylpyridine-DVB) with different alkyl (-CH3, -C2H5, and -n-C4H9) halides. The base polymer in granular form was also synthesized in the laboratory. All three anion exchangers, base polymer and a conventional strong-base anion exchanger were characterized for moisture content, ion exchange capacity and batch uptake of 99TcO4- ions from acidic, neutral, and alkaline test solutions, each containing 1.0 M competing NO3- ions and 99mTcO4- radiotracer. Amongst the synthesized resins, the resin with bulky n-butyl group on the pyridine nitrogen showed higher affinity for 99TcO4- ions. (author)

  20. Effect of composition, sonication and pressure on the rate capability of 5 V-LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 composite cathodes

    Highlights: • LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-cathodes with high weight, up to 17 mg/cm2, are processed for Li-batteries. • Small amount of Teflon and sonication lead to uniform and well-adhered electrodes. • Compaction of the electrode/current collector assemblies enhances the rate capability. • At 5C rate, capacity retentions between 80% and 90% are found for high weight electrodes. -- Abstract: Positive composite electrodes having LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel as active material, a blend of graphite and carbon black for increasing the electrode electrical conductivity and either polyvinyldenefluoride (PVDF) or a blend of PVDF with a small amount of Teflon® (1 wt%) for building up the electrode. They have been processed by tape casting on an aluminum foil as current collector using the doctor blade technique. Additionally, the component blends were either sonicated or not, and the processed electrodes were compacted or not under subsequent cold pressing. Composites electrodes with high weight, up to 17 mg/cm2, were prepared and studied as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The addition of Teflon® and the application of the sonication treatment lead to uniform electrodes that are well-adhered to the aluminum foil. Both parameters contribute to improve the capacity drained at high rates (5C). Additional compaction of the electrode/aluminum assemblies remarkably enhances the electrode rate capabilities. At 5C rate, remarkable capacity retentions between 80% and 90% are found for electrodes with weights in the range 3–17 mg/cm2, having Teflon® in their formulation, prepared after sonication of their component blends and compacted under 2 tonnes/cm2

  1. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H sub 2 (15)O PET

    Herzog, H.; Lamprecht, A.; Kuehn, A.R.; Roden, W.; Vosteen, K.H.; Feinendegen, L.E. (Institute of Medicine, Juelich, (West Germany))

    1991-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 15}O-labeled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H{sub 2}{sup 15}O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients.

  2. Assessment of endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve using {sup 15}O-water PET without attenuation correction

    Tuffier, Stephane; Joubert, Michael; Bailliez, Alban [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Legallois, Damien [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Caen (France); Belin, Annette [Caen University Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Caen (France); Redonnet, Michel [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Rouen (France); Agostini, Denis [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Manrique, Alain [EA 4650, Normandie Universite, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Cyceron PET Centre, Caen (France)

    2016-02-15

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurement using positron emission tomography (PET) from the washout rate of {sup 15}O-water is theoretically independent of tissue attenuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of not using attenuation correction in the assessment of coronary endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) using {sup 15}O-water PET. We retrospectively processed 70 consecutive {sup 15}O-water PET examinations obtained at rest and during cold pressor testing (CPT) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 58), or at rest and during adenosine infusion in heart transplant recipients (n = 12). Data were reconstructed with attenuation correction (AC) and without attenuation correction (NAC) using filtered backprojection, and MBF was quantified using a single compartmental model. The agreement between AC and NAC data was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient followed by Bland-Altman plot analysis. Regarding endothelial function, NAC PET showed poor reproducibility and poor agreement with AC PET data. Conversely, NAC PET demonstrated high reproducibility and a strong agreement with AC PET for the assessment of MFR. Non-attenuation-corrected {sup 15}O-water PET provided an accurate measurement of MFR compared to attenuation-corrected PET. However, non-attenuation-corrected PET data were less effective for the assessment of endothelial function using CPT in this population. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve using 15O-water PET without attenuation correction

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurement using positron emission tomography (PET) from the washout rate of 15O-water is theoretically independent of tissue attenuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of not using attenuation correction in the assessment of coronary endothelial function and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) using 15O-water PET. We retrospectively processed 70 consecutive 15O-water PET examinations obtained at rest and during cold pressor testing (CPT) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 58), or at rest and during adenosine infusion in heart transplant recipients (n = 12). Data were reconstructed with attenuation correction (AC) and without attenuation correction (NAC) using filtered backprojection, and MBF was quantified using a single compartmental model. The agreement between AC and NAC data was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient followed by Bland-Altman plot analysis. Regarding endothelial function, NAC PET showed poor reproducibility and poor agreement with AC PET data. Conversely, NAC PET demonstrated high reproducibility and a strong agreement with AC PET for the assessment of MFR. Non-attenuation-corrected 15O-water PET provided an accurate measurement of MFR compared to attenuation-corrected PET. However, non-attenuation-corrected PET data were less effective for the assessment of endothelial function using CPT in this population. (orig.)

  4. Structural and functional characterization of TRI3 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Alexander, Nancy J.; Rayment, Ivan; (US-Agriculture); (UW)

    2009-08-14

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichothecene skeleton but differ in their substitutions. Indeed, there is considerable variation in the toxin profile across the numerous Fusarium species that has been ascribed to differences in the presence or absence of biosynthetic enzymes and their relative activity. This article addresses the source of differences in acetylation at the C15 position of the trichothecene molecule. Here, we present the in vitro structural and biochemical characterization of TRI3, a 15-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase isolated from F. sporotrichioides and the 'in vivo' characterization of Deltatri3 mutants of deoxynivalenol (DON) producing F. graminearum strains. A kinetic analysis shows that TRI3 is an efficient enzyme with the native substrate, 15-decalonectrin, but is inactive with either DON or nivalenol. The structure of TRI3 complexed with 15-decalonectrin provides an explanation for this specificity and shows that Tri3 and Tri101 (3-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase) are evolutionarily related. The active site residues are conserved across all sequences for TRI3 orthologs, suggesting that differences in acetylation at C15 are not due to differences in Tri3. The tri3 deletion mutant shows that acetylation at C15 is required for DON biosynthesis even though DON lacks a C15 acetyl group. The enzyme(s) responsible for deacetylation at the 15 position of the trichothecene mycotoxins have not been identified.

  5. Using a lithium difluoro(sulfato)borate additive to improve electrochemical performance of electrolyte based on lithium bis(oxalate)borate for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li cells

    Highlights: • A novel salt of LiBSO4F2 is used as an functional electrolyte additive. • Electrolyte with LiBSO4F2 has high stability against oxidation decomposition (∼5.6 V). • LiBSO4F2 additive could decrease the interfacial impedance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li cells. • LiBSO4F2 additive could improve electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li cells. - Abstract: To seek a promising candidate for 5 V electrolytes, fluorine-free lithium bis(oxalato) borat (LiBOB) is chosen as the lithium salt, and lithium difluoro(sulfato) borate (LiBSO4F2) is investigated as an additive for the stabilization of a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. Cyclic voltammetry test, AC impedance measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis are used to examine the electrochemical stability and the compatibility between electrolytes and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. It is found that the addition of 0.1 M LiBF2SO4 to 0.7 M LiBOB-based electrolyte could significantly decrease the interfacial impedance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li cells, due to the fact that LiBSO4F2 is involved in the formation of protective film on cathode surface, as well as the prior oxidation reactions of LiBOB. Moreover, LiBSO4F2 additive could obviously improve both of the capacity retention and the rate performance of lithium-ion cells. These results demonstrate that using blend salts can combine the advantages of LiBOB and LiBSO4F2 to maximize the electrochemical performances of lithium-ion cells

  6. A protocol for performing brain activation studies using 15O-water and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Full text: We are currently using 15O-water to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and thus regional brain function in response to visual, sensorimotor and cognitive tasks in normal volunteers. This paper outlines the protocol used to perform such brain activation studies in our department. All subjects are required to give informed consent before the study. Subjects are positioned in the PET scanner with a face mask to reduce head movement. Head tilt is set by alignment along the superior orbito-mid-meatal line. An intravenous line is placed in the arm for the infusion of 15O-water. Subjects perform simple tasks in response to visual, auditory or cognitive stimuli. During each task 370 MBq of 15O-water is infused as a slow bolus (360 mL/h for 50 s) to the patient via the 15O-water generator. PET scanning is undertaken in septa-retracted or 3-D mode and proceeds for two minutes after the infusion. A total of 12 scans (six activation and six baseline) are acquired for each subject, with eight minute delays between successive studies to allow for decay of the tracer from the preceding scan. The acquisition protocol consists of the following: (1) A rectilinear scan to ensure the brain volume is centred in the field of view. (2) A ten-minute transmission scan. (3) A three-minute test 3-D acquisition (150 MBq of 15O-water) to determine the time delay between the commencement of infusion and the arrival of the tracer in the brain. (4) Twelve three-frame dynamic acquisitions (one 30-second and two 60-second frames). A statistical parametric mapping (SPM) data analysis program is then used to identify areas of brain activation

  7. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive (90)Sr(2+) and (137)Cs(+) ions and oils.

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-01-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of (137)Cs(+) and (90)Sr(2+) on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr(2+) reaches 10(7) mL g(-1). The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies. PMID:26865116

  8. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive 90Sr2+ and 137Cs+ ions and oils

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-02-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr2+ reaches 107 mL g-1. The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies.

  9. Radioactive waste management

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  10. Radioactive waste

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  11. Radioactive alchemy

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  12. Radioactive alchemy

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  13. Development of a Monte Carlo code for the data analysis of the 18F(p,α)15O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Novae are astrophysical events (violent explosion) occurring in close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf and a main-sequence star or a star in a more advanced stage of evolution. They are called 'narrow systems' because the two components interact with each other: there is a process of mass exchange with resulting in the transfer of matter from the companion star to the white dwarf, leading to the formation of this last of the so-called accretion disk, rich mainly of hydrogen. Over time, more and more material accumulates until the pressure and the temperature reached are sufficient to trigger nuclear fusion reactions, rapidly converting a large part of the hydrogen into heavier elements. The products of 'hot hydrogen burning' are then placed in the interstellar medium as a result of violent explosions. Studies on the element abundances observed in these events can provide important information about the stages of evolution stellar. During the outbursts of novae some radioactive isotopes are synthesized: in particular, the decay of short-lived nuclei such as 13N and 18F with subsequent emission of gamma radiation energy below 511 keV. The gamma rays from products electron-positron annihilation of positrons emitted in the decay of 18F are the most abundant and the first observable as soon as the atmosphere of the nova starts to become transparent to gamma radiation. Hence the importance of the study of nuclear reactions that lead both to the formation and to the destruction of 18F. Among these, the 18F(p,α)15O reaction is one of the main channels of destruction. This reaction was then studied at energies of astrophysical interest. The experiment done at Riken, Japan, has as its objective the study of the 18F(p,α)15O reaction, using a beam of 18F produced at CRIB, to derive important information about the phenomenon of novae. In this paper we present the experimental technique and the Monte Carlo code developed to be used in the data

  14. Development of a Monte Carlo code for the data analysis of the {sup 18}F(p,α){sup 15}O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Caruso, A.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Rapisarda, G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, ML. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Crucillà, V. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M. [Universitá di Enna KORE, Enna, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Kubono, S. [Riken, Wako, Tokyo, Japan and Center for Nuclear Study, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y. [Center for Nuclear Study, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kato, S. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Komatsubara, T. [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Coc, A. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, Orsay (France); Hammache, F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3, Orsay (France); and others

    2015-02-24

    Novae are astrophysical events (violent explosion) occurring in close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf and a main-sequence star or a star in a more advanced stage of evolution. They are called 'narrow systems' because the two components interact with each other: there is a process of mass exchange with resulting in the transfer of matter from the companion star to the white dwarf, leading to the formation of this last of the so-called accretion disk, rich mainly of hydrogen. Over time, more and more material accumulates until the pressure and the temperature reached are sufficient to trigger nuclear fusion reactions, rapidly converting a large part of the hydrogen into heavier elements. The products of 'hot hydrogen burning' are then placed in the interstellar medium as a result of violent explosions. Studies on the element abundances observed in these events can provide important information about the stages of evolution stellar. During the outbursts of novae some radioactive isotopes are synthesized: in particular, the decay of short-lived nuclei such as {sup 13}N and {sup 18}F with subsequent emission of gamma radiation energy below 511 keV. The gamma rays from products electron-positron annihilation of positrons emitted in the decay of {sup 18}F are the most abundant and the first observable as soon as the atmosphere of the nova starts to become transparent to gamma radiation. Hence the importance of the study of nuclear reactions that lead both to the formation and to the destruction of {sup 18}F. Among these, the {sup 18}F(p,α){sup 15}O reaction is one of the main channels of destruction. This reaction was then studied at energies of astrophysical interest. The experiment done at Riken, Japan, has as its objective the study of the {sup 18}F(p,α){sup 15}O reaction, using a beam of {sup 18}F produced at CRIB, to derive important information about the phenomenon of novae. In this paper we present the experimental technique and the

  15. Chemical decontamination of radioactive waste

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. There is also a variety of alternatives for treatment and conditioning of the wastes prior disposal. The importance of treatment of radioactive waste for protection of human and environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has gained in this field. Generally, the methods used for treatment of radioactive wastes can be classified into three type's biological, physical and chemical treatment this physical treatment it gives good result than biological treatment. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. In chemical treatment there are different procedures, solvent extraction, ion exchange, electro dialysis but solvent extraction is best one because high purity can be optioned on the other hand the disadvantage that it is expensive. Beside the solvent extraction technique one can be used is ion exchange which gives reasonable result, but requires pretreatment that to avoid in closing of column by colloidal and large species. Electro dialysis technique gives quite result but less than solvent extraction and ion exchange technique the advantage is a cheep.(Author)

  16. Structural and electrochemical characteristics of morphology-controlled Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4 cathodes

    Highlights: • Two types of spinel Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4 (LNMO) were prepared by a facile two-step approach. • Both the LNMO structure and morphology were easily controlled to nanorods and octahedral shape along with ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd-3 m) phases, respectively. • Overall battery performances of the octahedral LNMO particles are superior to those of the LNMO nanorods. • The octahedral LNMO consisting of mixed particle sizes exhibits the best battery performances with high cycle stability and excellent high-rate capability. - Abstract: Two types of structure- and morphology-controlled spinel Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4 (LNMO) are prepared and systematically investigated as 5 V, high-rate, and long-life cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. The octahedral LNMO particles (1 μm or 1–5 μm mixed sizes) are prepared through a heat-treatment at 850 °C after a hydrothermal reaction, and their performance is compared with that of one-dimensional LNMO nanorods (100–200 nm and 1–3 μm in diameter and length, respectively), which are synthesized via a two-step method consisting of a hydrothermal reaction followed by solid-state Li and Ni implantation. They show high single crystallinities with an ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd-3 m) phase for the nanorods and octahedral particles, respectively. Rietveld refinement of X-ray and neutron diffraction, FT-IR, SEM, and TEM are employed to study their phases and microstructures. Galvanostatic studies reveal that overall battery performances of the octahedral LNMO particles are superior to those of the LNMO nanorods. In particular, the disordered octahedral LNMO particles that are composed of mixed particle sizes ranging from of 1 to 5 μm show not only the best rate capability and specific discharge capacity but also an excellent cycle stability with a capacity retention of 89% (corresponding to specific discharge capacity of 105 mA h g−1) at a 10 C cycling rate, even after 1000 cycles. This

  17. Microwave property improvement of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ perovskite by A-site substitution

    Hu, Mingzhe; Xiong, Gang; Ding, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    The crystal structure and microwave dielectric properties of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramic (CLNZ) are tuned by A-site substitution of Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions in the present paper. The tuning effect on the crystal structure is investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and it illustrates that single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure is formed, however, minor amount of BaNb2O6-type second phase is also detected in (Ca1‑xBax)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CBLNZ) in the range of x ≥ 0.025, while pure perovskite phase is obtained in (Ca1‑xSrx)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CSLNZ) in the whole investigation range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. With the increase of x value, the unit cell volumes of both CBLNZ and CSLNZ perovskites gradually expand, which results in the degradation of the vibration bond strength between the B-site ions and oxygen in the perovskites. The microscopic structure related thermal parameters in CSLNZ and CBLNZ perovskites are analyzed in terms of Clausius-Mossotti equation to reveal the original contributors in the temperature coefficients. The results show that both Sr2+ and Ba2+ substitution can effectively improve the permittivity and Qf value, especially, improve the temperature coefficient of CLNZ ceramic in a certain range.

  18. A system for continuous production and infusion of [15O]H2O for PET activation studies

    A system for continuous production and infusion of [15O]H2O has been designed for Positron Emission Tomography brain activation studies. The infusion system consists of two Horizon Nxt infusion pumps, a four-port-two-position valve and a sterile 50 ml vial. The line and the back check valve between the furnace and the reservoir were heated in order to reduce vapor condensation in the line. The variation of the production of [15O]H2O was <1%. The activity delivered as measured by scanner counts varied <2% during the steady state period. The system has been demonstrated to be capable of delivering activity over a wide range of conditions

  19. Brain perfusion CT compared with 15O-H2O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with 15O-labelled water (15O-H2O). On the same day within a few hours, rCBF was measured in ten adult patients with treatment-naive primary brain tumours, twice using 15O-H2O PET and once with PCT performed over the central part of the tumour. Matching rCBF values in tumour and contralateral healthy regions of interest were compared. PCT overestimated intratumoural blood flow in all patients with volume-weighted mean rCBF values of 28.2 ± 18.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for PET and 78.9 ± 41.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for PCT. There was a significant method by tumour grade interaction with a significant tumour grade rCBF difference for PCT of 32.9 ± 15.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for low-grade (WHO I + II) and 81.5 ± 15.4 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for high-grade (WHO III + IV) tumours, but not for PET. The rCBF PCT and PET correlation was only significant within tumours in two patients. Although intratumoural blood flow measured by PCT may add valuable information on tumour grade, the method cannot substitute quantitative measurements of blood flow by PET and 15O-H2O PET in brain tumours. (orig.)

  20. Lifetime measurement of the 6.79 MeV state in {sup 15}O with the AGATA demonstrator

    Depalo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Ur, C. A.; Bazzacco, D.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Erhard, M.; Farnea, E.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Keeley, N.; Lunardi, S.; Marta, M.; Mengoni, D.; Mijatovic, T.; Recchia, F.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Szuecs, T. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-11-20

    The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction is the slowest process of the CN cycle, and thus it is of high astrophysical interest since it regulates the total rate of energy and neutrinos production through the cycle. The {sup 14}N+p ground state capture is strongly influenced by a sub-threshold resonance corresponding to the 6.79 MeV state in {sup 15}O. The width of this resonance is a major source of uncertainty in the extrapolation of the reaction cross section in the Gamow energy window. Preliminary results of a new Doppler Shift Attenuation measurement of the lifetime of the 6.79 MeV state in {sup 15}O are discussed. The level of interest was populated via the {sup 2}H({sup 14}N,n){sup 15}O reaction in inverse kinematics at 32 MeV beam energy. The gamma-rays emitted in the decay of the 6.79 MeV level to the ground state were detected with the AGATA Demonstrator array of high-purity germanium detectors. The sensitivity of the shape of the peak in the gamma-ray energy spectrum to the level lifetime is investigated comparing the experimental peaks with detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the reaction mechanisms and the gamma-ray emission and detection. Nuclear levels in {sup 15}N (also populated in the {sup 14}N+{sup 2}H reaction) for which the lifetimes are known in the literature provided a test of the analysis technique.

  1. Cyclotron production of molecules labelled with short-lived radioisotopes β+ emitters (15O, 13N, 11C) and their clinical uses

    Clinical use of three short-lived radioisotopes: 15O, 13N and 11C is studied on two complementary aspects. A production and purification system is realized; detection instruments in medical use are studied. The production of labelled molecules with the three radiotracers 15O, 13N, 11C from the target bombardment with charged and accelerated particles was studied

  2. Lifetime measurement of the 6.79 MeV state in {sup 15}O with the AGATA demonstrator

    Michelagnoli, C.; Depalo, R.; Ur, C. A.; Menegazzo, R.; Broggini, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Caciolli, A.; Farnea, E.; Lunardi, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Keeley, N.; Erhard, M.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Marta, M.; Mengoni, D.; Mijatovic, T.; Recchia, F.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Szuecs, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universita di Padova (Italy) and INFN Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universita di Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-11-12

    The preliminary results of a new direct measurement of the lifetime of the first excited 3/2{sup +} state in {sup 15}O are discussed. An accurate evaluation of this lifetime is of paramount importance for the determination of the cross section of the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction, the slowest one in the CNO cycle, at the energies of the solar Gamow peak. The {sup 2}H({sup 14}N,{sup 15}O)n reaction in inverse kinematics at 32MeV beam energy (XTU Tandem, LNL) was used to populate the level of interest, which decays via a 6.79 MeV E1 gamma-ray transition to the ground state. Gamma rays were detected with 4 triple clusters of HPGe detectors of the AGATA Demonstrator array. The energy resolution and position sensitivity of this state-of-the-art gamma-ray spectrometer have been exploited to investigate the Doppler Shift Attenuation effect on the lineshape of the gamma-ray peak in the energy spectrum. The deconvolution of the lifetime effects from those due to the kinematics of the emitting nuclei has been performed using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the gamma emission and detection. CDCC-CRC calculations for the nucleon transfer process have been used for this purpose and preliminary results are shown.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by one-step precipitation method with ammonium carbonate as precipitating agent

    Highlights: → Ammonium carbonate is used as the precipitating agent of synthesizing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 for the first time. → All the metal ions precipitated in one time, no washing process is needed. → Effect of concentration and hydrothermal on the materials are concerned. → The obtained material shows regular quasi-spherical. → The synthesized materials behave excellent electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 materials are synthesized by one-step precipitation method. Ammonium carbonate is used as the precipitating agent to obtain a more precise feed ratio without recourse to traditional washing. After annealing at high temperature, the spherical particles become angular and show high levels of crystallinity. The synthesized samples are evaluated using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical testing. The samples synthesized with different metal ion concentrations yield different morphologies and rate performances. The sample synthesized with 0.2 mol L-1 gives the most uniform particle distribution and the best electrochemical performance. The specific discharge capacity values of the sample at 10 and 15 C are as high as 109.5 and 88.7 mAh g-1, respectively. After the high-rate cycling, its discharge capacity at 0.2 C can be reverted to 97.67% of its initial capacity.

  4. Radioactive wastes

    Here are gathered 1)the decrees (99-686 and 99-687) of the 3 rd of August 1999 relative to the researches on radioactive waste management. A local committee of information and follow-up has to be established on the site of each underground facility. The composition of this committee is determined here (99-686). 3 people will from now on be jointly ordered by the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry and by the Secretary of State of Industry to conduct a preliminary dialogue for the choice of one or several sites on which previous works should be made before the construction of an underground facility (99-687). They take the opinion of the people's representatives, the associations and the concerned population and inform the Ministers of Environment, Energy and Research of the collected information. 2)the decree of the 3 rd of August 1999 authorizing the 'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs' (ANDRA) to install and exploit an underground facility located in Bure (Meuse) and intended to study the deep geological deposits where could be stored radioactive wastes. (O.M.)

  5. Exploiting chemically and electrochemically reactive phosphite derivatives for high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes

    Song, Young-Min; Kim, Choon-Ki; Kim, Ko-Eun; Hong, Sung You; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2016-01-01

    A family of organophosphorus compounds including triphenyl phosphite (TPP), trimethyl phosphite (TMP), tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TFEP), and tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite (TMSP) is investigated as additives for the stabilization of high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode-electrolyte interface. Our investigation reveals that the cycling performance of Li/LNMO half cells with the TMP, TFEP or TMSP additive is drastically improved at 60 °C compared to the baseline electrolyte. Among the various phosphite-based additives tested, TMSP additive enables facile Li ion transport at high C rates and significantly enhances the storage performance of the Li/LNMO cells at 60 °C. To understand the effects of the phosphite-based additives on electrolyte oxidative decomposition at high voltages, the surface chemistry of the cathode after precycling is investigated via ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, the roles of phosphite-based additives to suppress LiPF6 hydrolysis and to remove HF are examined via 19F and 31P NMR spectroscopies.

  6. Citric acid aided synthesis, characterization, and high-rate electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    The citric acid aided synthesis, physico-chemical and electrochemical characterization of the nanosized nickel-doped lithium manganese spinel, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 having excellent high-rate properties is described. An optimal electrode material represented by perfectly shaped, well-faceted particles of 100-400 nm size containing crystallites of the 15-22 nm size could be obtained upon the thermal treatment at 700 °C. In spite of a reduced specific capacity (102 mAh·g−1) it is able to retain a half of it upon the discharge current of 4400 mA·g−1 (30 C) and to endure the current load of 5870 mAh·g−1 (40 C) delivering the reversible specific capacity of 25 mAh·g−1. It is suggested that the reduced specific capacity is determined primarily by the aggregation of material's particles, whereas the good high-rate capability is governed not only by the size of crystallites but also by the perfectness of crystals, and imperfections in big, well-shaped crystals (like dislocations, grain boundaries, etc.) less retard the diffusion of lithium ions than particle boundaries in small, randomly oriented, accreted crystals

  7. Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate and LiBF4 blend salts electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material

    Zhou, Hongming; Xiao, Kaiwen; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) and LiBF4 blend salts in ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate + ethyl(methyl) carbonate (EC + DMC + EMC, 1:1:1, by wt.) have been investigated for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in lithium-ion batteries. The electric conductivity tests are utilized to examine the relationship among solution conductivity, the electrolyte composition and temperature. Through cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge test and AC impedance measurements, we compare the capacity and cycling efficiency of LNMO cathode in different electrolyte systems at different temperatures and discharge current rates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are served to analyze the surface nature of LNMO cathode after cycles at elevated temperature. These results demonstrate that LNMO cathode can exert excellent electrochemical performance with the increase of LiODFB concentration at room temperature and elevated temperature and it is found that just slight LiBF4, mixed with LiODFB as blend salts, can strikingly improve the cyclability at -20 °C, especially in high-rate cycling. Grouped together, the optimum LiODFB/LiBF4 molar ratio is around 4:1, which can present an excellent affinity to LNMO cathode in a wide electrochemical window.

  8. Quantification of myocardial blood flow with {sup 82}Rb positron emission tomography: clinical validation with {sup 15}O-water

    Prior, John O.; Allenbach, Gilles; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Valenta, Ines; Burger, Cyrill [Cardiac Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kosinski, Marek [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lausanne (Switzerland); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, University Institute for Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Verdun, Francis R. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, University Institute for Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [Cardiac Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Centre for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) with generator-produced {sup 82}Rb is an attractive alternative for centres without an on-site cyclotron. Our aim was to validate {sup 82}Rb-measured MBF in relation to that measured using {sup 15}O-water, as a tracer 100% of which can be extracted from the circulation even at high flow rates, in healthy control subject and patients with mild coronary artery disease (CAD). MBF was measured at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia with {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water PET in 33 participants (22 control subjects, aged 30 {+-} 13 years; 11 CAD patients without transmural infarction, aged 60 {+-} 13 years). A one-tissue compartment {sup 82}Rb model with ventricular spillover correction was used. The {sup 82}Rb flow-dependent extraction rate was derived from {sup 15}O-water measurements in a subset of 11 control subjects. Myocardial flow reserve (MFR) was defined as the hyperaemic/rest MBF. Pearson's correlation r, Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LoA), and Lin's concordance correlation {rho} {sub c} (measuring both precision and accuracy) were used. Over the entire MBF range (0.66-4.7 ml/min/g), concordance was excellent for MBF (r = 0.90, [{sup 82}Rb-{sup 15}O-water] mean difference {+-} SD = 0.04 {+-} 0.66 ml/min/g, LoA = -1.26 to 1.33 ml/min/g, {rho} {sub c} = 0.88) and MFR (range 1.79-5.81, r = 0.83, mean difference = 0.14 {+-} 0.58, LoA = -0.99 to 1.28, {rho} {sub c} = 0.82). Hyperaemic MBF was reduced in CAD patients compared with the subset of 11 control subjects (2.53 {+-} 0.74 vs. 3.62 {+-} 0.68 ml/min/g, p = 0.002, for {sup 15}O-water; 2.53 {+-} 1.01 vs. 3.82 {+-} 1.21 ml/min/g, p = 0.013, for {sup 82}Rb) and this was paralleled by a lower MFR (2.65 {+-} 0.62 vs. 3.79 {+-} 0.98, p = 0.004, for {sup 15}O-water; 2.85 {+-} 0.91 vs. 3.88 {+-} 0.91, p = 0.012, for {sup 82}Rb). Myocardial perfusion was homogeneous in 1,114 of 1,122 segments (99.3%) and there were no differences in MBF among the

  9. Radiation dose to the respiratory airway linings from inhalation of [/sup 15/O]-carbon dioxide

    Estimates of the radiation dose to the upper airways including the trachea, oropharnyx, and nasal linings from inhalation of oxygen-15 labeled CO/sub 2/ studies are provided. Three air administration procedures were examined; inhalation by nose, by mouth and by mouth through a mouthpiece. Attention is given to the inhaled radioactive gas absorbed and retained in the mucus and saliva layers lining the respiratory passages. The authors estimates from direct measurements in saliva and mucus of the highest total radiation dose is to the oropharnyx (5.2 rads, mouth; 2.8 rads, nose). The dose to the trachea was estimated to be 3.5 rads from mucus measurements from dogs. The comparative dose to lungs is 1.2 rads (Bigler and Sgouros, JNM 24:431, 1983). These doses are for steady-state measurements involving the breathing of 1 mCi/1-air for 1 hr. Single breath estimates can be obtained by dividing by the number of breaths per hr (720). Although this procedure leads to a 10% reduction in the radiation dose to the lung, the radiation dose to the lining of the vein infused is high, ranging from 70 to 430 rads for equal activity administered. The authors recommend considering the lung as the tissue at highest risk for both inhalation and IV administration procedures

  10. Radiation dose to the respiratory airway linings from inhalation of (/sup 15/O)-carbon dioxide

    Bigler, R.E.; Sgouros, G.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Cosma, M.; Leonard, R.W.; Dahl, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Estimates of the radiation dose to the upper airways including the trachea, oropharnyx, and nasal linings from inhalation of oxygen-15 labeled CO/sub 2/ studies are provided. Three air administration procedures were examined; inhalation by nose, by mouth and by mouth through a mouthpiece. Attention is given to the inhaled radioactive gas absorbed and retained in the mucus and saliva layers lining the respiratory passages. The authors estimates from direct measurements in saliva and mucus of the highest total radiation dose is to the oropharnyx (5.2 rads, mouth; 2.8 rads, nose). The dose to the trachea was estimated to be 3.5 rads from mucus measurements from dogs. The comparative dose to lungs is 1.2 rads (Bigler and Sgouros, JNM 24:431, 1983). These doses are for steady-state measurements involving the breathing of 1 mCi/1-air for 1 hr. Single breath estimates can be obtained by dividing by the number of breaths per hr (720). Although this procedure leads to a 10% reduction in the radiation dose to the lung, the radiation dose to the lining of the vein infused is high, ranging from 70 to 430 rads for equal activity administered. The authors recommend considering the lung as the tissue at highest risk for both inhalation and IV administration procedures.

  11. Design of medium energy beam transport line between the RFQ and the Linac in the radioactive ion beam facility at VECC, Kolkata

    S Dechoudhury; Vaishali Naik; Manas Mondal; Hemendra Kumar Pandey; Avik Chatterjee; Dirtha Sanyal; Debasis Bhowmick; Alok Chakrabarti

    2010-09-01

    The design of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line comprising of a re-buncher and four quadrupoles, two upstream and the other two downstream of the re-buncher, has been presented. The design was done to ensure almost 100% transport of heavy-ion beams of about 99 keV/u energy from RFQ having a / not less than 1/14 through the re-buncher and then through IH Linac of about 0.6 m length in which beam would be accelerated to about 185 keV/u. The re-buncher has been designed to operate at 37.8 MHz, the resonating frequency of both the RFQ and the IH Linac. The entire beam line has been installed and recently O5+ beam from RFQ has been transported through the re-buncher and subsequently accelerated in the IH Linac successfully.

  12. Environmental radioactivity

    The evaluation of more than 50 official points of measurement for the control of environmental radioactivity in the German Federal Republic showed a marked decrease of activity concentration in the surveyed fields of precipitation, air, water, milk, and humans as compared to 1972. This decrease can be attributed to the stop of above-ground nuclear weapons tests effected in 1963. In 1973, a survey of the environment of nuclear power stations again did not show any significant difference between these regions and others. The mean genetic radiation exposure in the year 1973 is given in a chart. Selected data from different places of measurement give mean values and annual balances of the radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr for men, women, and children, as well as for cistern water, milk, and hospital food. Finally, a balance of the import and export of radionuclides in 1973 is given. (ORU/AK)

  13. Radioactive colloids

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  14. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  15. Radioactive liquid waste processing method

    Radioactive liquid wastes containing radioactive materials and sodium compounds are dried into a dried material, and then, the dried material is heated to form molten salts, which is used as a anolyte. Electrolysis is conducted having a sodium ion conductive β-alumina as a diaphragm. When a molten material containing sodium hydroxide is used as a catholyte, electrolysis is conducted while supplying steams or steams and oxygen to the catholyte. Extremely low radioactive and highly pure (solid) metal sodium or sodium hydroxide can be formed on the side of the cathode by the electrolysis. The radioactive materials are gradually concentrated on the side of the anode along with the progress of the electrolysis. After the lapse of a predetermined time, the concentrated radioactive materials on the side of the anode is taken out from the device and treated into a harmless form by an optional means such as confinement with cement or the like. With such procedures, highly purified metal sodium or sodium hydroxide can be recovered at a high electric efficiency. (T.M.)

  16. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 2. in-vivo dosimetry using positron emitting rare earth isotopes with the rotating prototype PET scanner at the Geneva Cantonal Hospital

    2002-01-01

    % IS331 \\\\ \\\\ The use of radioactive metal ions (such as $^{90}$Y, $^{153}$Sm or $^{186}$Re) in cancer therapy has made some progress, but has been hampered by factors that could be addressed at CERN with a greater likelihood of success than at any other installation in the world. The present proposal seeks to use the unique advantage of CERN ISOLDE to get round these problems together with the PET scanners at the Cantonal Hospital Geneva (PET~=~positron emission tomography). Radioisotope production by spallation at ISOLDE makes available a complete range of isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. Among these isotopes several positron-emitters having clinical relevance are available.\\\\ \\\\Some free rare earth chelatas are used presently in palliation of painful bone metastases. Curative effects are not able for the moment with this kind of radiopharmaceuticals. More and better data on the biokinetics and bio-distribution...

  17. Study of proton radioactivities

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  18. Study of leaching mechanisms of ions incorporated in cement or polymer Task 3 Characterization of radioactive waste forms A series of final reports (1985-89) No. 2

    The leaching kinetics of inactive Cs from cylindrical cement specimens containing Cs2SO4 was studied at different temperatures and thicknesses. In all cases the √t plots were reasonably linear, at least initially, in accordance with Fick's law, and the diffusion coefficients were estimated. Leaching of specimens containing Sr-90 and NaNO3 was performed under exposure to atmospheric CO2. Low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry measurements of hydrated cement were undertaken to obtain information about the melting behaviour, and hence the state, of water within the cement. Mercury porosimetry was also carried out using representative cement specimens which had been subjected to leaching. The sorption of Cs ion from aqueous solution by cement was studied by equilibrating cement granules with aqueous Cs2SO4 solutions. Cellulose films containing CaSO4 or SrSO4 were leach tested in frequently renewed water at 250C. The elution curves follow a √t law in conformity with the Higuchi equation. Elution tests of NaCl or SrSO4 embedded in epoxy resin were performed. The SrSO4 elution behaviour was generally similar to that exhibited by cellulose. Theoretical work involved the formulation of a new, sophisticated model capable of describing the elution of a soluble salt, with simultaneous imbition of water by the matrix. Computations more specifically representative of the cellulose acetate-NaCl system, showed that the model can interpret at least semiquantitatively the observed elution behaviour

  19. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [15O]H2O PET

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [15O]H2O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8±1.1 yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0±2.5 yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6±2.5 pack years. Myocardial [15O]H2O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 deg. C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [15O]H2O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43±0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37±0.41 ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25±0.33 vs. 1.59±0.29 ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90±24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122±28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81±1.99 vs. 5.03±1.27 ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [15O]H2O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  20. Radioactively labelled porphyrin derivatives

    Radioactive labelling of guanidine bearing tetraphenylporphyrin and Dy-texaphyrin with 166Ho and 90Y is described. UV-VIS absorption spectrometry was used to describe porphyrin and texaphyrin, including their behaviour over a wide pH range. This technique also provided preliminary information about the complexation of holmium and yttrium with porphyrin and texaphyrin. The labelling yield of the macrocyclic molecules depends on the pH of the reaction mixture, metal-to-ligand ratio and time of incubation. The optimum reaction conditions for the formation of radioactive complexes of porphyrin and texaphyrin were determined by thin layer chromatography combined with beta activity measurement. The ability of porphyrin derivatives to bind anions was also examined. Our experiments were focused on perrhenate ion (ReO4-) because radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 186Re and 188Re play an important role in the therapy of many tumorous diseases. The possibility of using the ReO4- anion directly for labeling without reduction to a lower oxidation state can simplify considerably the preparation of the radiotherapeutic pharmaceuticals. Neither UV-Vis spectrometry nor TLC gave evidence of any incorporation of the ReO4- anion into the porphyrin ring

  1. Radioactive decontamination

    It discusses radioactive decontamination from the practical point of view with aim of contributions to safety control of radioisotopes. As general knowledges, contamination forms are explained from physical states of solid materials' surfaces and classification of contaminative mechanism are conducted in each contamination form. Furthermore, the decontaminants selcted for each classified contaminative mechanism are indicated from pH-effect and concentration effect. Decontamination on laboratory, using wet method generally as a decontamination technic includes irrigation method by decontaminant solution and scrubbing method. Decontamination of machinery and tools includes scrubbing method and the methods using ultrasonic decontamination equipment and semiautomatic decontamination equipment of which flow-diagram is illustrated. The methods of decontamination of clothing include its disposal or the use of tightly-closed full automatic washing machine. The general irrigation method are indicated as decontamination of skin. Furthermore, neutral cleaning material method for elimination of short-term elapsed contamination and Titanium oxide paste method for elimination of long-term elapsed contamination are explained. (Kanao, N.)

  2. Radioactive Beams and Exploding Stars at ORNL

    Beams of radioactive nuclei from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are being used to make direct and indirect measurements of reactions important in novae, X-ray bursts, supernovae, and our Sun. Experimental results are used in nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations to determine their astrophysical impact. Recent accomplishments include: the first neutron transfer reaction [(d, p)] measurements on nuclei in the r-process path in supernovae; precision measurements with radioactive 18F beams for novae; and a direct 7Be(p,γ)8B measurement relevant for the solar neutrino flux determination

  3. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  4. Charge distributions and coagulation of radioactive aerosols

    The self-charging of radioactive aerosols will be reduced by background ions, such as those produced by radioactive gases. The sources of these background ions and their production rates are specified for a reactor containment atmosphere during a possible nuclear accident. Previous theory is extended to calculate the charging of a polydisperse radioactive aerosol. Gaussian approximations to charge distributions on an aerosol of a given size, and are shown to give a good representation of the exact numerical charge distributions of a Cs aerosol at normal temperatures, and also for highly radioactive aerosol containing 131I in a containment atmosphere. Extensive calculations are performed for charged-induced modifications to Brownian coagulation rates between steady-state size distribution of these radioactive aerosols, and also between small-sized radioactive aerosol and larger (non-radioactive) aerosol. The results show considerable enhancements of the coagulation rates between large and small-sized aerosol, but also a strong suppression of coagulation between large particles. Rate modifications calculated using the Gaussian approximations are generally close to the exact values. Time-dependent calculations for a monodisperse α-decaying aerosol reveal enhancements in coagulation rates even when the average charge on the aerosol is positive. Our results are relevant to behaviour in a dusty plasma. (author)

  5. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  6. Evaluation of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3D PET scanner in 15O-water brain activation studies

    We evaluated the performance of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3D whole body PET scanner when employed to measure brain function using 15O-water-bolus activation protocols in single data acquisition sessions. Using vibrotactile and auditory stimuli as independent activation tasks, we studied the scanner's performance under different imaging conditions in four healthy volunteers. Cerebral blood flow images were acquired from each volunteer using 15O-water-bolus injections of activity varying from 5 to 20mCi. Performance characteristics. The scanner's dead time grew linearly with injected dose from 10% to 25%. Random events varied from 30% to 50% of the detected events. Scattered events were efficiently corrected at all doses. Noise-effective-count curves plateau at about 15mCi. One-session 12-injection bolus PET activation protocol. Using an acquisition protocol that accounts for the scanner's performance and the practical aspects of imaging volunteers and patients in one session, we assessed the correlation between the statistical significance of activation foci and the dose per injection used The one-session protocol employs 12 bolus injections per subject. We present evidence suggesting that 15-20mCi is the optimal dose per injection to be used routinely in one-time scanning sessions

  7. Myocardial perfusion quantitation with 15O-labelled water PET: high reproducibility of the new cardiac analysis software (Carimas trademark)

    Carimas trademark (Cardiac Image Analysis System) is a new software package developed at the Turku PET Centre for the quantitation of PET studies of the heart with a broad range of tracers. The goal of this study was to assess the reproducibility of results the package provides for myocardial perfusion (MP) quantitation using 15O-labelled water. Four observers with various levels of experience in nuclear medicine independently analysed 20 MP studies (10 rest flow: ''rest'', 10 adenosine-induced hyperaemia: ''stress''). Each study was analysed twice. The linear mixed model for repeated measures was fitted to the data to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), differences between the repeats (the intraobserver differences) and differences between the observers (the interobserver differences). Also, Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were drawn. The reproducibility of MP was assessed on global, regional and segmental levels. Thereafter, this analysis was applied in 48 consecutive clinical patients with suspected coronary heart disease (CHD). For the experienced observer the Pearson r for all segments was 0.974 at rest and 0.978 at stress (p 15O-labelled water PET using Carimas trademark. The results support the feasibility of robust analysis and good clinical accuracy. (orig.)

  8. Production of 17F, 15O and other radioisotopes for PET using a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator

    Target systems for the production of positron emitting radioisotopes used for medical research with positron emission tomography (PET) are under development for a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator (NEC 9SDH-2). This machine is intended primarily for the continuous production of short lived tracers labeled with 15O (t1/2=122 s) or 17F (t1/2=65 s) for determining regional cerebral blood flow in humans. Simple gas, liquid, and solid target systems are presented for the production of [15O]H2O (yield at saturation 13 mCi/μA), [17F]F2 (22 mCi/μA), [17F] fluoride (aq.) (12 mCi/μA), [18F]fluoride (aq.) (21 mCi/μA), [13N] in graphite (25 mCi/μA), and [11C]CO2 (2.3 mCi/μA). Current limitations on single window targets for each production are discussed

  9. Study of some excited states in 21Ne-21Na, 18O-18F and 15N-15O nuclei

    The study of 21Ne-21Na, 18O-18F and 15N-15O nuclei was performed through proton capture and transfer reactions and allows to determine the spins and parities of some excited states, give the gamma deexcitation schemes of these levels, compute the neutron and proton reduced width γ2sub(n) and γ2sub(p). The levels studied are: in 21Na 4.1520Ne(p,p), (p,p'), (p,p'γ) and (pγ) reactions) and in 21Ne: E(exc)=4.73, 5.69 and 5.78 MeV (20Ne (p,p) reaction); in 18O: E(exc)17O(d,p) reaction); in 15O: 8.92 MeV doublet and 8.98 MeV level (angular correlation 14N(p,γγ) and in 15N: 9.0514N(d,p) reaction). A comparison with theoretical results is discussed and analog states are pointed out

  10. Fast enzymatic preparation of L-DOPA from tyrosine and molecular oxygen: a potential method for preparing [15O]L-DOPA

    A fast, simple and inexpensive enzymatic preparation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA) from molecular oxygen and tyrosine using mushroom tyrosinase is described. The theoretical incubation time for production of [15O]L-DOPA with maximal specific activity from [15O]O2 can be calculated to be about 3 min. In practice, using a specially-designed glass reaction chamber to facilitate the incorporation of gaseous molecular oxygen into L-DOPA with zero lag-time, a 3 min reaction with 1% oxygen in nitrogen results in the formation of approx. 3.9 μmol of L-DOPA, representing conversion of about 14% of the tyrosine substrate. Given access to a supply of [15O]O2, the method should be applicable to the preparation of [15O]L-DOPA for use as a PET tracer. (author)

  11. Transport of radioactive substances

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  12. Reclaiming the spent alkaline zinc manganese dioxide batteries collected from the manufacturers to prepare valuable electrolytic zinc and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 materials

    Highlights: • The spent Zn–Mn batteries collected from manufacturers is the target waste. • A facile reclaiming process is presented. • The zinc is reclaimed to valuable electrolytic zinc by electrodepositing method. • The manganese elements are to produce valuable LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 battery material. • The reclamation process features environmental friendliness and saving resource. - Abstract: A process for reclaiming the materials in spent alkaline zinc manganese dioxide (Zn–Mn) batteries collected from the manufacturers to prepare valuable electrolytic zinc and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 materials is presented. After dismantling battery cans, the iron cans, covers, electric rods, organic separator, label, sealing materials, and electrolyte are separated through the washing, magnetic separation, filtrating, and sieving operations. Then, the powder residues react with H2SO4 (2 mol L−1) solution to dissolve zinc under a liquid/solid ratio of 3:1 at room temperature, and subsequently, the electrolytic Zn with purity of ⩾99.8% is recovered in an electrolytic cell with a cathode efficiency of ⩾85% under the conditions of 37–40 °C and 300 A m−2. The most of MnO2 and a small quantity of electrolytic MnO2 are recovered from the filtration residue and the electrodeposit on the anode of electrolytic cell, respectively. The recovered manganese oxides are used to synthesize LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material of lithium-ion battery. The as-synthesized LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 discharges 118.3 mAh g−1 capacity and 4.7 V voltage plateau, which is comparable to the sample synthesized using commercial electrolytic MnO2. This process can recover the substances in the spent Zn–Mn batteries and innocuously treat the wastewaters, indicating that it is environmentally acceptable and applicable

  13. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radioactive, highly charged ions. Measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr nuclides for nuclear astrophysics and development of a novel Penning trap for cooling highly charged ions

    High-precision atomic mass measurements are vital for the description of nuclear structure, investigations of nuclear astrophysical processes, and tests of fundamental symmetries. The neutron-rich A ∼ 100 region presents challenges for modeling the astrophysical r-process because of sudden nuclear shape transitions. This thesis reports on high-precision masses of short-lived neutron-rich 94,97,98Rb and 94,97-99Sr isotopes using the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer at TRIUMF. The isotopes were charge-bred to q = 15+; uncertainties of less than 4 keV were achieved. Results deviate by up to 11σ compared to earlier measurements and extend the region of nuclear deformation observed in the A∼100 region. A parameterized r-process model network calculation shows that mass uncertainties for the elemental abundances in this region are now negligible. Although beneficial for the measurement precision, the charge breeding process leads to an increased energy spread of the ions on the order of tens of eV/q. To eliminate this drawback, a Cooler Penning Trap (CPET) has been developed as part of this thesis. The novel multi-electrode trap structure of CPET forms nested potentials to cool HCI sympathetically using either electrons or protons to increase the overall efficiency and precision of the mass measurement. The status of the off-line setup and initial commissioning experiments are presented.

  14. Enhancing the Multivariate Signal of 15O water PET Studies With a New Non-Linear Neuroanatomical Registration Algorithm

    Kjems, Ulrik; Storther, Stephen C.; Anderson, Jon;

    1999-01-01

    anatomical MR scans and applied to co-registered [15O] water PET scans from the same subjects; in this experiment a study of visually guided saccadic eye movements. The performance of the non-linear warp is evaluated using multivariate functional signal and noise measures. These measures prove to be useful...... field maximizing one of several voxel similarity measures derived from the two dimensional histogram of matched image intensities, subject to a regularizer that ensures smoothness of the displacement field. The effect of the non-line ar structural registration is studied when it is computed on...... for comparing different inter-subject registration approaches, e.g. affine versus non-linear. A comparison of 12-parameter affine registration versus non-linear registration demonstrates that the proposed non-linear method increases the number of voxels retained in the cross-subject mask. We...

  15. The {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O reaction studied at low and high beam energy

    Marta, Michele

    2012-07-01

    The Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle consists of a set of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium and release energy in the stars. It determines the luminosity of low-metal stars at their turn-off from the main-sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, so its rate enters the calculation of the globular clusters' age, an independent lower limit on the age of the universe. The cycle contributes less than 1% to our Sun's luminosity, but it produces neutrinos that can in principle be measured on Earth in underground experiments and bring direct information of the physical conditions in the solar core, provided that the nuclear reaction rate is known with sufficient precision. The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction is the slowest reaction of the Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle and establishes its rate. Its cross section is the sum of the contributions by capture to different excited levels and to the ground state in {sup 15}O. Recent experiments studied the region of the resonance at E{sub p} = 278 keV. Only one modern data set from an experiment performed in 1987 is available for the high-energy domain. Both energy ranges are needed to constrain the fit of the excitation function in the R-matrix framework and to obtain a reliable extrapolated S-factor at the very low astrophysical energies. The present research work studied the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction in the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) underground facility at three proton energies 0.36, 0.38, 0.40MeV, and in Dresden in the energy range E{sub p} = 0.6 - 2MeV. In both cases, an intense proton beam was sent on solid titanium nitride sputtered targets, and the prompt photons emitted from the reaction were detected with germanium detectors. At LUNA, a composite germanium detector was used. This enabled a measurement with dramatically reduced summing corrections with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the excited states

  16. A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness

    Lou, H C; Kjaer, T W; Friberg, L;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the neural structures subserving meditation can be reproducibly measured, and, if so, whether they are different from those supporting the resting state of normal consciousness. Cerebral blood flow distribution was investigated with the 15O-H20...... PET technique in nine young adults, who were highly experienced yoga teachers, during the relaxation meditation (Yoga Nidra), and during the resting state of normal consciousness. In addition, global CBF was measured in two of the subjects. Spectral EEG analysis was performed throughout the...... investigations. In meditation, differential activity was seen, with the noticeable exception of V1, in the posterior sensory and associative cortices known to participate in imagery tasks. In the resting state of normal consciousness (compared with meditation as a baseline), differential activity was found in...

  17. Effects of single-dose irradiation on tumor blood flow studied by 15O decay after photon activation in situ

    A noninvasive technique employing photon activation of tissue oxygen in situ and detection of subsequent 15O positron decay was used to study the effects of single-dose 60Co irradiation on capillary blood flow in transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor blood flow was measured before irradiation with 16.5, 38.5, or 60.5 Gy and at sever al intervals afterward (0-72 hr). Pre-irradiation values of volume-averaged blood flow in the tumor ranged from 7 to 44 ml/min/100 g. Several hours after irradiation, blood flow fell by up to 50% for 60.5 Gy and up to 35% for 16.5 Gy. However, 24 hours after irradiation, tumor blood flow had recovered completely in the 16.5-Gy group and substantially in the others. For smaller doses such as the fractions typically employed in radiotherapy, no changes in tumor blood flow were observed

  18. Effects of single-dose irradiation in tumor blood flow studied by 15O decay after proton activation in situ.

    Emami, B; Ten Haken, R K; Nussbaum, G H; Hughes, W L

    1981-10-01

    A noninvasive technique employing photon activation of tissue oxygen in situ and detection of subsequent 15O positron decay was used to study the effects of single-dose 60Co irradiation on capillary blood flow in transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor blood flow was measured before irradiation with 16.5, 38.5, or 60.5 Gy and at several intervals afterward (0-72 hr.). Pre-irradiation values of volume-averaged blood flow in the tumor ranged from 7 to 44 ml/min./100 g. Several hours after irradiation, blood flow fell by up to 50% for 60.5 Gy and up to 35% for 16.5 Gy. However, 24 hours after irradiation, tumor blood flow had recovered completely in the 16.5-Gy group and substantially in the others. For smaller doses such as the fractions typically employed in radiotherapy, no changes in tumor blood flow were observed. PMID:7291527

  19. Effects of single-dose irradiation in tumor blood flow studied by 15O decay after proton activation in situ

    A noninvasive technique employing photon activation of tissue oxygen in situ and detection of subsequent 15O positron decay was used to study the effects of single-dose 60Co irradiation on capillary blood flow in transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor blood flow was measured before irradiation with 16.5, 38.5, or 60.5 Gy and at several intervals afterward (0-72 hr.). Pre-irradiation values of volume-averaged blood flow in the tumor ranged from 7 to 44 ml/min./100 g. Several hours after irradiation, blood flow fell by up to 50% for 60.5 Gy and up to 35% for 16.5 Gy. However, 24 hours after irradiation, tumor blood flow had recovered completely in the 16.5-Gy group and substantially in the others. For smaller doses such as the fractions typically employed in radiotherapy, no changes in tumor blood flow were observed

  20. Refining of light rare, rare earth and radioactive metals

    Overview of technologies for the production of high-purity light rare, rare earth, radioactive metals and their compounds: electrolytic refining, vacuum distillation, electron-beam and zone melting, directed crystallization, electrotransfer, extraction, ion exchange

  1. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  2. Decontamination method of radioactively contaminated materials

    Metal ions leached from plant constituent materials to reactor primary coolants are gradually deposited in primary circuits in a state that metal ions are mixed with iron oxides, to form obstinate oxidized coating layers. In order to remove radioactive materials intruded into such oxide coating layers, the radiation-contaminated materials are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water to make the radioactive materials free and remove them from the surface of the contaminants. That is, if metal oxides such as Fe2O3 are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water, e- is applied to the oxide, and water molecules return to a stable state, as well as Fe2O3 is reduced from Fe+3 to Fe+2, to cause structural change in the tissues of the oxide coating layers. This can change the property of the oxide coating layers and easily remove them by washing, and radioactive materials intruded between oxide particles are removed simultaneously. (T.M.)

  3. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  4. TRESS: A Transportable Radioactive Effluent Solidification System

    This paper describes an attempt to produce a totally new concept for a transportable plant capable of encapsulating radioactive sludges and ion exchange resins, employing recently developed dewatering and mixing techniques. One of the prime aims of the investigation was to produce a plant which could handle both beta/gamma and alpha-bearing materials

  5. New treatment methods of radioactive wastes

    Techniques of Radioactive waste treatment continues to make advances in year by year. First of all we would explain the new plant constructed by Studsvik of America in Tenn. U.S.A. This plant consist of pyrolysis and hydro-reforming process. These combination technique are capable for incineration and decompose the inflammable material such as ion-exchange resin. ZWILAG is the central control facility of Radioactive wastes in Switzerland. This facility has wastes storage halls and incineration plant which operated by plasma torch. This system is the first plant in the would. Radon Science Research Center of Russia has been developed many kinds of technique in radwaste treatment. Powdered metal fuel is very unique material for incineration of ionexchange resin. Magnetic stirrer is applied for cement solidification. Ebara designed special equipment for nuclear accident such as movable radioactive measurement car and radioactive liquid waste treatment installed on car are explained. (author)

  6. Resonance strengths in the 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions

    Marta, Michele; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Erhard, Martin; Fülöp, Zsolt; Grosse, Eckart; Gyürky, György; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R; Menegazzo, Roberto; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Vezzú, Simone; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction is the slowest reaction of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle of hydrogen burning in stars. As a consequence, it determines the rate of the cycle. The 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reaction is frequently used in inverse kinematics for hydrogen depth profiling in materials. The 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions have been studied simultaneously, using titanium nitride targets of natural isotopic composition and a proton beam. The strengths of the resonances at Ep = 1058 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O and at Ep = 897 and 430 keV in 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C have been determined with improved precision, relative to the well-known resonance at Ep = 278 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O. The new recommended values are \\omega\\gamma = 0.352$\\pm$0.018, 362$\\pm$20, and 22.0$\\pm$0.9\\,eV for their respective strengths. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the Ep = 1058 keV resonance in 14N(p,gamma)15O have been redetermined. The data reported here should facilitate future studies of off-resona...

  7. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  8. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    ... lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Radioactive iodine therapy improves the survival rate of patients with papillary ... and benefits of RAI therapy with your doctor. Radioactive iodine therapy cannot be used to treat anaplastic (undifferentiated) and ...

  9. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  10. Electron Accelerators for Radioactive Ion Beams

    Lia Merminga

    2007-10-10

    The summary of this paper is that to optimize the design of an electron drive, one must: (a) specify carefully the user requirements--beam energy, beam power, duty factor, and longitudinal and transverse emittance; (b) evaluate different machine options including capital cost, 10-year operating cost and delivery time. The author is convinced elegant solutions are available with existing technology. There are several design options and technology choices. Decisions will depend on system optimization, in-house infrastructure and expertise (e.g. cryogenics, SRF, lasers), synergy with other programs.

  11. Radioactive waste management

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  12. Chemical treatment of radioactive wastes

    This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  13. The influence of preparation conditions on electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film electrodes by PLD

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on stainless steel substrates. The growth of the films has been studied as a function of substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure in deposition, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film cathodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge against a lithium anode. The initial capacity and capacity retention of the films are highly dependent on the crystallinity and purity of the films. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin films grown at 600 deg. C in an oxygen partial pressure of 200 mTorr are well crystallized with high purity, exhibiting excellent capacity retention between 3 and 5 V with a LiPF6-based electrolyte

  14. Quantitative analysis of coronary endothelial function with generator-produced 82Rb PET: comparison with 15O-labelled water PET

    Endothelial dysfunction is the earliest abnormality in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. 82Rb is a generator-produced positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion tracer that is becoming more widely used. We aimed to (1) develop a method for quantitative assessment of coronary endothelial function using the myocardial blood flow (MBF) response during a cold pressor test (CPT) in smokers, measured using 82Rb PET, and (2) compare the results with those measured using 15O-water PET. MBF was assessed at rest and during the CPT with 82Rb and 15O-water in nine controls and ten smokers. A one-compartment model with tracer extraction correction was used to estimate MBF with both tracers. CPT response was calculated as the ratio of MBF during the CPT to MBF at rest. At rest, measurements of MBF for smokers vs controls were not different using 15O-water (0.86 ± 0.18 vs 0.70 ± 0.13, p = 0.426) than they were using 82Rb (0.83 ± 0.23 vs 0.62 ± 0.20, p = 0.051). Both methods showed a reduced CPT response in smokers vs controls (15O-water, 1.03 ± 0.21 vs 1.42 ± 0.29, p = 0.006; 82Rb, 1.02 ± 0.28 vs 1.70 ± 0.52, p 82Rb and 15O-water during the CPT. Using a CPT, 82Rb MBF measurements detected coronary endothelial dysfunctions in smokers. 82Rb MBF measurements were comparable to those made using the 15O-water approach. Thus, 82Rb PET may be applicable for risk assessments or evaluation of risk factor modification in subjects with coronary risk factors. (orig.)

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  17. Radioactive gas solidifying device

    The device of the present invention, a sputtering electrode comprises a cylindrical electrode main body made of a transition metal, electrode caps each made of a transition metal and connected by welding to the upper and the lower portions of the main body and a plurality of annular grooves formed to the outer surface of the electrode main body. The electrode main body and the electrode cap are connected by welding at the portions of the annular grooves, and rare earth elements are filled in the annular grooves. Then, when operation is conducted for a long period of time, the thickness of the electrode is gradually reduced by sputtering. When the rare earth element in the annular grooves are completely eliminated by the reduction of the thickness, radioactive gases are no more injected into the accumulated metal layers of sputtered metal formed at the surface of the ion injection electrode, to reduce the processing efficiency. By detecting the reduction and interrupting the operation directly, the reduction of the wall thickness in the welded portion between the main body and the electrode cap is prevented. In this way, it is possible to prevent the leakage of cooling water therefrom and abnormal electric discharge caused thereby, to enable stable operation for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  18. Radioactive determination of serum thyroxine. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Shannon, C.F.; Dahlstrom, R.V.

    1976-03-30

    A method for determining serum thyroxine (T-4) in which the T-4 is first separated from the serum by adsorption onto a montmorillonite clay and then competitively bound by exogenous thyroxine binding globulin in the presence of a known amount of radioactive T-4. The competitively bound serum T-4 and radioactive T-4 is separated from the unbound serum T-4 and radioactive T-4 by passage through an ion exchange resin column. The serum T-4 concentration is determined by measuring the amount of bound radioactive T-4 and referring to a standard curve.

  19. Storage facility for radioactive waste

    An ion stream is formed at the surface of a metal container tube for containing radioactive wastes to promote heat transfer. That is, radiation energy is converted into an electric voltage by using photovoltaic elements which produce voltage by irradiation of radiation rays. Ion blows are caused by a corona discharge without relying on an external electric power source, to cause small air fluctuations. Since this air is an uprising air stream by convection, it moves upwardly and intersects electrode wires where they are laid along other directions and undergo stirring. Heat transfer by air convection between the surface of the metal container tube and the cooling air can be improved while keeping safety due to natural convection. (T.M.)

  20. Ion source developments for RNB production at Spiral / GANIL

    The first on-line production system for SPIRAL/GANIL (Radioactive Ion Production System with Acceleration on-Line) phase-I has been commissioned on the SIRa (Radioactive Ion Separator) test bench. Exotic multicharged noble gas ion beams have been obtained during several days. In parallel, a new ECRIS (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source) for mono-charged ions has also been developed. Preliminary, off-line results are presented. (authors)

  1. System for disposing of radioactive waste

    A system is described for disposing of radioactive waste material from nuclear reactors by solidifying the liquid components to produce an encapsulated mass adapted for disposal by burial. The method contemplates mixing of radioactive waste materials, with or without contained solids, with a setting agent capable of solidifying the waste liquids into a free standing hardened mass, placing the resulting liquid mixture in a container with a proportionate amount of a curing agent to effect solidification under controlled conditions, and thereafter burying the container and contained solidified mixture. The setting agent is a water-extendable polymer consisting of a suspension of partially polymerized particles of urea formaldehyde in water, and the curing agent is sodium bisulfate. Methods are disclosed for dewatering slurry-like mixtures of liquid and particulate radioactive waste materials, such as spent ion exchange resin beads, and for effecting desired distribution of non-liquid radioactive materials in the central area of the container prior to solidification, so that the surrounding mass of lower specific radioactivity acts as a partial shield against higher radioactivity of the non-liquid radioactive materials. The methods also provide for addition of non-radioactive filler materials to dilute the mixture and lower the overall radioactivity of the hardened mixture to desired Lowest Specific Activity counts. An inhibiting agent is added to the liquid mixture to adjust the solidification time, and provision is made for adding additional amounts of setting agent and curing agent to take up any free water and further encapsulate the hardened material within the container

  2. System for disposing of radioactive waste

    A system is described for disposing of radioactive waste material from nuclear reactors by solidifying the liquid components to produce an encapsulated mass adapted for disposal by burial. The method contemplates mixing of radioactive waste materials, with or without contained solids, with a setting agent capable of solidifying the waste liquids into a free standing hardened mass, placing the resulting liquid mixture in a container with a proportionate amount of a curing agent to effect solidification under controlled conditions, and thereafter burying the container and contained solidified mixture. The setting agent is a water-extendable polymer consisting of a suspension of partially polymerized particles of urea formaldehyde in water, and the curing agent is sodium bisulfate. Methods are disclosed for dewatering slurry-like mixtures of liquid and particulate radioactive waste materials, such as spent ion exchange resin beads, and for effecting desired distribution of non-liquid radioactive materials in the central area of the container prior to solidification, so that the surrounding mass of lower specific radioactivity acts as a partial shield against higher radioactivity of the non-liquid radioactive materials. The methods also provide for addition of non-radioactive filler materials to dilute the mixture and lower the overall radioactivity of the hardened mixture to desired Lowest Specific Activity counts. An inhibiting agent is added to the liquid mixture to adjust the solidification time, and provision is made for adding additional amounts of setting agent and curing agent to take up any free water and further encapsulate the hardened material within the container. 30 claims

  3. Ion sources for RFQ accelerators and for cyclotrons

    Ion sources used in conjunction with low energy accelerators, either RF quadrupole linacs or small cyclotrons, are reviewed. The topics covered include low energy accelerators used as injectors to larger accelerators, ion sources for low and medium currents of heavy ions, high-current heavy ion sources, ion sources for pulsed high currents of light ions, and new developments in ion sources such as beams of radioactive ions

  4. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H2(15)O PET

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using 15O-labeled water (H215O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H215O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H215O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients

  5. Electronic Structure Studies and Photocatalytic Properties of Cubic Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7

    Ganchimeg Perenlei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic ability of cubic Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (BZN pyrochlore for the decolorization of an acid orange 7 (AO7 azo dye in aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV irradiation has been investigated for the first time. BZN catalyst powders prepared using low temperature sol-gel and higher temperature solid-state methods have been evaluated and their reaction rates have been compared. The experimental band gap energy has been estimated from the optical absorption edge and has been used as reference for theoretical calculations. The electronic band structure of BZN has been investigated using first-principles density functional theory (DFT calculations for random, completely and partially ordered solid solutions of Zn cations in both the A and B sites of the pyrochlore structure. The nature of the orbitals in the valence band (VB and the conduction band (CB has been identified and the theoretical band gap energy has been discussed in terms of the DFT model approximations.

  6. 1. contribution of the dynamics on the reactions mechanisms in the heavy ions collisions at the intermediary energies (20-100 MeV/A) for the light systems. 2. management of radioactive wastes by new options: nuclear data measurement programme between 20 and 150 MeV

    The first part concerns the features of emitted charged particles in heavy ions reactions that have been studied in the framework of the semi classical Landau-Vlasov approach for the light system Ar + Al at 65 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The second part is devoted to the radioactive waste management (transmutation), but it was necessary to increase the data banks evaluated in neutrons up to 150-200 MeV and to create a data bank in protons. In the European framework it was decide to focus on three representative elements: lead (spallation target), iron (structure material) and uranium (actinide). (N.C.)

  7. Process for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes

    Radioactive waste material, particularly radioactive ion exchange resin in the wet condition, is encapsulated in a polyurethane by dispersing the waste in an aqueous emulsion of an organic polyol, a polyisocyanate and an hydraulic cement and allowing the emulsion to set to form a monolithic block. If desired the emulsion may also contain additional filler e.g. sand or aggregate to increase the density of the final product. Preferred polyurethanes are those made from a polyester polyol and an organic diisocyanate, particularly hexamethylene diisocyanate. (author)

  8. Alterations in CNS Activity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O PET Study

    Ali, S. Omar; Thomassen, Michael; Schulz, Geralyn M.; Hosey, Lara A.; Varga, Mary; Ludlow, Christy L.; Braun, Allen R.

    2006-01-01

    Speech-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O positron-emission tomography in 9 adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (BTX) injection and 10 age- and gender-matched volunteers without neurological disorders. Scans were acquired at rest…

  9. BACE0.85Y0.15O3-DELTA Based Materials for Inovative Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Krezhov, Kiril; Vladikova, Daria

    2016-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a promising green technology of direct conversion of chemical energy of fuel into electricity. Among the families of metal oxides, which can be successfully used as electrodes (cathodes or anodes) in SOFC, certain members of the large family of transition-metal oxides with perovskite structure ABO _{3} were found very prospective to fulfil most of the features required for preparation of mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) oxide materials for SOFCs operated in the intermediate temperature range. In this regard Barium cerate with Y-substitution at the B-site (Ce site) is well known for excellent conduction capabilities in the temperature range 400-800 °C as a result from the proton motion in the crystal lattice. Doping with Y ^{3+} is very effective and the proton conductivity in BaCe _{1-x}Y _{x}O _{3-δ} increases with the increasing of the dopant concentration up to x =0.2. However, the phase behaviour of the composition BCY20 (x=0.20) is very complicated. Even at room temperature the crystalline structure remains contradictory because various structures of monoclinic, rhombohedral and orthorhombic symmetry are reported. The characterization of the chemical composition and stability, oxygen stoichiometry and cationic ratios of each synthesized phase is of great importance to understand the defect-chemistry that would govern the transport properties. We report on oxygen-deficient BaCe _{0.85}Y _{0.15}O _{3-δ} (BCY15) perovskites prepared by auto-combustion with following calcination at high temperature. The structural details of powder, dense and porous samples of materials based on BCY15 were investigated from full profile analysis of neutron and x-ray diffraction patterns. The materials were used recently as cathode, anode and central membrane in an innovative monolithic design of SOFC.

  10. Comparison of myocardial blood flows using 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT and 15O-water PET

    Myocardial SPECT is widely used in the diagnosis and evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). However. due to the results expressed as relative values, myocardial SPECT has limitation in multi-vessel disease and diffuse CAD. Water PET is used in estimating the coronary blood flow non-invasively. In this study, we investigated the coronary blood flow relationship between myocardial SPECT and water PET. 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT and 15O-water PET were done in 15 patients with suspected CAD (M:F=10:5, Mean age 61±8yrs) under conditions of rest and adenosine stress, respectively. SPECT scan was performed using low energy high resolution collimator dual head SPECT camera (Vertex EPIC, Philips-ADAC Labs, Milpitas, USA) and images were analyzed using automated software (AutoQUANT, ADAC Labs., CA, U.S.A.). PET scan was performed using ECAT EXACT camera (CTI, Knoxville, TN/ Siemens Medical System, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL, USA). Left myocardium was extracted using ensemble independent component analysis, and the 9 ROIs were drawn (apex, 4 mid walls and 4 basal walls). Fourteen segments of myocardial SPECT excluding basal segments were matched with 9 PET segments. No correlation was found between myocardial SPECT and water PET in both rest and stress, in the analysis of a total of 135 segments. However, in the analysis of segments with myocardial blood flow under or equal to 1 ml/g/min in the stress water PET (n=22), there were statistically significant correlation between myocardial SPECT and water PET in both rest (Pearson correlation=0.58. p<0.01) and stress (Pearson correlation=0.58. p<0.01), respectively. In segments with decreased myocardial blood flow in the stress water PET, there were statistically significant correlation between myocardial SPECT and water PET, in both rest and stress

  11. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  12. Radioactive air sampling methods

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  13. Comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive gas lantern mantles

    Gas lantern mantles containing radioactive thorium have been used for more than 100 years. Although thorium was once believed to be indispensable for giving a bright light, non-radioactive mantles are now available. From the radioactivities of the daughter nuclides, we estimated the levels of radioactivity of 232Th and 228Th in 11 mantles. The mantles contained various levels of radioactivity from background levels to 1410±140 Bq. Our finding that radioactive and non-radioactive mantles are equally bright suggests that there is no advantage in using radioactive mantles. A remaining problem is that gas lantern mantles are sold without any information about radioactivity. (author)

  14. Treatment of Soil Decontamination Solution by the Cs+ Ion Selective Ion Exchange Resin

    Occasionally, radioactively contaminated soils have been excavated and stored at the temporary storage facility. Cesium as a radionuclide is one of the most toxic elements and it has a long half decay life. During the operation of nuclear facility, soils near the facility would be contaminated with radioactive cesium and it will cause the deleterious effect to human body and environment. In this study, Cs+ ion selective ion exchange resin was prepared by changing the functional group of commercial anion exchange resin for a ferrocyanide ion. Ion exchange capability of using the soil decontamination solution was investigated. We also performed the feasibility test of recycling the spent Cs ion selective ion exchange resin

  15. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  16. Radioactivity and its measurement

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  17. Learning more about radioactivity

    This digest brochure explains what radioactivity is, where it comes from, how it is measured, what are its effects on the body and the way to protect it against these effects, the uses of radioactivity (In the medical field, In industry, In the food industry, and In the cultural world). It ends with some examples of irradiation levels, of natural radioactivity and with the distribution in France of various sources of exposure. (J.S.)

  18. Biokinetics of radioactive compounds

    Biokinetics of radioactive compounds in the human organism represent the central notion in this work, consisting of a theoretical and an experimental part. The first chapter contains definitions and explanations on the importance of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in clinical therapy and pharmaceuticals research as well as for assessing radiation exposure and radiation hazards. Chapter 2 describes the bases of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in the medical and non-medical sector, and biokinetics. Chapter 3 deals with obtaining biokinetics data for radioactive compounds from investigations in animals and man, evaluation of measurements, transferring data obtained by animal experiments to man, and with the variability of biokinetics data. In Chapter 4 the results of comprehensive studies in literature on the biokinetics of radioactive compounds are summarized. They relate to three areas: professional and environmental incorporation of radioactive compounds, use of radioactive pharmaceuticals in therapy and research, and incorporation of radioactive compounds by embryo and fetus in consequence of the uptake of radioactive compounds by the mother. Chapter 5 gives an assessment of radiation hazards from radioactive compounds in connection with occupational radiation exposure and nuclear diagnostics in vivo, and a comparison with other risks. For that purpose the concept of effective dose equivalent is applied in connection with suitable risk coefficients to professional and nuclear-medical radiation exposure. Chapter 6 is dedicated to measurement of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in man using conventional devices. The object of Chapter 7 is measurement of the biokinetics of radioactive pharmaceuticals in man by means of single photon emission computed tomography. (orig./MG)

  19. Drainage of radioactive areas

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  20. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  1. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  2. Controlling radioactive waste

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of Gross Natural α-Radioactivity in Drinking Water and Ion-removed Drinking Water in Linfen City%临汾市居民饮用水及去离子饮用水中总天然α-放射性剂量评估

    张智; 郑素华; 张茜; 张东海

    2012-01-01

    Gross natural alpha radioactivity in drinking water and ion-removed drinking water in Linfen City is investigated by using nuclear emulsion detector made in Institute of Modern Physics,Shanxi Normal University.The experimental results indicate that the gross natural alpha radioactivity in drinking water and ion-removed drinking water are 0.92±0.04Bq/L and 0.75±0.02Bq/L respectively,which is higher than the national recommended standard value(GB 5749-2005) 0.5Bg/L.%利用山西师范大学现代物理研究所生产的电子全灵敏乳胶对临汾市居民饮用水及去离子饮用水中总天然α-放射性剂量进行了实验研究.实验结果表明临汾市居民饮用水及去离子饮用水中总天然α-放射性剂量分别为0.92±0.04 Bq/L和0.75±0.02 Bq/L,此值高于国标GB 5749-2005推荐的生活饮用水总α放射性剂量值0.5 Bq/L。

  4. Heavy ion physics

    The international school-seminar on heavy ion physics had been organized in Dubna in may of 1993. The scientific program of reports covers the following main topics: synthesis and properties of heavy nuclei; synthesis and investigation of properties of exotic nuclei; experiments with radioactive nuclear beams; interaction between complex nuclei at low and intermediate energies. It also includes reports on laser spectroscopy and exotic nuclear beams, on some application of heavy ion beams for the problems of solid state physics, on construction of multidetector facilities and on developing of heavy ion accelerator complexes. Short communication

  5. Arterial spin labeling in patients with chic cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease - Correlation with 15O-PET

    Background: Heterogeneity of arterial transit time due to cerebral artery steno-occlusive lesions hampers accurate regional cerebral blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling (ASL). Purpose: To assess the feasibility of regional cerebral blood flow measurement by ASL with multiple-delay time sampling in patients with steno-occlusive diseases by comparing with positron emission tomography (PET), and to determine whether regional arterial transit time measured by this ASL technique is correlated with regional mean transit time, a PET index of perfusion pressure. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients with steno-occlusive diseases received both ASL and 15O-PET. The mean regional cerebral blood flow measured by ASL and PET, regional arterial transit time by ASL, and regional mean transit time by PET were obtained by a region-of-interest analysis. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow by ASL and that by PET, and correlation between regional arterial transit time by ASL and regional mean transit time by PET were tested using Pearson's correlation coefficient for both absolute and relative values. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to test whether regional arterial transit time by ASL was a significant contributor in modeling regional mean transit time by PET after controlling the effect of regional cerebral blood flow by ASL. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between regional cerebral blood flow by ASL and that by PET for both absolute (r = 0.520, P < 0.0001) and relative (r = 0.691, P < 0.0001) values. A significant positive correlation was found between regional arterial transit time by ASL and regional mean transit time by PET both for absolute (r = 0.369, P = 0.0002) and relative (r = 0.443, P < 0.0001) values. The regression analysis revealed that regional arterial transit time by ASL was a significant contributor in modeling regional mean transit time by PET after controlling regional cerebral blood flow by ASL (P

  6. Quantitative analysis of coronary endothelial function with generator-produced {sup 82}Rb PET: comparison with {sup 15}O-labelled water PET

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Photobiology, Division of Molecular/Cellular Imaging, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Sapporo (Japan); Chen, Li; Kemp, Robert A. de; Williams, Kathryn; Beanlands, Rob S.B. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Klein, Ran [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); University of Ottawa Heart Institute, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Naya, Masanao [Hokkaido University of Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Sapporo (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Endothelial dysfunction is the earliest abnormality in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. {sup 82}Rb is a generator-produced positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion tracer that is becoming more widely used. We aimed to (1) develop a method for quantitative assessment of coronary endothelial function using the myocardial blood flow (MBF) response during a cold pressor test (CPT) in smokers, measured using {sup 82}Rb PET, and (2) compare the results with those measured using {sup 15}O-water PET. MBF was assessed at rest and during the CPT with {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water in nine controls and ten smokers. A one-compartment model with tracer extraction correction was used to estimate MBF with both tracers. CPT response was calculated as the ratio of MBF during the CPT to MBF at rest. At rest, measurements of MBF for smokers vs controls were not different using {sup 15}O-water (0.86 {+-} 0.18 vs 0.70 {+-} 0.13, p = 0.426) than they were using {sup 82}Rb (0.83 {+-} 0.23 vs 0.62 {+-} 0.20, p = 0.051). Both methods showed a reduced CPT response in smokers vs controls ({sup 15}O-water, 1.03 {+-} 0.21 vs 1.42 {+-} 0.29, p = 0.006; {sup 82}Rb, 1.02 {+-} 0.28 vs 1.70 {+-} 0.52, p < 0.001). There was high reliability [intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.48 (0.07, 0.75)] of MBF measurement between {sup 82}Rb and {sup 15}O-water during the CPT. Using a CPT, {sup 82}Rb MBF measurements detected coronary endothelial dysfunctions in smokers. {sup 82}Rb MBF measurements were comparable to those made using the {sup 15}O-water approach. Thus, {sup 82}Rb PET may be applicable for risk assessments or evaluation of risk factor modification in subjects with coronary risk factors. (orig.)

  7. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  8. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    This report is a review of some waste management activities including sources, system of collection and treatment of radioactive wastes. The report also includes methods and options used for treatment of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  10. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  11. Ion channel screening.

    Dunlop, John; Bowlby, Mark; Peri, Ravikumar; Tawa, Gregory; LaRocque, James; Soloveva, Veronica; Morin, John

    2008-08-01

    Ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery with recent estimates indicating that voltage and ligand-gated channels account for the third and fourth largest gene families represented in company portfolios after the G protein coupled and nuclear hormone receptor families. A historical limitation on ion channel targeted drug discovery in the form of the extremely low throughput nature of the gold standard assay for assessing functional activity, patch clamp electrophysiology in mammalian cells, has been overcome by the implementation of multi-well plate format cell-based screening strategies for ion channels. These have taken advantage of various approaches to monitor ion flux or membrane potential using radioactive, non-radioactive, spectroscopic and fluorescence measurements and have significantly impacted both high-throughput screening and lead optimization efforts. In addition, major advances have been made in the development of automated electrophysiological platforms to increase capacity for cell-based screening using formats aimed at recapitulating the gold standard assay. This review addresses the options available for cell-based screening of ion channels with examples of their utility and presents case studies on the successful implementation of high-throughput screening campaigns for a ligand-gated ion channel using a fluorescent calcium indicator, and a voltage-gated ion channel using a fluorescent membrane potential sensitive dye. PMID:18694388

  12. PET imaging for treatment verification of ion therapy: Implementation and experience at GSI Darmstadt and MGH Boston

    Parodi, Katia; Bortfeld, Thomas; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine; Knopf, Antje; Paganetti, Harald; Pawelke, Jörg; Shakirin, Georgy; Shih, Helen

    2008-06-01

    Ion beams offer the possibility of improved conformation of the dose delivered to the tumor with better sparing of surrounding tissue and critical structures in comparison to conventional photon and electron external radiation treatment modalities. Full clinical exploitation of this advantage can benefit from in vivo confirmation of the actual beam delivery and, in particular, of the ion range in the patient. During irradiation, positron emitters like 15O (half-life T1/2≈2 min) and 11C ( T1/2≈20 min) are formed in nuclear interactions between the ions and the tissue. Detection of this transient radioactivity via positron emission tomography (PET) and comparison with the expectation based on the prescribed beam application may serve as an in vivo, non-invasive range validation method of the whole treatment planning and delivery chain. For technical implementation, PET imaging during irradiation (in-beam) requires the development of customized, limited angle detectors with data acquisition synchronized with the beam delivery. Alternatively, commercial PET or PET/CT scanners in close proximity to the treatment site enable detection of the residual activation from long-lived emitters shortly after treatment (offline). This paper reviews two clinical examples using a dedicated in-beam PET scanner for verification of carbon ion therapy at GSI Darmstadt, Germany, as well as a commercial offline PET/CT tomograph for post-radiation imaging of proton treatments at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA. Challenges as well as pros and cons of the two imaging approaches in dependence of the different ion type and beam delivery system are discussed.

  13. Radioactivity: additional tables

    The following additional tables are presented to the annual report on radioactive discharges from the major establishments in the U.K.: 1) Radioactive gaseous effluent, trends in annual emissions, by site, (civil and M.O.D.) 2) Radioactive liquid effluent (radionuclides specified by authorisations), trends in annual discharges to surface and coastal waters: by site. 3) Liquid effluent (radionuclides not subject to separate limits): annual discharges to surface and coastal waters by site. 4) Isotopic composition of liquid effluent from CEGB stations, 1984. 5) Trends in the amount of radioactivity in waste dumped in the north-east Atlantic. 6) Trends in volume of waste disposed of at Drigg (by source of waste). 7) Solid waste: trends in volume disposed of and level of activity at some other disposal sites. 8) Radioactivity in samples of fish and shellfish: trends in concentrations. (UK)

  14. Radioactive sodium processing apparatus

    Purpose: To enable safety, continuous and economical disposal for radioactive sodium while preventing radioactive contaminations. Constitution: Reaction gas introduction pipe for introducing oxygen and carbon dioxygen, and steams for accelerating the processing speed, as well as a discharge pipe for sodium carbonate as reaction products are connected to the lower side wall of a radioactive sodium processing container. A screw conveyor is mounted within the radioactive sodium processing container and a torque meter is disposed in the central axis of the conveyor. Signals from the torque meter are sent to an oxygen introduction control device. V-shaped recesses are formed to the screw blades of the conveyor for improving the separating efficiency between sodium carbonate produced through the procession and not-processed radioactive sodium. Since sodium is converted after the process into sodium carbonate, it can be handled and stored within ease. (Yoshihara, H.)

  15. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  16. Productions and interests of the radiopharmaceuticals labelled by 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F

    As medical diagnosis methods based on the use of short-life radioelements such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18 have been developed, these four radio-isotopes are notably adapted to external detection by tomography. Besides, due to their short period, their radioactive concentration per mass unity is very high. In the first part of this research thesis, the author presents the characteristics of these four radio-isotopes, describes the operation of cyclotrons and the principles, benefits, drawbacks, and types of positron emission tomography. The second part addresses the production of the radionuclides and precursors, the production of radiopharmaceutical products (haemoglobin, sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, steroid marking, and drug marking). The third part reports some studies illustrating the pharmaceutical interest of these radioelements

  17. General aspects of the cyclotrons and radiochemical separation of: 11 C, 15 O, 18 F and 14 N

    The particle accelerators, as the cyclotrons, are extraordinarily important as tools for the radioisotope production and its application in the area of the medicine. In this time, another method exists for the production of artificial radioisotopes, based on the irradiation of samples with alpha particles or with neutrons coming from a natural radioisotope being obtained a neutron source (Ra + Be, Rn + Be, Po + Be). However, its can be obtained a great quantity of radioisotopes by means of cyclotrons in very short time, compared with other methods. After the second world war, artificial radioisotopes took place by means of reactors and its had many applications, not only medical and in little time the accelerators were manufactured that were more indispensable that the reactors to produce radioisotopes with medical aims. For this reason, the accelerators, in few years became in machines very important for the production of artificial radioisotopes and consequently its were developed techniques of radioactive traces progressively more sophisticated, since it is evident that the production of radioactive nuclei through nuclear reactors its cannot satisfy all the demands. In general terms, only the neutrons can be used as nuclear projectiles in reactors and as a result, the production spectra of radioisotopes is limited and as alternative it is unavoidable that the cyclotrons are a good tool for this end. The use of a cyclotron to produce radioisotopes, it can be justified, only if the following conditions are completed. 1. If the radioisotopes of an element produced in a reactor don't favor with the nuclear properties for the purposes of the traced studies, for example: if the half life is very short or very big, if the decay system not to suit him. 2. If the wanted radioisotope cannot produce in the reactor with enough specific activity. (Author)

  18. Improved elevated temperature performance of commercial LiMn2O4 coated with LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    In this work, we successfully developed a novel wet chemical method to prepare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 coated LiMn2O4 (LMO@LNMO), in which commercial LiMn2O4 produced by solid state reaction method was used as the starting material and a nitrate precursor containing Li, Ni and Mn was used to form LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 coating layer. There is no precipitant, chelating agent and washing process needed. The effect of the calcination temperature and the mass ratio of LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (mLMO:mLNMO) were systematically studied. LMO@LNMO was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which showed that a completed coating layer was formed via the wet chemical method and some Ni2+ in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were diffused to LiMn2O4 to form a Ni concentration-gradient structure after calcination. Typically, LMO@LNMO with the calcination temperature of 800 °C and the mass ratio of 9:1 (mLMO:mLNMO) showed an initial discharge specific capacity of ∼100 mAh·g−1 between 3.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li+/Li at 55 °C, and greatly improved cyclic performance with a capacity retention of 81.9% over 400 cycles. The thermal safety of LMO@LNMO was also enhanced according to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of 5V spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by solid-state reaction

    SUN Qiang; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; JI Yong

    2009-01-01

    Spinel compound LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high capacity and high rate capability was synthesized by solid-state reaction. At first, MnCl2·4H2O and NiCl2·6H2O were reacted with (NH4)2C2O4·H2O to produce a precursor via a low-temperature solid-state route, then the precursor was reacted with Li2CO3 to synthesize LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The effects of calcination temperature and time on the physical properties and electrochemical performance of the products were investigated. Samples were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), charge-discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) image shows that as calcination temperature and time increase, the crystallinity of the samples is improved, and their grain sizes are obviously increased. It is found that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 calcined at 800 ℃ for 6 h exhibits a typical cubic spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the sample obtained possesses high capacity and excellent rate capability. When being discharged at a rate as high as 5C after 30 cycles, the as-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders can still deliver a capacity of 101 mA-h/g, which shows to be a potential cathode material for high power batteries.

  20. Treatment of radioactive waste - Routine or challenge? Proceedings

    The seminar had the following topics: Proposal for new legislation covering radioactive waste management in the EU, new requirements preparations for the later repository, efficient and cost effective treatment of radioactive waste water, intermediate level waste cementation, incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture, application of THOR-technology on resins, new development for transportation and storage of reactor vessel parts, and conditioning of nuclear fuel containing wastes. (uke)

  1. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    Roy, S.; Khan, N.; Mandal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7). With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg-1 K-1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0-9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg-1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg-1 K-1 for field changes of 0-1 T and 0-2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  2. Parametric imaging of myocardial viability using {sup 15}O-labelled water and PET/CT: comparison with late gadolinium-enhanced CMR

    Haan, Stefan de; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Danad, Ibrahim; Rossum, Albert C. van; Knaapen, Paul [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Harms, Hendrik J.; Lubberink, Mark; Lammertsma, Adriaan A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chen, Weena J.Y.; Diamant, Michaela [Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The perfusable tissue index (PTI) is a marker of myocardial viability. Recent technological advances have made it possible to generate parametric PTI images from a single [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET/CT scan. The purpose of this study was to validate these parametric PTI images. The study population comprised 46 patients with documented or suspected coronary artery disease who were studied with [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET and late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Of the 736 myocardial segments included, 364 showed some degree of LGE. PTI and perfusable tissue fraction (PTF) diminished with increasing LGE. The areas under the curve of the PTI and PTF, used to predict (near) transmural LGE on CMR, were 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were 91 % and 73 % for PTI and 69 % and 87 % for PTF, respectively. PTI and PTF assessed with a single [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O scan can be utilized as markers of myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  3. Giant low-field magnetocaloric effect in single-crystalline EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3

    The magnetocaloric effect in ferromagnetic single crystal EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 has been investigated using magnetization and heat capacity measurements. EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 undergoes a continuous ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 9.5 K due to the long range ordering of magnetic moments of Eu2+ (4f7). With the application of magnetic field, the spin entropy is strongly suppressed and a giant magnetic entropy change is observed near TC. The values of entropy change ΔSm and adiabatic temperature change ΔTad are as high as 51.3 J kg−1 K−1 and 22 K, respectively, for a field change of 0–9 T. The corresponding magnetic heating/cooling capacity is 700 J kg−1. This compound also shows large magnetocaloric effect even at low magnetic fields. In particular, the values of ΔSm reach 14.7 and 23.8 J kg−1 K−1 for field changes of 0–1 T and 0–2 T, respectively. The low-field giant magnetocaloric effect, together with the absence of thermal and field hysteresis makes EuTi0.85Nb0.15O3 a very promising candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration

  4. The new data on sections of reaction 14N(p, γ)15O at low energy and S-factor calculated at various models

    Reaction of radiation capture of protons by nucleus 14N is one of important reactions of CNO-cycle, which produces energy in main-sequence stars with masses are larger than solar ones. In the range of low energies (from hundreds keV to 1 MeV) absolute values of cross sections measured by different groups of authors differ in several times; value extrapolation of astrophysical S-factor to 0 to different levels of 15O nucleus results also in different values, which sometimes differ by order. There were measured differential cross-sections of the reaction 14N(p, γ) and determined angular distributions of gamma-radiation at the accelerator of heavy ions UKP-2-1 at the Laboratory of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan for more precise definition of existing values. Taking into account an anisotropy of the angular distribution of gamma-rays there were obtained total cross sections of the reaction 14N(p, γ) in the energy region of from 880 keV to 1200 keV. Measurements of gamma-spectra were carried out by two detectors: the first one was of super pure germanium (its volume was 111 cm3, the firm 'ORTEG') the second one was of Ge(Li) (its volume was 40 cm3). The calibration of the detectors on an efficiency of gamma-rays detection was carried out with use of the calibration gamma-source 56Co, manufactured in the cyclotron of the Institute, and the standard sources 137Cs and 56Co. The efficiency of the detector in the high-energy region of up to Eγ=10.8 MeV was determined with use of the reaction 27Al(p, γ)28Si. During the measurements of gamma-spectra the distance from the beam spot on the irradiated target to the surface of the detector was 4 cm. The current of the proton beam on the target was equal to (10-15) μA. The measurements of differential cross section of the reaction 14N(p, γ) were carried out at angles Θ=(0, 45, 90 and 126 Deg.) to the direction of the proton beam. As

  5. Method of processing nitrate-containing radioactive liquid wastes

    Purpose: To efficiently concentrate nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes by electrolytically dialyzing radioactive liquid wastes to decompose the nitrate salt by using an electrolytic cell comprising three chambers having ion exchange membranes and anodes made of special materials. Method: Nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes are supplied to and electrolytically dialyzed in a central chamber of an electrolytic cell comprising three chambers having cationic exchange membranes and anionic exchange membranes made of flouro-polymer as partition membranes, whereby the nitrate is decomposed to form nitric acid in the anode chamber and alkali hydroxide compound or ammonium hydroxide in the cathode chamber, as well as concentrate the radioactive substance in the central chamber. Coated metals of at least one type of platinum metal is used as the anode for the electrolytic cell. This enables efficient industrial concentration of nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Radioactivity. Mechanisms and applications

    This work tells the discovery of radioactivity, by specifying the respective contributions of Becquerel, Pierre and marie Curie, Rutherford. It explains its mechanisms that begin in the heart of atom and it gives the principal laws. In the different uses are showed how the carbon 14 is a watch for history, to date rocks and solar system, the radioactivity and the spatial system, tracers and isotopic labelled compounds, for nuclear medicine how to make a diagnosis and how to cure, to end by radioactivity at the service of art and industry. (N.C.)

  7. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  8. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  9. Radioactive waste disposal

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  10. Design and operation of evaporators for radioactive wastes

    A manual dealing with the application of evaporators to the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes. This book is the second of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three on the three principal techniques for concentrating radioactive wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion-exchange. Informations on different types of evaporators and related equipment and their operational procedures are given in this document. It also gives different means of disposal of evaporator condensates and concentrates and a rough estimate of costs of radioactive waste evaporator plant and its operation. 58 refs, 43 figs, 5 tabs

  11. The development of radioactive waste treatment technology(IV)

    Following studies were performed in the project of development of radioactive waste treatment technology. 1) Treatment of radioactive borated liquid wastes by reverse osmosis : Separation characteristics of boric acid were estimated using cellulose acetate membrane and aromatic polyamide membrane. The performance of reverse osmosis process was evaluated in terms of boric acid recovery, radiochemical rejection, and membrane flux by operating variables such as applied pressure and feed concentration. 2) Oily waste treatment : The mathematical model to estimate oil removal efficiency is to be proposed at coalescence column. 3) Treatment of radioactive laundry waste 4) Comparison of evaporation and ion-exchange 5) State of the art of high integrity container. (Author)

  12. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  13. Cesium ion uptake by moss (Hypnum cupressiforme)

    Lower land mosses uptake water and minerals from the atmosphere. They can collect metals polluting the air and radioactive fallout elements so they can be suitable for monitoring of these substances. Cesium ion uptake by Hypnum cupressiforme is studied by a radioactive tracer, 134Cs. The quantity of cesium ion in different celluar locations and the capacity of ion uptake is determined. The total capacity is found to be several times 10-3 mol g-1 and is therefore of the same order of magnitude as the cation exchange capacity of ion exchangers. The kinetics and reversibility of the process is studied as well. (orig.)

  14. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  15. Understanding radioactive waste

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  16. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  17. Understanding radioactive waste

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  18. Radioactive waste management

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  19. Radioactivity in environmental samples

    The objective of this practical work is to familiarize the student with radioactivity measures in environmental samples. For that were chosen samples a salt of natural potassium, a salt of uranium or torio and a sample of drinkable water

  20. Law of radioactive minerals

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN