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Sample records for 153sm important radionuclides

  1. Apoptosis induced by radionuclide 153Sm and expression of relevant genes in three different cancer cells

    To study apoptosis of PC-3, ER-75-30 and A549 cells induced by radionuclide 153Sm and the expression of bcl-2, bax in apoptosis cells, MTT assay was used to detect the anti-tumor effect, light microscope, transmission electron microscope, flow cytometer were used to detect apoptosis, while image analysis was used to detect the expression of bcl-2 and bax. 153Sm showed anti-tumor effect and could induce tumor cell apoptosis. Both bcl-2 and bax played an important role in apoptosis. Different kind of cells had different sensitivity to 153Sm

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of 153Sm-EDTMP, 177Lu-EDTMP and 166Ho-EDTMP for systemic radiation therapy: Influence of type and energy of radiation and half-life of radionuclides

    In radiopharmaceutical therapy, delivered doses to critical organs must be below a certain threshold therefore internal radiation dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals is essential. Advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides with different characteristics were evaluated for selection of appropriate radionuclide. The Monte Carlo MCNPX simulation program was used to obtain radial dose and cumulative dose of 153Sm, 177Lu and 166Ho used in radiotherapy of bone metastases. A cylindrical geometry with constant density materials was supposed for simulation of femur bone. The radius of bone marrow, bone, and surrounding soft tissue was considered 0.6 cm, 1.3 cm and 4 cm, respectively. It was assumed that the radionuclides were uniformly distributed throughout the tumor. “continuous energy spectrum” of beta particle was used instead of mean beta energy. Our simulations show that absorbed dose in target organ (bone) is greater than other organs and 166Ho gives a higher dose to the critical organ of bone marrow than either 153Sm or 177Lu. Absorbed dose versus time demonstrate faster dose delivery for the short half-life radionuclides (153Sm and 166Ho). These results are in good agreement with clinical observations which show a pain relief within 1 week after intravenous administration of 153Sm-EDTMP, whereas it occurs within 2 week in the case of 177Lu-EDTMP. According to the results, combination of different radionuclides with different characteristics such as 153Sm-EDTMP and 177Lu-EDTMP could be more advantageous to patients with painful bone metastasis. - Highlights: • The radial dose and cumulative dose of 153Sm, 177Lu and 166Ho are calculated. • The effect of half-life of the radionuclide on the suitable activity for injection is studied. • Dose delivery is fast for the short half-life radionuclides (153Sm and 166Ho). • The results are in good accordance with clinical observations. • The combination of different radionuclides with different characteristics

  3. Study on cellular survival adaptive response induced by low dose irradiation of 153Sm

    The present study engages in determining whether low dose irradiation of 153Sm could cut down the responsiveness of cellular survival to subsequent high dose exposure of 153Sm so as to make an inquiry into approach the protective action of adaptive response by second irradiation of 153Sm. Experimental results indicate that for inductive low dose of radionuclide 153Sm 3.7 kBq/ml irradiated beforehand to cells has obvious resistant effect in succession after high dose irradiation of 153Sm 3.7 x 102 kBq/ml was observed. Cells exposed to low dose irradiation of 153Sm become adapted and therefore the subsequent cellular survival rate induced by high dose of 153Sm is sufficiently higher than high dose of 153Sm merely. It is evident that cellular survival adaptive response could be induced by pure low dose irradiation of 153Sm only

  4. Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on $^{nat}$Sm for production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Csikai, J; Ignatyuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    At present, targeted radiotherapy (TR) is acknowledged to have great potential in oncology. A large list of interesting radionuclides is identified, including several radioisotopes of lanthanides, amongst them $^{145}$Sm and $^{153}$Sm. In this work the possibility of their production at a cyclotron was investigated using a deuteron beam and a samarium target. The excitation functions of the $^{nat}$Sm(d,x)$^{145153}$Sm reactions were determined for deuteron energies up to 50 MeV using the stacked-foil technique and high-resolution $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry. The measured cross sections and the contributing reactions were analyzed by comparison with results of the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS nuclear reaction codes. A short overview and comparison of possible production routes is given.

  5. Radionuclide Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP is Effective for the Palliation of Bone Pain in the Context of Extensive Bone Marrow Metastases: A Case Report

    Kairemo, Kalevi; Rasulova, Nigora; Suslaviciute, Justina; Alanko, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is widely used as an effective modality in the management of bone pain. The main indication for this treatment is symptomatic bone metastases, confirmed by bone scintigraphy. We present a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) stage T4N2M1b, with a good metabolic response to systemic therapy and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and locoregional disease, which became metabolically less active and remarkably smaller in size (reduction to 1/6 of the original volume). In spite of the good overall response, the patient developed a syndrome with severe bone pain and had progression in the bone marrow metastases, confirmed by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The patient received 153Sm-EDTMP treatment with a good clinical response. However, in the whole body bone scan with the therapeutic dose, there was no visual evidence of bone metastasis. Retrospectively, by drawing the region of interest, it was possible to identify one metastatic site. The possible mechanisms of the efficacy of this treatment modality, in this specific setting, are also discussed. PMID:27408870

  6. Radionuclide Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP is Effective for the Palliation of Bone Pain in the Context of Extensive Bone Marrow Metastases: A Case Report

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide therapy is widely used as an effective modality in the management of bone pain. The main indication for this treatment is symptomatic bone metastases, confirmed by bone scintigraphy. We present a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC stage T4N2M1b, with a good metabolic response to systemic therapy and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and locoregional disease, which became metabolically less active and remarkably smaller in size (reduction to 1/6 of the original volume. In spite of the good overall response, the patient developed a syndrome with severe bone pain and had progression in the bone marrow metastases, confirmed by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The patient received 153Sm-EDTMP treatment with a good clinical response. However, in the whole body bone scan with the therapeutic dose, there was no visual evidence of bone metastasis. Retrospectively, by drawing the region of interest, it was possible to identify one metastatic site. The possible mechanisms of the efficacy of this treatment modality, in this specific setting, are also discussed.

  7. Production cross-section calculations of medical {sup 32}P, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 186,188}Re radionuclides used in bone pain palliation treatment

    Demir, Bayram [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Kaplan, A.; Capali, V. [Univ. Isparta (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Sarpuen, I.H. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Aydin, A. [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Tel, E. [Univ. Osmaniye (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2015-03-15

    In this study, production cross-section calculations of {sup 32}P, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 186,188}Re radionuclides used in bone pain palliation treatment produced by {sup 30}Si(d,γ){sup 32}P, {sup 118}Sn(γ,n){sup 117}Sn, {sup 116}Sn(n,γ){sup 117}Sn, {sup 150}Nd(α,n){sup 153}Sm, {sup 154}Sm(n,2n){sup 153}Sm, {sup 152}Sm(n,γ){sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186}Re, {sup 187}Re(γ,n){sup 186}Re, {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186}Re and {sup 187}Re(n,γ){sup 188}Re reactions have been investigated in the different incident energy range of 0.003-34 MeV. Two-component exciton and generalised superfluid models of the TALYS 1.6 and exciton and generalised superfluid models of the EMPIRE 3.1 computer codes have been used to pre-equilibrium (PEQ) reaction calculations. The calculated production cross-section results have been compared with available experimental results existing in the experimental nuclear reaction database (EXFOR). Except the {sup 118}Sn(γ,n){sup 117}Sn, {sup 150}Nd(α,n){sup 153}Sm and {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186}Re reactions, the two-component exciton model calculations of TALYS 1.6 code exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this present study.

  8. Influence of binding characteristics of 153Sm-complexes to BSA on their bone uptake

    The bone uptake in normal mice and adsorption on bone model materials (hydroxyapatite and type I collagen) of 153Sm-NTMP, 153Sm-HEDTMP, 153Sm-DCTMP, 153Sm-EDTMP, 153Sm-DTPMP and 153Sm-DTPA are compared, and then the binding characteristics of these 153Sm-complexes to bovine serum albumin (BSA) are investigated. It is found that there is a discrepancy between the bone uptake and the adsorption on bone model materials, and that the binding characteristics of these 153Sm-complexes to BSA play an important role in the process of their bone uptake. Also, the binding characteristics are applied to explain the discrepancy successfully

  9. Production and supply of 99Mo, 153Sm radioisotopes for medical applications - societal benefits

    Application of radioisotopes in medicine has led to the evolution of a new branch of medicine called 'Nuclear Medicine' wherein radioisotope products in the form radiopharmaceuticals are used for the diagnosis of diseases, their follow up, detecting recurrence and also in the treatment of certain diseases. Large scale production, processing and supply of number of radioisotopes for medical application has been a feature of our laboratory. 99Mo is an important radionuclide produced in our reactors to obtain 99mTc, the most commonly used diagnostic radionuclide in the preparation of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals through 99Mo-99mTc radionuclide generators. 99Mo for the preparation of generators based on solvent extraction technology is produced by irradiation of natural MoO3 target in Dhruva and Cirus reactors. About 1.5 TBq (∼40 Ci) of 99Mo is processed and supplied to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) every week on Saturdays to meet the requirements of nuclear medicine centres in the country. 153Sm-EDTMP is a ready-to-use radiopharmaceutical approved for the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain in patients suffering from primary lung, breast and prostate cancers. 153SmCl3, the primary radiochemical for preparation of 153Sm-radiopharmaceutical is produced by neutron activation of natural or enriched Sm2O3 target in our medium flux research reactors. 150 GBq (4Ci) 153Sm is processed and supplied every month to BRIT for radiopharmaceutical production and further supply to nuclear medicine centres. Logistics of regular production of both 99Mo and 153Sm radionuclides, their quality control and the scope for the production of these radiochemicals with high specific activity to meet the increasing demands in the years to come with concomitant health care benefits to the society at large are discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. Studies concerning the preparation of the 153Sm complex with EDTMP (ethylenediaminetetra methylenephosphonic acid) and other 153Sm complexes with other phosphonates, at room temperature

    This work presents a study on the preparation of the complexes 153Sm - EDTMP, 153Sm - HEDP, 153Sm - NTMP, 153Sm - DTPMP and 153Sm - HDTMP at room temperature. The preparation of the complex 153Sm - HDTMP, under heating (70 - 72 deg C), was also studied. Several factors affecting the 153Sm - EDTMP complexing yields were studied, due to its importance for use in Nuclear Medicine. These factors were: the molar ratio [ligand] / [metal], the ligand concentration and the incubation time of the mixture ligand-metal. The preparation of this complex, in low molar ratios, was also investigated. A study of the 153Sm - EDTMP concerning the 'in vitro' stability, when this complex was prepared in low radioactive concentrations was performed. A study on the temperature influence on its degradation, when this complex was obtained in higher radioactive concentrations, was also performed. The preparation of the complexes 153Sm - HEDP, 153Sm - NTMP, 153Sm - DTPMP and 153Sm - HDTMP was investigated by preparing the complexes in two situations: high molar ratio and ligand concentration and low molar ratio and ligand concentration. The 'in vitro' stability of each complex, obtained in low radioactive concentration was studied. In the specific case of the complex 153Sm - HDTMP, its biological distribution in mice was performed. All the complexes were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its complexing yields were determined by other three chromatographic processes: ionic exchange, thin layer chromatography (TLC - SG) and paper chromatography. The chromatographic processes were performed by association with specific radiochemical techniques. This work also presents a comparative study on the chromatograms obtained by thin layer chromatography (TLC - SG) and paper chromatography, when evaluated by the technique of cutting the strips into pieces and the chromatograms performed directly on a radiochromatography. The shape of the chromatograms and Rf values of 153

  11. First measurement of 153Sm in the SIR

    In June 1998, the NIST sent to the International Reference System (SIR) a solution of 153Sm standardized in a 4π ionization chamber. As this radionuclide had not previously been measured in the SIR, the resulting equivalent activity Ae,NIST is compared with the value calculated from the efficiency curve of the SIR. However, problems occurred owing to the presence of 154Eu and 156Eu impurities in the solution. The manner in which the final equivalent activity value for this solution of 153Sm has been deduced is described in this report. (authors)

  12. The content of 153Sm-oxabifor in cancer patients blood in the treatment of bone metastasis

    Concentration 153Sm in the blood of patients with bone metastasis after radionuclide therapy was determined. Considerable variation of the content of 153Sm in blood of patients with various primary cancers from 10 to 65 Bq/ml is found. The effective half-life of 153Sm in the blood of patients was estimated at more than 10 days during the course of the therapy in time interval more than 7 days

  13. Kinetics of 153Sm oxabiphor in the blood of cancer patients undergoing complex therapy for bone metastasis

    Concentration 153Sm in the blood of patients with bone metastasis after radionuclide therapy was determined. Considerable variation of the content of 153Sm in blood of patients with various primary cancers from 10 to 65 Bq/ml is found. The effective half-life of 153Sm in the blood of patients was estimated at more than 10 days during the course of the therapy.

  14. 153Sm oxabiphor in complex therapy of metastatic bone tissue

    The article provides a review of literature regarding radionuclide treatment of bone metastases disease in patients with different malignant neoplasms. Retrospective review of radiopharmaceutical application in the treatment of bone distant metastases is given. Advantages and limitations of different radiotracers have been determined. Possibility of application of the most updated, last generation agent, 153Sm, which is according to literature data showed an excellent analgesic properties and minimum side effects has been comprehensively studied

  15. DNA gel electrophoretic and micro-autoradiographic studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells after exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP

    Objective: To study the characteristics of injury in apoptotic bone tumor cells and behavior of radionuclide 153Sm in tumor cells. Methods: DNA gel electrophoresis and micro-autoradiographic tracing of apoptotic bone tumor cells at different intervals after 153Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation. Results: Bone tumor cells internally irradiated with 153Sm-EDTMP displayed characteristics of DNA ladder formation in apoptotic cells. 153Sm could permeate through tumor cell membrane and be phagocytized by the tumor cells, showing membrane-seeking and membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies condensation. Conclusion: Progression of apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP is dependent on the time elapse of 153Sm internal irradiation

  16. Preparation and quality control of {sup 153}Sm radiopharmaceuticals

    Swasono, R. Tamat; Widyastuti, W.; Purwadi, B.; Laksmi, I. [Radioisotope Production Center - BATAN, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The paper summarizes the preparation and quality control of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and three {sup 153}Sm-radiosynovectomy agents. Natural and enriched Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98.7% {sup 152}Sm) irradiated in RSG-GAS 30 MW reactor yielded pure and high specific activity {sup 153}Sm. Labeling of EDTMP with {sup 153}Sm was carried out by mixing {sup 153}SmCl{sub 3} solution of pH 4.0 to an EDTMP solution at room temperature then pH adjustment to 8. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP complex was separated from the free {sup 153}Sm{sup +3} on a Chelex 100 column. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography using Cellulose sheets and pyridine: ethanol: water (1: 2: 4) mixture as solvent. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP has been shown to be stable for two weeks. Three particulate preparations of {sup 153}Sm used for the irradiation of chronic synovitis have been studied. They are hydroxyapatite particles, human serum albumin microspheres and ferric hydroxide macroaggregates. The {sup 153}Sm-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates were prepared in a single step by coprecipitation of {sup 153}Sm in the formation of Fe(OH){sub 3}. Preparation of {sup 153}Sm-labelled hydroxyapatite particles and {sup 153}Sm-labelled albumin microspheres were carried out by {sup 153}Sm labelling of previously prepared particles. Radiolabelling efficiency were greater than 95% for hydroxyapatite particles and macroaggregates and was lower than 20% for albumin microspheres. The particle sizes were inspected using an optical microscope with a haemocytometer and micrometric ocular. (author)

  17. Chemical study on the labeling of EDTB with 153Sm

    Objective: According to conjugation characteristic of N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-benzymidazolylmethyl)-1, 2-ethanediamine (EDTB) with lipiodol selectively retained within hepatic tumors, in this paper, the labeling of EDTB with therapeutic nuclide 153Sm was first systematically studied by different labeling pathways, to further develop new labeled compounds with 153Sm for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: A radio-paper chromatography (RPC) was used to determine the purity of the labeled compound with the mixture of pyridine: ethanol: water (1:2:4, V/V) as developer. Using independence variable method, the effect of labeling conditions, such as reaction time, temperature and concentration of EDTB on labeling yield were investigated, and the in vitro stability of 153Sm-EDTB was also demonstrated by RPC. Results: the RPC analysis indicated that Rf value of free 153Sm or 153Sm-EDTB was 0.0-0.1 and 0.6-0.7, respectively. Using acetic acid as reaction medium, in an open nitrogen-pouring labeling system, heated in boiling water bath for not less than 30 min, the labeling yield of 153Sm-EDTB was more than 97% and could remain in 24 hours after preparing the labeled compound at room temperature. Conclusion: The optimum labeling method and conditions were achieved. The in vitro stability of 153Sm-EDTB was good; thereby this provided possibility for further preparation and biological research of potential therapeutic radiopharmaceutical labeled lipiodol with 153Sm via EDTB for liver cancer

  18. 153Sm metallic-hydroxide macroaggregates. An improved preparation for radiation synovectomy

    A new type of preparation employing 153Sm metallic-hydroxide macroaggregates (153Sm-MHM) for radiation synovectomy was developed. The radiopharmaceutical was prepared by reacting the aqueous solution of 153SmCl3 with sodium borohydride solution in 0.5N NaOH. Microscopic analysis showed that 153Sm-MHM mean particle size was 4μm (range 1-15 μm) avoiding the formation of fine particles (153Sm-hydroxide macroaggregates preparations (153Sm-HM). Also, suspension properties as sedimentation rate, were better for 153Sm-MHM than for 153Sm-hydroxyapatite and 153Sm-HM. Biological studies in normal rabbits demonstrated high retention into de Knee joint space even at 48 h after administration of 153Sm-MHM (>99%). (author)

  19. Primary investigation of dose-effect relationship of 153Sm-EDTMP in treating multiple bone metastases%153Sm-EDTMP治疗多发骨转移瘤的剂量效应关系初步观察

    Wei Fan; Lixin Chen; Xiaowei Liu; Qiang Tang; Shengfang Zhi; Zongyuan Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the focus absorption dose of 153Sm-EDTMP with the Monte Carlo (MC) EGS4 method for treatment of bone metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma or breast cancer, and investigate the relationship between the focus absorption dose and painkilling effect of 153Sm-EDTMP. Methods: Four patients with multiple bone metastases from nasopharyngeal or breast carcinoma and suffered from grade Ⅳ bone pain were treated with radionuclide internal irradiation of 153Sm-EDTMP. The absorption dose and dose distribution of bone metastases and other targeted organs were calculated with MC EGS4 program based on the time-order SPECT/CT scanning and the measurement of the radioactivity in the urine accumulation. The release of bone pain and the improvement of life quality were observed. Results: Bone pain of the patients was significantly alleviated to grade Ⅱ for 3-4 weeks after internal 153Sm-EDTMP irradiation. The 3-dimensional absorption dose distribution image of bone metastases and targeted organs showed that the dose distribution in bone metastases was not asymmetrical. After injection of 0.65 × 37 MBq/kg 153Sm-EDTMP, the highest absorption dose in bone lesions was about 4.9-5.9 Gy, and the dose in the lesion margin was about 2.0 Gy. Using the highest dose as reference dose point, the relative absorption dose values of bone marrow, vertebra and sex organ near lesions were 0.48-1.1 Gy, 0.51-0.85 Gy, and 0.01-0.14 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The absorption dose of bone metastases is significantly lower than treatment dose of 30 Gy after single irradiation of 153Sm-EDTMP. The painkilling effect is limited and in accordance with clinical observation.

  20. Preparation of bone tumor therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals 153Sm-EDTMP

    Samarium-153-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), for its promising biological properties, has been proved as a palliating therapeutic agent for bone tumor in human beings. 153Sm with high radionuclear purity and specific activity of 5.18 GBq (140 mCi)/mg Sm2O3 was prepared by irradiating natural Sm2O3(152Sm, 26.7%) sample, replacing costly enriched samarium oxide target, at a flux of 4 x 1013 n·cm-2·s-1 for 110 h. The yield of 153Sm complexing with EDTMP is greater than 98% at pH 8∼10 in boiling water bath for 30 min, and not significantly decreases within one week after 153Sm-EDTMP complex formation

  1. SPECT/CT images in the calculation of absorbed dose ration between radio-synovectomy procedures with 153Sm-HA and 90Y-HA

    Full text of publication follows. Heterogeneity in the intra-articular distribution of hydroxyapatite (HA) labeled with 90Y or 153Sm at radio-synovectomy (RSV) procedures can be detected by using the fusion between transmission (SPECT) and emission (CT) tomographic images. To avoid this heterogeneity, commonly it is preferred to use 90Y over 153Sm assuming that the larger penetration range of the emitted beta particles will make the absorbed dose distribution more uniform. In this study, we evaluated the validity of this assumption by determining the affected area of RSV procedures in human joints treated with 90Y-HA and 153Sm-HA. Using SPECT/CT images of 3 patients treated with 90Y-HA (185 MBq) or 153Sm-HA (740 MBq), a voxel-by-voxel (voxel size=9.06 mm3) analysis was performed to build 3D distribution of 90Y and 153Sm activity. With the 3D image of the activity correlated to the mass of each voxel, provided by CT images via Housfield scale, the absorbed dose was calculated using the generic equation of absorbed dose rate and the average range of beta particles emitted from 90Y and 153Sm. We have chosen the generic dose equation rather than the MIRD model of voxel dosimetry or the Dose-Point Kernel method because the later models do not allow for a voxel mass dependent dose calculation. In addition, there is little information on 153Sm data and voxel sizes in these models. Considering the average energy and the therapeutic range of emitted beta particles we concluded that the dose in each voxel is not affected by the activity of neighboring voxels. Difference in the RSV procedures using 90Y-HA and 153Sm-HA should be just the dose difference per activity injected. Collisional Stopping Power shows us that the relative dose between these two compounds is 4.12:1. With these results we conclude that beta particles emitted from 90Y and 153Sm do not have range enough to reach cold spots found in heterogeneous distributions of radionuclide at RSV. Hence the spatial dose

  2. A comparative study of preliminary dosimetry for human based on distribution data in rats with 111In, 90Y, 153Sm, and 177Lu labeled rituximab

    Radfar Edalat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio immunotherapy is one of the most important and effective therapies for B-cell non Hoddgkin’s lymphoma treatment. Today, anti CD-20 antibodies labeled with beta emitter radionuclides are used in radio immunotherapy. Various radionuclides for labeling anti CD-20 antibodies have been studied and developed for the treatment and diagnosis of malignancies. This paper describes the preparation, bio-distribution and absorbed dose rate of 111In, 90Y, 177Lu, and 153Sm labeled anti CD-20 antibodies (rituximab in human organs, after injection to rats. The macro cyclic bifunctional chelating agent, N-succinimidyl-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA-NHS for conjugation to antibody, was used to prepare DOTA-rituximab. The conjugates were purified by molecular filtration, the average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb was calculated and total concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. Radio-labeling was performed at 40 °C for 24 hours. After the quality control studies, the final radioactive solution was injected intravenously into rats through their tail vein. The tissue uptakes of each injection were measured. Then we calculated S values for 177Lu and 153Sm by using specific absorbed fractions and data used in the manner of radio-labeled analysis and dosimetry for humans. The absorbed dose rate of each organ was calculated in the specific time by medical internal radiation dose method with linear approximation in the activity measurements.

  3. Targeted radiotherapy dosimetry of 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy

    The dosimetry of the recently developed 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates (153Sm-MH) for radiation synovectomy has been studied as an agent for the treatment of arthritic synovial joint diseases. This pharmaceutical formulation presents optimal properties in terms of particle size (average 4 μm) sedimentation (0.008 cm min-1) and biological behavior. Direct measurements of depth dose distributions for this beta-gamma emitter present a difficult task; therefore, calculations of depth dose profiles are an invaluable tool for investigating the effectiveness of this therapeutic technique. In spite of the importance of these calculations there are only a few studies dealing with the experimental validation of these calculated depth dose distributions. On the present work the Monte Carlo (MCNP4B) calculated beta-gamma depth dose profiles for a liquid 153Sm beta-gamma source used in radiation synovectomy are compared with experimental depth dose distribution obtained using radiochromic dye film dosimetry (GafChromic trade mark sign ). The calculated and experimental depth dose distribution showed a very good agreement (within 5%) on the region where the dose deposition is dominated by the beeta-particle component (first 800 microns depth on tissue equivalent material). The agreement worsens reaching a maximum deviation of 15% at depths close to the maximum range of the beta-particles. Finally the agreement improves for the region where the gamma component accounts for one third of the total absorbed dose (depths>1 mm). The possible contributions to these differences are discussed as well as their relevance for the application of 153Sm for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

  4. Efficient protocol for the preparation 153Sm-EDTMP injection: an agent for bone pain palliative treatment

    techniques and gadgets and production modules, several therapeutic batches of 153Sm-EDTMP injection have been processed, QC tested (radiochemical purity, radionuclidic purity, sterility test, bacteriological endotoxin test) and more than 100 doses (70 mCi each) have been supplied for clinical use, to various Nuclear Medicine Centers in India. Regular production of this product (BRIT Code SAM-2) is being undertaken on monthly frequency

  5. The entrance to bone tumor cells of 153Sm-EDTMP by microautoradiographic tracing

    The dynamic process of 153Sm-EDTMP entering into bone tumor cells and its behavior characteristic in osteosarcoma cells are studied by microautoradiographic tracing. The results show that 153Sm-EDTMP condense on membrane of osteosarcoma cells at first, then infiltrate through cell membrane or phagocytized by osteosarcoma cells and distributed in the form of phagosomes. In apoptotic osteosarcoma cells 153Sm-EDTMP could be observed in the membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies. So, the progression of apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP is dependent on the infiltration and phagocytosis of 153Sm-EDTMP through cell membrane

  6. 153Sm-HM for arthritic knee pain. Estimated dosimetry

    Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthropathy and after cardiovascular diseases is the most disabling disease in developing countries. The dosimetry for the clinical application of 153-samarium-hydroxymacroaggregates (153Sm-HM) for radiation synovectomy (RSV) and palliative treatment for arthritic pain, as far as we know, has not been reported. The aim of this research was to estimate the radiation dose necessary for synovial ablation and pain palliation with minimum risk to the patient. 153Sm-HM (370 MBq) was administered intra-articularly in a patient with severe knee pain and hindered motility. Regions of interest drawn on sequential, conjugated, anterior and posterior scintigraphy images were used to obtain the respective activity. The data was entered into a knee joint histological-geometric model designed with micrometric dimensions to represent the synovial cell layers. The Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the absorbed dose in each of the 12 model-cells representing the distance from the synovial liquid to the cartilage or bone. The absorbed dose in the synovial cavity was 114 Gy which is sufficient energy for RSV. The treated patient referred little pain and higher motility with no adverse reactions. 153Sm-HM is a potentially valid radiopharmaceutical for RSV, which effectively palliates knee pain.

  7. Synthesis and bio-evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite trapped by 153Sm

    After nanoHA was synthesized, 153Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA and 153Sm-citrate-nanoHA were prepared and proved stable in vitro. ECT images of New Zealand rabbits injected with 153Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA had better contrast, skeletal figure visible, liver and spleen clear. The images of 153Sm-citrate-nanoHA showed a similar results but kidney invisible, which meant 153Sm-citrate-nanoHA showed a similar results but kidney invisible, which meant 153Sm-citrate-nanoHA was mainly excreted through liver and gall. 153Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA's half effective inhibition concentrations to SMMC-7721 and MCF-7 cells were 1.98 g/L and 0.075 g/L respectively and 153Sm-citrate-nanoHA's were 1.89 g/L and 0.094 g/L proportionally. 153Sm-EDTMP-nanoHA and 153Sm-citrate-nanoHA were worthy of a further research because their half effective inhibition concentrations were much lower than ones of the single nanoHA. (authors)

  8. Biological evaluation of 153Sm and 166Ho complexes with macrocyclic ligands containing acetate pendant arms as potential agents for therapy

    For the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals it is essential to choose the appropriate beta-emitter as well as the carrier biomolecule. Different carrier biomolecules, namely antibodies and peptides, have been linked to different beta-emitters (153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu) using tetraaza macrocycles as bifunctional chelators. The cavity size of these chelators, the rigidity of the macrocyclic backbone and the nature of the pendant arms seems to play an important role on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of the radiocomplexes and on their biological behaviour. In our research group we have been exploring the possibility of using tetraazamacrocycles with different cavity size, pendant arms and rigidity for preparing 153Sm and 166Ho complexes useful for therapeutical applications and/or bone pain palliation. In this communication we present the results obtained when we reacted trita and teta with 153Sm and 166Ho. The complexes are formed in good yields (> 98%), are hydrophilic and present an overall negative charges, as well as low plasmatic protein binding. Good in vitro stability in physiological media and human serum was also found for all the complexes. The biodistribution studies in mice are also presented and have shown that 153Sm/166Ho-trita and 166Ho-teta have rapid tissue clearance, comparably to the corresponding dota complexes. In contrast, 153Sm-teta has a significant lower total excretion and a significant liver and muscle uptake. Our results indicate that 153Sm/166Ho-trita form very stable complexes in vivo. However, teta, which has a larger cavity size, forms less stable complexes with the larger ion Sm3+. The biological profile of 153Sm/166Ho-trita is very interesting for the evaluation of these complexes as therapeutical agents when conjugated to biomolecules

  9. Organ doses from hepatic radioembolization with 90Y, 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu: A Monte Carlo simulation study using Geant4

    Hashikin, N. A. A.; Yeong, C. H.; Guatelli, S.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Ng, K. H.; Malaroda, A.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Perkins, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    90Y-radioembolization is a palliative treatment for liver cancer. 90Y decays via beta emission, making imaging difficult due to absence of gamma radiation. Since post-procedure imaging is crucial, several theranostic radionuclides have been explored as alternatives. However, exposures to gamma radiation throughout the treatment caused concern for the organs near the liver. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation using MIRD Pamphlet 5 reference phantom was carried out. A spherical tumour with 4.3cm radius was modelled within the liver. 1.82GBq of 90Y sources were isotropically distributed within the tumour, with no extrahepatic shunting. The simulation was repeated with 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu. The estimated tumour doses for all radionuclides were 262.9Gy. Tumour dose equivalent to 1.82GBq 90Y can be achieved with 8.32, 5.83, and 4.44GBq for 153Sm, 166Ho and 177Lu, respectively. Normal liver doses by the other radionuclides were lower than 90Y, hence beneficial for normal tissue sparing. The organ doses from 153Sm and 177Lu were relatively higher due to higher gamma energy, but were still well below 1Gy. 166Ho, 177Lu and 153Sm offer useful gamma emission for post-procedure imaging. They show potential as 90Y substitutes, delivering comparable tumour doses, lower normal liver doses and other organs doses far below the tolerance limit.

  10. The biodistribution and kinetics of the 153Sm labelled avidin, streptavidin and biotin

    Due to the high affinity of biotin to Av or SA. The authors labelled a biotin derivative (DTPA-biotin) with 153Sm and then bound this 153Sm labelled DTPA-biotin to Av or SA. The in vivo kinetics and biodistribution of 153Sm labelled Av, SA and DTPA-biotin were studied in the rat and mice. The results demonstrated that 153Sm-Av cleared from the blood rapidly with high liver and renal uptake; 153Sm-SA cleared from blood slowly with high retention in liver, spleen and kidney, whereas 153Sm metabolize more fast, and excreted mainly through the kidney. Thereby, the biodistribution difference of SA and Av mentioned above provided an experimental basis for the selection of different components of A-V system in pre-targeting radio-immuno imaging and radioimmunotherapy

  11. Chemical and biological evaluation of {sup 153}Sm and {sup 46/47}Sc complexes of indazolebisphosphonates for targeted radiotherapy

    Neves, Maria, E-mail: mneves@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Teixeira, Fatima C.; Antunes, Ines [INETI-Departamento de Tecnologia de Industrias Quimicas, Lisboa (Portugal); Majkowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Gano, Lurdes [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Santos, Ana Cristina [IBB-Instituto de Biofisica e Biomatematica, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Novel 1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonates derived from indazole and substituted at the C-3 position were labeled with the radionuclides {sup 46}Sc and {sup 153}Sm. Several parameters such as molar ligand concentration, pH, reaction time and temperature were studied. The radiolabelling yield, reaction kinetics and stability were assessed and radiocomplexes were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods: The radionuclides {sup 46}Sc and {sup 153}Sm were obtained by neutron irradiation of natural Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and enriched {sup 152}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98.4%) targets at the neutron flux of 3x10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The radiolabelling yield, reaction kinetics and stability were accomplished by ascending instant thin layer chromatography. The radiocomplexes were submitted to in vitro experiments (hydroxyapatite binding and lipophilicity) and biodistribution studies in animal models. Results: The radionuclides {sup 46}Sc and {sup 153}Sm were produced with specific activities of 100 and 430 MBq mg{sup -1}, respectively. High radiochemical yields were achieved and the hydrophilic radiocomplexes have shown high degree of binding to hydroxyapatite. Biodistribution studies at 1, 3 and 24 h of the 4 radiocomplexes under study, have showed a similar biodistribution profile with a relatively high bone uptake, slow clearance from blood and a very slow rate of total radioactivity excretion from the whole animal body. Conclusion: We have developed a new class of indazolebisphosphonates complexes with radioisotopes of samarium and scandium. All complexes have shown high degree of binding to hydroxyapatite, which could be attributed to the ionized phosphonate groups. The bone uptake and the bone-to-muscle ratios were relatively low.

  12. Studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm

    ZHU Shou-Peng; XIAO Dong; HAN Xiao-Feng

    2004-01-01

    The apoptosis in human bone tumor cells induced by internal irradiation with 153Sm was studied. The morphological changes in bone tumor cells were observed by electronic and fluorescent microscopy, as well as DNA agarose gel eletrophoresis. DNA chain fragmentation, microautoradiographic tracing and the inhibition rate of proliferation in bone tumor cells exposed to 153Sm with different duration time were examined. It was demonstrated that the bone tumor cells exposed to 153Sm displayed nuclear fragmentation, pyknosis, margination of condensed chromatin, and formation of membrane bounded apoptotic bodies, whereas the percentage of DNA chain fragmentation of bone tumor cells increases in direct proportion to the duration of irradiation with 153Sm, as well as DNA ladder formation in apoptotic cells. Also a marked inhibition effect of proliferation in bone tumor cells after exposure with 153Sm was observed.

  13. Studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm

    The apoptosis in human bone tumor cells induced by internal irradiation with 153Sm was studied. The morphological changes in bone tumor cells were observed by electronic and fluorescent microscopy, as well as DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA chain fragmentation, microautoradiographic tracing and the inhibition rate of proliferation in bone tumor cells exposed to 153Sm with different duration time were examined. It was demonstrated that the bone tumor cells exposed to 153Sm displayed nuclear fragmentation, pyknosis, margination of condensed chromatin, and formation of membrane bounded apoptotic bodies, whereas the percentage of DNA chain fragmentation of bone tumor cells increases in direct proportion to the duration of irradiation with 153Sm, as well as DNA ladder formation in apoptotic cells. Also a marked inhibition effect of proliferation in bone tumor cells after exposure with 153Sm was observed. (authors)

  14. Preparation and animal imaging of 153Sm-EDTMP as a bone seeking radiopharmaceutical

    Ethylenediamine- tetra methylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) has widely used chelator for the labeling of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals complexed with radio metals. 153Sm can be produced by the HANARO reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Korea. 153Sm has favourable radiation characteristics T1/2=46.7 h, β max=0.81 MeV (20%), 0.71 MeV (49%), 0.64 MeV (30%) and γ=103 keV (30%) emission which is suitable for imaging purposes during therapy. We investigated the labeling condition of 153Sm-Emptied and imaging of 153Sm-EDTMP in normal rats. EDTMP 20 mg was solved in 0.1 mL 2 M NaOH. 153SmCl3 was added to EDTMP solution and pH of the reaction mixtures was adjusted to 8 and 12, respectively. Radiochemical purity was determined with paper chromatography. After 30 min. reaction, reaction mixtures were neutralized to pH 7.4 and the stability was estimated upto 120 hrs. Imaging studies of each reaction were performed in normal rats (37 MBq/0.1 mL). The labeling yield of 153Sm-EDTMP was 99%. The stability of pH 8 reaction at 60, 96 and 120 hr was 99%,95%,89% and that of pH 12 at 36, 60, 96, and 120 hr was 99%, 95%, 88%, 66%, respectively. The 153Sm-EDTMP showed constantly higher bone uptake from 2 to 48 hr after injection. 153Sm-EDTMP, labeled at pH 8 reaction condition, has been stably maintained. Image of 153Sm-EDTMP at 2, 24, 48 hr after injection, demonstrate that 153Sm-EDTMP is a good bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals

  15. Safety and feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty with radioactive {sup 153}Sm PMMA in an animal model

    Lu Jun [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 15 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Deng Jinglan, E-mail: dengjinglan@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 15 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Zhao Haitao [Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 15 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Shi Mei [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 15 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Wang Jing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 15 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Zhao Lina [Department of Radiotherapy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 15 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: We investigated the safety and feasibility of the combination of samarium-153-ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP)-incorporated bone cement (BC) with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in dogs. Methods and materials: {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP-incorporated BC was prepared by combining solid {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) immediately before PVP. It was then injected into the vertebrae of four healthy mongrel dogs (two males and two females) by PVP under CT guidance. Each dog was subjected to five PVP sessions at a {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP dose of 30-70 mCi. The suppressive effect of local injection of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP on the hematopoietic system was evaluated through counting of peripheral blood cells. Distribution of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP-incorporated BC and the status of tissues adjacent to injected vertebrae were evaluated with SPECT, CT and MRI. Histopathology was carried out to assess the influence of PVP on the vertebra and adjacent tissues at the microscopic level. Results: PVP was done successfully, and all dogs exhibited normal behavior and stable physical signs after procedures. {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP-incorporated BC was concentrated mainly in target vertebrae, and the peripheral blood cells remained within normal range. The spinal cord and tissues around BC did not exhibit signs of injury even when the dosage of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP increased from 30 mCi to 70 mCi. Conclusion: A dose lower than 70 mCi of {sup 153}Sm is safe when it was injected into vertebrae. {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP-incorporated BC did not influence the effect of PVP. This means might strengthen anti-tumor activity locally for vertebra with osseous metastasis without damaging adjacent tissues.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone cancer metastasis

    The 153 Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine with promising results for the relief of metastatic pain. Therefore, there are few knowledge about the effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP at cellular level. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the cytogenetic effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone metastasis (with and without previous radio and/or chemotherapy) by the chromosome aberration technique. For that, the blood samples were collected before and one hour after the endovenous administrations of 153 Sm-EDTMP (mean activity of 42.53 ± 5.31 MBq/kg body weight), taking into account the rapid blood clearance. The principal types of structural chromosome aberrations found gaps and breaks, acentric fragments centric rings, double minutes and dicentrics. The statistical analysis showed that the group submitted to previous radio and chemotherapy before153 Sm-EDTMP administration showed significant difference in chromosome aberrations frequency one hour after the treatment. The analysis of the chromosome modal number and the kinetics of cellular cycle showed no statistical difference among the groups, suggesting that the treatment with 153 Sm-EDTMP, did not influence these parameters. The obtained data showed that the therapy with 153 Sm-EDTMP induced a few quantity of cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes one hour after its administration in patients, although, theoretically, a long term stochastic effect cannot be disregarded. (author)

  17. Optimization of the production, quality control of samarium-153, 153 Sm-EDTMP and biodistribution of 153 Sm-EDTMP in animals for metastatic bone cancer pain palliation

    Samarium-153 has suitable physical properties for metastatic bone cancer pain palliation with 46.7 hr half-life. Not only decays it with multi-energetic B-radiation but also emits a gamma-ray at 103 keV which is suitable for imaging during therapy. The optimization of 153 Sm production, by irradiation 152 Sm2 O3 as a solid and liquid target, is conducted in TRIGA Mark III research reactor. The feasibility to label it with EDTMP, a bone seeking agent, is also studied. The specific activity obtained from liquid target is about 2 times higher than solid target. At least 500 mCi/week can be produced with specific activity about 50 to 70 mCi/mg Sm. EDTMP as Na-EDTMP and Ca-EDTMP is labelled with 153 Sm at various conditions. The radiochemical purity achieved, is greater than 99% (85 mCi of 153 Sm labelled with Na-EDTMP or Ca-EDTMP, molar ratio of Sm:EDTMP 1:10 and 1:100 respectively, pH 7.5-8). The biodistribution in animals of 153 Sm-Na-EDTMP showed similar results as obtained from 153 Sm-Ca-EDTMP but slightly higher uptake in various organs and showed high skeletal uptake up to 32% at 24 hr post injection. The labeled compound obviously undergoes rapid removal, completely clearance into urine within 24 hr. This labeled compound is under clinical trials

  18. Fluorescence microscopic morphology and inhibition rate studies on apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells induced by 153Sm

    The apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells treated with irradiation by 153Sm-EDTMP was studied. The morphological changes in osteosarcoma cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that osteosarcoma cells exposed with 153Sm-EDTMP displayed significant nuclear fragmentation and marked pyknosis. With the prolongation of observing period, the membrane bound apoptotic bodies formation was observed. It should be noted, that with the lengthening of irradiation time by 153Sm-EDTMP, the inhibition rate of proliferation of osteosarcoma cells increased progressively

  19. Urine management after treatment with ''153 Sm-EDTMP (QUADRAMET)

    The main purpose was to establish and to evaluate a new protocol of individualized treatment of patient urine after ''153 Sm-EDTMP injection, with a more efficient management of the wastes. Excreted urine was collected in an appropriate container form which, previous to sealing it, an aliquot of 10 ml was obtained. Experimental half-life (t1/2) of the isotope was then determined by measuring the activity at different times, besides the minimum time necessary for disposing of the radioactive wastes as regular trash. The measured half-life adjusted well to the theoretical value of the isotope. The time of considered storage oscillated between 19 and 26 days, based on the activity excreted by each patient. The main idea is the consideration of the set container-urine as solid waste: the evaluation of the minimum storage time necessary to its elimination is made in terms of legal limitation of specific activity by mass unit. The immediate advantages ares: the elimination of disagreeable scents by the storage of urine, it is not necessary a liquid waste disposal to eliminate it, and a more accurate knowledge of the specific activity at the moment of the elimination (dilution factor is not used). (Author) 10 refs

  20. Multi-factor analysis on events related to hematological toxicity in 153Sm-EDTMP palliative therapy for skeletal metastases

    Objective: To investigate the clinical factors related to hematological toxicity induced by intravenous samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (153Sm-EDTMP) treatment. Methods A total of 206 patients with bony metastases treated with 153Sm-EDTMP were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression (SPSS 10.0 for Windows) and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the factors concerned. Results: Age of the patient, number of bone metastatic lesion, chemotherapy before 153Sm-EDTMP therapy, concurrent radiotherapy and repeat-times of 153Sm-EDTMP treatments were found the individual factors related to hematological toxicity. Chemotherapy before 153Sm-EDTMP, concurrent radiotherapy, medication for normal blood counting and repeat-times of 153Sm-EDTMP treatments were the hematological toxicity factors in multi-factor analysis. Conclusion: In 153Sm-EDTMP therapy, several factors were found related to hematological toxicity suggesting more attention be paid to the change of blood cell counting after the palliative therapy. (authors)

  1. Inhibition of proliferation in bone tumor cells after irradiation by 235U, 147Pm, 153Sm

    The inhibition of proliferation in bone tumor cells after simple or mixed irradiation by 235U, 147Pm, 153Sm was studied. Experimental results indicated that proliferation of bone tumor cells was significantly inhibited at 12 h∼24 h after a simple irradiation by 235U (128.4 Bq), 147Pm (7.4 x 105 Bq), and 153Sm (7.4 x 105 Bq) as well as mixed irradiation by 235U + 147Pm (64.2 Bq + 3.7 x 105 Bq), 235U + 153Sm (64.2 Bq + 3.7 x 105 Bq), 147Pm + 153Sm (3.7 x 105 Bq + 3.7 x 105 Bq). The findings show that the inhibition rate with mixed irradiation was more than that with simple irradiation

  2. Preparation of 153Sm-citrate-HA for radioactive synovectomy of rheumatoid arthritis

    A new kind of labelled radiopharmaceutical hydroxyapatite (HA) by means of transfer complexing for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is described. HA with partials of 2-10 μm is labelled with 153Sm by a citrate transfer ligand. 153Sm-citrate-HA is obtained in high yield and is extremely stable in vitro. The complexing capability of HA is about 5 mg Sm2O3/g HA, the decomposition rates of 153Sm-citrate-HA both in saline of 0.9% and in human plasma (37 +- 0.5 degree C) are less than 2.0% for a period of 3 half lives. Biodistribution studies in rabbits demonstrated long term retention of nearly 99% of injected 153Sm-Citrate-HA in arthritis joint. Extra-articular leakage of radioactivity in both blood and urine accounted for 0.5% of injected dose, and few retained in other major tissues after about 14.8 MBq of 153Sm-Citrate-HA has injected into the left knee joint of normal rabbits. 153Sm-citrate-HA could be potentially useful in radio-synovectomy treatment of rheumatism arthritis

  3. Evaluation of the biological and scanning distribution of hydroxyapatite-153Sm radiotherapeutic agent

    Fixation of 153Sm labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in the synovial capsule and extra articular localization were evaluated by means of biological distribution tests and gamma scanning studies. These were carried out using HA-153Sm with particle size ranging between 5 and μm, and radiochemical purity above 99%. Animal models used were wistar rats and new zealand rabbits. Rabbits were injected with 7,4 MBq of HA-153Sm while rats received between 1,85 and 92,6 MBq of HA-153Sm. In both cases injection was given in the intra articular area. After injection, scanning images were obtained in rabbits on the 1st, 3rd and 7st day and in rats on the 2nd and 7th day. Biological distribution studies are conducted in the 2 hours to 9 days range in rats and one the 7th day in rabbits. No extra articular localization of HA-153Sm was found in scanning conducted on rabbits by the 1st, 3rd and 7st day after injection, neither on rats by the 2nd and 7th day. Biological distributions for rabbits and rats show localization above 99% in the intra articular area, during the evaluated periods of time. The evaluations of the biological distribution and the scintigraphic images show that fixation of HA-153Sm in the synovial capsule up to the 9th day is very high

  4. The features of kinetics of 153Sm-oksabifor in bone metastases of cancer of different localization

    Provide evaluation of investigation of kinetics of 153Sm-oksabifor in metastases of cancer the results of complex scintigraphic investigations of 26 patients who were treated by radionuclide therapy were analyzed. The angioscintigraphy during 60 seconds, dynamic scintigraphy during 60-90 minutes and whole body scanning after intravenous bolus injection of 4130-4950 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical in sequence were made. Considerable variability of indices of the radiopharmaceutical kinetics was determined. The features of angioscintigrams from bone metastases with intensive accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical are a short descending segment or its absents and passing an ascending segment into plateau or slowly ascending curve, which are determined the radiopharmaceutical fixation in metastases during first passing the bolus through the vessels. Character of the radiopharmaceutical fixation at angioscintigraphy may be a prognostic factor of the efficacy of radionuclide therapy

  5. Electron microscopic morphology and DNA chain fragmentation studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm

    Objective: To study the apoptosis and fraction of DNA chain fragmentation in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP. Methods: Apoptosis in bone tumor cells exposed to different time periods of 153Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation was observed by electron microscopic morphology and DNA chain fragmentation studies. Results: It was demonstrated that the bone tumor cells internally exposed to 153Sm-EDTMP displayed nuclear fragmentation, margination of condensed chromatin, and formation of membrane bounded apoptotic bodies. The study showed that the percentage of DNA chain fragmentation increases in direct proportion to the duration of internal exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP. Conclusion: Apoptosis induced by 153Sm-EDTMP in bone tumor cells was dependent on the time of 153Sm-EDTMP exposure

  6. Cytogenetic effect of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with metastatic cancer

    The 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine with promising results for the relief of metastatic pain. Therefore, there are few knowledge about the effects of 153Sm-EDTMP at cellular level. The present study was conduced with the aim of evaluating the cytogenetic effects of 153Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone metastasis (with and without previous radio and/or chemotherapy) by the chromosome aberration technique, either in vivo or in vitro. For that, the blood samples were collected before and one hour after the endovenous administration of 153Sm-EDTMP (mean activity of 42.53+/-5.31 MBq/kg body weight), taking into account the rapid blood clearance. The principal types of structural chromosome aberrations found gaps and breaks, acentric fragments centric rings, double minutes and dicentrics. The statistical analysis showed that the group submitted to previous radio and chemotherapy before 153Sm-EDTMP administration showed significant difference in chromosome aberrations frequency one hour after the treatment. The analysis of the chromosome modal number and the kinetics of cellular cycle showed no statistical difference among the groups, suggesting that the treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP, did not influence these parameters. The carrier molecule, EDTMP, did not influence the induction of chromosome aberration. In relation to the in vitro assays, the obtained data of peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors and patients with no previous treatment exposed to different radioactive concentration of 153Sm-EDTMP (0.046 - 1.110 MBq/mL) were better adjusted by linear regression model (Y=A+BX). The chromosome damage induced by 153Sm-EDTMP observed in vitro was about 2 fold higher than that found in vivo for the group of patients with no previous treatment. The obtained data showed that the therapy with 153Sm-EDTMP induced a few quantity of cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes on hour after its administration in patients

  7. Radiotherapeutic efficacy of 153Sm-CMDTPA-Tyr3-octreotate in tumor-bearing rats

    A number of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have been evaluated in animal tumor models for radiotherapeutic efficacy. The majority of the agents tested have used either high-energy beta-emitters, such as Y-90 or Re-188, or the Auger electron-emitting radionuclide, In-111. Because a medium-energy beta-emitter might have equivalent efficacy compared to high-energy emitters, and lower toxicity to non-target tissues, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of the beta-emitting nuclide, Sm-153, chelated to the somatostatin analog, CMDTPA-Tyr3-octreotate. Using an in vitro binding assay, this octreotate derivative was shown to have high affinity for the somatostatin subtype-2 receptor (IC50 = 2.7 nM). Biodistribution studies in CA20948 tumor-bearing Lewis rats demonstrate that the Sm-153 labeled compound has high uptake and retention in tumor tissue (1.7% injected dose/g tissue, 4 hrs post injection) and has rapid overall clearance properties from non-target tissue. Radiotherapy studies were carried out using 153Sm-CMDTPA-Tyr3-octreotate and CA20948 tumor bearing Lewis rats at 7 days post implant. Dose regimens consisting of single and multiple i.v. injections of 5.0 mCi/rat (185 MBq) were employed over a time span of 7 days. Suppression of tumor growth rate was observed in all treated animals compared to untreated controls. Greater inhibition of tumor growth was observed in animals that received multiple doses. These studies indicate that medium-energy beta-emitting isotopes have considerable potential for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors

  8. Study on the standardization of the radioactivity measurement for 153Sm-EDTMP injection

    The safety and efficacy of the therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals directly depends on its dosage. In order to determine the radioactivity of 153Sm-EDTMP injection accurately, and ensure the safety and efficacy of the 153Sm-EDTMP injection, the standardization for the radioactivity measurement of 153Sm-EDTMP injection with dose calibrators was studied, in which 4π liquid scintillator and 4πβ-γ coincidence method were used to determine the values of radioactivity (the relative expanded uncertainty is less than 3%)for the 153Sm-EDTMP injection standard source with six experimental setups in four laboratories, then the dose calibrators were calibrated with the standard source. The results showed that a the type of dose calibrator,the container and the volume of the sample solution have effects on the results of measurement, but between 3 to 5 mL, the variation of the volume of sample solution has little effect on the results of measurement. At last the measurement conditions were obtained according to the results of the study. (authors)

  9. Uptake of 153Sm-EDTMP in normal, benign and malignant tumor tissue

    Riegel, A

    2001-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate and compare the uptake of 153Sm-EDTMP (153Samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate)and 99mTc-DPD (99mTechnetium-dicarboxypropane diphosphonate) into different soft tissue sarcoma cell lines and various tissue specimen in vitro. After 10-120 minutes of incubation at 22 sup o C and 37 sup o C with 153Sm-EDTMP, the uptake kinetics of this tracer in human soft tissue sarcoma cells SW 684 (fibrosarcoma) and SW 1353 (chondrosarcoma) were assessed. The uptake was temperature-dependent and higher into fibrosarcoma than in chondrosarconma. Normal bone tissue samples of rat and human were incubated with 153Sm-EDTMP and 99mTc-DPD. The uptake of 99mTc-DPD was higher than that of 153Sm-EDTMP. Various benign and malignant bone and soft tissue tumors and metastases of different primaries were treated in the same way. The uptake was generally very low, in the metastatic tissue specimen in part possibly due to their osteolytic character.

  10. Fluorescence microscopic and microautoradiographic studies on apoptosis of bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP

    The apoptosis of bone tumor cells treated with internal irradiation by 153Sm-EDTMP was studied. The morphological changes in bone tumor cells were observed by fluorescence microscopic and microautoradiographic observations. It was found that bone tumor cells internally irradiated with 153Sm-EDTMP, displayed significant nuclear fragmentation and marked pyknosis as well as apoptotic bodies formation. The microautoradiographic study showed that 153Sm-EDTMP could permeate through cell membrane and displayed membrane-seeking condensation in tumor cells. Soon afterwards 153Sm-EDTMP could be phagocytized by the tumor cells and distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus in the form of phagosome. With the prolongation of observing time, the membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies was observed. With the lengthening of internal irradiation time by 153Sm-EDTMP, the inhibition rate of proliferation of bone tumor cells increased progressively. (10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.)

  11. Electron microscopic observations and DNA chain fragmentation studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP

    The morphological changes observed by electron microscopy indicate that after internal irradiation with 153Sm-EDTMP bone tumor cells displayed feature of apoptosis, such as margination of condensed chromatin, chromatin fragmentation, as well as the membrane bounded apoptotic bodies formation. The quantification analysis of fragmentation DNA for bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP shows that the DNA fragmentation is enhanced with the prolongation of internally irradiated time. These characteristics suggest that 153Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation could induce bone tumor cells to go to apoptosis

  12. Treatment status of painful bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP

    The typical management of painful bone metastases is radiation therapy and the graduated use of opiate analgesics. As the development of nuclear medicine, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have been utilized in cancer treatment, especially in management painful bone metastases. 153Sm-EDTMP (samarium-153-ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate) offers a good choice of treating method in palliating pain, improving quality of life, decreasing the rate at which new painful sites develop, and decreasing management costs

  13. Labelling of MoAb with 153SmH1ETA: Preliminary results

    A method to label MoAb with Sm-153 using 1,5,9,13-tetraazacyclohexadecane N,N',N'',N''' tetraacetic acid (H4ETA) as a bifunctional chelator was developed. H4ETA and SmH1ETA were synthesized in our laboratory and characterized by IR spectroscopy, TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), SEM (Scattering Electronic Microscopy), EDAX (Elemental Dispersion Analysis by X-rays) and EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) at 6 K. The 153SmH1ETAMoAb was prepared by a simple incubation of the MoAb ior cea1, and the 153SmH1ETA complex at neutral pH and at room temperature for 24 h. The specific activity of the labelled antibody was 111 MBq/mg (3 mCi/mg). Sm-153(III) is commercially available with specific activities up to 318.2 GBq/mg. Therefore, under the conditions described above 153SmH1ETA labelled MoAb could be obtained with specific activity up to 1.14 GBq/mg (30.7 mCi/mg). (author)

  14. Production and first use of 153SmCl3-ion exchange resin capsule formulation for assessing gastrointestinal motility

    We produced an enteric-coated gelatine capsule containing neutron-activated 153Sm-labelled resin beads for use in gastrointestinal motility studies. In vitro test in simulated gastrointestinal environment and in vivo study on volunteers were performed. Scintigraphic images were acquired from ten volunteers over 24 h while blood and urine samples were collected to monitor the presence of 153Sm. All the capsules remained intact in stomach. This proved to be a safe and practical oral capsule formulation for whole gut transit scintigraphy. - Highlights: ► Enteric-coated gelatin capsule containing 153Sm-labelled resin was manufactured. ► In vitro disintegration test ensured targeted release properties of the formulation. ► In vivo volunteers study confirmed safeness and practical use of the formulation. ► 153Sm can be used as an alternative nuclide to 111In in GI transit scintigraphy.

  15. Scintigraphic dynamics valuation of bone metastasis in the course of the treatment of 153Sm-oksabifor

    In the present study we examined the role of bone scan with 99mTc-pyrophosphate treatment planning 153Sm-oksabifor followed by analysis of post-treatment monitoring of cancer patients with bone metastases

  16. Determination of human absorbed dose of cocktail of 153Sm/177Lu-EDTMP, based on biodistribution data in rats

    The aim of this work was to estimate the absorbed dose due to compositional radiopharmaceutical of 153Sm/177Lu-EDTMP in human organs based on biodistribution data of rats by using OLINDA/EXM software. The absorbed dose was determined by the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) formulation after calculating cumulated activities in each organ. The results show that the organs that received the highest absorbed dose were the bone surface and red marrow (1.51 and 7.99 mGy/ MBq for 153Sm, and 1.98 and 10.76 mGy/MBq for 177Lu, respectively). According to the results, using of cocktail of 153Sm/177Lu-EDTMP has considerable characteristics as compared to 153Sm-EDTMP and 177Lu-EDTMP alone. (author)

  17. Combined use of zoledronic acid and 153Sm-EDTMP in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Rijk, Peter P. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dahmane, Amel; Stevens, Wil H.M. [CIS bio International, Saclay (France); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, Bernard A. [UMC Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    {sup 153}Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP; Quadramet {sup registered}) is indicated for the treatment of painful bone metastases, whereas zoledronic acid (Zometa {sup registered}) is indicated for the prevention of skeletal complications. Because of the different therapeutic effects, combining the treatments may be beneficial. Both, however, accumulate in areas with increased osteoblastic activity. Possible drug interactions were investigated. Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with 18.5 MBq/kg {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in weeks 1 and 3 and with 37 MBq/kg in week 15. Treatment with 4 mg zoledronic acid began in week 3 and continued every 4 weeks through week 23. In weeks 3 and 15, zoledronic acid was administered 2 days before {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP treatment. Urine was collected 48 h after injection of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, and whole-body images were obtained 6, 24 and 48 h post-injection. The effect of zoledronic acid on total bone uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP was measured indirectly by the cumulative activity excreted in the urine in weeks 1, 3 and 15. Biodistribution, safety, tolerability and effect on prostate-specific antigen level were also studied. The urinary excretion in week 3 divided by the urinary excretion in week 1 (baseline) times 100% was mean 98.4 {+-} 11.6% (median 96.2%). From week 1 to 15, after four zoledronic acid treatments, the mean ratio was 101.9 {+-} 10.7% (median 101.8%). Bioequivalence could be concluded by using a two-sample t test for both per-protocol (n = 13) and full-analysis sets (n = 18). Toxicity was comparable to of monotherapy with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP. Zoledronic acid treatment does not influence {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP skeletal uptake. Combined treatment is feasible and safe. (orig.)

  18. Combined use of zoledronic acid and 153Sm-EDTMP in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases

    153Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP; Quadramet registered) is indicated for the treatment of painful bone metastases, whereas zoledronic acid (Zometa registered) is indicated for the prevention of skeletal complications. Because of the different therapeutic effects, combining the treatments may be beneficial. Both, however, accumulate in areas with increased osteoblastic activity. Possible drug interactions were investigated. Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer were treated with 18.5 MBq/kg 153Sm-EDTMP in weeks 1 and 3 and with 37 MBq/kg in week 15. Treatment with 4 mg zoledronic acid began in week 3 and continued every 4 weeks through week 23. In weeks 3 and 15, zoledronic acid was administered 2 days before 153Sm-EDTMP treatment. Urine was collected 48 h after injection of 153Sm-EDTMP, and whole-body images were obtained 6, 24 and 48 h post-injection. The effect of zoledronic acid on total bone uptake of 153Sm-EDTMP was measured indirectly by the cumulative activity excreted in the urine in weeks 1, 3 and 15. Biodistribution, safety, tolerability and effect on prostate-specific antigen level were also studied. The urinary excretion in week 3 divided by the urinary excretion in week 1 (baseline) times 100% was mean 98.4 ± 11.6% (median 96.2%). From week 1 to 15, after four zoledronic acid treatments, the mean ratio was 101.9 ± 10.7% (median 101.8%). Bioequivalence could be concluded by using a two-sample t test for both per-protocol (n = 13) and full-analysis sets (n = 18). Toxicity was comparable to of monotherapy with 153Sm-EDTMP. Zoledronic acid treatment does not influence 153Sm-EDTMP skeletal uptake. Combined treatment is feasible and safe. (orig.)

  19. Study on the synthesis of AMP derivatives for labeling with 153Sm and 166Ho

    This study describes the synthesis method and characterization of AMP-( Aminomethylene phosphonic acid): (PDTMP; BDTMP; DMPDTMP). AMP is synthesized by the condensation of correlative diamine, phosphorous acid and formaldehyde using a modified Mannich reaction in the presence of hydrochloric acid. Recrystallization of the crude product from water yields white crystals of pure legend, and subsequently characterized using 1H-NMR, IR spectroscopy, melting point, crystal picture, element analysis, metal trace analysis. Synthesized AMP, when tagged with therapeutic radio nuclides such as 153Sm and 166Ho are quite good. Complexes with RC purity and labeling efficiency 20 - 98% and above could be prepared by ordinary reaction condition. (author)

  20. Kit preparation of 153Sm-EDTMP and factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability

    A fast kit method was developed for the production of 153Sm-EDTMP in two steps avoiding the use of nitric acid, evaporation and sterilization of the final solution by autoclave. Methods of analysis for the determination of chemical and radiochemical purity in the radiopharmaceutical solution were established. Factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability of the complex as the molar ratio of EDTMP/Sm, concentration of phosphate buffer and neutralization of EDTMP prior kit preparation were also analyzed. The use of this radiopharmaceutical in rabbits and patients showed selective skeletal uptake. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. DNA gel electrophoretic and microaut oradiographic studies on apoptosisin bone tumor cells after exposure with 153Sm-EDTMP

    1999-01-01

    The apoptosis in bone tumor cells is studied after 153Sm-EDTMP irradiation.Fragmented DNA is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis.Experimental observations show that 153Sm-EDTMP exposureinduces the internucleosomal DNA damage in bone tumor cells the DNAladder pattern formation in bone tumor cells is shown.At the same time,the microautoradiographic study indicates that 153153Sm-EDTMP could permeate through cell membrane and displays membrane-seeking condensation in bone tumor cells.Soon afterwards 153Sm-EDTMP could be phagocytized by the tumor cells and distributed in cytoplasm as well as nucleus in the form of phagosome.With the prolongation of observing time, the membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies are observed.

  2. Effect of 153Sm-EDTMP on hematopoiesis and vital organs of 93 patients with bone tumor

    In the present study data on blood cell count, serum biochemistry, electrolyte, enzyme and vital organs of 93 patients with bone tumor or metastasis were investigated before and after treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP. The results showed that, 7 days and 30 days after the administration of 153Sm-EDTMP (0.05). Although at 7 days, there was a declination of the granulocyte count, it returned to normal at 30 days (P>0.05). The platelet count was significantly decreased (0.05>P>0.01)at 30 days after the administration of 153Sm-EDTMP. Thirteen patients received 74-185 MBq (2-5 mCi/kg) and their myelo-biopsies at 3 and 18 months showed no sign of acute or chronic toxicosis

  3. Production of medical radioisotope 153Sm in the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) through theoretical calculations and practical tests

    Highlights: ► Production of 153Sm isotope by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor was studied. ► Optimal parameters for weight and irradiation time were found. ► This study led to an empirical correction factor (kf). ► Kf enhanced the production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. ► The results led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process. - Abstract: The feasibility of producing 2000–3000 mCi 153Sm by irradiation of 152Sm in 5 MW TRR was studied via TRR core simulation. In this study the cross-section of 152Sm (n,γ) 153Sm reaction from ENDF/B library was used. The effective activation cross section for production of 153Sm is obtained using the neutron spectra in different irradiation channel of the core. The activity of the simulated samples is calculated using the obtained fluxes and cross sections. Then samples were prepared and irradiated under different conditions and fluxes. The final production’s specific activity was measured by the standard dose calibrator ISOMED 1010. By comparison of the theoretical calculations and actual measurements, an empirical correction factor (Kf) was obtained, which is helpful in production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. The optimal weight of the samples and irradiation time was studied according to the flux calculations based on the location of the sample and saturated activity calculation. In order to test the proposed conditions, samples were prepared and were irradiated under the proposed conditions. According to the compared results with the initial irradiation condition, the new proposed sample which weighed 4 mg of Sm2O3 is acceptable for the labeling, therefore this study led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process

  4. Fission spectrum averaged cross section measurements of some neutron threshold reactions of relevance to medical radionuclide production

    A resume is given of radiochemical measurements of nuclear reaction cross sections relevant to the production of some medically important radionuclides carried out at PINSTECH during the last decade. Systematic studies on fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of several threshold reactions, like (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, α) on titanium, ruthenium, europium and dysprosium for the production of 45Ti, 96Tc, 153Sm and 153Gd are described. (orig.)

  5. Optimization of the preparation of 153Sm - EDTMP using natural samarium targets for clinical use

    153Sm (specific activity 3.7 to 5.55 GBq/mg) was produced by irradiating natural Sm2O3 at a flux of 2.2 x 1013 n x cm-2 x s-1. Ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (EDTMP) was synthesised according to a reported method. Complexation was carried out by varying experimental parameters such as mole ratios of metal to ligand, pH, time and temperature of reaction to obtain quantitative yields. The radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed by various analytical techniques including HPLC. In vitro ligand exchange studies were undertaken to ensure suitability of the product for therapy. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Wistar rats and adequate bone uptake, retention and rapid clearance from blood stream were observed. (author)

  6. Avidin-biotin system radiolabelling with 153Sm and its experimental study in pre-targeting radioimmunoimaging with anti-CEA McAb

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of 153Sm labelled avidin-biotin system in pre-targeting radioimmunoimaging (RII)with anti-CEA McAb. Methods: Chelate DTPA-biotin (DB2) was first radiolabelled with 153Sm and then bound this 153Sm-DB2 to streptavidin (SA). The labelling of McAb with 153Sm was conducted using the bifunctional chelate cyclic DTPA anhydride (cDTPAa). Experimental studies were carried out in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma. The authors established two- and three-step strategies for avidin-biotin system pre-targeting techniques. In three-step method A, tumor-bearing nude mice were first injected with McAb-biotin followed by cold avidin (Av) 2 days later and then 153Sm-DB2 1 day after. But in three-step method B, one group of mice was injected with McAb-SA followed by cold biotin 2 days later, and 4 h after biotin, by 153Sm-SA. While two-step protocols consisted of the injection of 153Sm-SA 48 h or 96 h after pre-targeting with McAb-bition (method A); and the injection of 153Sm-DB2 48 h after the use of McAb-SA (method B). SPECT imaging was performed and biodistribution was studied at 4, 24, 48 or 72 h after injection of 153Sm labelled compounds. Results: The authors' results showed that: 1) The three-step method A allowed faster blood clearance of the 153Sm-DB2 and yielded higher T/NT ratios (5.76 at 4 h and 12.94 at 24 h). 2) In the two-step method A, a significant accumulation of 153Sm-SA was observed in the tumor of nude mice which were injected 153Sm-SA 2 days after pre-targeting. The uptake in the tumor was also relatively high even in nude mice received 153Sm-SA 4 days after pre-targeting, demonstrating that the McAb-bition was still bound to the tumors and accessible to the 153Sm-SA even after long period of time. 3) Two- and three-step method A could increase the T/NT ratio in RII, shortening the imaging time (24 and 4 h, respectively). Conclusions: Aforementioned studies provide an experimental evidence for the improvement of pre

  7. 153 SM-EDTMP (Samario como tratamiento del dolor óseo de origen metastático 153 SM-EDTMP (SAMARIO For the treatment of metastatic bone pain

    A. B. de la Calle

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: 153 Sm-EDTMP es un agente radioactivo que puede ser usado para el diagnóstico así como el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la eficacia de 153 Sm-EDTMP en el tratamiento del dolor crónico debido a metástasis óseas en el cáncer de próstata. Material y métodos: Se realiza un estudio prospectivo dónde se incluyen siete pacientes con dolor crónico, en relación con metástasis óseas por cáncer prostático, a los que se les administra de forma intravenosa 153 Sm-EDTMP para controlar el dolor. La eficacia de este agente fue evaluada según los cambios obtenidos en la escala visual-analgésica de (EVA, tiempo en el que se alcanzó la respuesta terapéutica, efectos adversos y cambios en el consumo diario de analgésicos. Resultados: 2 de 7 pacientes (28.5% tuvieron remisión completa del dolor, 4 de 7 (37.2% remisión parcial (EVA ≥1 y ≤3 y 1 de 7 (14.3% no mostraron mejoría. La respuesta terapéutica ocurrió a los 10-30 días después de la administración del fármaco en 83.3% de los pacientes, 16.6% requirieron más tiempo. No se observaron efectos adversos mayores; 20% sintieron nauseas, 5% vómitos y 0% toxicidad hematológica. 5 de 7 pacientes (71.4% redujeron el consumo de analgésicos. Conclusiones: 153 Sm-EDTMP es seguro y eficaz para la paliación rápida del dolor ocasionado por metástasis óseas, aunque aún quedan importantes cuestiones que resolver, fundamentalmente sobre los factores que influyen en la respuesta terapéutica a este radiofármaco.Introduction: 153 Sm-EDTMP is a radioactive agent used for both the diagnosis and treatment of some diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 153 Sm-EDTMP for the treatment of chronic pain due to bone metastasis in prostate cancer. Material and methods: Prospective study including seven patients suffering chronic pain due to bone metastasis in prostate cancer to whom intravenous 153 Sm-EDTMP for pain

  8. Development of a {sup 186}Re-HEDP formulation and radio pharmacokinetics comparison with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP; Desarrollo de una formulacion de {sup 186}Re-HEDP y comparacion radiofarmacocinetica con el {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP

    Bribiesca C, A.I

    1998-12-01

    Because of the growing interest in the use of the beta emitters radiopharmaceuticals applied to therapy in different cancer cases, we developed a formulation of {sup 186} Re-HEDP (hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate) as a pain palliative in osseous metastases. Besides serving like therapeutic agent, together with the {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonate), which has already been synthesized and proved, labels EHDP could be very useful like a diagnostic agent in the pursuit of the illness. The irradiation conditions for Rhenium-186 were established by ORIGIN 2 codes for TRIGA reactors. A pharmaceutical formulation was developed employing a factorial experimental design obtaining a complex with a radiochemical purity over 90 %. The complexes {sup 186} Re-HEDP {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP were intravenous administered in BALB-C mice sacrifying them in several intervals of time in order to determine the cumulated activity in each organ to perform absorbed dose calculation by MIRD methodology (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). Radio pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that both complexes follow a biexponential kinetic of first order behavior. In the case of the {sup 186} Re-HEDP the value of the {alpha} constant was 0.2789 and {beta} 0.0006 with an effective dose of 2.56 (mSv)/MBq , while for the complex {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP the values of {alpha} to and {beta} were 0.9012 and and 0.616 respectively and the effective dose was 0.262 (mSv)/MBq. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP, showed a greater bone uptake and a minor effective dose, for which it is a better radiopharmaceutical, respect to with the formulation of {sup 186} Re-HEDP. (Author)

  9. Measurement of fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions on europium: small scale production of no-carrier-added 153Sm in a nuclear reactor

    Employing the activation technique in combination with radiochemical separations and high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections were measured for several (n, 2n), (n, p) and (n, α) reactions on isotopes of europium. Our measurements constitute the first systematic studies. Of special interest was the investigation of 153Eu(n, p)153Sm reaction for the production of no-carrier-added 153Sm in a nuclear reactor. Using 100% enriched 153Eu target, 97.21 MBq 153Sm per batch can be produced which is, however, not sufficient for medical application. (orig.)

  10. 153Sm -DOTA-phosphine-ruthenium and gold bimetallic complexes as new radio-theranostics

    Full text of publication follows. Since the pioneer discovery of cisplatin for biological applications by Rosenberg in the 1960's [Ref.1] metal complexes have become the most currently investigated and used class of compounds in cancer chemotherapy [Ref.2]. However in most cases, their mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. Imaging drugs aimed at understanding their mechanism of action and studying their pharmacokinetics is thus one of the key challenges of medicinal chemists today. To take up this challenge new DOTA-phosphine compounds were synthesized. It is a versatile tool to image organometallic complexes, and allowed the access to an unprecedented family of theranostics featuring Au and Ru complexes for the therapeutic moiety and 153Sm for the imaging part. The radiolabelling of the ligand was studied and the stability of corresponding complexes was evaluated. Their cytotoxicity was also tested on cancer cells, and their biodistribution was determined in vivo. References: [1] Rosenberg, B.; VanCamp, L.; Krigas, T., Inhibition of Cell Division in Escherichia coli by Electrolysis Products from a Platinum Electrode, Nature 1965, 205, 698-699; [2] Zhang, C. X.; Lippard, S. J., New metal complexes as potential therapeutics, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2003, 7, 481-489. (authors)

  11. Incremental value of metabolic radiotherapy of bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP in prostate cancer. About 67 cases

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: painful bone metastases are common in advanced prostate cancer. Samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetra-methylenephosphonic acid (153Sm-EDTMP; Quadramet) is a beta-particles emitter that concentrates in the areas of enhanced osteoblastic activity and used for palliate pain from bone metastases. Our purpose is to evaluate the incremental value of the 153Sm-EDTMP, in patients affected of cancer of the prostate with painful bony metastasis. Methods: 67 patients with metastatic prostate cancer received a single bolus infusion of 153Sm (37 MBq/kg). All patients had painful bone metastases to more than one anatomical region. Bone specific pain, analgesic score, and blood count were evaluated before and after treatment with a receding of 38 months. Results: we observed a positive answer in 85% of the cases; this answer was complete in 35% of the cases. The results gotten after multiple administrations show that the cures could be repeated with results comparable to those of the first cure. The therapeutic efficiency is at least equivalent to those of the other therapeutic means, with nearly non-existent secondary effects. The only toxicity is of hematological order; it is the most often moderate and reversible with a complete recuperation at the end of 8 weeks. Besides, the effect on the pain came with an improvement of the quality of life of the patients treaties. Conclusion: due to its half-life of 46 hours and its beta emissions, a high dose rate of 153Sm can be delivered to regions adjacent to enhanced osteoblastic activity over a short period of time with little residual long term activity being left in the bone marrow. Its administration to patients with prostate cancer suffering from painful bone metastases that enhance on bone scans, offered clinical relevant pain relief with tolerable hematological toxicity and then enjoy a better quality of life. (authors)

  12. Development of a 186Re-HEDP formulation and radio pharmacokinetics comparison with 153Sm-EDTMP

    Because of the growing interest in the use of the beta emitters radiopharmaceuticals applied to therapy in different cancer cases, we developed a formulation of 186 Re-HEDP (hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonate) as a pain palliative in osseous metastases. Besides serving like therapeutic agent, together with the 153 Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonate), which has already been synthesized and proved, labels EHDP could be very useful like a diagnostic agent in the pursuit of the illness. The irradiation conditions for Rhenium-186 were established by ORIGIN 2 codes for TRIGA reactors. A pharmaceutical formulation was developed employing a factorial experimental design obtaining a complex with a radiochemical purity over 90 %. The complexes 186 Re-HEDP 153 Sm-EDTMP were intravenous administered in BALB-C mice sacrifying them in several intervals of time in order to determine the cumulated activity in each organ to perform absorbed dose calculation by MIRD methodology (Medical Internal Radiation Dose). Radio pharmacokinetic data demonstrated that both complexes follow a biexponential kinetic of first order behavior. In the case of the 186 Re-HEDP the value of the α constant was 0.2789 and β 0.0006 with an effective dose of 2.56 (mSv)/MBq , while for the complex 153 Sm-EDTMP the values of α to and β were 0.9012 and and 0.616 respectively and the effective dose was 0.262 (mSv)/MBq. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical 153 Sm-EDTMP, showed a greater bone uptake and a minor effective dose, for which it is a better radiopharmaceutical, respect to with the formulation of 186 Re-HEDP. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral blood lymphocytes of bone metastasis patients

    In this study the cellular damage in peripheral lymphocytes after exposure to 153 Sm-EDTMP (Samarium-153 ethylene-diamine-tetramietylene-phosphonate) was determined using the technique of micronuclei analysis and differential coloration.153 Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used for pain relief in patients with bone metastases. The analysis of the frequency of micronuclei in patient blood samples obtained one hour after endovenous administration of radiopharmaceutical (41 MBq/kg) showed no statistical difference in relation to basal values in binucleated cells. However the analysis of damage distribution in mononucleated cells, showed that the patients without previous radiotherapy treatment presented a significant increase in the frequency of cells with one micronucleus and in those who had taken previous radiotherapy treatment, in cells with two or more micronuclei. The in vitro experiments conducted with the exposition of total blood to three radiation concentrations of 153 Sm-EDTMP (0.370, 0.555 and 1.110 MBq/mL) during one hour showed an increase in the frequency of micronuclei and necrotic and apoptotic cells with increasing radiation dose. Dose-response curves for healthy donors and patients with bone metastasis without previous radiotherapy treatment were constructed. The comparison of the curves showed that patients presented higher radiosensitivity, either micronuclei or dead cell (necrotic or apoptotic) percentages, than healthy donors. (author)

  14. Clinical benefit of bone-targeted radiometabolic therapy with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP combined with chemotherapy in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer

    Ricci, Sergio; Pastina, Ilaria; Cianci, Claudia; Orlandini, Cinzia; Chioni, Aldo; Di Donato, Samantha [Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Service-PET Center, Rovigo (Italy); Boni, Giuseppe; Genovesi, Dario; Grosso, Mariano; AlSharif, Abedallatif; Mariani, Giuliano [Univ. of Pisa (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Chiacchio, Serena [Univ. of Pisa (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; CNR Inst. of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Francesca, Francesco [University Hospital, Pisa (Italy). Div. of Urology; Selli, Cesare [Univ. of Pisa (Italy). Section Urology; Rubello, Domenico [Nuclear Medicine Service-PET, Rovigo (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Bone metastases are responsible for most of the morbidity associated with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). {sup 153}Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) has been approved for palliation of painful skeletal metastases. We retrospectively investigated the possible synergistic effect on survival of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (given to HRPC patients for bone pain palliation) and chemotherapy. Forty-five HRPC patients were evaluated, with a median age of 71 years. The number of metastatic bone sites was {<=}10 in 25 patients and >10 in 20 patients. Median serum PSA was 224 ng/ml. Bone pain was mild in 6 patients, moderate in 16, severe in 22 and intolerable in 1. Fifteen patients were only treated with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (group A), while 30 patients also received chemotherapy (estramustine phosphate or mitoxantrone plus prednisone) at variable times: between 3 and 5 months after {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (14 patients, group B) or within 1 month after {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (16 patients, group C). Haematological toxicities observed after either regimen were in general mild, consistent with common observations after either {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP or chemotherapy, and without any additive adverse effects in the patients receiving both {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and chemotherapy. Bone pain palliation to some degree was induced by {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in 32/45 patients (71.1%), the proportion of patients with a favourable clinical response being significantly higher in group C than in group A (87.5% vs 53.3%, p = 0.0388). Also in terms of biochemical response (serum PSA levels), patients of group C performed significantly better than patients of group A (p = 0.0235). Overall median survival from the time of administration of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP was 15 months in the total cohort of 45 patients, and was significantly longer in group C than in either group B (30 months vs 11 months, p = 0.023) or group A (30 months vs 10 months, p = 0.008). The results of this study confirm that

  15. 153Sm3+ and 111In3+ DTPA derivatives with high hepatic specificity: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Prata, M. I. M.; Santos, A.C.; Neves, M.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Lima, J. J. P. de

    2002-01-01

    Two DTPA derivatives, a mono-amide derivative containing an iodinated synthon, DTPA-IOPsp (L1) and the ligand DTPA(BOM)3 (BOM=benzyloxymethyl) (L2), radiolabelled with 153Sm3+ and 111In3+, were studied as potential hepatospecific gamma scintigraphic agents. In vivo studies with Wistar rats show that the main excretory pathway for all the chelates studied is the hepatobiliary system. The complexes of L2 show even greater hepatobiliary specificity than L1, perhaps as a consequence of longer blo...

  16. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP, combined with BrdU a thymidine analog; Efecto citotoxico y genotoxico causado por {sup 153} Sm-EDTMP, combinado con BrdU un analogo de timidina

    Morales A, E.; Ferro F, G.; Morales R, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The ablation of the bone marrow previous to the transplant by means of radiation and chemical antineoplastics its affect indiscriminately to the healthy tissues and in particular those that are in proliferation. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of the incorporation from the BrdU to the DNA on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the cells of the bone marrow caused by the radiopharmaceutical {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP. The genotoxicity was determined by the rate of erythrocytes polychromatic micro nucleates (EPC-MN) and the cytotoxicity by the frequency of EPC. Both parameters determined in peripheral blood after the BrdU administration and {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP. The combination of the BrdU and r1 radiopharmaceutical produced a bigger cytotoxicity that the radiation and the BrdU alone; on the other hand it produced a reduction of the EPC-MN produced by the radiation, suggesting that the cytotoxicity didn't allow the expression of the genotoxicity. (Author)

  17. (153)Sm(3+) and (111)In(3+) DTPA derivatives with high hepatic specificity: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Prata, M I M; Santos, A C; Neves, M; Geraldes, C F G C; de Lima, J J P

    2002-07-25

    Two DTPA derivatives, a mono-amide derivative containing an iodinated synthon, DTPA-IOPsp (L(1)) and the ligand DTPA(BOM)(3) (BOM=benzyloxymethyl) (L(2)), radiolabelled with (153)Sm(3+) and (111)In(3+), were studied as potential hepatospecific gamma scintigraphic agents. In vivo studies with Wistar rats show that the main excretory pathway for all the chelates studied is the hepatobiliary system. The complexes of L(2) show even greater hepatobiliary specificity than L(1), perhaps as a consequence of longer blood circulation times due to their strong affinity towards HSA. The (153)Sm(3+) chelates are also more hepatospecific than the corresponding (111)In(3+) chelates. The La(3+) and In(3+) chelates of L(1) and L(2) show some structural and dynamic differences in aqueous solution, as studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. While only two nona-coordinated isomers were observed for the La(3+) complexes with both ligands, its number is much larger in the In(3+) complexes, with both octa- and hepta-coordinated species (with unbound side arms), as well as structural isomers for each coordination number. PMID:12121790

  18. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by 153 Sm-EDTMP, combined with BrdU a thymidine analog

    The ablation of the bone marrow previous to the transplant by means of radiation and chemical antineoplastics its affect indiscriminately to the healthy tissues and in particular those that are in proliferation. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of the incorporation from the BrdU to the DNA on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the cells of the bone marrow caused by the radiopharmaceutical 153Sm-EDTMP. The genotoxicity was determined by the rate of erythrocytes polychromatic micro nucleates (EPC-MN) and the cytotoxicity by the frequency of EPC. Both parameters determined in peripheral blood after the BrdU administration and 153Sm-EDTMP. The combination of the BrdU and r1 radiopharmaceutical produced a bigger cytotoxicity that the radiation and the BrdU alone; on the other hand it produced a reduction of the EPC-MN produced by the radiation, suggesting that the cytotoxicity didn't allow the expression of the genotoxicity. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of 153Sm-EDTMP in non-human primates: prelude to clinical trials in cancer patients

    Full text: We had earlier reported optimisation of parameters for satisfactory formulation of 153Sm-EDTMP using natural samarium (Sm203) irradiated targets validated by satisfactory bio localisation in rats and rabbits. In the present study, we have attempted to further establish the safety and efficacy of the product through animal studies in monkeys as a prelude to clinical studies in cancer patients. Natural Sm203 (3 batches) irradiated in high neutron flux positions in the Dhruva reactor for 7 days was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and complexed with EDTMP (using both a gift sample and in house synthesized product) under conditions earlier standardized by us. The radiochemical purity by paper chromatography over normal saline (98%) and biodistribution study in rats (2.5-3% ID in femurs at 1-120 hp.i.) revealed satisfactory complexation. Monkeys were administered about 1 mCi of 153Sm per kg and imaged up to 72 hours p.i. Rapid clearance from blood, insignificant retention in liver, kidney and other tissues, and good bone uptake were observed even at 2 h p.i. Prolonged good retention in the skeleton was observed up to 120 hours p.i. EDTMP doses of 2.5 mg/mouse were tolerated indicating a safety factor of about 200 in humans. Thus desirable biological features promising good efficacy in cancer patients have been demonstrated warranting clinical evaluation of this product

  20. Using the 154 Sm(p,d) reaction to extend the level scheme of 153 Sm to the continuum region

    Wilson, Emma; Beausang, Cornelius; Humby, Peter; Simon, Anna; Ross, Timothy; Hughes, Richard; Burke, James; Casperson, Robert; Koglin, Johnathon; Ota, Shuya; Allmond, James; McCleskey, Matthew; McCleskey, Ellen; Saastamoinen, Antti; Chyzh, Roman; Gell, Kristen; Tarlow, Tom; Vyas, Gargi; Starlite Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Following an experiment performed at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University, the level scheme of 153 Sm is in the process of being extended. A beam of protons accelerated to 25 MeV impinged on an isotopically enriched 154 Sm target, inducing a (p,d) reaction, thereby producing energetically excited 153 Sm reaction products. The resulting γ-rays and deuterons were detected by the STARLiTe array, which consists of six Compton-suppressed HPGe gamma-ray detectors, and a ΔE-E Si telescope for charged particle identification. In the ongoing analysis of these data, the identification of new γ-rays has been possible. The deuteron spectrum will be used to identify high-lying continuum states, and angular momentum transfer values will be assigned using angular distributions and comparison with DWBA calculations. This work was partly supported by the US DofE under Grant Numbers DE-NA0001801, DE-FG02-05ER41379(UofR); DE-AC52-07NTJKTG(LLNL).

  1. Improving the dose-myelotoxicity correlation in radiometabolic therapy of bone metastases with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Basile, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Medical Physics; Ventroni, Guido; Mango, Lucio [Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Ialongo, Pasquale [Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Becci, Domenico [University of Rome, Health Physics Postgraduate School, Rome (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 153}Sm-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) is widely used to palliate pain from bone metastases, and is being studied for combination therapy beyond palliation. Conceptually, red marrow (RM) dosimetry allows myelotoxicity to be predicted, but the correlation is poor due to dosimetric uncertainty, individual sensitivity and biological effects from previous treatments. According to EANM guidelines, basic dosimetric procedures have been studied to improve the correlation between dosimetry and myelotoxicity in {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP therapy. RM dosimetry for 33 treatments of bone metastases from breast, prostate and lung tumours was performed prospectively (with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP) and retrospectively, acquiring whole-body scans early and late after injection. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP activity was calculated by prospective dosimetry based on measured skeletal uptake and full physical retention, with the RM absorbed dose not exceeding 3.8 Gy. Patient-specific RM mass was evaluated by scaling in terms of body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM) and trabecular volume (TV) estimated from CT scans of the L2-L4 vertebrae. Correlations with toxicity were determined in a selected subgroup of 27 patients, in which a better correlation between dosimetry and myelotoxicity was expected. Skeletal uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 153}Sm (Tc{sub %} and Sm{sub %}) were well correlated. The median Sm{sub %} was higher in prostate cancer (75.3 %) than in lung (60.5 %, p = 0.005) or breast (60.8 %, p = 0.008). PLT and WBC nadirs were not correlated with administered activity, but were weakly correlated with uncorrected RM absorbed doses, and the correlation improved after rescaling in terms of BW, LBM and TV. Most patients showed transient toxicity (grade 1-3), which completely and spontaneously recovered over a few days. Using TV, RM absorbed dose was in the range 2-5 Gy, with a median of 312 cGy for PLT in patients with toxicity and 247 cGy in those with no

  2. Improving the dose-myelotoxicity correlation in radiometabolic therapy of bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP

    153Sm-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (153Sm-EDTMP) is widely used to palliate pain from bone metastases, and is being studied for combination therapy beyond palliation. Conceptually, red marrow (RM) dosimetry allows myelotoxicity to be predicted, but the correlation is poor due to dosimetric uncertainty, individual sensitivity and biological effects from previous treatments. According to EANM guidelines, basic dosimetric procedures have been studied to improve the correlation between dosimetry and myelotoxicity in 153Sm-EDTMP therapy. RM dosimetry for 33 treatments of bone metastases from breast, prostate and lung tumours was performed prospectively (with 99mTc-MDP) and retrospectively, acquiring whole-body scans early and late after injection. The 153Sm-EDTMP activity was calculated by prospective dosimetry based on measured skeletal uptake and full physical retention, with the RM absorbed dose not exceeding 3.8 Gy. Patient-specific RM mass was evaluated by scaling in terms of body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM) and trabecular volume (TV) estimated from CT scans of the L2-L4 vertebrae. Correlations with toxicity were determined in a selected subgroup of 27 patients, in which a better correlation between dosimetry and myelotoxicity was expected. Skeletal uptakes of 99mTc and 153Sm (Tc% and Sm%) were well correlated. The median Sm% was higher in prostate cancer (75.3 %) than in lung (60.5 %, p = 0.005) or breast (60.8 %, p = 0.008). PLT and WBC nadirs were not correlated with administered activity, but were weakly correlated with uncorrected RM absorbed doses, and the correlation improved after rescaling in terms of BW, LBM and TV. Most patients showed transient toxicity (grade 1-3), which completely and spontaneously recovered over a few days. Using TV, RM absorbed dose was in the range 2-5 Gy, with a median of 312 cGy for PLT in patients with toxicity and 247 cGy in those with no toxicity (p = 0.019), and 312 cGy for WBC in those with toxicity

  3. A clinical trial of 153Sm EDTMP in promotion of bone metastatic cancer pains%153钐改善骨转移癌痛疗效观察

    王新

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of 153Sm EDTMP in the bone metastatic cancer pains.Methods In treatment group(32 patients with bone metastatic diseases) 153Sm EDTMP were given by infusion for one time.In control group,32 patients received radiotherapy. The radio dose was DT30Gy,5 times per week for 2 weeks.Pain relief was used as criteria of response at the time treatment finished and 6 months later.Results At the time treatment finished,there were statistically differences in pain relief between two groups.Pains relief rate was superior to control group after 6 months (P< 0.05).Conclusion Treatment with 153Sm EDTMP one time can reduce apparently pains caused by bone metastases,which is conveniently used and well tolerated.

  4. Environmentally important radionuclides in nonproliferative fuel cycles

    T may become increasingly important because recent data from fast reactors (of the nonproliferative type) have confirmed production rates up to 12 times greater than previous estimates. Present radwaste systems do not selectively remove T. Recent projections indicate that releases of 14C by the global nuclear industry could exceed the natural production rate of 2.7 x 104 Ci/year by the year 1998 and could eventually stabilize at two times that rate. Recent experiments on the uptake of 99Tc reveal that soil-to-plant concentration factors for Tc appear to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than the value of 0.25 which is currently used in radiological assessments. Research is needed to determine reliable 99Tc soil-plant concentration factors because this radionuclide is released to the environment from fuel reprocessing and enrichment facilities. New calculations for certain reactors indicate that 232U may be formed in concentrations up to 4000 ppm. If these estimates are accurate, careful analysis should be made of possible releases of 232U which could result in external dose and food chain exposures. The environmental health aspects of these four radionuclides are discussed, as well as the potential for their release to the environment from nonproliferative fuel cycles. (orig./HP)

  5. Some radiation protection problems connected with the use of 186Re-HEDP and 153Sm-EDTMP for palliative therapy of of bone metastases

    The aim of this paper was to assess whether the ambulatory (outpatient) therapy with 186Re-HEDP and 153Sm-EDTMP is possible in the Czech Republic. Physical characteristics, administered activity, biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals, radiation protection characteristics, irradiation of patients relatives as well as comparison with limits for rhenium-186 and samarium-153 radiopharmaceuticals are given. The outpatient administration of 186Re-HEDP and 153Sm-EDTMP with the subsequent keeping the patient for 6 hours in a department of nuclear medicine appears to be in compliance with regulations proposed in the Czech Republic as well as ICRP Recommendations. (J.K.) 1 tab., 12 refs

  6. Exposure of personnel and public due to using 153Sm-labelled EDTMP-Quadramet® in nuclear medicine procedures.

    Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Napolska, Katarzyna; Olszewski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to highlight the problems of personnel exposure when administering (153)Sm-labelled ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate-Quadramet(®) to patients and especially to evaluate hand exposure of the personnel. The exposure levels of patients' families and the people who takes care of the patients treated by Quadramet(®) were also estimated. Thermoluminescent detectors were used to measure the doses. The doses received during the injection of the Quadramet(®) by the nursing staff have been determined at the level of 1/150 dose limit for the skin. Exposure of members of the patient's family staying 1.5 m away from the patient being treated with Quadramet(®) has been estimated to be 0.40 mGy. PMID:26041475

  7. Experimental cross section for the 152Sm(n, γ)153Sm reaction at 0.0334 eV

    The neutron capture cross section for the 152Sm(n, γ)153Sm reaction at an energy of 0.0334 eV was measured for the first time using monochromatic neutrons of a powder diffractometer at the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at Dhaka, Bangladesh. The 197Au(n, γ)198Au reaction was used to monitor the neutron beam intensity. The radioactivity of the products was determined via high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The obtained cross section value is 184 ± 22b, which is consistent with both the ENDF/B-VII and TENDL-2012 data libraries. The measured value at 0.0334 eV and the previous data at 0.0536 eV confirm the reliability of the data in the above libraries. (orig.)

  8. Exposure of personnel and public due to using 153Sm-labelled EDTMP-QuadrametR in nuclear medicine procedures

    The main aim of this study was to highlight the problems of personnel exposure when administering 153Sm-labelled ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate-QuadrametR to patients and especially to evaluate hand exposure of the personnel. The exposure levels of patients' families and the people who takes care of the patients treated by QuadrametR were also estimated. Thermoluminescent detectors were used to measure the doses. The doses received during the injection of the QuadrametR by the nursing staff have been determined at the level of 1/150 dose limit for the skin. Exposure of members of the patient's family staying 1.5 m away from the patient being treated with QuadrametR has been estimated to be 0.40 mGy. (authors)

  9. 99TC-MDP@153Sm-EDTMP治疗骨转移癌64例报告

    张萌萌; 常淑玲; 王淑芬; 张宗英; 郭忠

    2001-01-01

    @@恶性肿瘤骨转移(也称骨转移癌)导致的剧烈、持续性骨痛,给患者带来难以忍受的痛苦,放疗、化疗对骨转移癌的治疗已经临床证实疗效不明显.笔者应用99TC-MDP(99锝-亚甲基二磷酸盐)、153Sm-EDTMP(153钐-乙二胺四亚甲基磷酸)治疗收到较好疗效.现报道如下. 1资料与方法 1.1病例资料(1)治疗对象:经临床检查、SPECT全身显像诊断的54例恶性肿瘤骨转移患者中,肺癌18例,乳腺癌10例,直肠癌7例,肝癌3例,鼻咽癌2例,其他恶性肿瘤14例.本组执行“完整疗程”;(2)治疗对照组:经临床检查、SPECT全身显像诊断的10例恶性肿瘤骨转移患者中肺癌7例,乳腺癌2例,直肠癌1例. 1.2治疗药物99TC-MDP为中国核动力研究设计院成都同位素研究所提供,153Sm-EDTMP为中国原子能研究院,北京同位素应用研究所提供.

  10. Peptide labeling using 188Re, 188Re-MAG3 and 153Sm-H1ETA. A comparison on their in vitro lipophilicity

    Lanreotide peptide was labeled with 153Sm-H1ETA and 188Re-MAG3 in order to evaluate whether or not their conjugation to the peptide produce significant differences of the in vitro lipophilicity with respect to the 188Re-lanreotide prepared by the direct labeling method (highly lipophilic). The differences of lipophilicity between the complexes, were evaluated using a reverse phase HPLC system. The measured lipophilicity of 153Sm-H1ETA-lanreotide, 188Re-MAG3-lanreotide and 188Re-lanreotide was taken to be the capacity factor [k' = (tR - t0)/t0 where tR is the retention time and t0 is the dead time] for each of the complexes under identical chromatography conditions. Results showed that the in vitro lipophilicity decreased in the order 188Re-lanreotide (direct labeling), 188Re-MAG3-lanreotide and 153Sm-H1ETA-lanreotide. Since the last one has a capacity factor (k') similar to that of 188Re-MAG3, some renal elimination for 153Sm-H1ETA-lanreotide could be expected, which probably would reduce the unnecessary radiation dose to normal tissues. (author)

  11. Radiochemical and biological studies, including in non-human primates, towards indigenous development of 153Sm-EDTMP for metastatic bone pain palliation

    The combination of ease of formulation and superior biological features of 153Sm-EDTMP in terms of safety and efficacy for metastatic bone pain palliation, together with the prospect of better logistics of production, has prompted extensive efforts by many groups world over for its preparation and evaluation. Our efforts have been directed towards exploring the feasibility for formulation of 153Sm-EDTMP suitable for human use by neutron activation in medium flux reactors of the freely available and inexpensive natural samarium oxide target. The emphasis in biological studies was placed on tests in larger animals (monkeys) as a prelude to clinical evaluation. Feasibility to achieve reasonably high specific activity of 300-700 mCi/mg Sm at EOB with natural samarium has been adequately demonstrated. The radioeuropium contamination, estimated by γ-spectrometry to be 153Sm-EDTMP from natural samarium at high radioactive concentrations of 40-50 mCi 153Sm/mL, acceptable biolocalization, as revealed by both biodistribution studies in rats (femur uptake of 2-3% injected dose at 1h p.i. and retention up to 120 h p.i.) and gamma camera images in monkeys and adequate stability have been feasible. Excellent quality bone images of monkeys were recorded showing rapid clearance from blood, visualization of skeleton, clearance from kidneys within 2 hours and retention in skeleton up to 116 hours p.i. No significant activity in other soft tissues was noted. Comparative evaluation of the product prepared from enriched samarium as well as using in-house synthesized EDTMP has, likewise, revealed identical biolocalization features. EDTMP dose tolerance test in mice showed a safety factor of about 100 for a product made from natural samarium at an adult human dose of 50 mCi 153Sm. Feasibility for production, reasonable safety and satisfactory biolocalisation of the indigenous product has been adequately established so as to warrant clinical trials in patients. (author)

  12. Urine management after treatment with ''153 Sm-EDTMP (QUADRAMET); Gestion de la orina en el tratamiento con ''153 Sm-EDTMP (QUADRAMET)

    Delgado, A.; Diaz, J. P.; Carrasco, J. L.; Jimenez-Hoyuela, J. M.; Rebollo, A. C.; Martinez del Valle, M. D.; Ortega, S. J.

    2004-07-01

    The main purpose was to establish and to evaluate a new protocol of individualized treatment of patient urine after ''153 Sm-EDTMP injection, with a more efficient management of the wastes. Excreted urine was collected in an appropriate container form which, previous to sealing it, an aliquot of 10 ml was obtained. Experimental half-life (t1/2) of the isotope was then determined by measuring the activity at different times, besides the minimum time necessary for disposing of the radioactive wastes as regular trash. The measured half-life adjusted well to the theoretical value of the isotope. The time of considered storage oscillated between 19 and 26 days, based on the activity excreted by each patient. The main idea is the consideration of the set container-urine as solid waste: the evaluation of the minimum storage time necessary to its elimination is made in terms of legal limitation of specific activity by mass unit. The immediate advantages ares: the elimination of disagreeable scents by the storage of urine, it is not necessary a liquid waste disposal to eliminate it, and a more accurate knowledge of the specific activity at the moment of the elimination (dilution factor is not used). (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Radiolabelled 153Sm-chelates of glycoconjugates: multivalence and topology effects on the targeting of the asialoglycoprotein receptor

    In this paper we report and discuss the biodistribution studies with Wistar rats of a series of 153Sm(III)-glycoconjugates, based on DO3A and DO2A(cis) scaffolds (DO3A = 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane; DO2A(cis) = 1,4-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane). The effects of changing the sugar type (galactose, lactose and glucose), valency (mono and divalent) and topology on the targeting ability of the liver asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) are evaluated. Divalent glycoconjugates with different topologies were generated by a pendant glycodendrimeric (generation 1) architecture on a DO3A scaffold and by a linear DO2A(cis)-bis derivative. The results show that the galactose conjugates are more target efficient than the lactose analogues, while the glucose conjugates have no liver targeting ability. Divalent galactose conjugates are more efficiently targeted to the liver than the monovalent ones, while the dendrimeric topology of DO3A-Gal2 has higher targeting efficiency than that of the DO2A(cis)-Gal2. (orig.)

  14. Radiolabelled {sup 153}Sm-chelates of glycoconjugates: multivalence and topology effects on the targeting of the asialoglycoprotein receptor

    Torres, S. [Centro de Quimica, Campus de Gualtar, Univ. do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Martins, J.A.; Andre, J.P.; Neves, M. [Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Santos, A.C.; Prata, M.I.M. [Servico de Biofisica, IBILI, Univ. de Coimbra (Portugal); Geraldes, C.F.G.C. [Dept. de Bioquimica, Centro de Espectroscopia RMN e Centro de Neurociencias e Biologia Celular, Univ. de Coimbra (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we report and discuss the biodistribution studies with Wistar rats of a series of {sup 153}Sm(III)-glycoconjugates, based on DO3A and DO2A(cis) scaffolds (DO3A = 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane; DO2A(cis) = 1,4-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane). The effects of changing the sugar type (galactose, lactose and glucose), valency (mono and divalent) and topology on the targeting ability of the liver asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) are evaluated. Divalent glycoconjugates with different topologies were generated by a pendant glycodendrimeric (generation 1) architecture on a DO3A scaffold and by a linear DO2A(cis)-bis derivative. The results show that the galactose conjugates are more target efficient than the lactose analogues, while the glucose conjugates have no liver targeting ability. Divalent galactose conjugates are more efficiently targeted to the liver than the monovalent ones, while the dendrimeric topology of DO3A-Gal{sub 2} has higher targeting efficiency than that of the DO2A(cis)-Gal{sub 2}. (orig.)

  15. The fate and importance of radionuclides produced in nuclear events

    Some of the major program at the Bio-Medical Division concerned with the fate and importance of the fission products, the radionuclides induced in the device materials, the radionuclides induced in the environment surrounding the device, and the tritium produced in Plowshare cratering events will be discussed. These programs include (1) critical unknowns in predicting organ and body burdens from radionuclides produced in cratering events; (2) the analysis with a high-resolution solid state gamma ray spectrometer of radionuclides in complex biological and environmental samples; (3) the characterization of radioactive particles from cratering detonation; (4) the biological availability to beagles, pigs and goats of radionuclides in Plowshare debris; (5) the biological availability to aquatic animals of radionuclides in Plowshare and other nuclear debris and the biological turnover of critical nuclides in specific aquatic animals; (6) the biological availability of Plowshare and other nuclear debris radionuclides to dairy cows and the transplacental transport of debris radionuclides in the dairy cow; (7) the persistence and behavior of radionuclides, particularly tritium, at sites of Plowshare and other nuclear detonations; and (8) somatic effects of Low Dose Radiation: Chromosome studies. (author)

  16. DNA gel electrophoretic and micro-auto-radiographic studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells after exposure with 153Sm-EDTMP

    The apoptosis in bone tumor cells is studied after 153Sm-EDTMP irradiation. Fragmented DNA is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Experimental observations show that 153-EDTMP exposure induces the inter-nucleo-somal DNA damage in bone tumor cells. The DNA ladder pattern formation in bone tumor cells is shown. At the same time, the micro-auto-radiographic study indicate that 153Se-EDTMP could permeate through cell membrane and displays membrane-seeking condensation in bone tumor cells. Soon afterwards 153Sm-EDTMP could be phagocytized by the tumor cells and distributed in cytoplasm as well as nucleus in the form of phagosome. With the prolongation of observing time, the membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies are observed

  17. Dosimetric study of radium-223 chloride and 153Sm-EDTMP for treatment of bone metastases using MCNPX code and available experimental data

    Radium-223 chloride is an alpha emitter radiopharmaceutical which recently has been used for treatment of bone metastases. Absorbed and equivalent doses of 223RaCl2 were studied using MCNPX Monte Carlo code in a phantom consisted of bone marrow, bone and soft tissue. 153Sm-EDTMP as a beta emitter was also simulated for comparison with 223RaCl2. Results show that by injection of 100 µCi 223RaCl2 against 70 mCi 153Sm-EDTMP to a 70 kg adult man, equivalent dose of metastatic bone can be increased about six times without significant increase in delivered dose to healthy tissues. These results demonstrated acceptable agreement with experimental data. (author)

  18. Environmentally important radionuclides in nonproliferative fuel cycles

    Our analyses indicate that more in-depth research should be done on 3H, 14C, 99Tc, and 232U, especially because of their presence in nonproliferative fuel cycles. For increased 3H production by fast reactors, we can only speculate that such research could show that environmental releases might be significantly greater than for LWRs. Carbon-14 will likely not be a problem if a suitable decontamination factor can be agreed upon for reprocessing facilities and if a satisfactory regulatory limit can be established for global populations. Additional experimental research is urgently needed to determine the uptake of low levels of 99Tc by plants. These data are essential before an accurate assessment of 99Tc releases can be made. Finally, we recommend that investigators take a closer look at the potential problems associated with 232U and daughters. This radionuclide could contribute a significant portion of the dose in both environmental and occupational exposures from the nonproliferative fuels

  19. The clinical value of treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP-89SrCl2 joint half volume method for bone metastatic carcinoma

    Objective: To explore therapeutic effects and side effects of half quantity 153Sm-EDTMP joint half quantity 89SrCl2 for patients with bone metastatic carcinoma. Methods: 264 patients with extensive bone metastasis were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group Ⅰ: 156 patients were treated with 153Sm-EDTMP, Group Ⅱ: 78 patient were given 89SrCl2, Group Ⅲ: 20 patients accepted the joint half volume therapy, Group Ⅳ (control group): 10 patients were given 4 ml physiological saline. After therapy, all patients were reviewed routine blood test every week in the next 2 months and bone scintigraphy after 36 months. The efficacy of alleviate pain, the time to onset and the duration, myelosuppression were recorded. one-way ANOVA and χ2-test were performed by SAS V8.2. Results: The alleviate pain efficiency of group Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ respectively were 79.5% (124/156), 69.2% (54/78), 85% (17/20). No statistical significance among the 3 groups (P>0.05); Significant differences was existed between each group and the control group (P0.05); Group Ⅱ respectively had significant differences with group Ⅰ and Ⅲ (P 0.05); statistical significance existed between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ, Ⅲ (P 0.05). Conclusion: Half dose 153Sm-EDTMP joint half dose 89SrCl2 therapy can achieve higher efficacy for bone metastatic carcinoma, and fewer side effect of myelosuppression. (authors)

  20. Prospective dosimetry with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in metabolic radiotherapy of bone metastases with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP

    Bianchi, L.; Marzoli, L. [Azienda Ospedaliera ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Fisica Sanitaria, Busto Arsizio, Varese (Italy); Baroli, A. [A.O. ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Medicina Nucleare, Busto Arsizio, Varese (Italy); Verusio, C. [A.O. ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Oncologia Medica, Saronno, Varese (Italy); Chiesa, C. [Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Tumori Milano, Struttura Complessa di Medicina Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Pozzi, L. [Azienda Ospedaliera ' ' Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio' ' , Struttura Complessa di Fisica Sanitaria, Busto Arsizio, Varese (Italy)]|[Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione di Fisica Sanitaria, Milan (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    On the basis of the encouraging results achieved in several clinical trials and its proven therapeutic efficacy, {sup 153}Sm-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) has become widely used to palliate pain from bone metastases. The results reported in the literature have led the product suppliers (QUADRAMET registered, Schering) to suggest administering a fixed activity per kilogram (37 MBq/kg). However, considering the observed extreme inter-patient variability of skeletal uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, a real therapy optimization would require the individualization of the activity to be administered on a dosimetric basis. This should be planned taking into account the generally accepted 2-Gy dose constraint to the haematopoietic red marrow, the critical organ in palliative treatments with beta-emitting, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Seven to 14 days before treatment with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, 44 patients underwent {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) total-body bone scan with two scans (the first within 10 min of injection, the second after 6 h). The percentage bone uptake (Tc{sub %}) was evaluated as the ratio between total counts at 6 h, adjusted for decay, and total counts at the first scan. Tc{sub %} was then compared to Sm{sub %} similarly derived from 10-min and 24-h whole-body scans. Tc{sub %} and Sm{sub %} were compared both with and without Brenner's method for soft tissue uptake. The correlation between Tc{sub %} and Sm{sub %} was R {sup 2} = 0.81 and R {sup 2} = 0.88 with and without soft tissue correction, respectively. The difference between their average values was statistically significant (Sm{sub %} = 64.3 {+-} 15.2, Tc{sub %} = 56.2 {+-} 16.0; p = 0.017) with soft tissue correction, while was not statistically significant (Sm{sub %} = 68.2 {+-} 15.5, Tc{sub %} = 66.9 {+-} 14.0; p = 0.670) without soft tissue correction. The rate of retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in bone provides a reliable estimate of the {sup 153}Sm

  1. Automatic control system for measuring currents produced by ionization chambers; Automatizacao de um sistema de medidas de correntes produzidas por camaras de ionizacao e aplicacao na calibracao do {sup 18}F e {sup 153}Sm

    Brancaccio, Franco

    2002-07-01

    Ionization Chambers in current mode operation are usually used in Nuclear Metrology. Activity measurements are quickly performed by Ionization Chambers, with very good precision. For this purpose measurements of very low ionization currents, carried out by high quality instrumentation, are required. Usually, electrometers perform the current integration method under command of signals from an automation system, in order to reduce the measurement uncertainties. Among the measurement systems at the Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear (LMN) of IPEN, there are two ionization chamber systems. In the present work, an automation system developed for current integration measurements is described. This automation system is composed by software (graphic interface and control) and an electronic module connected to a microcomputer, by means of a commercial data acquisition card. Several test measurements were performed in order to determine the intrinsic uncertainty, linearity and stability of the system. Using calibrated radioactive solutions, the IG12/A20 chamber calibration factors for {sup 18}F and {sup 153}Sm were obtained, making possible to determine activities of these radionuclides. (author)

  2. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  3. Random comparison study of the clinical response to 153Sm-EDTMP 1.0 mCi/kg and 1.5 mCi/kg

    Sixty-seven patient with painful bone metastases were randomized to two groups. Group 1 (n=34) received 1.0 mCi/kg of 153Sm-EDTMP and group II (n=33) received 1.5 mCi/kg. All of them met inclusion criteria and there was no significantly difference between the basic conditions of two groups. After receiving 153Sm-EDTMP intravenously, all patients were kept in close follow-up weekly with blood counting, physician visiting and collecting patient's self-filling-in diary including pain score, Karnofsky performance scale and analgesic consumption. The follow-up duration was six weeks. The final overall condition assessed by physician were graded into no change (including worse), slight relief, significant relief and complete relief. Only significant relief and complete relief were considered as effectiveness for pain relief. Haematological toxicity grade was evaluated based on the nadir of WBC ad PLT counts. The results indicated that the higher dosage group had a higher effectiveness rate (75.76%) compared to the lower dosage group (67.65%), but without statistic significance (x2=0.5365, 0.25153Sm-EDTMP could be used for those patients with better haematological function and 1.0 mCi/kg used for those patients with poorer haematological function. (author)

  4. Measurement of 153Sm-EDTMP bone uptake by whole-body scintigraphy and its application to individualized treatment dosimetry of bone metastasis

    To calculate a safe and effective 153Sm-EDTMP therapy dose, a whole-body scintigraphy technique for prospective individual dosimetry was developed and the results were compared with 5 h urine collection method in 20 patients with bone metastases. Anterior and posterior whole-body images were obtained 10 min and 5 h after intravenous injection of 740 MBq 153Sm-EDTMP and the bone uptake value was determined. There is a close correlation between the bone uptake value obtained from the whole-body scintigraphy and 5 h urine collection method (r = 0.93). The radiation absorption dose to red marrow was limited to 1.4 Gy and the administered activity calculated from bone uptake value by whole-body scintigraphy was 1.40-2.27 GBq (mean 1.90 GBq). If the activity was calculated according to the standard body weight of 37 MBq·kg-1, the administered activity would be 1.75-2.41 GBq (mean 2.18), the radiation absorption dose to red marrow would be 1.37-2.27 Gy (mean 1.63 Gy), but at these doses significant myelotoxicity would be anticipated, thus emphasizing the need for individual prospective dosimetry

  5. Experimental cross section for the {sup 152}Sm(n, γ){sup 153}Sm reaction at 0.0334 eV

    Uddin, M. Shuza; Datta, Tapash Kumar; Hossain, Syed Mohammod; Zakaria, A.K.M.; Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Naher, Kamrun; Shariff, M. Asad; Yunus, S.M. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology; Afroze, Nasmin [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology; Jahangirnagar Univ., Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Islam, S.M. Ajharul [Jahangirnagar Univ., Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2014-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section for the {sup 152}Sm(n, γ){sup 153}Sm reaction at an energy of 0.0334 eV was measured for the first time using monochromatic neutrons of a powder diffractometer at the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at Dhaka, Bangladesh. The {sup 197}Au(n, γ){sup 198}Au reaction was used to monitor the neutron beam intensity. The radioactivity of the products was determined via high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The obtained cross section value is 184 ± 22b, which is consistent with both the ENDF/B-VII and TENDL-2012 data libraries. The measured value at 0.0334 eV and the previous data at 0.0536 eV confirm the reliability of the data in the above libraries. (orig.)

  6. Environmentally important radionuclides in non-proliferative fuel cycles

    Increased emphasis in energy research is being given to the development of nonproliferative nuclear fuel cycles and to the assessment of potential release of radionuclides to the environment from these new cycles. Four radionuclides, 14C, 3H, 99Tc, and 232U, due to lack of adequate knowledge or anticipated increased production in nonproliferative fuel cycles, may require renewed consideration. Our projections indicate that releases of 14C by the global nuclear industry could exceed the natural production rate of 3.8 x 104 Ci/y by the year 2000 and could eventually stabilize at 2.3 times that rate. Tritium may become increasingly important, because recent data from fast reactors (of the nonproliferative type) have confirmed production rates up to 13 times greater than previous estimates. Present radwaste systems do not remove tritium. Recent experiments on the uptake of 99Tc reveal that soil-to-plant concentration factors for technetium appear to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than the value of 0.25 which has been adopted routinely in radiological assessments. Research is needed to determine reliable 99Tc soil-to-plant concentration factors because this radionuclide could be released at reprocessing and enrichment facilities. New calculations for certain reactors indicate that 232U may be formed in concentrations up to 4000 ppm. If accurate, such data will require careful analysis of possible releases of 232U because of external and food chain exposures. The environmental health aspects of these four radionuclides are discussed, as well as the potential for their release to the environment from nonproliferative fuel cycles. (author)

  7. To study on the gamma cascade and the exited intermediate levels schemata of 153Sm, 182Ta, 59Ni and 239U by method of summation of coincident pulses

    In this project, in order to strengthen the ability of research of nuclear data and nuclear structure on the neutron beam at Dalat Research Reactor, a spectrometer of summation of coincident pulses (SACP) was installed, it is used to study the gamma cascades of 59Ni, 153Sm, 182Ta and 239U. The results are used for postgraduate education. (author)

  8. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  9. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  10. Report of the consultants' meeting on comparative laboratory evaluation of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals

    Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals consist of two components - the radionuclide and the biological carrier. With regard to the radionuclide, an advantage of targeted radiotherapy is that there are a wide variety of radionuclides with different physical half-lives and radiation qualities that can be applied for this purpose. An important task is to select a radionuclide that is compatible with the needs of a particular clinical application. The identification of the ideal targeted radiotherapeutic for each potential clinical application is a difficult task because of the multitude of variables that must be considered, some relating to the radioisotope, and others to the biological carrier. Hence it is recommended that a Co-ordinated Research Programme be established by the Agency to enable participants to acquire and intercompare the methodological expertise to evaluate the relative merit of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. These studies will be performed using a model system selected either from those described in this report or a promising agent that has emerged in the time since this meeting. The molecular carrier will be labelled with 131I, 125I as well as other therapeutic radionuclides available to the participant (for example, 90Y, 186Re, 188Re, 153Sm, 166Ho, 165Dy). The potential radiopharmaceuticals will then be compared in a progression of studies evaluating biological integrity after labelling, internalisation and residualization of radioactivity in the tumour cell, in vitro cytotoxicity, tissue distribution, normal organ toxicity (determination of the maximum tolerated dose) and finally, therapeutic efficacy

  11. Formulation and evaluation of freeze-dried DOTMP kit for the preparation of clinical-scale {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP and {sup 153}Sm-DOTMP at the hospital radiopharmacy

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiopharmaceuticals Chemistry Section, Mumbai (India); Chakraborty, Sudipta [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Isotope Production and Applications Div., Mumbai (India); Sarma, Haladhar D. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div., Mumbai (India)

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop and evaluate freeze-dried DOTMP kit, which could be utilized for the convenient and single-step preparation of clinical-scale {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP and {sup 153}Sm-DOTMP, both of which have shown potential as alternative agents for metastatic bone pain palliation. Freeze-dried DOTMP kits, each comprising a lyophilized mixture of 20 mg DOTMP and 8.75 mg NaOH, were prepared. The kits were used for the preparation of clinical-scale {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP and {sup 153}Sm-DOTMP complexes. The agents were prepared by dissolving the lyophilized powder in 1 mL of normal saline and incubating with {sup 177}LuCl{sub 3} or {sup 153}SmCl{sub 3}, produced in-house, for 15 min at room temperature. Pharmacokinetic behavior and biological distribution of the agents were studied by carrying out biodistribution as well as scintigraphic studies in normal male Wistar rats. Shelf-life of the freeze-dried kits was also ascertained. Clinical-scale {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP and {sup 153}Sm-DOTMP complexes, comprising up to 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) of activity, were prepared with > 99% radiochemical purity using the freeze-dried kits. The complexes exhibited high in vitro stability when stored at room temperature. Biological studies showed selective skeletal accumulation and insignificant uptake of the radiotracers in any of the vital organs/tissue. The non-accumulated activity exhibited primary urinary clearance. The kits had a shelf-life of 2 years when stored at 4 C temperature. Freeze-dried DOTMP kits, suitable for the preparation of clinical-scale {sup 177}Lu-DOTMP and {sup 153}Sm-DOTMP, have been developed and the radiochemical and biological behaviors of the radiolabeled agents have been studied. The use of the kit at the hospital radiopharmacy is expected to make the preparations easy and convenient. This in turn will enable the widespread dissemination of these promising agents towards their application for regular use.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of freeze-dried DOTMP kit for the preparation of clinical-scale 177Lu-DOTMP and 153Sm-DOTMP at the hospital radiopharmacy

    The objective of the present work is to develop and evaluate freeze-dried DOTMP kit, which could be utilized for the convenient and single-step preparation of clinical-scale 177Lu-DOTMP and 153Sm-DOTMP, both of which have shown potential as alternative agents for metastatic bone pain palliation. Freeze-dried DOTMP kits, each comprising a lyophilized mixture of 20 mg DOTMP and 8.75 mg NaOH, were prepared. The kits were used for the preparation of clinical-scale 177Lu-DOTMP and 153Sm-DOTMP complexes. The agents were prepared by dissolving the lyophilized powder in 1 mL of normal saline and incubating with 177LuCl3 or 153SmCl3, produced in-house, for 15 min at room temperature. Pharmacokinetic behavior and biological distribution of the agents were studied by carrying out biodistribution as well as scintigraphic studies in normal male Wistar rats. Shelf-life of the freeze-dried kits was also ascertained. Clinical-scale 177Lu-DOTMP and 153Sm-DOTMP complexes, comprising up to 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) of activity, were prepared with > 99% radiochemical purity using the freeze-dried kits. The complexes exhibited high in vitro stability when stored at room temperature. Biological studies showed selective skeletal accumulation and insignificant uptake of the radiotracers in any of the vital organs/tissue. The non-accumulated activity exhibited primary urinary clearance. The kits had a shelf-life of 2 years when stored at 4 C temperature. Freeze-dried DOTMP kits, suitable for the preparation of clinical-scale 177Lu-DOTMP and 153Sm-DOTMP, have been developed and the radiochemical and biological behaviors of the radiolabeled agents have been studied. The use of the kit at the hospital radiopharmacy is expected to make the preparations easy and convenient. This in turn will enable the widespread dissemination of these promising agents towards their application for regular use.

  13. Importance of initial management of persons internally contaminated with radionuclides

    The first one to three hours following a radiation accident during which internal contamination occurs provide the best and perhaps the only opportunity for preventing uptake of radionuclides. By using chemical manipulation in the GI tract or by hastening the material through the body, absorption can be reduced. Once absorbed, uptake in specific tissues can often be prevented by blocking agents, isotopic dilution or chelating agents. In order to supply prompt treatment, the medical department must have a well-defined action plan based on knowledge of the plant of laboratory operations, the radionuclides used, and medications required. (U.S.)

  14. Evaluation of the radiosensitizing to treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP, of haematopoietic cells of the bone marrow by means of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA, in a murine model

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) has been shown to have a radiosensitizing effect, and its incorporation into DNA prior to administration of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical could increase the efficiency of bone marrow ablation, and even increase the specificity of radiation exposure for therapeutic purposes. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of BrdU incorporation into DNA on the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetra-methylene phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) in murine bone marrow cells. BALB/c male mice (N = 5 in each experiment) were treated with one of the following substances: a) BrdU (0.25 mg/g) b) 153-EDTMP (11.5 ± 3 MBq) c) BrdU (0.25 mg/g) plus 153Sm-EDTMP (11.5 ± MBq), there was also an untreated control. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were established by time-response and absorbed dose-response curves of polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) and micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) frequencies, respectively, in murine peripheral blood samples in vivo. The significance of the differences between groups was determined by a variation of Dunett test for multiple groups and different-sized groups of a student test. Beta-absorbed dose fractions obtained from MNCP4B Monte Carlo computer code were used for mice bone marrow dosimetry calculations. At an average radiation absorbed dose of 0.38 Gy, 0.56 Gy and 0.82 Gy at 24, 40 and 72 h respectively, cells from animals treated with 153Sm-EDTMP showed a clear and significant induction of MN-PCE after 24 h, with the maximum response at 40 h, however, cells from group treated with BrdU plus 153Sm-EDTMP paradoxically showed MN-PCE frequencies only slightly higher than the control at the same absorbed dose. Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP caused a slight reduction in PCE frequency, but exposure to BrdU or BrdU plus 153Sm-EDTMP induced a substantial and significant reduction in PCE frequency from 32 h to the end of the experiment (72 h). The PCE frequencies in the Brd

  15. Evaluation of the radiosensitizing to treatment with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, of haematopoietic cells of the bone marrow by means of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA, in a murine model; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilizacion al tratamiento con {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, de las celulas hemotopoyeticas de la medula osea mediante la incorporacion de bromodesoxiuridina (BrdU) en el ADN, en un modelo murino

    Morales A, E.

    2008-07-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) has been shown to have a radiosensitizing effect, and its incorporation into DNA prior to administration of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical could increase the efficiency of bone marrow ablation, and even increase the specificity of radiation exposure for therapeutic purposes. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of BrdU incorporation into DNA on the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetra-methylene phosphonate ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) in murine bone marrow cells. BALB/c male mice (N = 5 in each experiment) were treated with one of the following substances: a) BrdU (0.25 mg/g) b) {sup 153}-EDTMP (11.5 +- 3 MBq) c) BrdU (0.25 mg/g) plus {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (11.5 +- MBq), there was also an untreated control. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were established by time-response and absorbed dose-response curves of polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) and micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) frequencies, respectively, in murine peripheral blood samples in vivo. The significance of the differences between groups was determined by a variation of Dunett test for multiple groups and different-sized groups of a student test. Beta-absorbed dose fractions obtained from MNCP4B Monte Carlo computer code were used for mice bone marrow dosimetry calculations. At an average radiation absorbed dose of 0.38 Gy, 0.56 Gy and 0.82 Gy at 24, 40 and 72 h respectively, cells from animals treated with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP showed a clear and significant induction of MN-PCE after 24 h, with the maximum response at 40 h, however, cells from group treated with BrdU plus {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP paradoxically showed MN-PCE frequencies only slightly higher than the control at the same absorbed dose. Treatment with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP caused a slight reduction in PCE frequency, but exposure to BrdU or BrdU plus {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP induced a substantial and significant reduction in PCE frequency from 32 h to the end of the experiment (72 h

  16. Radiopharmaceutical therapy of bone metastases with {sup 89}SrCl{sub 2}, {sup 186}Re-HEDP and {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP: a dosimetric study using Monte Carlo simulation

    Strigari, L.; D' Andrea, M.; Benassi, M. [Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Rome (Italy); Sciuto, R.; Pasqualoni, R.; Maini, C.L. [Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    The aim of the paper is to calculate the dose to bone surface and bone volume using a Monte Carlo particle transport model and to give quantitative arguments for activity prescription. This study simulates the dose delivery process to skeletal metastases by bone surface- and bone volume-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Dose distributions for three radiopharmaceuticals, {sup 186}Re-HEDP, {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and {sup 89}SrCl{sub 2}, frequently used for pain palliation therapies, were calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. The model simulates a cylindrical geometry with regions of different constant density compositions and radioactivity distribution consistent with known biodistribution features of the three radiopharmaceuticals: superficial for phosphonates ({sup 186}Re-HEDP and {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) and volumetric for {sup 89}SrCl{sub 2}. After 3D dose distribution calculation, dose-volume histogram reduction was carried out using the ''preferred Lyman'' method, which yields effective uniform dose (D{sub eff}) equivalent to the inhomogeneous dose distributions to the reference region (volume and surface). Our simulations showed that to obtain a delivered dose to bone surface equivalent to that obtained from {sup 89}SrCl{sub 2}, the administered activities of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and {sup 186}Re-HEDP should be increased by 37% and 48%, respectively, in comparison with those usually administered. These results prove theoretically the empirical results from clinical observations and show that improvement in bone pain palliation by means of radiopharmaceutical therapy should be expected for dose-guided prescription. (orig.)

  17. Radionuclides in sporocarps of medicinaly important fungi of Fruska Gora hill

    The content of radionuclides in six lignicolous saprophytic and parasitic fungal species was analyzed. Samples were collected in 1999 autumn at two sites of the Fruska Gora Hill. Since fungi absorb radionuclides mostly from the substrate, soil and tree samples were also collected and analyzed. Certain characteristics of fungal species play an important role in the process of radionuclide absorption. On the other hand, the degree of radionuclide accumulation is very important for the fungi of potential pharmaceutical significance. The results on the radioactivity concentration in the analyzed fungi could be used both for the bioindication investigations, soil and substrate contamination in particular, and for estimation of the forest ecological status. The activity concentration level of most critical radionuclide 137Cs was about ten times lower in these species then in Pholiota squarrosa, characterized by the highest activity concentration level of 55(4) Bq/kg (d.m.)

  18. 153Sm-lexidronam for augmentation of chemotherapy-based myeloablative regimes in patients with multiple myeloma and other haematological conditions undergoing bone marrow transplantation: a phase I dose-escalation trial

    Full text: Total body irradiation (TBI) is a useful conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation (BMT), but has unacceptable toxicity in some patients. High doses of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals may offer a useful alternative to TBI in BMT patients with marrow-based tumours. Nine patients (5 multiple myeloma [MM], 2 leukaemia, 1 lymphoma, I myelodysplasia) were enrolled in a dose escalation protocol based upon retained skeletal activity. Infused doses have ranged between 18 and 32 GBq of 153Sm-EDTMP in six patients treated. No adverse effects related to the infusion have been seen. Peripheral blood counts fell from day 7 post-treatment, persisting to the start of cytotoxic conditioning regimen at days 11-14 post-treatment. Five patients have engrafted, with one allogeneic transplant patient dying from acute rejection. Pre-treatment dosimetry was performed by gamma camera and whole-body probe counts. Post-therapy activities were estimated by serial dose meter readings and gamma camera images. The pre-treatment skeletal retention by gamma camera was 1.7-2.4 times the values based on probe data. Retained post-treatment skeletal activity predicted by dosimetry was significantly greater than that actually measured, confirmed in one case by urinary collection. This latter fact is most likely due to the nature of the interaction of 153Sm-EDTMP with bone at high doses

  19. Thermal neutron capture cross sections for the 152Sm(n,γ) 153Sm and 154Sm(n,γ) 155Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV energy

    Uddin, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. H.; Hossain, S. M.; Latif, Sk. A.; Islam, M. A.; Hafiz, M. A.; Mubin, S. H.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Yunus, S. M.; Azharul Islam, S. M.

    2008-11-01

    The neutron capture cross sections for the 152Sm(n,γ) 153Sm and 154Sm(n,γ) 155Sm reactions at 0.0536 eV neutron energy were measured using an activation technique based on the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor, relative to the reference reaction 197Au(n,γ) 198Au. The activity was measured nondestructively using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Our measured values at this neutron energy are the first ones and are compared with 1/ v based evaluated cross sections reported in the ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 libraries. The measured value for the 152Sm(n,γ) 153Sm reaction is 0.28% lower than JENDL-3.3 and 0.48% higher than ENDF/B-VII. Our value for the production of 155Sm is about 3% and 2.3% higher than the evaluated value with ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-3.3 at 0.0536 eV, respectively.

  20. Concentrations of natural radionuclides in imported zirconium minerals

    Janković Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radioactivity in imported zircon samples used as glaze for ceramic tiles in the ceramics industry has been presented in this paper. The measurements were made by gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium detector. The average activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th determined in the measured samples (3250 Bq/kg, and 556 Bq/kg, respectively are much higher than the concentrations found in the Earth’s crust. The activity concentration of 226Ra is also high in all analyzed samples, while 40K was not detected. The gamma index, I, the external hazard index, Hex, the internal hazard index, Hin, and the radium equivalent activity, Raeq, were calculated. Due to relatively high activity concentration level of uranium in imported zircon samples, specific regulations are necessary for zircon compound used in ceramic industry. It can be concluded that the investigated samples can be used as the component of ceramic glaze in the concentrations not above 3%.

  1. Europium-154 contamination levels in Samarium-153-EDTMP for radionuclide therapy

    Moro, L [Department of Medical Physics, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Fantinato, D [Department of Medical Physics, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Frigerio, F [Department of Industrial and Environmental Hygiene, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Shamhan, G [European School of Advanced Studies in Nuclear and Ionising Radiation Technologies, University Institute of Advanced Studies, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Angelovski, G [European School of Advanced Studies in Nuclear and Ionising Radiation Technologies, University Institute of Advanced Studies, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, a useful non toxic bone seeking isotope in the palliative radionuclide therapy for bone metastases, is produced by neutron activation of enriched of {sup 152}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets. During the large-scale formation of {sup 153}Sm, however, there is a co-production of some long-lived radio nuclides, among which {sup 154}Eu is a major and inevitable radionuclide impurity. The level of {sup 154}Eu contamination was evaluated performing a gamma-ray spectrometry of a radiopharmaceutical sample and the urine of an administered patient. As expected, gamma-ray spectra revealed the presence of {sup 153}Eu in all the samples. The specific activity of {sup 153}Eu in the urine sample collected at 6 hours after injection is 21 Bq/ml and is less than 1 Bq/ml in 24 hr. The contamination levels of {sup 153}Eu, normalized to the corresponding activity of {sup 153}Sm, were 0.0012% in the residual and in the first urine sample and 0.0017% and 0.0031% at 30 and 54 hours after administration, respectively. The results of this study show that the level of the long-lived {sup 153}Eu impurity is not a limitation in the metastatic bone pain palliation due to the additional radiation dose burden, but could pose a cause of concern in case of discharging.

  2. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria

    Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was employed in the determination of the radionuclide contents in the products. The gamma-ray peaks observed with reliable regularity in all the samples analysed belong to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 226Ra, 228Th and 40K. The activity concentrations of these radionuclides in both the domestic and imported products were observed to be not significantly different. Essentially radioactive elements such as 137Cs were not detected in any of the samples. The non-detection of 137Cs in the imported products may be attributed to the suitably modified agricultural practices and countermeasures being employed to reduce caesium uptake by plants after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. It seems unlikely that the elemental concentrations in the food products analysed will contribute significantly to public health risks in the country, as the cumulative ingestion effective dose values from 226Ra and 228Th were found to be low. Although 40K has the highest activity concentrations in all the samples analysed, it is usually under homeostatic control in the body, and hence the concentrations are irrelevant to possible contamination in the food products analysed. (note)

  3. Optimization of production and quality control of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1994-1998

    The 'renaissance' of the therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals during the last few years was in part due to a greater availability of radionuclides with appropriate nuclear decay properties, as well as to the development of carrier molecules with improved characteristics. Although radionuclides such as 32P, 89Sr and 131I, were used from the early days of nuclear medicine in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the inclusion of other particle emitting radionuclides into the nuclear medicine armamentarium was rather late. Only in the early 1980s did the specialized scientific literature start to show the potential for using other beta emitting nuclear reactor produced radionuclides such as 153Sm, 166 Ho, 165Dy and 186-188Re. Bone seeking agents radiolabelled with the above mentioned beta emitting radionuclides demonstrated clear clinical potential in relieving intense bone pain resulting from metastases of the breast, prostate and lung of cancer patients. Therefore, upon the recommendation of a consultants meeting held in Vienna in 1993, the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Production and quality control of Radiotherapeutic Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1994. The CRP aimed at developing and improving existing laboratory protocols for the production of therapeutic radionuclides using existing nuclear research reactors including the corresponding radiolabelling, quality control procedures; and validation in experimental animals. With the participation of ten scientists from IAEA Member States, several laboratory procedures for preparation and quality control were developed, tested and assessed as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. In particular, the CRP optimised the reactor production of 153Sm and the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 153Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), as well as radiolabelling techniques and quality control methods for the

  4. Experience on the neutron activation of natural/enriched Re, Sm, and Ho nuclides in a reactor for the production of radiotherapeutic radionuclides.

    Ishfaq, M M; Mushtaq, A; Jawaid, M

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been concentrated on the use of beta-emitting radionuclides for the treatment of various cancers. The reports suggested the application of 186Re and 153Sm as radiotherapeutic radionuclides for the treatment of palliative widespread skeletal metastases, whereas 166Ho was suggested as an agent for radiation synovectomy. Hence, a study on the production of 186Re, 153Sm, and 166Ho radionuclides was carried out by neutron activation of the appropriate target materials using a Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor (PARR-1) at a neutrons flux of 1 x 10(4) n/cm2 s. These radionuclides were then converted to appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for their use on animals and patients. The targets of natural Re (metal), natural Sm2O3, enriched Sm2O3 (99.06%), Sm(NO3)3 (solid), Sm(NO3)3 (liquid), and Ho2O3 were irradiated in the PARR-1. After irradiation, the purity of these radionuclides were checked by a multichannel analyzer, Canberra series 85 (MCA) coupled with HPGe detector and then measured in radioisotope calibrator Capintec ionization chamber model CRC-5RH. The effect of the irradiation time and amount of target material was investigated on the production yields of the radionuclides. The results showed an increase in the specific activity of Re with an increase in the irradiation time from 1 to 72 h, whereas a decrease in the specific activity was observed with increase in the amount of Re from 10 to 100 mg. Similar results were obtained for 153Sm and 166Ho radionuclides. The results further indicated that the specific activity of powder target was much less than the liquid targets for 153Sm. Their conversion to the appropriate radiotherapeutic radiopharmaceuticals were also carried out by investigating the experimental conditions and acceptable quality of 186Re-HEDP and 153Sm-EDTMP complexes were prepared. These complexes were then used on animals and patients which showed good performance. PMID:10676528

  5. Radionuclides in domestic and imported foods in the United States, 1983-1986

    Cunningham, W.C.; Stroube, W.B. Jr.; Baratta, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Findings in the Food and Drug Administration's Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for samples collected between October 1, 1982, and September 30, 1986. All radionuclide findings for Total Diet and reactor samples were either in Action Range I or low in Range II of the surveillance and control recommendations given by the Federal Radiation Council. The only long-range trend noted was a continuation of the general decline in dietary intake of /sup 90/Sr since 1961. Imported food samples were analyzed for contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The findings for imported foods indicate that the surveillance efforts successfully targeted contaminated foods, and that contamination levels were below levels of concern for all but one oregano and 3 cheese samples.

  6. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields. PMID:24610652

  7. Concentrations of radionuclides in imported foods from foreign countries in Japan (2000-2003)

    Japanese law concerning prohibition against marketing insanitary foods, etc, has defined the limit of radioactivity level in imported foods (370 Bq/kg in total of 137Cs and 134Cs radioactivities) post Chernobyl accident and check for this has been performed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The present report describes results of additional examination, conducted by National Institute of Public Health, or the Kobe or Yokohama Quarantine Station, of radionuclide (γ-emitters) concentration in imported foods during the period 2000-2003. Foods examined are from northern (40 samples) and southern (8) America, Asia (66), Oceania (9), Africa (8) and Europe (12), and are 13 kinds of grains, 12 nuts/seeds, 1 potato, 17 fruits, 12 green/yellow vegetables, 13 other vegetables, 19 mushrooms, 4 seaweeds, 15 nonessential taste items like tea leaves, 19 fishes and 12 meats. Samples are those homogenized, freeze-dried or mineralized. The Ge-semiconductor detector connected with a pulse-height analyzer is used for γ-ray detection, mainly that of 137Cs and 134Cs, and for 40K as a natural radionuclide. Sample weights are 1,000-2,000 g and counting times, 100,000-300,000 seconds. Results reveal that 137Cs alone is detectable as a artificial radionuclide but its level is as low as that in similar Japanese foods. Thus the annual effective dose due to intake of 137Cs in imported foods is evaluated enough low in adults. (N.I.)

  8. Methodology for quantification of radionuclides used in therapy by bioanalysis 'in vitro'

    In Brazil, the radionuclides used for therapy are 131; 153 Sm, 90Y and 177 Lu, under routine or experimentally. The quantification of the radiopharmaceutical activity excreted by the patient through the bioassay method, can be an important tool for individualized dosimetry, aiming the planning of subsequent therapies. The Bioanalysis In Vitro Laboratory (LBIOVT) of the Service of Individual monitoring (SEMIN) of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Brazil, has equipment and procedures for gamma and beta spectrometry. These detection systems are calibrated in energy and efficiency, and used standard reference sources provided by the National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LMNRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ). The LBIOVT Quality System follows the guidelines of the ISO-ABNT-17025 standard and annually, the laboratory participates in national (PNI) and international (PROCORAD). With respect to the excreta samples from patients, these are collected immediately after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. During the first 24 hours, they are collected with the patient hospitalized, and depending upon the physical half-life of the radionuclide can also be collected in the patient's home. Both in hospital and at home, the excreta is handled, stored and transported in accordance with standards for clinical research, radiation protection and transport of radioactive and biological materials. The specific activity radionuclide is referenced to the date and time of collection, allowing further evaluation of biological individual half-life. The care with the registration of excreted volumes as well as possible loss of excreta during collection, may interfere with the interpretation of the measures, since the results are provided in specific activity (Bq / L). Regarding the bioassay laboratory, these results are reliable when the laboratory is certified and participates in intercomparison programs of measures and methods. The laboratory able

  9. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  10. Experimental study of the deformed nucleus {sup 153}Sm via ({rvec d},t) and average resonance capture as a test case for the multiorbit interacting boson fermion model

    Gollwitzer, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Metz, A.; Schiemenz, P.; Valnion, B.D.; Graw, G. [Sektion Physik der Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blasi, N.; Lucchini, S.; Micheletti, S.; Pignanelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dellUniversita di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); de Leo, R. [Universita di Bari and Sezione INFN di Bari (Italy); Gill, R.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Hategan, C. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bukarest (Romania); Casten, R.F. [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The {sup 154}Sm({rvec d},t) reaction at high energy resolution (n,{gamma}), average resonance capture (ARC), and coincidence measurements were performed to study the deformed nucleus {sup 153}Sm. Strength distributions from ({rvec d},t) and completeness for I{sup {pi}}= (1) /(2) {sup {minus}} and (3) /(2) {sup {minus}} states up to 1500 keV from ARC provide one of the first detailed tests of the interacting boson fermion model (IBFM) in a deformed nucleus in a multiorbit environment. For negative parity states the model accounts for the large number of low spin ( (1) /(2) {sup {minus}}, (3) /(2) {sup {minus}}) states much better than the Nilsson model since the even-even core in the IBFM calculations automatically includes excited vibrational states. The IBFM calculations also predict (d,t) spectroscopic factors better than the Nilsson model with pairing and Coriolis mixing. Neither the IBFM nor the Nilsson approach can explain the low lying positive parity states. The IBFM calculations show that for certain combinations of parameters, the monopole term in the boson-fermion Hamiltonian has more than a scaling effect: it can attenuate the Coriolis mixing (energy staggering). Finally suggested improvements in the treatment of pairing in the IBFM are made. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Parameter sensitivity and importance for radionuclide transport in double-porosity systems

    A type-curve methodology using four dimensionless parameters is developed for modeling radionuclide transport through a fractured, double-porosity system. A dimensionless velocity and a dimensionless dispersion coefficient are used to characterize transport through the fractures, while a dimensionless solute storage enhancement coefficient and a dimensionless time constant for matrix diffusion are used to characterize the coupling of the matrix to the fractures. Using the dimensionless parameters, parameter-variation curves are developed to exhibit the general response of a performance measure, nuclide travel time, with respect to the entire range of parameter variability. Parameter sensitivities are then calculated as the normalized derivatives of the parameter-variation curves for the dimensionless set of base-case values. The parameter sensitivities are then recast to find the response of the performance measure in terms of a natural set of dimensional parameters that characterize the double-porosity transport model. As a final step, importance coefficients are defined to ascertain the relative ranking of the natural set of base-case parameters. The method is demonstrated by presenting the results obtained by modeling the transport of an infinitely long-lived radionuclide through the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, the most transmissive zone located above the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico

  12. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  13. Parameter sensitivity and importance for radionuclide transport in double-porosity systems

    A type-curve methodology using four dimensionless parameters is developed for modeling radionuclide transport through a fractured, double-porosity system. A dimensionless velocity and a dimensionless dispersion coefficient characterize transport through the fractures, while a dimensionless solute storage enhancement coefficient and a dimensionless time constant for matrix diffusion characterize the coupling of the matrix to the fractures. Using the dimensionless parameters, parameter-variation curves exhibit the general response of a performance measure, nuclide travel time, with respect to the entire range of parameter variability. Parameter sensitivities are then calculated as the normalized derivatives of the parameter-variation curves for the dimensionless set of base-case values. Parameter sensitivities are recast to find the response of the performance measure in terms of a natural set of dimensional parameters that characterize the double-porosity transport model. Importance coefficients are defined to ascertain the relative ranking of the natural set of base-case parameters. 15 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Radiochemical studies related to the development of new production routes of some diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides

    Nuclear reaction cross section measurements were done in connection with the development of new production routes of the therapeutic and diagnostic radionuclides 32P, 71As, 72As, 73As, 74As, 82Sr, 90Y, 153Sm and 169Yb. Investigations on the production of n.c.a. 73Se using novel targetry were also performed. Integral cross sections were measured for the natS(n,p)32P, natZr(n,p)90Y and natEu(n,p)153Sm reactions using a 14 MeV d(Be) neutron field. The neutron spectrum was characterised using multiple foil activation and the code SULSA. Existing cross section data were validated within 10 - 15 %, thereby substantiating earlier evaluated and recommended excitation functions of the investigated reactions. It is inferred that for production of radionuclides via the (n,p) reaction, a fast neutron spectral source (e.g. spallation or fusion) would be better suited than a fission reactor. Proton and α-particle induced reactions were investigated in the high-mass area for the production of 153Sm and 169Yb via alternative routes. Measurements were done for the first time on the natNd(a,n)153Sm process over the energy range of 10 to 26.5 MeV and the possible production yield of 153Sm amounts to 2 GBq. The excitation function of the 169Tm(p,n)169Yb reaction was determined over the energy range from threshold to 45 MeV and compared with the results of nuclear model calculation based on the ALICE-IPPE code. A good agreement was found. The calculated possible production yields are lower than those via the conventional (n,γ) production route, but the produced 153Sm and 169Yb are in no-carrier-added form. Cross sections were also measured with regard to the production of 71As, 72As, 73As and 74As via the natGe(p,xn) processes and the results were compared with those from the ALICE-IPPE calculations. Possible yields were calculated together with potential impurities. The various processes contributing to the formation of 71As in the irradiation of natGe were analysed by performing

  15. Importance of biota in radionuclide transport at the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area

    During summer 1981 and 1982, radioecological research was conducted at the Stationary Low Power Reactor-1 radioactive waste disposal area to: (1) identify vegetation, wildlife, and invertebrate species occurring at or using the area; (2) determine radionuclide concentrations in these various ecosystem components; and (3) to evaluate their respective roles in radionuclide uptake and transport through the surrounding environment. Cesium-137 concentrations detected in surface soils, small mammal excavated soils and small mammal tissues collected at the waste disposal site were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than control area samples. Strontium-90 and 235U analyses of SL-1 and control area samples and projections of total mass of ecosystem components in SL-1 area will be completed in summer of 1983 at which time estimates will be made on the total quantity of fission and activation radionuclides occurring in ecological media at the SL-1 waste disposal area

  16. RADIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR PATIENT RELEASE FROM CLINIC AFTER RADIONUCLIDE THERAPY OF BRACHYTHERAPY WITH SEALED SOURCE IMPLANTATION

    M. I. M.I. Balonov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dose criteria for limitation of exposure incurred by persons helping the patients or living with patients discharged from hospitals following radionuclide therapy or brachytherapy with implanted sealed radionuclide sources have been proposed for national Russian regulation. By means of a conservative dosimetry model, the values of operational radiological criteria for patient discharge from hospital are substantiated, i.e. whole body activity for radionuclides 125I,131I,153Sm and 188Re as well as dose rate near patient body. Observance of suggested criteria included in the new Russian Standards for Radiation Safety (RSS-99/2009 will ensure radiation safety of people in near environment (family, close friends et ah.

  17. Screening the importance of soil micro-organisms on radionuclides mobility

    In surface soils, the native physical and chemical properties of the abiotic components mostly control the sorption-desorption processes but micro-organisms can significantly modify the speciation of trace elements and/or radionuclides and subsequently determine to a large extent their fate. Microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, develop many strategies affecting indirectly or directly the behaviour of trace elements. Due to their activity, changes in the pore-water composition: pH, redox potential, may occur in relation with organic acid production or solid phase alteration, reduction or oxidation of metallic oxi-hydroxides, organo-metallic complexes mineralization... Micro-organisms may also directly vary the speciation of radionuclides as a result of bio-accumulation in living cells, bio-sorption on cellular components, direct reduction or oxidation, bio-methylation... Each of these microbial processes may either increase or decrease radionuclide mobility, depending on the element, the soil reactivity and the environmental conditions. The resulting effect of the involved processes remains still poorly known. This literature review is intended to give a comprehensive overview of the role of micro-organisms on radionuclide mobility. It aims at classifying these elements regarding to their potential aptitude to be sensitive to these microbial processes. It summarizes the theoretical effect of these mechanisms, resulting in a potential increase or decrease of the the solid-liquid distribution. The environmental significance and full impact of such processes on a range of biogeochemical cycles still remain to be confirmed by subsequent experiments on the most sensitive radionuclides. (This study is part of a research program supported by ANDRA). (author)

  18. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    The proceedings contain the progress reports of the Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology and the contributed papers (9) presented at the Consultants' Meeting held at Argonne National Laboratory between 11-12 September 1989. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Radionuclide transport

    The availability of radionuclides to biota is discussed especially with reference to specific elements in local soils. Two annual plant species have received concentrated study. These are cheatgrass and tumbleweed, both important inhabitants of waste burial sites. Little is known concerning the radionuclide dynamics of perennial grasses, forbs, or shrub species. The potential for radionuclide transport by jackrabbits, waterfowl, small mammals, and biota inhabiting pond systems is discussed. Concentration ratios are tabulated

  20. Re-emergence of the important role of radionuclide generators to provide diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides to meet future research and clinical demands

    Radionuclide generators have been the main stay of diagnostic nuclear medicine and it is no exaggeration to state that the growth of nuclear medicine would not have happened to the present levels but for the availability of 99Mo/99mTc generator. This article provides a brief account of the various radionuclide generators currently in clinical use or which have made substantial progress or likely to be materialized in the foreseeable future to bring evolutional progress in nuclear medicine. Further, a brief outline on the regulatory challenges and impact on radionuclide generator technology with the emergence of professionally run central radiopharmacies have been provided. (author)

  1. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    The present report contains the Summary of the Second IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) on ''Activation Cross Sections for the Generation of Long-Lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology'' which was hosted by TSI Research at Del Mar near San Diego and held from 29 to 30 April 1993. This RCM was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS), with the cooperation and assistance of local organizers from TSI Research and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Tables of 14 MeV cross sections and cross sections below 14 MeV are included. The papers prepared and presented by the participants at the meeting has been published as separate report INDC(NDS)-286/L. 3 tabs

  2. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    Following the recommendations of the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC), the IAEA Nuclear Data Section has established a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in concentrating on the cross sections for the reactions suggested by the 16th INDC meeting. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the CRP was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 11 to 12 November 1991. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the results under the CRP and the status of long-lived activation cross section data and to fix the future working programme for the CRP. The proceedings contain the progress reports of the CRP and 12 contributed papers presented at the meeting as well as the summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 177Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) employing radiopharmaceuticals labelled with emitting radionuclides is fast emerging as an important part of nuclear medicine. Radionuclide therapy is effectively utilized for bone pain palliation, thus providing significant improvement in quality of life of patients suffering from pain resulting from bone metastasis. Targeting primary diseases by using specific carrier molecules labelled with radionuclides is also widely investigated and efficacious products have been emerging for the treatment of Lymphoma and Neuroendocrine tumours. In order to ensure the wider use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is essential to carefully consider the choice of radionuclides that together with the carrier molecules will give suitable pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. The criteria for the selection of a radionuclide for radiotherapy are suitable decay characteristics and amenable chemistry. However, the practical considerations in selecting a radionuclide for targeted therapy are availability in high radionuclidic purity as well as high specific activity and low production cost and comfortable delivery logistics. 177Lu is one of the isotopes emerging as a clear choice for therapy. Worldwide, the isotope is under investigation for approximately 30 different clinical applications, including treatment of colon cancer, metastatic bone cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer. 177Lu decays with a half-life of 6.71 d by emission of particles with Emax of 497 keV (78.6%), 384 keV (9.1%) and 176 keV (12.2%). It also emits photons of 113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%), that are ideally suited for imaging the in-vivo localization and dosimetric calculations applying a gamma camera. The physical half-life of 177Lu is comparable to that of 131I, the most widely used therapeutic radionuclide. The long halflife of 177Lu provides logistic advantage for production, QA/QC of the products as well as feasibility to supply the products to places far away

  4. Environmental radiological surveillance in perspective: the relative importance of environmental media as a function of effluent pathway and radionuclides

    Most published guidelines for environmental surveillance emphasize the collection and analysis of specific media (e.g. air, water, milk, direct radiation) without total regard for the potential dose impact of the radionuclides expected in or actually present in the effluent streams from nuclear facilities. To determine the relative importance of medium/nuclide combinations in environmental surveillance, the experience at major ERDA sites and at operating nuclear power plants was reviewed. Typical release rates for nuclide groupings (tritium, noble gases, radioiodine, mixed fission or activation products, and transuranics) in those effluent streams were followed through various environmental pathways. By using this scheme the environmental medium which is most prominent in the critical dose pathway to man was determined. It was also possible to determine points of short-or long-term contaminant accumulation. Following these calculations, each medium was ranked for a given nuclide/effluent pathway combination providing the relative importance of sampling specific environmental media with emphasis on the radiation dose to a critical population group. Finally, the results of these environmental pathway studies are presented in tabular form to provide ready reference for environmental surveillance program design or evaluation

  5. The importance of Matrix diffusion for the transport of mobile radionuclides in granitic rock - summary of laboratory - scale experiments

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a host medium for the repository of high radioactive spent nuclear fuel in Finland. Radionuclide transport take place along water-carrying fractures and matrix diffusion has been indicated to be an important mechanism, which will retard the transport of mobile fission and activation products. Transport properties of mobile radionuclides in crystalline rock have been studied by means of different laboratory-scale methods using rock-fracture and rock-core columns and a rock-block having a horizontally planar natural fracture (0.9 m x 0.9 m). Objective of this study was to examine the processes causing retention in solute transport through rock fractures, especially focused on the matrix diffusion. Results of this work can be used to estimate importance of matrix diffusion as a retention process during transport in different scales and flow conditions. Rock matrices of mica gneiss, unaltered, moderately altered and strongly altered tonalite and Kuru grey granite have been well characterised. Total porosity and the surface areas of mineral grains available for migration of species have been determined by the 14C-PMMA method. Pore apertures and geometry in mineral phases were analysed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the minerals were quantified by energy dispersive X-ray micro analysis (EDX). The surface area of the solid rock was determined by the B.E.T. method. Hydrological properties of the columns or the natural fracture were characterised and flow paths were determined. Tracer experiments were performed using dye tracer uranin, and radioactive tracers HTO, 36Cl, 99Tc and 131I. Transport of tracers was modelled using modified migration models used in performance assessments, which were adapted for interpreting laboratory-scale experiments. The dominant matrix diffusion behaviour was demonstrated in porous ceramic columns. Demonstration of the effects of matrix diffusion in crystalline rock fracture

  6. Radionuclide therapy with bone-seeking compounds: Monte Carlo calculations of dose-volume histograms for bone marrow in trabecular bone

    Kvinnsland, Y.; Skretting, A.; Bruland, Oe.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate how haematopoietic stem cell survival is affected by the differences in the dose distribution that arise from different radionuclides contained in bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. This was carried out in three steps: (a) calculations of representative dose distributions in individual bone marrow cavities that are irradiated by sources of {sup 89}Sr, {sup 186}Re, {sup 117}mSn or {sup 153}Sm, uniformly distributed on the bone surfaces; (b) assessment of the corresponding haematopoietic stem cell survival and (c) a comparison of these results with results obtained using the assumption of a uniform dose distribution. Two different idealized models of the geometry of trabecular bone were formulated, each consisting of an infinite array of identical elements. Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate dose-volume histograms that were used to assess haematopoietic stem cell survival with two different assumptions about spatial cell distributions. Compared with a homogeneous dose distribution, the estimated cell survival was markedly higher for {sup 117}mSn and {sup 153}Sm, and only slightly different for {sup 89}Sr and {sup 186}Re. The quantitative results differed between the two geometric models and the assumptions about spatial cell distribution, but the trends were the same. The results imply that it is necessary to include dose distributions for individual bone marrow cavities in considerations concerning bone marrow toxicity. (author)

  7. Importance of the source term for the release of radionuclides from a repository in a salt dome

    The release of radionuclides from a backfilled and brine saturated repository in a salt dome is analyzed as a function of canister lifetimes and solubility limits. The relationship between the waste package and the multi-barrier system of the repository is discussed

  8. Importance of the speciation of radionuclides for the calculation of transfer coefficients: Application to soil-fungus transfer

    Full text: Transfer coefficients are commonly used as an approximation to the problem of quantifying the transit of radionuclides between an ecosystem's different characteristic receptor media. These coefficients are traditionally defined as the quotient between the specific activities of the receptor and the donor compartments. In the present study, the receptors were edible mushrooms and the donor, the soil. However, not all the radioactive contents of a soil are in a condition to be transferred. Instead, the fraction that is available will depend intimately on the capacity of the different compounds to which the radionuclides are associated to be taken up by the fungus. To analyse the cited capacity, we carried out a scheme of chemical speciation of the surface layer (0-5 cm) of the soils corresponding to two forest ecosystems (pine woods) that present a high productivity of mushrooms. This scheme consists of the sequential extraction of the available soil fraction (extractable with NH4OAc), that soluble in dilute acid (extractable with HCl 1M), that soluble in strong acid (extractable with HCl 6M), and the residue. We analysed the presence of different man-made (137Cs, 90Sr) and natural (40K, 226Ra) radionuclides in each of the soil fractions enumerated above and in two representative species of mushroom from the aforementioned two ecosystems: Hebeloma cylindrosporum and Lactarius deliciosus. Specifically, more than 75% of the concentrations of 40K and 137Cs present in the soils studied were found bound to fractions not accessible to exchange reactions (the fraction soluble in strong acid and the residue). This implies that they are not associated to chemical compounds capable of being transferred to the fungi's fruiting bodies. Therefore, it is totally inappropriate to calculate the transfer coefficients in the usual way, since this uses the total activity found in the soil layer being considered. By way of example, for 40K the traditional method

  9. Radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone palliation; Nuklearmedizinische Therapie von Skelettmetastasen

    Kurtaran, A.; Preitfellner, J. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Havlik, E. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Biomedizinische Technik und Physik

    2000-07-01

    In patients with advanced osteoblastic bone metastases from malignant tumours, {beta}-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are used. These radiopharmaceuticals are in elemental form such as {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr or bound on a bone-seeking carrier like HEDP, HMDTP. The radionuclide therapy of bone metastases causes no serious side effects and is well tolerated by the patients. According to recommended criteria this therapy is palliative and serves mainly for pain relief. The effect of the therapy lasts for several months and may be repeated if required. (orig.) [German] Bei Patienten mit fortgeschrittenen osteoblastischen ossaeren Metastasen werden {beta}-Strahlung-emittierende osteotrope Radiopharmaka verwendet. Diese sind entweder Radionuklide in elementarer Form ({sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr...) oder an einer knochenaffinen Traegersubstanz gebundene Radionuklide ({sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}Re...). Die Radionuklidterapie ist im Allgemeinen nebenwirkungsarm und belastet die Patienten wenig. Nach derzeit ueblichen Kriterien stellt diese Therapie eine palliative Massnahme dar und dient hauptsaechlich zur Schmerzlinderung. Die Wirkung haelt ueber mehrere Monate an und bei Bedarf kann die Therapie wiederholt werden. (orig.)

  10. Investigation into the concentration of radionuclides in major imported and exported foods and foodstuffs to derive data base on the radioactivity in vietnamese food and foodstuffs

    Investigation into radionuclides concentration in foods and foodstuffs and establishment of database on the radioactivity of the goods is important for the internal dose assessment for every country. Therefore, in the 2007-2008 the Ministry of Science and Technology Vietnam sponsored a Project encoded 11/09/NLNT with the aims of to identify and quantify the radioactivity of radionuclides in imported to and exported from Vietnam products. About 130 foods and foodstuffs samples were collected and analyzed for the radioactivity in it. The radionuclides analyzed in this work are natural occurring isotopes such as Bi-214, Ac-228 and that originated from the U and Th series and K-40. The artificial gamma emitter Cs-137 was subjected to the quantification also. Additionally, total alpha, beta and gamma in the samples were analyzed as well. Data obtained showed that the radioactivity of K-40, Ac-228, Bi-214, total beta, total alpha, and total gamma activity in Vietnamese foods and foodstuffs ranging from 10.4 Bq/kg to 856.6 Bq/kg with an average of 255.3 Bq/kg, from 0.3 Bq/kg to 9.0 Bq/kg (average 1.3 Bq/kg), from 0.3 Bq/kg to 3.1 Bq/kg (average 1.1 Bq/kg), from 2.1 Bq/kg to 519.3 Bq/kg (average 110.9 Bq/kg), and from less than the limit of detection (0.02 Bq/kg) to 306.7 Bq/kg (average 31.9 Bq/kg), respectively. The radioactivity range of both NORM and artificial radioisotopes in Vietnamese food and foodstuffs was comparable and low with those recommended by the ICRP. A preliminary estimate for the effective internal dose from food consumption among Vietnamese adults has been presented also. (author)

  11. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www

  12. Radionuclide therapy in Russia: Experience, problems, and perspectives

    Full text: Radionuclide therapy in Russia has more than 50-years history. Radioiodine has been successfully used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and toxic goiter. Au-198 colloidal solution was used in the therapy of synovitis as well as mesothelioma. P-32 was used for polycythemia vera and metastatic bone pain palliation. The treatment was routinely performed in various radiological clinics. However, after the Chernobyl accident and due to more stringent radiation safety measures, it is now exclusively performed in the clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk. For the last 20 years, more than 10000 patients have been treated in the clinic including 200 children, mainly from the contaminated regions of Chernobyl accident. The palliative treatment of bone metastases is performed with home-produced 89Sr chloride in outpatient clinics and 153Sm-oxabifore in the clinic of MRRC. Nowadays majority of the 160 radionuclides of 80 chemical elements are produced in Russia and exported. Of these, only three are commonly used for therapy purposes, most common being the 131I for treatment of toxic goiter and thyroid differentiated cancer (about 2000 GBq annually). In Russia more than 50 thousand patients suffer from thyroid diseases. Other therapies include bone metastases with marked pain syndrome and hard bone and joint diseases. Radionuclide therapy in Russia is being expanded with the creation of radionuclide therapy departments in each region including Center of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmaceutics (CNMAR) in Obninsk. This city has many research and medical institutes, nuclear-physical and radiochemical departments with highly skilled personnel and industrial production of medical radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Obninsk has a convenient geographical location for easy transportation of radiopharmaceuticals and patients. Under the aegis of CNMAR, many research works are being carried out to make radionuclide therapy more

  13. The IAEA co-ordinated research programme on activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology. Final report

    The present report summarizes the final results of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Activation Cross Section for the Generator of Long-lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology''. The goal of the CRP was to obtain reliable information (experimental and evaluated) for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology. By limiting the scope of the CRP to just 16 reactions it was possible to establish a very effective focus to the joint effort of many laboratories that has led to the generation of a set of valuable new data which provide satisfactory answers to several questions of technological concern to fusion. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  14. Modifying radionuclide effects

    The metabolism and effects of radionuclides may be influenced by a number of dietary, physiological, and environmental factors. Some factors are studied which have been identified as potentially important determinants of radionuclide behavior: the reproductive performance of female rats exposed to 239Pu during pregnancy or lactation, and the relative contribution of cross-placental and milk transfer to offspring

  15. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    This publication contains 19 papers on the determination of cross sections relevant for the generation of long-lived radioisotopes through neutron-induced reactions in the neutron range around 14 MeV of importance in D-T fusion reactor technology. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  17. Radionuclide transfer in Alpine ecosystems

    Although alpine ecosystems are only of limited extent in Europe and the world, they serve as an important socio-economic basis for food production and tourism for the local population. The specific climate conditions and agricultural practice do have influence on radionuclide transfer in Alpine regions. The paper describes basic processes governing radionuclide behaviour in Alpine ecosystems and gives parameters for vertical migration of radionuclide in soil, for soil-plant transfer as well as transfer of radionuclide to cow milk. (author)

  18. A case study on the importance of quality assurance and personnel training in environmental assessment of naturally occurring radionuclides

    An independent review of the remedial investigation activities at a Superfund site was performed at the request of the site owners. The site in question was being labeled as containing radioactive contamination by the state environmental protection agency based on the results of the remedial investigation sampling program, which reported above background concentrations of potassium-40 at the site. This determination would have resulted in the entire site being considered as a mixed waste hazard, with extreme consequences for the cleanup actions. The independent review of the site sampling, measurement techniques, data analysis, and report preparation discovered problems with each of these activities. These problems included failing to perform subcontractor quality assurance oversight, as well as internal quality assurance failures related to verification of critical data. Additionally, the staff at both the state environmental protection agency and the remedial contractor were poorly trained in the field of radioactive assessments and statistical data analysis. These problems delayed the site remedial actions on the most important contaminants, including xylene, arsenic, and various metals. The cost of the site remedial investigation was significantly increased, as over $300,000 were spent just on assessing and litigating the potassium-40 health hazard issue. The independent review concluded that the problems were caused by inadequate quality assurance programs compounded by a lack of proper training of the personnel performing the work. Either a good quality assurance program at the remediation contractor or use of effectively trained personnel analyzing the data would likely have avoided the problems

  19. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology. Texts of papers presented at the third and final research coordination meeting

    The present report contains scientific and technical papers presented at the Third and Final IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) on ''Activation Cross Sections for the Generation of Long-lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology'' which was hosted by the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute and held in St. Petersburg, Russia, from 19-23 June 1995. The papers, collected in the report, contain results of measurements, model calculations and evaluations of cross sections for 16 activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology leading to long-lived radionuclides. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Cosmogenic radionuclides

    Beer, Jürg; Von Steiger, R

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any f

  1. A model of bone metastases and marrow response to radionuclide therapy using different half life isotopes

    Carolan, M.G.; Fernandes, V.; Metcalfe, P. [Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Bone metastases are one of the most common causes of cancer pain. External beam radiotherapy is quite effective and commonly used for the palliation of bone pain, especially where pain is well localised and not multifocal. Where multiple metastatic sites exist a systemic targeted radionuclide approach may be preferable. The nuclide currently used for this purpose is {sup 90}Sr. Other shorter half life isotopes used or proposed include {sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}Re and {sup 117}Sn. Tumour cell kill is not thought to be the primary means of bone pain control since the doses required are much higher than those required for pain relief. Clinical data show that the onset of pain relief is most prompt for the shorter half life isotopes (e-g. {sup 153}Sm, T{sub 1/2} = 1.9d) compared to {sup 90}Sr (T{sub 1/2} = 50.5d). However the duration of pain relief is more prolonged for {sup 90}Sr than for the shorter half life isotopes. The normal tissue limiting tolerance is the bone marrow. In this study the linear quadratic model with repair and repopulation is applied to the bone metastases and bone marrow using different half life isotopes to compare the effects on tumour cell population and myelotoxicity. The effect of combined long and short half life isotopes on marrow is modelled. Long and short half life combinations have been proposed to try to achieve prompt and prolonged pain control. The effect of fractionating doses of short half life isotopes is examined for tumour cell kill and myelotoxicity. Although pain palliation is not dependent only on cell kill, survival may be modestly improved due to a tumouricidal effect on those bone metastases which are too small to cause pain at the time of treatment. Results were obtained using a simple model with exponential dose rate and repopulation. Using two 10 Gy fractions at 0 and 10 days gives a ratio of tumour survival / marrow survival of - 5 compared to about 15 000 for a single 20 Gy fraction

  2. Radionuclide cisternography

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  3. Radionuclide cystography

    This paper reports on radionuclide cystography in infants and children for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux represents a common and potentially serious form of urinary tract pathology. Reflux accompanied by asymptomatic or inadequately treated urinary tract infections has been associated with significant sequelae, including renal scarring, hypertension, and end- stage renal disease. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages to both radionuclide and radiographic techniques for detection of reflux, radionuclide cystography has been found to be at least as sensitive as the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for the detection of clinically significant reflux. The major advantage of radionuclide cystography is a significantly lower radiation dose as compared to VCUG. Both indirect and direct techniques for radionuclide cystography have been developed. In addition to detection of vesicoureteral reflux, indirect radionuclide cystography allows evaluation of differential renal function. Supplemental parameters that may be evaluated with direct radionuclide cystography include: quantitation of reflux, determination of bladder volume at which reflux occurs, evaluation of the dynamics of bladder emptying, and determination of residual bladder volume following voiding

  4. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  5. Importance of colloids in the transport within the dissolved phase (<450 nm) of artificial radionuclides from the Rhone river towards the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea)

    The significance of colloidal fractions regarding the transport of artificial radionuclides in natural water systems is underlined by using sequential ultrafiltration both in the Rhone freshwater and the marine area under and outside the influence of the river outflow. Indeed, the Rhodanian aquatic system represents an interesting test site as various artificial radionuclides are released into the Rhone river by several nuclear installations. We focused our study on 137Cs, 106Ru, 60Co, 238Pu and 239+240Pu. Our results show that Fe, Al and Organic carbon (OC) are the main components of colloidal matter. Colloids represent about 15% of dissolved (238Pu and 239+240Pu and have no significance on 137Cs flux

  6. Deposited radionuclides

    The results presented are from the nationwide programme to survey the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland. This programme includes results from the vicinities of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Analysis of deposition samples for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents was continued. The results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. The cumulative deposition of long-lived radionuclides retained in soil was measured near the Finnish nuclear power stations. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1979 were lower than in the previous two years, and no 89Sr was detected. The trend to slightly increasing 3H concentrations of previous years was reversed in 1979. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 85 nCi/m2 (3.1 kBq/m2) to 180 nCi/m2 (6.7 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides have decreased continuously since the maximum in 1977. No short-lived radionuclides originating from either nuclear explosions or nuclear power plants were observed in 1979. (author)

  7. Short-term Fallout Radionuclide Ratios and Mass Balance Identify New Suspended Sediments of Channel Origin and Importance of Catchment Flowpath

    Karwan, Diana; Pizzuto, James; Aalto, Rolf; Marquard, Julia; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Harpold, Adrian; Benthem, Adam; Skalak, Katherine; Levia, Delphis; Siegert, Courtney

    2016-04-01

    Fallout radionuclides and their ratios, such as beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb), are used to determine suspended sediment source and age in catchments. The ratio of beryllium-7 to lead-210 (7Be/210Pb) on suspended sediment has been used to estimate the fraction of "new" sediment in suspension. In the application of this model, "new" suspended sediment is often assumed to originate from recent landscape surface erosion that is delivered to the stream network. Fallout radionuclide deposition can vary across watersheds and on an event basis in a single watershed due to factors such as storm type, atmospheric height, and storm origin. In the White Clay Creek watershed within the mid-Atlantic USA, single-event deposition of 7Be varies from 15 - 177 Bq m-2 and 210Pb varies from 0 - 10 Bq m-2. 7Be/210Pb ratios vary from 7.9 to 17 within event precipitation and from 0.8 to 12.8 on suspended sediment. "New" sediment varies from 6 - 100% over the course of these events. 7Be mass balance during events shows that the majority of 7Be is retained within the catchment and not exported on suspended sediment. During summer thunderstorms, less than 1% of 7Be deposited on the watershed exits the stream channel. By comparing this flux with the direct channel interception of 7Be deposition in precipitation and throughfall we can determine the minimum amount of 7Be leaving the watershed that could occur in the absence of surface erosion. For example in summer thunderstorms, the entirety of the 7Be exiting the watershed on suspended sediment is less than the total activity deposited on the channel in direct precipitation. Channel-intercepted fallout radionuclides can exit the catchment by multiple mechanisms including the tagging of subaerial fluvial deposits with event precipitation; hence "new" suspended sediment originates from within the channel rather than from surface erosion. During extreme events, such as Hurricane Irene, less of the suspended sediment has been newly

  8. Deposited radionuclides

    Measurements were carried out to determine the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland including those from the surroundings of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Deposition samples were analysed for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents. 90Sr, 239,240Pu, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclides deposited in soil were also measured. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1978 remained at almost the same level as in 1977. The slightly increasing trend in 3H concentrations continued in 1978. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 120 nCi/m2 (4.4 kBq/m2) to 200 nCi/m2 (7.4 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides during 1978 were smaller than during 1977. No increase in radioactivity originating from nuclear power plants could be observed. (author)

  9. Radionuclide carriers

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  10. Radionuclide cisternogram

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  11. Soil-fungi transfer coefficients: Importance of the location of mycelium in soil and of the differential availability of radionuclides in soil fractions

    Soil-fungus transfer coefficients are usually defined as the ratio between the content of the fruiting bodies and that of the soil. Since, however, the methodology of how to determine the soil content is not firmly established, there exist a variety of definitions in the literature. We analyzed the 137Cs, 90Sr, 40K, and 226Ra content of mushroom and soil samples from two pine-wood ecosystems in Spain. The location of the mycelium in the soil profiles of these ecosystems was determined by means of the ergosterol concentration. The results showed the mycelium to generally be localized in the surface layer of soil (0-5 cm). We also carried out a speciation procedure for this layer of soil to determine the different degrees of association of the radionuclides in the soil. The results led us to propose some variations to the traditional definition used in quantifying radionuclide transfer. With these modifications, we were able to analyze Cs-K competition in several species of mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi

  12. Soil-fungi transfer coefficients: Importance of the location of mycelium in soil and of the differential availability of radionuclides in soil fractions

    Baeza, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain)]. E-mail: ymiralle@unex.es; Guillen, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Bernedo, J.M. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Soil-fungus transfer coefficients are usually defined as the ratio between the content of the fruiting bodies and that of the soil. Since, however, the methodology of how to determine the soil content is not firmly established, there exist a variety of definitions in the literature. We analyzed the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 40}K, and {sup 226}Ra content of mushroom and soil samples from two pine-wood ecosystems in Spain. The location of the mycelium in the soil profiles of these ecosystems was determined by means of the ergosterol concentration. The results showed the mycelium to generally be localized in the surface layer of soil (0-5 cm). We also carried out a speciation procedure for this layer of soil to determine the different degrees of association of the radionuclides in the soil. The results led us to propose some variations to the traditional definition used in quantifying radionuclide transfer. With these modifications, we were able to analyze Cs-K competition in several species of mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi.

  13. Improving radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone pain

    Lam, M. G. E. H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals are indicated in cancer patients with multiple painful skeletal metastases. The majority of these patients are hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients in an advanced stage of their disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals relieve pain and improve the patients quality of life. The mostly used radiopharmaceuticals are 89SrCl2 (Metastron), 153Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet) and 186Re-HEDP. Differences between 89SrCl2, 153Sm-EDTMP and 186Re-HEDP were investigated. It ...

  14. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  15. Development and validation of a simple model for cellular and cell cluster dosimetry with practical application in targeted radionuclide therapy

    The authors have developed an analytical technique for calculating the mean absorbed dose to the cell nucleus from a variety of spatial distributions of cells and activities and a wide range of emitted energies and radionuclides. The dose to the nucleus has been calculated using this method from activity distributed (1) on the cell surface (2) throughout the cytoplasm (3) throughout a cluster of cells (micrometastasis) and (4) on the surface of the cluster of cells. The derived absorption factors have been based on the latest point kernels of Berger and have been validated against published estimates. They show good agreement and the model has the advantage of being easily adapted for revisions and extensions of available low energy data. Data sets may be derived with the absorbed fractions or the absorbed dose per emission as a function of the radial extent of the activity, and either the individual energies of the emissions or the totality of the emissions from a particular radio-nuclide. The practical applications of the model have included: (a) calculation of the absorbed dose to radioimmuno-targeted micrometastasis in the peritoneum; (b) calculations of doses to cells labelled on the surface with some novel emitters such as 67Cu, 177 Lu, 153Sm, 111Ag, 186 Re, 188Re as well as 131I, 125I and 90Y; (c) comparison of doses to the cell nucleus from MIBG labelled with 125I and 131I and distributed in the cytoplasm of the cell; and (d) estimates of the absorbed dose to the cell nucleus from alpha emitters distributed on the surface of the cell

  16. Deposited radionuclides

    The measurements presented here were carried out for determination of the fallout levels of radionuclides throughout the country, including the areas surrounding the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H contents of deposition were determined and the results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. 89Sr and other gammaradionuclides in addition to 137Cs were measured from wet and dry deposition. Also 89-90Sr, 239-240Pu, 137Cs and other gammaradionuclides deposited in soil were measured. The radiochemical separation technique was used to determine 89Sr, 90Sr, 137Cs and 239-240Pu. Tritium contents were determined by liquid scintillation counting after electrolytic enrichment. Gammaradionuclides were measured by Ge(Li) spectrometry. In 1977 the contents of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in deposition increased to almost the same level as in the early '70s. This is due to the high-yield atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out by China. A slight increase in 3H deposition can also be noticed in 1977. The results of soil sample measurements indicate that practically all the activity is found in the top 20 cm layer. (author)

  17. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 (210Pb) and beryllium-7(7Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  19. Proposal of a calibration protocol of gamma chambers for estimation of the radionuclides incorporation in emergency situations

    In the last years in several countries has come increasing the concern with the possibility of accidents related to the transport and manipulation of open sources used in nuclear medicine. This carried out to the search of alternative methods for the monitoring of workers and individuals of the public exposed to the radionuclides incorporation like 131 I, 201 Tl, 153 Sm among others. One of the options to assist the demand for monitoring of the radionuclides incorporation is the use of gamma chambers that are medical diagnostic equipment available in the own centers of nuclear medicine. The gamma chambers are used to obtain images of patient to which are administered a radionuclide of well-known activity with diagnostic purposes. These equipment have among its components elements that spectrometric systems like those used in the evaluation of the internal incorporation for direct measurements, reason why besides its use for diagnosis by image they can be gauged with anthropomorphic simulators and also with punctual sources for the quantification of the radionuclides activity, distributed homogeneously in the human body or located in specific organs. This work presents the development of a calibration protocol of gamma chambers for the in vivo determination of radionuclides and it proposes the implementation of the protocol in centers of nuclear medicine of the 9 countries participants of the project OAS-ARCAL-RLA/9/049-LXXVIII - Harmonization of procedures of internal dosimetry (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Spain). The protocol is the base to establish an integrated net to attend in the response to emergencies using nuclear medicine centers of public hospitals of the region. The proposal is an additional alternative for the monitoring of people in emergency situations where it is possible and feasible the use of the gamma chambers. This would avoid the person's transport with incorporation suspicion for a conventional whole

  20. Production of radionuclides in nuclear reactor

    Given is a short review on the production of radionuclides which was performed in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences by using the nuclear reactor RA. Regarding the considerations of the possible re-starting of this reactor its use for the production of medical radionuclides should be taken into account. Listed are some of the important medical radionuclides routinely produced in nuclear reactors in the world and discussed the conditions for their obtaining in the reactor RA. (author)

  1. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  2. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  3. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  4. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  5. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  6. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  7. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial

  10. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.)

  11. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  12. Therapeutic radionuclides: production and decay property considerations.

    Volkert, W A; Goeckeler, W F; Ehrhardt, G J; Ketring, A R

    1991-01-01

    radionuclides in order to deliver a sufficient number of radionuclide atoms to the target site without saturating the target or compromising the integrity of the carrier molecule. Most radionuclides, produced at NCA levels in reactors, are produced via indirect reactions. High-specific activity beta emitters can also be obtained from radionuclide generator systems where the longer-lived parent radionuclide may be obtained from direct neutron activation, as a fission product, or from charged-particle accelerators. It is essential that the half-life of a radionuclide used in RNT be compatible with the rates of localization in target tissues and clearance of the carrier molecule from normal tissues. This consideration is especially important for the various MAbs and their fragments that are currently under investigation as carrier molecules to RIT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1988628

  13. Purification of Irradiated Natural Samarium from Europium Impurities using a Phenolic Resin

    Radioactive isotopes have been found of valuable applications in different areas such as medicine, industry, agriculture and biology. One of these isotopes is 153 Sm which is obtained by irradiation of natural Sm2O3 in a reactor by a thermal neutron flux of 1014 n.cm-2.sec -1 for 8 hours to get n specific activity of 67-95 mCi/mg. Thc distribution coefficient of 153 Sm and 154,155Eu from different media with different concentrations of HCl and EDTA onto Resorcinol-Formaldehyde as a cation exchanger were studied. The effect of ascorbic acid concentration at 0.001 and 10 M HCl on the distribution coefficient of 153Sm and 155Eu onto the same exchanger was studied. 153Sm was separated by elution chromolithography with 0.4 M EDTA. As a result, the radionuclidic purity of the eluted 153Sm was over 99% and chemical: purity was over 95%

  14. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG)

  15. Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging

    Jiri Dolezal; Marcela Kopacova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscop...

  16. Radionuclide transfer in forest ecosystems

    The behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems differs substantially from the other ecosystems. The contamination of various forest products is commonly quantified using the Aggregated Transfer Factor (Tag in m2 kg-1) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. This review aims at compiling the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean Tag values is 10-3 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of Tag, from 10-3 to 101 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01 to 0.1 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Even if, the importance of radioactive contamination of forests as a significant source of the population exposure is recognized, most of the data refer to caesium and to a lesser extent, strontium. Data for other radionuclides are rather limited. (author)

  17. Radionuclide retention in geologic media

    GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste. Retention of radionuclides within the geosphere for prolonged periods is an important safety function of deep geologic disposal concepts for radioactive waste. The extent to which retention processes can be relied upon in repository performance assessment depends upon the existence of well-established theoretical bases for the processes. It also depends on support for the operation of specific retention processes, and models for their quantitative evaluation, from a wide range of laboratory and field experiments and observations from nature. The fifth GEOTRAP workshop, 'Geological Evidence and Theoretical Bases for Radionuclide-retention Processes in Heterogeneous Media' held in May 2001, looked at radionuclide-retention processes and their consideration and representation in performance assessments. Current approaches to characterising and modelling retention processes, and suggestions for future improvements, were presented and discussed. In addition to the material presented during the workshop, this publication includes a technical synthesis reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions. (author)

  18. Fundamental Concepts in Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 2

    A short overview of the basic concepts and principles of radionuclide therapy is presented in this chapter. After introducing the most important radionuclides currently employed in therapeutic applications and new promising radioisotopes such as α emitters, this review covers the various types of vector molecules and biological approaches for targeting specific cancer cells. These applications include the use of receptor specific pharmacophores such as antibodies and peptides, and DNA targeting agents. The potential advantages of combining methods developed for radionuclide therapy with gene therapy and nanotechnology are also discussed. (author)

  19. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

  20. Diagnostic applications of radionuclides

    Radionuclides are now used routinely in two different types of medical diagnostic tests: in vivo measurements of the distribution of radioactivity in the body, and in vitro assays. Information gained from these procedures is expected to improve the physician's understanding of this patient's well-being by providing an objective evaluation of important physiologic functions. This information may be used to establish a correct diagnosis, determine the extent or severity of the patient's illness, or to evaluate a patient's response to therapy. Diagnostic tests thus increase the speed and accuracy of patient care decisions. As a result, treatment is more objective, recovery is more rapid, and the duration of patient suffering is reduced. These benefits may significantly reduce the overall costs of medical care. The numbers of test performed and the amount of radioactivity employed has increased dramatically. This growth has been facilitated by the development of new radiation detection instruments that are especially designed for clinical applications, and by the increased commercial availability of labeled materials that can be used for diagnostic tests. In addition, the use of isotopes in human subjects is limited by a variety of special problems. Some of these problems are rather technical, relating only to the development of method for storage and preparation of labeled materials in a form suitable for human use. Other more critical problems include the limited selection of radionuclides available for use in the investigation of human metabolism, the inefficiency of instruments used to detect radioactivity, and the growing concern for the potential hazards associated with the use of all forms of ionizing radiation

  1. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  2. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

    Mitrović Branislava M.; Vitorović Gordana; Andrić Velibor; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško; Grdović Svetlana; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra) in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable...

  3. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  4. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  5. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta Bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  6. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  7. Methods for reduction of radionuclides incorporated into the body

    Small-scale (laboratories and hospitals) to global radioactive contamination may contribute to incorporation of radionuclides in the living body. In real accidents, many radionuclides are occasionally incorporated simultaneously into the body. Therefore, it is important to know the kinds of radionuclides, chemical form at the incorporation, and presence status and behavior of radionuclides in the body. Because there is interaction between agents for reducing radioactive contamination, the reduction mechanism of radionuclide in the body should be considered when such agents are used in the combination manner. The purpose of this report is to discuss chemical methods for reducing radionuclides that are orally incorporated into the body. These methods are described in terms of dilution, complex production, adsorption, metabolism derangement, and others. I-131, Cs-137, Sr-90, and Ru-106, which are influential radionuclides for the human body, are especially referred to. (N.K.) 58 refs

  8. Overview of radionuclides transport

    There has been recognition of radioactivity levels and the fate of radionuclides that could have modified the biogeochemical cycles in the ecological environment. These modifications can disturb a variety of the ecosystems on which human life depends. It is essential to understand the pathways of radionuclides that are transported and deposited in the atmosphere and in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems related to their impacts on human life. This paper is mainly focused on the transport in the atmospheric part. Various physical processes that control the transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere are reviewed. The transport processes used in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as underground are briefly described. For the purpose of demonstration, dose calculations due to the exposures of radionuclides, and the numerical model simulations of transport of 210Pb particles and dust aerosols in the atmosphere are presented. Each transport process is complex. More sampling data are needed to refine the transport models for assessing and predicting the fate of radionuclides and their impacts on ecosystems. Long-lived radionuclides are remained in the atmosphere and can be transported in a long distance over wider areas. Although a numerical model can handle complex transport processes, a Gaussian model offers an attraction for ease and quickness of interpretation of exposures to radionuclides during emergency. Radionuclides entering the atmosphere go through the transfer process from air to soil, soil to plants, and plants to animals. The transfer is a long-term process. Therefore, a longer-term study of environmental sampling of radionuclides is required to accurately assess the transport processes and long-term impacts on health and ecosystems. Also, it should get involving in a study of modeling transport of radionuclides over urban area having various heights and sizes of buildings, i.e., skyscrapers with high population, in the case of an event occurring

  9. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  10. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  11. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 900C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 5000C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  12. The characteristic of complications of radionuclide therapy by samarium oksabifor at oncologic patients

    On the basis of data of clinical-laboratory evaluation of 30 oncologic patients with bone metastasis the account and the analysis of complications of radio nuclide therapy (RNT) by samarium-oksabifor are carried out. It is defined that RNT 153Sm increases efficiency of complex palliative treatment of patients with bone metastasis, has high tolerability and isn't followed by intensifying of frequency of radial reactions and complications

  13. Radionuclides in US coals

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Proposal of a calibration protocol of gamma chambers for estimation of the radionuclides incorporation in emergency situations; Propuesta de un protocolo de calibracion de camaras gamma para estimacion de la incorporacion de radionucleidos en situaciones de emergencia

    Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Araujo, F.; Melo, D. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro Brasil (Brazil); Teran, M.; Paolino, A. [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rojo, A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Puerta, J.A.; Morales, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez B, G.M. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Alfaro, M.; Ruiz, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Videla, R.; Pinones, O. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, S. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Navarro, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain); Cruz S, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    In the last years in several countries has come increasing the concern with the possibility of accidents related to the transport and manipulation of open sources used in nuclear medicine. This carried out to the search of alternative methods for the monitoring of workers and individuals of the public exposed to the radionuclides incorporation like {sup 131} I, {sup 201} Tl, {sup 153} Sm among others. One of the options to assist the demand for monitoring of the radionuclides incorporation is the use of gamma chambers that are medical diagnostic equipment available in the own centers of nuclear medicine. The gamma chambers are used to obtain images of patient to which are administered a radionuclide of well-known activity with diagnostic purposes. These equipment have among its components elements that spectrometric systems like those used in the evaluation of the internal incorporation for direct measurements, reason why besides its use for diagnosis by image they can be gauged with anthropomorphic simulators and also with punctual sources for the quantification of the radionuclides activity, distributed homogeneously in the human body or located in specific organs. This work presents the development of a calibration protocol of gamma chambers for the in vivo determination of radionuclides and it proposes the implementation of the protocol in centers of nuclear medicine of the 9 countries participants of the project OAS-ARCAL-RLA/9/049-LXXVIII - Harmonization of procedures of internal dosimetry (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Spain). The protocol is the base to establish an integrated net to attend in the response to emergencies using nuclear medicine centers of public hospitals of the region. The proposal is an additional alternative for the monitoring of people in emergency situations where it is possible and feasible the use of the gamma chambers. This would avoid the person's transport with incorporation suspicion for

  15. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  16. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation.

    Zhu, Y G; Shaw, G

    2000-07-01

    Soils contaminated with radionuclides, particularly 137Cs and 90Sr, pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure via the foodchain and other pathways. Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils has become increasingly important. Removal of the contaminated surface soil (often up to 40 cm) or immobilization of radionuclides in soils by applying mineral and chemical amendments are physically difficult and not likely cost-effective in practicality. Reducing plant uptake of radionuclides, especially 137CS and 90Sr by competitive cations contained in chemical fertilizers has the general advantage in large scale, low-level contamination incidents on arable land, and has been widely practiced in central and Western Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Phytoextraction of radionuclides by specific plant species from contaminated sites has rapidly stimulated interest among industrialists as well as academics, and is considered to be a promising bio-remediation method. This paper examines the existing remediation approaches and discusses phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated soils in detail. PMID:10819188

  17. Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory

    Highlights: ► Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory are studied. ► A methodology for inventory estimation of individual fuel assembly is developed. ► Estimated inventory using presently developed and conventional method is compared. ► Radionuclide density peak and its location in equilibrium VVER core are investigated. - Abstract: Understanding fission product behavior is an important aspect of nuclear safety studies. A nuclear reactor core contains complex mixture of fuel elements with different levels of enrichment, power and burnup. Conventional method of core radionuclide inventory estimation is based on use of homogenized core parameters like burnup, enrichment, specific power etc. This approach does not reveal the variation in radionuclide density among different fuel elements within the core. The present work aims to bridge this knowledge gap by estimating the distribution of radionuclides in the nuclear reactor core taking into account the heterogeneity of the core explicitly. The analysis has brought out peak radionuclide density in the core which can be helpful in appropriate estimation of the radiological release in the accidental scenarios involving failures of few fuel assemblies. A quantitative comparison of total core inventory estimated based conventional core average parameters and detailed core inventory using individual fuel assembly inventory estimate has been made

  18. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  19. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  20. Radionuclides for routine diagnostics in nuclear medicine

    A survey is given on the radiopharmaceutics which are now in common use in nuclear medical diagnostics in vivo and in vitro. The development of radiopharmacology in the last 20 years has been characterized by the production of new and better radionuclides. A great step forward in clinical nuclear medicine has been the introduction of radionuclide generators for the production of short-lived nuclides. The most important and most generally used radionuclide for in vivo examinations is sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. Tumour specific substances are still unknown, while the radioactive in vitro tests are of great clinical importance. They have opened up new possibilities of clinical laboratory diagnostics which are still not fully exploited. Special mention is made of the thyroid-specific in vitro tests in radiological thyroid diagnostics. (orig./AK)

  1. Radionuclides in house dust

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  2. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  3. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  4. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  5. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  6. Clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration

    Because of their low permeability, high sorption capacity and plasticity clay bodies are potentially suitable repositories for radioactive waste. This paper discusses the factors that influence radionuclide mobility in natural clay materials. Methods for determining radionuclide migration rates are described and compared. Data requirements necessary to establish whether or not a particular site is suitable for waste disposal are discussed. Suggestions are made as to the most important generic research that needs to be carried out. In the appendix, some of the most relevant published sorption and diffusion data are summarized and compared. (author)

  7. Radionuclides in house dust

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  8. Underground radionuclide migration

    The number 9 sub-report of the safety assesment studies of the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns the calculation of radio-nuclide migration with groundwater. Calculations ar carried out in two phases. The first phase consists of calculation of the groundwater flow system under a great number of different hydrological boundary conditions, which possibly can be encountered in future. Variations in sea level and consequences of glaciations are included. Given a great number of possible groundwater flow systems, in the second phase radionuclide migration is calculated for a restricted number of representative situations. Transport of radionuclides with groundwater takes place, starting at a release point at the top (edge) of the rock salt formation until the landsurface, the bottom of a sea or an extraction-well for public water supply has been reached, at which places concentrations radionuclides have been computed as a function of time. Calculations continued till all concentrations had reached their maxima. Results form the input for biosphere dose-calculations, as reported in the number 10 sub-report. (author). 26 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  9. Radionuclide transfer from contaminated field to crops

    Since the policy for land disposal of radioactive wastes were proposed, the importance of terrestrial radioecology has been re-recognized in Japan. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) held a Two-Day Seminar concerning terrestrial transfer of radionuclides. This is a compilation of papers presented at the seminar. The purpose of the seminar is twofold: firstly, to raise basic problems concerning transfer of not only radionuclides but also elements into crops, as well as to present NIRS's studies on radionuclide transfer; and secondly, to discuss in depth the topics about possible transfer of I-129 into rice plant arising from the commercial fuel reprocessing plant, the construction of which is under planning. Finally, general discussion of further issues on radioecology is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Production of radionuclides with generators

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99Mo-99mTc, 188W-188Re and 68Ge-68Ga. 99Mo-99mTc generator. 99mTc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99mTc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99Mo-99mTc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99mTc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al2O3. The yields of 99mTc from experimental generators remained high (75-85%) independently

  11. Modeling study of effects of short-lived radionuclide fixation on decay chain radionuclides migration

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Watanabe, Shoji

    1993-08-01

    Effects of a short lived radionuclide fixation to minerals during alteration process from a primary mineral (M1) to tertiary mineral (M3) through secondary mineral (M2) on a decay chain radionuclides migration (DCRM) have been studied based on mathematical simulation studies. The mathematical migration model in which a daughter radionuclide, N[sub 2], corresponds to a short lived radionuclide and is fixed to M2 during alteration from M1 to M2, is proposed. Also, a fraction of the granddaughter radionuclide, N[sub 3], is assumed to be released from M2 into a solution during the alteration process from M2 to M3. The model studies lead the delay in the migration of N[sub 3], with the delay becoming remarkably enhanced if the fixation rate constant of N[sub 2] is greater than the decay constant of N[sub 2]. Whereas, the delay is reduced by the release of N[sub 3] with a faster rate than the decay constant of N[sub 3]. Therefore, it is important clarify decay chain radionuclides fixation and release mechanisms during an alteration process. (author).

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. Radionuclides in food

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  14. Radionuclide diagnosis of nephrolithiasis

    Radionuclide investigations were conducted in 322 patients with nephrolithiasis. Unilateral calculosis was established in 46.3% of the patients, bilateral calculosis in 50.6%. The nature of changes on renograms, scintigrams and in clearance values shown to depend on the localization of concrements, their size and the presence of concomitant infection. A conclusion has been made as to the usefulness of the methods with relation to operative treatment, especially in a bilateral localization of a pathological renal process

  15. Radionuclide fate and effects

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  16. Soil contamination by radionuclides

    The soil is the first link in the food chain. Soil contamination by individual radionuclides significantly affects the level of terrestrial radiation in the locality. The authors mapped situation of post-Chernobyl 137Cs soil contamination in Slovakia and European countries. Samples were collected in three layers of agriculturally cultivated area. Even a few years after the Chernobyl accident authors can say that elevated 137Cs values were recorded in the samples from Austria and Germany, in all layers of collection. (authors)

  17. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO2(s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  18. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  19. Optimization of Samarium-153 labeled Hydroxyapatite Particles as Therapeutic Agent for Radiation Synovectomy

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) was studied as a particular carrier for beta-emitting radionuclides in radiation synovectomy. Particles were labeled with 153Sm (T1/2 = 46.7 hrs., β-energy = 810 (20%), 710(50%), 640(30%) keV, γ-energy = 103.2 (29.8%) KeV, range in tissue = 2.5 mm). Labeling efficiency was greater than 95%, pH 4-6, sterile and pyrogen free, stability is 6 days and in vivo studies by intra-articular injection into knee of normal rats showed the total cumulative leakage of 153Sm over 6 days was around 2% ID, The ease of preparation of 153Sm-HA, efficiency of labeling and low leakage from the joint make 153Sm-HA attractive for radiation synovectomy

  20. Mechanisms controlling radionuclide mobility in forest soils

    Soil processes strongly influence the radionuclide mobility in soils. The mobility of radionuclides in forest soils is governed by several processes involving both abiotic and biotic factors. The sorption-desorption process chiefly governs the activity of radionuclides in the soil solution, hence thereby their mobility and biological availability. Radiocaesium exhibits a very low mobility in mineral soils. Both mobility and bioavailability however increase as the thickness of organic layers and their content in organic matter increases. Clay minerals of micaceous origin strongly act as slinks for radiocaesium in forest soils. The magnitude of cesium mineral fixation in topsoils is expected to be the highest in mineral soils of Eutric cambisol type, and, to a lesser extent, of type of Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol. A low mobility of radiocaesium in the surface horizons of forest soils may also be partially explained by a biological mobilization: fungi absorb radiocaesium and transport it to upper layers, thereby contributing to constantly recycle the radioelement in the organic horizons. This mechanism is probably important in soils with thick organic layers (Podsol, Histosol, and, to a lesser extent, Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol). Radionuclides can be associated with soluble organic anions in the soil solution of forest acid soils. Such associations are highly mobile: they are stable in conditions of poor biological activity (low temperatures, acid soil infertility, water excess, etc.). Their magnitude is expected to be the highest in thick acid organic layers (soils of type Podzol and Histosol)

  1. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs

  2. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  3. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides in soil

    The movement of radioactive isotopes through the water phase of soils is by far the most important. Most of the water-transported radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) occur via their dissolved salts, while the rest is carried by small soil particles to which the radionuclides are adsorbed. In the case of many chemicals, it is possible to calculate the movement or migration through soil from adsorption measurements made in the laboratory and from knowledge of the flow pattern of soil water. With increasing complexity of the chemical-soil-water system predictions become more uncertain. In the case of radionuclides the amounts expressed in units of weight are extremely small. This renders terms such as 'soluble' or 'insoluble' inapplicable. In these cases transport of 'radiocolloids' and adsorbed particles as 'insoluble' compounds may be more significant. For fallout strontium and cesium reliable predictive models have been developed. For fallout plutonium such models are under development. For calculations or predictions of the migration of radioactive material from deep soil layers to the soil surface fewer mathematical models are available. Many laboratory studies cannot yet be made due to lack of suitable soil samples from the sites under study. Nevertheless safety studies already carried out in a preliminary way are reliable, since factos such as adsorption of radionuclides on soils are neglected; consequently most safety studies overestimate possible risks. Further studies are required to ascertain how 'pessimistic' are the present safety criteriy. (orig./MG)

  4. RTP: Radionuclides inventories calculation using ORIGEN Code

    ORIGEN is a widely used computer code for calculating the buildup, decay, and processing of radioactive materials. The ORIGEN code was created by famous and reputable nuclear institution in United States, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). For a nuclear reactor, either it is a nuclear power reactor or nuclear research reactor, the radionuclide inventories data is important. This data is acquired by performing source term modelling. A fresh nuclear fuel could not cause any harm to human. However, used nuclear fuel could pose danger threat to human. The fission products particularly long-lived radionuclides for example H-3, Co-60, Cs-137 that are generated inside the fuel yield a significance amount of radioactivity. Therefore, there is no doubt that for a facility having a nuclear reactor, it is vital to anticipate the amount of fission products inside the fuel together with the radioactivity that it may emit. Sufficient information on the radionuclide inventories allows the facility to provide adequate shielding protection and ensure safe transportation of nuclear fuel, when it is needed. This paper briefly describes application of ORIGEN code to calculate the radionuclides inventories of TRIGA-PUSPATI REACTOR (RTP) fuel. (author)

  5. The relevance of speciation to the environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Full text: Radionuclides exist in different chemical forms in the environment ranging from low molecular mass species such as ions, molecules and complexes to high molecular mass species such as colloids, particles and fragments. Furthermore, the physical characteristics of released radionuclides can vary considerably in morphology and structure, size, shape, density, valence and charge. For instance, a proportion of the radionuclides released from a nuclear weapons tests, routine discharges and reactor accidents are present as radioactive particles of varying size. Initially, radionuclide speciation is dependent on the source and release conditions. Once deposited, they can be transformed with time through interaction with various ecosystem components. Many studies have shown that differences in chemical and physical form can lead to varying environmental mobility and hence affect radiation doses. Low molecular mass species are reported to be more bioavailable and environmentally mobile than colloids and particles. Thus, to reliably predict the environmental impact of radioactive contamination of different ecosystems, we need to link information on radionuclide composition and speciation to an understanding of the influence this might have on environmental mobility. To do this, various techniques have been developed to estimate bioavailability of radionuclides in soils and sediments, which often act as the major sink for radionuclides, and in plants. Here, I summarize current knowledge linking radionuclide speciation to bioavailability and then consider whether such information has been adequately integrated into currently available predictive models of radionuclide behaviour in the environment. The transfer of radioactivity to the milk and meat of farm animals is likely be a major exposure pathway of human populations, following an environmental release of radioactivity. As a more detailed example, the importance of source dependent bioavailability in determining

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  7. Radionuclide transport coupled with bentonite extrusion in a saturated fracture system

    Borrelli, Robert Angelo

    The study in this dissertation focuses on the characterization of radionuclide migration in a water saturated fracture. The near field of a high level radioactive waste repository contains the engineered barrier system, which provides manufactured components designed to limit radionuclide releases to the environment. A major component in this system involves the utilization of bentonite as a buffer to protect the degraded waste package and limit release of radionuclides into intersecting fractures that pose possible pathways for transport to the environment. A model is derived for radionuclide migration through this fracture. The model incorporates the features of bentonite: extrusion into the fracture, sorption, and the effect of bentonite swelling on groundwater flow. The resulting derivation of this model is a coupled system of differential equations. The differential equation describing the mass conservation of radionuclides is coupled to the equation system for bentonite extrusion. The models are coupled through the parameters in the radionuclide transport model, which are dependent on the spatial distribution of solid material in the domain. Numerical evaluations of the solution to this radionuclide transport model were conducted for neptunium, a weakly sorbing radionuclide and americium, a strongly sorbing radionuclide. Results were presented in terms normalized spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration in the fluid phase and normalized radionuclide release rate in the fluid phase. Major findings of the study conducted for this dissertation are provided. (1) Bentonite extrusion affects fluid phase advection resulting in groundwater flow countercurrent to the direction of extrusion to the direction of radionuclide migration. (2) The sorption distribution coefficient is the most important parameter affecting radionuclide behavior in this system for this model. (3) Simulations of the model for americium, a highly sorbing radionuclide, indicate that

  8. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  9. Absorption of selected radionuclides

    In October 1978, the Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg e.V. published a contribution to part 26 of the model study of radio-ecology at Biblis under the title 'Estimation of the absorption of radionuclides from the gastrointestinal tract in the blood'. Using the example of this contribution, a critical analysis is made to show how a selection of the information contained in various scientific publications and other items of literature can give uncritical readers the impression that all statements made are scientifically well founded. (orig./HP)

  10. Modifying radionuclide effects

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  11. Atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    This report describes the study of generation and dispersion of airborne radionuclide species from an hypothetical tailings disposal site. The radionuclides are followed along atmospheric dispersion pathways. Estimates of public radiation dose impact were made based on: 1) the behaviour of the hypothetical site and tailings; 2) atmospheric dispersion from such a site located in Northern Ontario. This, the 'Atmospheric Technical Appendix' describes important aspects of the atmospheric modelling process, and findings resulting from that process. It does not attempt to predict real radiation doses, or real atmospheric radionuclide dispersion patterns for any specific site whether existing or projected

  12. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  13. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  14. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of 131I, 99Mo-99mTc, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 46Sc, 192Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as 131I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for 99mTc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of 131I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of 99mTc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for 99mTc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable 99mTc generator using Zr-(99Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for 99mTc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for 99Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of 99mTc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with 153Sm and 131I such as 153Sm-EDTMP, 131I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  15. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  16. Analgesic therapy of skeletal metastases with radionuclides

    The radionculide therapy of bone metastases is an unspecific palliative treatment of metastatic skeletal pain especially useful in patients suffering in multiple sites. In these cases the long-term administration of increasing doses of analgesics such as opiate which have important side effects can be reduced. The aim of this therapy is pain relief and improvement of quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. This report is focusing on options, indications and contraindications of the radionuclide therapy of metastases and on used radionuclides such as Strontium-89, Yttrium-90, Rhenium-186 (188) and Samarium-153. In oncology, the analgesic therapy using boneseeking radiopharmaceuticals in combination to drug administration should gain more importance because this therapy can be administered on an outpatient basis. (orig.)

  17. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  18. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  19. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  20. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    R. Cavallina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from different sea areas.

  1. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    M.C. Campagna; A. Nardoni; R. Cavallina

    2010-01-01

    Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from differe...

  2. Radionuclide trap studies using porous carbon

    Towards import substitute, an attempt has been made to synthesise porous carbon by acidic sucrose solution route for use as trap material for cesium isotopes. The radionuclide trap experiments have been carried out to study the uptake of fission product cesium (137Cs) using reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) and home made porous carbon (HMPC) in static sodium system. The trapping efficiency and distribution coefficient have been measured and compared. (author)

  3. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    DeRogatis, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

  4. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references

  5. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  6. The uses of radiations and radionuclides in medicine

    Since the discovery of X-ray and radium, radiations and radionuclides have widely been used in the field of medicine. It is therefore difficult to overview their use in every aspect of medicine. For this reason I will focus my review on cancer therapy. Radionuclide therapy is divided into brachy therapy using shield sources and systemic radionuclide therapy using unshield sources. The characteristic of brachytherapy is to irradiate locally the target with rapid fall-off in radiation dose to the surrounding tissues. Thereby radiation injury to normal structures can be minimized. The problem is that the indication is limited to tumors to which shield sources can adequately be approached. In systemic radionuclide therapy, the most important one is 131I therapy for metastatic tumors from thyroid cancer. Radionuclide therapy is also used for the treatment of other malignancies such as neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma. Recent development of radiolabeled antibody therapy is expected to open a new horizon for radionuclide therapy. The 5-year survival rate for all cancer patients amounts now to about 50%. In this situation we must aim to improve not only the cure rate but also quality of life for cancer patients so that they can enjoy their lives worth living. We think that this aim will be accomplished in the not distant future by further development of radiation and radionuclide therapy, because radiotherapy's most prominent characteristic is its ability to cure cancer while minimally affecting the patients' normal tissues and functions. (J.P.N.)

  7. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by β- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  8. Medical-radionuclide production methods

    A reliable supply of radionuclides is critical for many areas of nuclear medicine. The recent shortages have highlighted the need for additional sources of medical radionuclides, especially molybdenum-99. The Workshop brought together specialists with knowledge in various methods of producing radionuclides for nuclear medicine to share their perspectives. Its outcome was the provision of sound technical information on the various alternatives. The Workshop comprised expert presentations on the different methods available for producing medical radionuclides, and featured speakers from ACSION Industries, AECL, McMaster University, MDS Nordion, TRIUMF, Canadian Society of Nuclear Medicine and others. There was extensive opportunities for discussions and exchange of ideas. This Workshop was of interest to persons with general knowledge of radioactivity, nuclear reactors, accelerators and related technologies who wish to become more knowledgeable about the available methods of producing medical radionuclides.

  9. Transfer of radionuclides to animal products following ingestion or inhalation

    Contamination of animal products forms an important pathway in the transfer of radionuclides from source to man. Simulation of radionuclide transfer via animal products requires an understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in absorption, distribution, turnover and excretion of radionuclides and related elements in animals as well as knowledge of animal grazing habits and husbandry. This paper provides a summary of the metabolism of important radionuclides in typical domestic animals and of the mathematical approaches that have been used to simulate transfer from diet to animal product. The equilibrium transfer factor approach has been used widely but suffers a number of disadvantages when releases or intakes are variable with time or when intakes are short relative to the lifetime of the animal of interest. Dynamic models, especially those of the compartmental type, have been developed and used widely. Both approaches have benefited from experiences obtained after the Chernobyl accident but a number of uncertainties still exist. Whereas there is now extensive knowledge on the behaviour of radiocaesium in both domestic and wild animals, knowledge of the behaviour of other potentially important radionuclides remains limited. Further experimental and metabolic studies will be required to reduce uncertainties associated with the transfer of radionuclides other than radiocaesium and thereby produce a sound basis for radiological assessments. (author)

  10. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  11. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  12. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  13. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  14. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  15. Radionuclide fate and effects

    The objective of these studies is to develop a basic understanding of radionuclide chemical behavior in soil systems and determine biological availability and transport through ecological pathways defining basic mechanisms at the chemical, cellular, and organism level, enables the incorporation of information into predictive models, which are subsequently validated in the field at reactor and waste management sites. Through investigations of critical geochemical, microbial, and plant phenomena, the precision with which human dose assessments are made is improved. The biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways are studied rather than the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water. Results can also be used to predict the behavior of non-nuclear pollutants such as heavy metals, and to provide a basis for new designs and remedial measures (chemical treatments, biobarriers) that will minimize hazards associated with extended waste disposal and isolation

  16. Approaches to estimating the transfer of radionuclides to arctic biota

    There is increasing concern over potential radioactive contamination of the Arctic due to the wide range of nuclear sources. Environmental characteristics of the Arctic also suggest that it may be comparatively vulnerable to contaminants. Here we review collated data and available models for estimating the transfer of radionuclides to terrestrial biota within the Arctic. The most abundant data are for radiocaesium and radiostrontium although many data for natural radionuclides were available from studies in the Arctic. For some radionuclides no data are available for describing transfer to Arctic biota. Allometric-kinetic models have been used to provide estimates of transfer for radionuclide biota combinations for which data were lacking. Predicted values were in good agreement with observed data for some radionuclides (e.g. Cs, U) although less so for others. However, for some radionuclides where comparison appeared poor there were relatively little observed data with which to compare and the models developed were simplistic excluding some potentially important transfer pathways (e.g. soil ingestion). There are no bespoke models to enable the dynamic prediction of radionuclide transfer to Arctic biota. A human food chain model is available which includes limited parameterization for Cs and Sr transfer in Arctic ecosystems. This has been relatively easily adapted to estimate 137Cs and 90Sr transfer to some Arctic biota and could be readily adapted to other radionuclide-biota combinations. There are many factors of Arctic ecosystems which may influence radionuclide behaviour including short growing seasons, prolonged freezing of soil, and effects of low temperatures on biological rates. However, these are not included within existing predictive models (for human or biota exposure). If exposure to ionising radiation within Arctic ecosystems is to be robustly predicted such factors must be fully understood and properly incorporated into models. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction

  18. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  19. Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment

    Collon, P; Lu, Z T

    2004-01-01

    Trace analysis of radionuclides is an essential and versatile tool in modern science and technology. Due to their ideal geophysical and geochemical properties, long-lived noble gas radionuclides, in particular, 39Ar (t1/2 = 269 yr), 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x10^5 yr) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 yr), have long been recognized to have a wide range of important applications in Earth sciences. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of practical analytical methods, and has led to applications of these isotopes in the hydrosphere (tracing the flow of groundwater and ocean water). In this article, we introduce the applications of these isotopes and review three leading analytical methods: Low-Level Counting (LLC), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA).

  20. Geotrap: radionuclide migration in geologic, heterogeneous media

    Most countries producing nuclear energy are considering, or actively pursuing, a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste. As part of the assessment of the performance or safety of such a repository, radionuclide transport through the heterogeneous, geologic environment must be modelled. In most cases, an important migration mechanism is transport in groundwater and developing an understanding and modelling capability for how radionuclides might migrate away from the repository through the surrounding geosphere is an integral part of making the safety case for a repository. This understanding has been significantly improved through the NEA GEOTRAP Project, the results of which have been documented in a final synthesis report summarizing the outcomes of the five GEOTRAP workshops held between 1996 and 2001

  1. The theory of individual variability of osteotropic radionuclides metabolism

    The aim of this paper is to study mechanisms of individual peculiarities of osteotropic radionuclides skeletal metabolism, and to develop approach for dose value prediction. Some regulations explaining the importance of skeleton in radionuclides metabolism and showing the direction of search of its quantitative regularities are taken as a basis of these theory. The first, there are three evolution treads: universal significance of calcium in the cells in the row beginning from bacteria to highest organizms and increase of its regulator role in the multicellular on the level of organizm; ability of calcium salts to increase mechanical strength of supporting tissues; growing connection of metabolic and supporting function. The second, bone is involved in metabolism of radionuclides as a structurally functional wholeness. The third metabolic way of radionuclide from blood into bone consists of a number of stages. (author)

  2. Tumor therapy with radionuclides; assessment of progress and problems

    Radionuclide therapy is a promising modality for treatment of tumors of hematopoietic origin while the success for treatment of solid tumors so far has been limited. The authors consider radionuclide therapy mainly as a method to eradicate disseminated tumor cells and small metastases while bulky tumors and large metastases have to be treated surgically or by external radiation therapy. The promising therapeutic results for hematological tumors give hope that radionuclide therapy will have a breakthrough also for treatment of disseminated cells from solid tumors. New knowledge is continuously emerging related to this since new molecular target structures are being characterized and the knowledge on pharmacokinetics and cellular processing of different types of targeting agents increases. There is also improved understanding of the factors of importance for the choice of appropriate radionuclides with respect to their decay properties and the therapeutic applications. Furthermore, new methods to modify the uptake of radionuclides in tumor cells and normal tissues are emerging. However, we still need improvements regarding dosimetry and treatment planning as well as an increased knowledge about the tolerance doses for normal tissues and the radiobiological effects on tumor cells. This is especially important in targeted radionuclide therapy where the dose rates often are low

  3. Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides

    tools in order to predict unknown cross-section data were also required. The CRP involved nine experts from nine institutes and national radionuclide production centres. Participants met at three research coordination meetings held in Vienna. This publication constitutes the final report of the CRP. The CRP produced a much needed database both for reactor and accelerator production, as well as this handbook covering reactions used for medically important therapeutic radionuclides. These recommended cross-sections are now accurate enough to meet the demands of all current applications and foreseen developments, although further improvements in the evaluation methodology may lead to future updates. The database is available free of cost on the following web site: http:/www-nds.iaea.org/radionuclides/.

  4. Radionuclide source term and migration

    Progress in two types of experiment is reported. In the first the equilibrium and concentration of radionuclides in groundwater in contact with real radioactive wastes are measured. Container material, backfill material and rock are added to groundwater to investigate their effects. In the second experiment the retardation of radionuclides leached from wastes as groundwater flows over samples of container, backfill and geological material is measured. Outflow is analysed for radionuclides and experimental results for cesium 134, cesium 137 and cobalt 60 are presented. (U.K.)

  5. 6. Radionuclides in the environment

    Natural transformation series are described and the characteristics given of natural radionuclides which do not form series and of certain cosmogenic radionuclides. The hazard is evaluated of internal and external irradiation from various artificial radioactivity sources, namely those which are linked with the operation of nuclear power installations and waste processing. Data are given on the occurrence of natural radionuclides in the environment and in the human organism. A brief description is presented of environmental monitoring methods and methods of dosimetry at nuclear power installations. (M.D.)

  6. Statistical analysis of fallout radionuclides transfer to paddy-field rice

    Radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to atmosphere are transported through various pathways in biosphere and cause human exposure. Among these radionuclides transfer pathways, an ingestion of crops containing radionuclides is one of the dominant pathway for human exposure. For the safety assessment of nuclear facilities, it is important to understand the behavior of radionuclides in agricultural environment and to describe them in a mathematical model. In this paper, a statistical model is proposed for estimating the concentration of fallout radionuclides in paddy-field rice, the staple food for Japanese people. For describing behavior of fallout radionuclides in a paddy-field, a dynamic model and a statistical model have been proposed respectively. The model used in this study has been developed assuming that the amount of radionuclides transfer to brown rice (hulled rice) or polished rice through direct deposition of airborne radionuclides (the direct deposition pathway) and root uptake from a paddy soil (the root uptake pathway) are proportional to the deposition flux of radionuclides and concentration of radionuclides in paddy soil respectively. That is, the model has two independent variables; the deposition flux of radionuclides and the concentration of radionuclides in the paddy soil, and has single dependent variable; the concentration of radionuclides in brown rice or polished rice. The regression analysis is applied by using environmental monitoring data. Then the distribution of radionuclides between rice-bran (skin part of rice crop) and polished rice (core part) through both the direct deposition pathway and the root uptake pathway are evaluated by the model. (author)

  7. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author)

  8. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  9. Radionuclide diffusion in soils. I

    The factors are discussed affecting the rate of migration of radionuclides in the soil (properties of the radionuclide - the sign and magnitude of ion charge, soil properties - moisture, density, presence of salts and organic substances, composition of sorption complex and soil solution, climatic conditions -temperature). Fick's 2nd law cannot be used for the mathematical description of vertical migration of radionuclides in the soil and equations are therefore suggested for describing the movement of substances through an absorbing porous medium and for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient. In order to specify the mathematical description of migration it is necessary to obtain a great numbert of experimental data and to use multiparameter regression analysis for identifying the effect of the different properties of the soil on the diffusion of radionuclides. (J.C.)

  10. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water

  11. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  12. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  13. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine - recent advances and future perspectives

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications

  14. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  15. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis

  16. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma.

    Lull, R J; Tatum, J L; Sugerman, H J; Hartshorne, M F; Boll, D A; Kaplan, K A

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs. PMID:6226097

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  18. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs

  19. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Radionuclide brain scanning

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  2. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  3. Radionuclides in waters of the Slovak Republic

    Determination of radionuclides in drinking water became increasingly important within the European Union since the implementation of the European Drinking Water Directive in 1998. The limit for the uptake of radionuclides via drinking water has been established in the form of a 'total indicative dose' of 0.1 mSv per year. Unfortunately, the total indicative dose cannot be measured directly but has to be calculated from the summed up contribution of each natural or artificial radionuclide, which is present in water - excluding 3H, 40K, radon and radon decay products. The parameters of choice are the gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentration. If the gross-alpha activity in a tap water sample is lower than 0.1 Bq/dm3 and the gross-beta activity does not exceed 1.0 Bq/dm3, it can be assumed that the annual total indicative dose of adults is less than 0.1 mSv per year (authors)

  4. Review Paper of Radionuclide Monitoring in Food Sample

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides into the atmospheric and aquatic environments may occur as the result of a nuclear or radiological accident. Monitoring of the accidental release at its source and especially direct monitoring of the environmental contamination with radionuclides is necessary for assessment and application of public protective actions and longer term countermeasures as well as emergency workers' protection. In areas historically contaminated with long lived radionuclides monitoring it is essential to protect the public and substantiation of any radiological incidents. Also, dietary pathways can be contaminated with radioactive materials resulting from natural occurrence or man-made applications especially during routine operation, accidents and migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste disposal repositories into the biosphere. Therefore, efforts should be made to determine the presence of radionuclides in a potentially high radiation area especially in operational nuclear facilities. This paper will review the strategies for food monitoring that has been adapted in most countries to obtain baseline data for future reference. Also, this study is discussing the type of food selection commonly collected as sample for radionuclide analysis in different countries over the years. Sampling procedure and analysis also included in this review for better understanding of the analysis. Stake holders' involvement is considered as an important asset in the establishment of monitoring strategies. As a conclusion, future plans for food monitoring programme in Malaysia are recommended as a preparation to embark on the Nuclear Power Plant programme. (author)

  5. Fungi contaminated by radionuclides. Critical review of approaches to modeling

    Global fallout from nuclear weapon tests in the 1960s revealed the potential of fungi as enhanced accumulators of radioactivity. More recently, data derived from Chernobyl fallout conferred fungi as major accumulators of radionuclides and in addition an important food-chain contributor to the human radiation dose. According to both individual expert judgment elicitation and group discussions conducted during a recent workshop on forest radioecology (Linkov and Schell, 1999), fungi determine to a large extent the fate and transport processes of radionuclides in forests. Forest microflora, particularly fungal mycelia, can retain a significant fraction of the deposited radionuclides in the organic layer. Recent model-model-data intercomparisons organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (BIOMASS 1999) led to the conclusion that the radionuclide accumulation in fungi is the most difficult to predict. This talk will critically review existing modeling techniques and will proposes an approach for understanding and describing radionuclide fate and transport in forest soils as a part of multimedia modeling aiming at human health and risk assessment. Fungal mycelia determine to a large extent the radionuclide retention in the organic layers. However, the detailed mechanisms involved in radionuclide and heavy metal fixation by fungi are not yet well understood. The results of our analysis show that in spite of this limited knowledge, simple models can be developed to reproduce the measured and predict the future radionuclide concentration in the organic layer compartments and fungal fruit bodies. Our review shows that transfer parameters (transfer factors of concentration ratios) from forest soil to fungal fruit bodies aggregated over a standardized soil depth or the total radionuclide deposition per unit area are highly uncertain. For modeling purposes the relevant kinetic processes are best described by uptake rates or effective half-times. These dynamic

  6. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  7. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  8. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    . Therefore, transport calculations by a model with the appropriate exchange processes included are important. To be able to make certain statements about the transport of radionuclides in the current streams, further investigations are recommended in the report where field measurements of site-specific parameters is an important component. An updated more complete sensitivity analysis of the model is also suggested to be performed after the inclusion of site-spe

  9. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    . Therefore, transport calculations by a model with the appropriate exchange processes included are important. To be able to make certain statements about the transport of radionuclides in the current streams, further investigations are recommended in the report where field measurements of site-specific parameters is an important component. An updated more complete sensitivity analysis of the model is also suggested to be performed after the inclusion of site-specific information.

  10. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of 137Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of 137Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total 137Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  11. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Takizawa, Yukio

    1996-12-31

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of {sup 137}Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of {sup 137}Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total {sup 137}Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  12. The effect of radionuclide imaging on clinical diagnosis and treatment of CAD

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of radionuclide imaging on the diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease (CAD) comparing with other methods. Methods: 2282 cases were included in this study. Among them, 1950 underwent 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial imaging and 872 cases underwent blood pool radionuclide ventriculography. Results: The total sensitivity in detecting CAD was 90.4% and specificity was 86.3%; some of the incorrect diagnoses were corrected with the two modalities. In 40 cases, radionuclide imaging provided important clues for prognostication. Conclusion: The radionuclide cardiography is noninvasive and very helpful for the diagnosis of CAD in detail and for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency, prognostication of the disease

  13. Comparisons of activity measurements in nuclear medicine with radionuclide calibrators in the Czech Republic

    Radionuclide calibrators consisting of a well type ionization chamber and an electrometer are used in nuclear medicine for the determination of the activity of radioactive pharmaceuticals administered to patients. In order to maximize the safety of patients, it is important to ensure the long term accuracy of radionuclide calibrators.The paper presents data obtained in annual calibrator accuracy checks carried out in the Czech Republic by the Czech Metrological Institute during the past decade. Changes in radionuclide calibrator models, the range of radionuclides used and the development of measurement accuracies are also described. In addition, the results of a regional international comparison are given. (author)

  14. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  15. Natural and manmade radionuclides in the environment

    Human beings are constantly exposed to ionizing radiations in nature. These natural background radiations have both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. The extraterrestrial radiation is largely due to cosmic rays. Earth's atmosphere is continuously bombarded with high energy cosmic rays which originate from our own cosmos. The primary interaction of high energy cosmic rays with the atmosphere produces a number of secondary radiations in the form of neutrons and protons of various energies which in turn produce a variety of radionuclides through nuclear reactions with nitrogen, oxygen and other nuclei in atmosphere and through other processes. In addition, sub-atomic particles like mesons, muons and electrons are also produced. The radiation dose rate in India at sea level due to cosmic rays is 32 nGy h-1. The naturally occurring terrestrial radionuclides can be divided into those that occur singly and those that are components of the three chains of radioactive series namely, the Uranium series, the Thorium series and the Actinium series. Among the singly occurring radionuclides Potassium-40 with half life of 1.3x109 years is the most prominent and is widely distributed in rocks and soil. 40K is fairly abundant, forming about 0.012% of' total potassium, and is widely distributed in environmental matrix and it is an essential element for most life forms. Uranium-238 and Thorium 232 and their daughters generate the bulk of natural ionising radiation in our environment. Uranium-238 is the head of a series of 15 principal radionuclides, It is the most abundant (99.28%) isotope of natural uranium and is found in all rocks and soil in varied concentration. The radionuclide 238U decays through 234U and 230Th to 226Ra, which has a relatively long half life of 1628 years. 226Ra and its daughter products constitute an important part of natural radiation exposure. About 98% of the external dose from uranium series is delivered by 226Ra and its daughter products

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  17. Radionuclide production for applications: Science of many models

    Full text: Now-a-days the demand of the radioisotopes for various applications is increasing in leaps and bounds. Besides, various social and political constrains are becoming more stringent for setting up new facilities for isotope production. In this situation, accelerators and large facilities like spallation neutron sources are becoming more important for radionuclide production. Throughout the last decade our group is involved in producing chemical, physical and nuclear data for production of important radionuclides which have potential applications in various fields through heavy ion activation. The application includes administration of radionuclides in human body, tracer technique for tracing chemical, metabolic and physical pathways, even in the field of fundamental nuclear and particle physics. Each application has different needs in terms of purity and production. I shall describe few of them from our recent results in the field of heavy ion activation. (author)

  18. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides

    This report focuses on various types of radionuclides that may be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. One of the primary goals of this ICRP Task Group is to assess specifically the biological implications of inhaled plutonium. Because other transuranics are becoming more abundant, information on americium, curium and einsteinium is included. Data are also included from studies of polonium and of several beta-gamma emitting isotopes. The Task Group evaluated most of the data on the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in experimental animals to identify the tissues at risk and to assess possible dose-response relationships. Few data from human cases of inhaled radionuclides are available for this assessment. The biological effects of nonradioactive air pollutants were also considered to provide the perspective that all air pollutants can have a deleterious effect on human life and to emphasize the possibility for combined or synergistic effects of nonradioactive and radioactive substances on the respiratory tract. (orig./HP)

  19. A review of radionuclides determination

    Environmental radiochemical analysis have several steps such as sample pre-treatment, sample pre-concentration, separation and determination. Many separation methods, using solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography are applied tote preconcentration and separation of radionuclides. These methods are time-consuming, use large amounts of strong acids and produce organic wastes. Recently, separation methods on the extraction chromatography have became increasingly popular in radiochemical analysis. In this presentation, we briefly summarize the published literature on principles and various applications of radioanalytical method that have been commonly used in radionuclide separations (authors)

  20. Kinetic approach for interactive reactions of radionuclide, bacteria and granitic crushed rock

    For many radionuclides, sorption is an important phenomenon as their migration rates in groundwater are reduced in both engineered barrier and fractured rock matrix. Sorption of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the chemistry of the surrounding groundwater, such as pH, Eh, ionic strength, etc., by changing their valence states (e.g.,). In addition, it is also known that some bacteria can change the mobility and speciation of a radionuclide in groundwater. Biological immobilization mechanisms of radionuclides include precipitation, transformation to less soluble forms and so on. On the other hand, bacteria can also play a role of sorbent for radionuclides. Since bacteria can not only be mobile as a colloid but also be immobile as biofilm in the rock fracture, the bacteria as the sorbents of radionuclides in the groundwater can have both positive and negative effects on the radionuclide migration. In this study, therefore, sorption of radionuclide onto rock surface in the presence of bacteria was investigated via batch experiments. Although sorption equilibrium state can be expected in the transport of weakly sorbing (distribution coefficient, Kd -3 m3kg-1) or strongly adsorbing (Kd > ∼4.6 m3kg-1) nuclides in fractured rock, sorption kinetics needs to be considered in the intermediate range. Therefore, the sorption of radionuclide whose valence state is expected to be changed by biological reduction was evaluated in a kinetic approach

  1. Radionuclide imaging of the lower genitourinary tract

    The major use of radionuclide cystography is in the management of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Reflux is common, occurring in one-third to one-half of children with urinary tract infection. The significance of VUR lies in its associated symptoms and consequences, which include impaired renal growth and function, vague ill health, renal pain, and more importantly the development of reflux nephropathy, a significant cause of end-stage renal disease and hypertension in children. Although reflux may resolve spontaneously, particularly milder degrees of reflux, the age at which this may occur is unpredictable and repeated follow-up cystography over a number of years may be necessary. Therefore, it is important to minimize radiation to the child while providing accurate diagnostic information. This paper discusses how the technique of radionuclide cystography compares favorably with routine contrast voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in these respects, and in addition can provide quantitative information not obtained by radiographic techniques. Other indications may include screening siblings of patients known to have reflux, follow-up of antireflux surgery and occasionally screening for reflux in children who have had urinary tract infection

  2. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Pottery, Ceramic and Glasswares Produced in Bangladesh

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured using gamma spectrometry in the finished products of pottery, glass, ceramic and tiles. Ceramic and pottery utensils, tiles, basin and glassware contained naturally occurring radionuclides. Pottery is produced from local clay materials, but ceramic, tiles, basin and glassware's are made from both local and imported raw materials. Radium and thorium radionuclides are concentrated during the making of pottery from the clay materials due to calcination. Radionuclides concentrated more in the highly calcined pottery products than the low calcined products. Glassware products contained very low quantities of radionuclides comparing with the ceramic and pottery products. Study on radioactivity in the pottery, ceramic and glassware products is important in the assessment of possible radiological hazards to human health. The knowledge is essential for the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of these materials. (author)

  3. Air way of food stuffs contamination with radionuclides

    Considered is the surface contamination of the land part of plants with the fixation of radionuclides on the surface and partial penetration in the vegetable tissue. The retention of radioactive particles from atmospheric fallouts on plants depends on the nature of vegetation (foliage thickness, the shape of leaves), meteorologic conditions and physicochemical properties of particles. The transition of radioactive substances in edible parts of plants is also discussed. Determination of the clearance rate of plants from radionuclides is discussed. Periods of importance of the surface contamination are shown

  4. Assessment and treatment of external and internal radionuclide contamination

    The most serious problems arise from accidents involving radionuclide contamination. This was demonstrated by experience from the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, where large groups of people were externally and internally contaminated and which demanded significant management efforts from the health and other authorities. It is important that radionuclide contamination be minimized, not only by preventive measures, but also by good medical management when an exposure has occurred. This is an updated Technical Document based upon the IAEA Safety Series No. 88 ''Medical Handling of Accidentally Exposed Individuals'' and IAEA-TECDOC-366 ''What the General Practitioner (MD) Should Know about Medical Handling of Overexposed Individuals''. 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Applications of radionuclide imaging in mild cognitive impairment

    The risk for conversion to dementia is much higher in individuals with mild coghitived impairmaent (MCI). The early detection of MCI individuals who will later convert to Alzheimer disease is an important issue for both clinical and research interests. Radionuclide imaging has been broadly used to study cerebral metabolism and blood flow, as well as predicting the prognosis of MCI. This review summarizes the results of these studies assessing the predicting value of radionuclide imaging used alone and with other methods in recent years. (authors)

  6. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  7. Clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration: a review

    Because of their low permeability, high sorption capacity and plasticity, clay bodies are potentially suitable repositories for radioactive waste. The paper discusses the factors that influence radionuclide mobility in natural clay materials. Methods for determining radionuclide migration rates are described and compared. Data requirements necessary to establish whether or not a particular site is suitable for waste disposal are discussed. Suggestions are made as to the most important generic research that needs to be carried out. In the appendix, some of the most relevant, published, sorption and diffusion data are summarised and compared. (author)

  8. Some aspects of the biological availability sediment-bound radionuclides

    The concentrations of some radionuclides (mainly Co-60, Zn-65 and Mn-54) as well as of the stable metals Co, Zn, Mn, Ag and Fe were determined in the soft part of the soft-bottom bivalve Macoma baltica. Analogous analyses were also made for surface sediments at the same stations. Furthermore the above mentioned stable metals were analyzed in Macoma and in sediments at Flat- varp. The sediments were furthermore separated into different grain-size fractions, which then were analyzed for radionuclides and stable metals. In some of these fractions the 'kind of fixation' of the trace elements was studied by sequential extraction. Finally in some laboratory experiments the uptake of radionuclides in Macoma was studied using sediments marked with tracers. The following results were obtained: 1. Macoma probably receives most of its content of radionuclides by direct uptake from sediment - and not from solution. This means that some part of the radionuclides in the sediments will return to the biosphere via Macoma being an important food item for some fish. 2. Concentration factors for Co-60 and Zn-565 as well as for the corresponding stable metals were determined from field data and from laboratory experiments

  9. Training in radionuclide methodology and applications in biomedical area

    Full text: Training in the field of radionuclide methodology and applications in biomedical area is important to assure that radionuclide should duly be used without risk for patients or for technicians manipulating them. The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) from its creation is giving training courses of different technical levels to those working in science and technology. The Course on Radionuclide Methodology and application is the most continuous, varied and requested within CNEA. This is a basic course mainly given to Biochemistry and Medicine. Its goal is to give both theoretical and practical knowledge for use and application of radionuclides bearing in mind radiological safety regulations. Personnel from CNEA and Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) carry out teaching. On the other hand, a course for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine is giving supplying knowledge in this field, as well as expertise and practice to attend a responsible Medical Doctor. These curses comprise radionuclide methodology, anatomy, physiology, instrumentation and practical applications in Nuclear Medicine. Statistics concerning these course are giving. (author)

  10. Principles of radionuclide studies of the genitourinary system

    The clinical assessment of renal diseases with radionuclide procedures is discussed. It has achieved general recognition only during the last decade. The proper assessment of renal function with radionuclides provides useful information for the management of patients with renal disease and renal transplant recipients. Renal imaging with radionuclides gives some information on morphology and the integrity of the urinary collecting system, but more importantly it provides functional information that may include renal blood flow or effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the quantitation of differential renal function, the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux, the quantitation of postvoiding residual urine volume, and the differential diagnosis of testicular disease. Acute renal failure resulting from acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephirits, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized by radionuclide studies. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy also may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may reveal such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis, or infiltrative renal disease. Finally, nuclear study in transplant recipients is useful to help differentiate rejection from acute tubular necrosis and other causes of reduced renal function

  11. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  12. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  13. Transfer of radionuclides to plants

    Sampling of Water Horsetail and Bracken Fern including upper soil layer (0-10 cm) and water was carried out in Torahult, Sweden, in Almindingen on Bornholm, in Asserbo and Arresoe on Zealand and in Sdr. Hostrup and Nydam mose in Jutland. Furthermore, sampling was carried out in 2004 for seawater, seaweed and shrimps at locations in Danish waters at Bornholm (Svenskehavn), at Zealand (Klint), at Lolland/Falster (Guldborgsund) and on the west coast of Jutland (Hirtshals, Agger, Hvide Sande and Roemoe). Concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and uranium were determined in Bracken Fern, Water Horsetail and soil samples. The concentration ratios (CR) are highest for 40K in both plant species and show the lowest variability across locations. The CR's for 40K range from 1 to 2, while the CR's for the other radionuclides range one to three orders of magnitude lower. The CR's for 137Cs show particularly high variability across locations. The CR's were analysed in a two-way ANOVA on the log-transformed values to test differences between plant species and radionuclides. The difference between radionuclides was highly significant, p137Cs and 99Tc in marine samples. Concentration ratios calculated from the analysed samples are presented. The concentration ratios for 99Tc agree with those reported elsewhere in the Indofern Project. The concentration ratios for 137Cs in Fucus show a correlation to salinity with higher values in low salinity water at Bornholm than in high salinity water on the west coast of Jutland. (LN)

  14. Radionuclide investigation of nutritive absorption

    The authors present the theoretical rationale, algorithm and results of verification of a new radionuclide method for the determination of nutritive absorption. The proposed method allows the determination of the amount of a labeled unabsorbed food ingredient without the collection and radiometry of feces, with a high degree of significance

  15. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    The proceedings of the conference contain 22 texts of contributions presented, out of which 21 have been inputted in INIS. The topics treated include mainly contamination of surface waters by radionuclides, e.g from the operation of nuclear power plants, accumulation of radionuclides by the biosphere, and analytical problems of determination of radionuclides in the hydrosphere. (P.A.)

  16. Production of selected cosmogenic radionuclides by muons; 1, Fast muons

    Heisinger, B; Jull, A J T; Kubik, P W; Ivy-Ochs, S; Neumaier, S; Knie, K; Lazarev, V A; Nolte, E

    2002-01-01

    To investigate muon-induced nuclear reactions leading to the production of radionuclides, targets made of C/sub 9/H/sub 12/, SiO /sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, S, CaCO/sub 3/, Fe, Ni, Cu, Gd, Yb and Tl were irradiated with 100 and 190 GeV muons in the NA54 experimental setup at CERN. The radionuclide concentrations were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and gamma -spectroscopy. Results are presented for the corresponding partial formation cross- sections. Several of the long-lived and short-lived radionuclides studied are also produced by fast cosmic ray muons in the atmosphere and at depths underground. Because of their importance to Earth sciences investigations, calculations of the depth dependence of production rates by fast cosmic ray muons have been made. (48 refs).

  17. Traceability of radionuclide calibrators measurements in nuclear medicine

    In nuclear medicine, the administered doses of the radiopharmaceutical are expressed through the amount of radioactivity contained in the drug. The measurement of this activity, performed using a radionuclide calibrator, is of the utmost importance to guarantee the national and international comparability of clinic results and the radiological safety of the patient. In this paper, the transferring of the becquerel unit to the radionuclide calibrators employed in the nuclear medicine practice in Cuba is detailed. The obtained results with an in situ calibration service, which is based on the direct comparison with standards of the specific measured radionuclides, are presented. Outcomes of international and national measurement comparisons are shown. They validate the uncertainty estimates of the calibration coefficients installed in the instruments for measurements of 99Tcm , 131I and 201Tl, the main gamma emitters that have been used in Cuban nuclear medicine. (author)

  18. Protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides

    Increasing the safety of nuclear power plants is a problem of the utmost importance in the nuclear energy industry. Particular attention is given to severe accidents at nuclear reactors. Although the probability of these accidents is low (-5), their consequences are the most disastrous. Severe accidents result in the release of tens of thousands of curies of radioactive products into the area under the containment. Modern protective systems for the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides are based mainly on the filtration of gas flow, using various solid and liquid sorbents. The main principle of these filters is based on the precipitation of suspended particles on any surface (grids, liquid drops, or film, fiber, and electrode surfaces). In these processes, physical phenomena such as gravitation, inertia, diffusion, electricity, magnetism, and supersonics are used. A disadvantage of the available systems is that they may not trap radioaerosols present in the vapor-gas mixture in the form of finely dispersed (much smaller than 0.1 microm) hydrophobic particles. A new concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides has been suggested. A basically new method of the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides is based on the physicochemical process occurring in the gas phase. The proposed concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile fission products uses unconventional approaches based not on the filtration of vapor-gas flow but on the extraction of radioaerosols and radioiodine from them by the formation of mixed micelles with manufactured hydrophilic aerosols, such as MoO3 and NH4Cl-(NH4)2SO3, and the cocrystallization of ionic iodine with them. The new concept may be used for protection from radioaerosols at various types of nuclear reactors

  19. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem at Oeregrundsgrepen

    The aim of the work was to provide supplementary input to the risk assessment of a planned final nuclear waste repository at Forsmark. The main deliverable was a computed water exchange between basins in the Forsmark marine area for the period 6500 BC to 9000 AD - based on the hydrodynamic modelling - to be used as input to the landscape dose model. In addition and what is described in this report, a second deliverable was development and application of high-resolution models for the marine ecosystem and radionuclide processes. The purpose of this deliverable was to illustrate the spatial and temporal variation in important processes and parameters, while constituting a complement to previous modelling approaches and providing supporting information to discussions of the marine ecosystem, parameters and variation (see Chapter 4 and 6).To this end, a hydrodynamic model of high temporal and spatial resolution was constructed and calibrated for the Forsmark area. An ecosystem model was then developed and coupled to the hydrodynamic model. In turn, a detailed radionuclide model was coupled to the ecosystem model to provide detailed predictions of radionuclide transport and accumulation in the coastal ecosystem. The ecosystem and radionuclide models were developed in the equation solver MIKE ECOLab that links seamless to the MIKE3 FM hydrodynamic model. The 'standard' ECOLab ecosystem model was extended with six biological state variables, perennial macroalgae, benthic herbivors, detritus feeders, planktivorus fish and, benthic predators representing the relict isopod Saduria and cod. In contrast to the ecosystem model, the radionuclide model was developed from scratch but building on the structure of the ecosystem model and using the output (process rates linking state variables) from the ecosystem model as input to the radionuclide model. Both the ecosystem model and the radionuclide model were run for several years (5-8 years) to bring state variables into quasi

  20. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  1. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki;

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  2. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    The proceedings contain 31 papers dealing with the impact of nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere (radionuclide composition of waste waters and their assessment, the effect of liquid radioactive wastes on surface water organisms, the occurrence of radionuclides in bottom sediments, the cost-effectiveness of risk reduction of liquid radioactive wastes, etc.); the methods of concentrating and separating radionuclides from high-volume liquid samples; the methods of radionuclide contamination measurement (semiconductor spectrometry, the use of silicon detectors, the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities, etc.); and radionuclide migration in ground waters. (E.S.). 25 figs., 30 tabs., 86 refs

  3. Computer-based radionuclide analyzer system

    The radionuclide analysis in nuclear power plants, practiced for the purpose of monitoring the quality of the primary loop water, the confirmation of the performance of reactor cleanup system and monitoring the radioactive waste effluent, is an important job. Important as it is, it requires considerable labor of experts, because the samples to be analyzed are multifarious and very large in number, and in addition, this job depends much on manual work. With a view of saving the labor, simplifying and standardizing the work, reducing radiation exposure, and automatizing the work of analysis, the computerized analyzer system has been worked out. The results of its performance test at the operating power plant have proved that the development has fairly accomplished the objects and that the system is well useful. The developmental work was carried out by the cooperation between The Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Toshiba in about 4 years from 1974 to this year. (auth.)

  4. Radionuclide methods of diagnosing anthracycline - induced cardiotoxity

    Anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents play an important role in tumor treatment owing to their high therapeutic efficiency but at the same time they cause lesions to healthy tissues and organs among which cardiotoxity is the most significant. Radionuclide diagnostic methods are widely used in diagnosing heart damage against the background of therapy with anthracyclines. Radionuclide ventriculography is implemented in practice as a routine procedure for serial evaluation of LVFI (left ventricular filling index) and regional myocardial kinetics monitoring. The obtained results are used for individual assessment of the cumulative dose of the anthracycline antineoplastic agent administered. However, the method has low prognostic value regarding the severity of myocardial impairment on account of its late positiveness. Researches along these lines are focused on radiopharmaceuticals accumulating in the myocardial cell and mirroring its perfusion, innervation and vitality, such as 111In-antimyosin, 123I-MIBG and 99mTc-MIBI. Investigations using the aforementioned radiopharmaceuticals disclose the mechanisms of myocardial cell damage under the effect of anthracyclines, becoming positive before clinical manifestation of cardiotoxicity. Their implementation in the routine practice lags behind because of insufficient studies on the issue

  5. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  6. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  7. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  8. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides (234U, 235U, 238U, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of 238U and 232Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclide carriers the environment

    In spite of the nuclear energy advantages related to the smallest environmental impact due to protection of resources and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the environment has been affected by nuclear activities. In order to evaluate trends, to study transport processes and to predict consequences of radionuclide releases/leakage from a source and atmospheric fallout, information on the present levels of radioactive contamination, releases and source terms is essential. At present it is generally recognized that a realistic estimation of the long-term consequences of radioactive contamination is possible through the better understanding of physical and chemical processes of radionuclide migration in the environment. To assess the transfer and fate of radioactive contaminants in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environment the information on physical and chemical parameters of radionuclide carriers is required. The release of radionuclides associated with particles of different sizes and mineralogical composition into the environment can considerably affect their transport and bioavailability. Thus, after nuclear explosions different spreading velocities and downward movement of 137Cs, 95Zr+95Nb, 22Na aerosols and gaseous 14C(14CO2) were observed. In addition, low chemical reactivity is characteristic of highly insoluble, refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium formed in nuclear explosions, and they are very kinetically stable and remain in a form in which they are injected into environment for a long time. They were distinguished for their behaviour in the environment from radionuclides released into environment processing plants and laboratory research The emission of radiocesium from combustion of contaminated firewood can also contribute to the radiational situation in Lithuania. The analysis of activity concentrations, meteorological situation, types of particle are important for understanding the sources and possible impact on given location. Our

  10. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  11. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-384. Radionuclides in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, and to assist Member States in verifying the performance of their laboratories, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, in 1996 IAEA-MEL collected sediment in Fangataufa lagoon, French Polynesia. The sample aliquots were distributed during 1997-1998 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. 110 laboratories worldwide agreed to participate. Of these, only 94 sent results which could be used in the evaluation of this intercomparison exercise. This report describes the results obtained from 94 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

  12. Natural radionuclide analysis in chattarpur area of southeastern coastal area of Odisha, India

    Rautela, Bhagwat; Gusain, Gurupad; Yadav, Manjulata; Sahoo, Sarat; Tokonami, Shinji; Ramola, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    The energy released in a spontaneous decay process of natural radionuclides is the main source of the total radiation dose to human beings. Natural radionuclides are widely distributed in soil, rocks, air, and groundwater. In present investigation, the analysis of terrestrial radionuclides such as 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil and sand of Chattarpur area of southeastern coast of Odisha has been carried out using NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector. The higher activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides have been reported from the study area. The gamma radiationdose originating from the terrestrial radionuclides was found to vary from 95 to 1813 nGy/h with an average of 700 nGy/h. This study is important to generate a baseline data of radiation exposure in the area. Health hazard effects due to natural radiation exposure are discussed in details.

  13. Production parameters of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using medium energy cyclotron

    Mayeen Uddin Khandaker; Kwangsoo Kim; Guinyun Kim

    2012-08-01

    Production cross-sections of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium target were measured using stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution -ray spectrometry at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. Note that cyclotron production of the 105Rh radionuclide from natural palladium target was measured here for the first time. Results are compared with the theoretical values obtained using the model codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE. Thick target integral yields for the investigated 105Rh radionuclide were deduced from the threshold energy to 40 MeV. Measured data of the 105Rh radionuclide are important because of its potential applications in nuclear medicine and/or therapeutic purposes. Optimal production circumstances for the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using a cyclotron are discussed elaborately.

  14. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  15. Determination of radionuclides in air

    The air in certain work areas at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is monitored for selected radionuclides to assure safety FR-om toxic effects to personnel in the area. Some of the radionuclides that are determined are shown with their Radiation Protection Standard (RPS) values by means of a table. The RPS is the maximum average airborne contamination to which personnel may be exposed for one week without respiratory protection and is expressed as disintegrations per minute (dpm) per cubic meter (m/sup 3/) of air. It is desirable to make reliable measurements at a level which is 10% of the RPS to ensure that the detection limits are well below the RPS. Thorium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium all have alpha emitting isotopes and it is their alpha activity which is measured. Results are tabulated

  16. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  17. Experimental study on biokinetics of radionuclides in age groups

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, it becomes evident that dose coefficients for members of the public are necessary. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established a task group of Committee 2 charged with the assessment of dose coefficients as a function of an individual's age. However, little data is available on the biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile and is a need to develop age-dependent biokinetic models, such as for the gastrointestinal tract. The present paper reviewed an outline on characteristics of biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile animals focusing on the previous experimental data. The following radionuclides are discussed: 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 106Ru, 110mAg, 115Cd, 125Sb, 137Cs, 141Ce, 203Hg and 3H. Generally, intestinal absorption and whole-body retention of radionuclides in Juveniles were higher than that of adult. In the case of sucklings, it is very important to study how radionuclides are transferred through the placenta and milk. The transfer rate of radionuclides through the placenta and milk is dependent on the period of gestation at the time of dosing. The IDES (Internal Dose Estimation System) which is based on the ICRP model was used for dose calculation. We modified the IDES using the biokinetic data which was gained by animal experiment. The IDES is flexible because the absorbed dose can be calculated by substituting arbitrary physical and physiological parameters and also substituting ingested dose coefficients not only for the ICRP Reference Man, but also for Japanese of 1 year old, 5 years old, 10 years old, 15 years old and the adult, respectively. (author)

  18. Biokinetics and dose assessment of radionuclides in juveniles

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, it becomes evident that dose coefficients for members of the public are necessary. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) established a task group of Committee 2 charged with the assessment of dose coefficients as a function of an individual's age. However, little data is available on the biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile and there is a need to develop age-dependent biokinetic models, such as for the gastrointestinal tract. The present paper reviewed an outline on characteristics of biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile animals focusing on the previous experimental data. The following radionuclides are discussed: 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 106Ru, 110mAg, 115mCd, 125Sb, 137Cs, 141Ce, 203Hg and 3H. Generally, intestinal absorption and whole-body retention of radionuclides in juveniles were higher than that of adult. In the case of sucklings, it is very important to study how radionuclides are transferred through the placenta and milk. The transfer rate of radionuclides through the placenta and milk is dependent on the period of gestation at the time of dosing. The IDES(Internal Dose Estimation System) which is based on the ICRP model was used for dose calculation. We modified the IDES using the biokinetic data which was gained animal experiment. The IDES is flexible because the absorbed dose can be calculated by substituting arbitrary physical and physiological parameters and also substituting ingested dose coefficients not only for the ICRP Reference Man, but also for Japanese of 1 year old, 5 years old, 10 years old, 15 years old and the adult, respectively. (author)

  19. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  20. Mineralisation and biomineralisation of radionuclides

    Brookshaw, Diana Roumenova

    2013-01-01

    Management of contamination from industrial activities and wastes from nuclear power generation and weapons development are arguably amongst the greatest challenges facing humanity currently and into the future. Understanding the mobility of toxic radioactive elements is essential for successful remediation strategies and safe management of our nuclear waste legacy (DEFRA, 2008). Interactions between minerals and radionuclides, such as sorption and precipitation, govern the mobility of the co...

  1. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author)

  2. Accelerator-derived radionuclide generators

    The status of the research, development and commercialization of accelerator produced generator systems intended for life science applications is reviewed. The generator technology reported since 1983 is stressed with emphasis on loading the generator, the selection, and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter and the breakthrough of the radionuclidic parent. Quality control considerations and the automated delivery of the eluent for human use are mentioned. 121 references are cited. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252Cf base with the activity from 106 to 109 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  4. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  5. The transfer of radionuclides into domestic animals and their products

    The contamination of animal products, especially milk, with radionuclides, are regarded as the important problem in the food chain, and has been one of the remarkable public concerns in Japan since the nuclear tests in 1954. The transfer of several radionuclides into domestic animals and their products is described. 131I, 90Sr and 137Cs are very important as the radionuclides that transfer into domestic animals and their products. The data of the transfer of several orally administered radionuclides into milk from the references are summarized as follows: (1) 131I transfered into milk was 5 -- 30% of dose (cow), 10 -- 40% (goat). (2) 90Sr(89Sr) transfered into milk was 0.6 -- 1.9% (cow), 0.5 -- 0.6% (goat). (3) 137Cs(134Cs) transfered into milk was 10 -- 13% (cow), 7.0% (goat). (4) 140Ba-140La transfered into milk was 0.6% (cow), 0.1 -- 0.2% (goat). (5) 181W transfered into milk was 0.06% (goat). (author)

  6. Radiation protection aspects of the trafficking radionuclides contaminated metal scrap

    This paper covers the legal base of the release in the environment of radionuclides containing materials and the radiation protection aspects of trafficking in radionuclides contaminated materials. Materials, substance and objects containing radionuclides or contaminated by them may be released into the environment, if they do not exceed values authorized by SONS (State Office of Nuclear Safety). Legislative measures should be taken against illicit trafficking of the nuclear material in all the areas. The creation of a sophisticated system for the control and regulation of all important radionuclides released into the environment should be based on the radiation protection limits, constraints, reference and exemption levels which are introduced in the legislative documents; the strong supervision of producers and users of the sealed sources by SONS side, in addition to the requirements of the licensing process of their sources; a complete data-base and information exchange system related to illicit trafficking in contaminated material; in this system all the authorities with jurisdiction should be involved. The responsibilities of the persons involved in metal scrap trafficking should include arrangement of appropriate monitoring, rules for transport of the metal scrap, an adequate measuring system to monitor metal scrap including monitoring to prevent processing or smelting of the radioactive material, control measures, etc. All of the above items of legislation are an important challenge for the Czech Republic. (author)

  7. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  8. Determination of Long-lived Radionuclides in the Environment using ICP-MS and AMS

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized.......ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized....

  9. Uncertainties in geologic disposal of high-level wastes - groundwater transport of radionuclides and radiological consequences

    The analysis for radionuclide transport in groundwater considers models and methods for characterizing (1) the present geologic environment and its future evolution due to natural geologic processes and to repository development and waste emplacement, (2) groundwater hydrology, (3) radionuclide geochemistry, and (4) the interactions among these phenomena. The discussion of groundwater transport focuses on the nature of the sources of uncertainty rather than on quantitative estimates of their magnitude, because of the lack of evidence that current models can provide realistic quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in groundwater for expected repository environments. The analysis for the long-term health risk to man following releases of long-lived radionuclides to the biosphere is more quantitative and involves estimates of uncertainties in (1) radionuclide concentrations in man's exposure environment, (2) radionuclide intake by exposed individuals per unit concentration in the environment, (3) the dose per unit intake, (4) the number of exposed individuals, and (5) the health risk per unit dose. For the important long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste, uncertainties in most of the different components of a calculation of individual and collective dose per unit release appear to be no more than two or three orders of magnitude; these uncertainties are certainly much less than uncertainties in predicting groundwater transport of radionuclides between a repository and the biosphere. Several limitations in current models for predicting the health risk to man per unit release to the biosphere are discussed

  10. Transfer of radionuclides to the higher plants through direct deposition and root uptake pathways

    Radionuclides have been released to the environment from several sources, e.g., nuclear weapons testing and discharges from nuclear facilities. Mathematical models have been used for assessment of potential exposures to humans from released radionuclides. In the models, intake of foods is one of the important pathways, and thus, the mechanisms of radionuclide transfer to crops from environmental media (air, water, soil) are of interest. The mechanisms can be also applicable to all types of higher plants (wood and herbaceous plants) thus the topic is extended to plants. There are two main transport pathways to plant, i.e. direct deposition to plant surface and root uptake from soil. When plants absorb radionuclides, Cs could be translocated to other parts of plants, while Sr, Zn, Pu and Am were less mobile and remained at the absorbed area of the plant. After the releases of radionuclides to the air are ceased, the main radionuclide transfer pathway is root uptake. The uptake is controlled by a combination of several environmental and plant physiological factors; if the soil fixes a radionuclide then the uptake by root is not high, and if the radionuclide is a non-essential element, then the amount of root uptake is limited. Once Cs is absorbed by woody plants, Cs is partially removed when leaves are off from the trees, but a part of Cs remained in the wood body which can cause Cs contamination in newly emerged parts in the following growing season. (author)

  11. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    Maceika, Evaldas; Filistovic, Vitold; Luksiene, Bena; Tarasiuk, Nikolay; Buivydas, Sarunas; Konstantinova, Marina; Puzas, Andrius [State research institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-2300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of {sup 137}Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  12. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of 137Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  13. Radionuclides as tracers

    Importance of radioisotopes in medicine is because of their two characteristics: their biological behaviour is identical to their stable counterparts, and because they are radioactive their emissions can be detected by a suitable instrument. All isotopes of iodine will behave in the same way and will concentrate in the thyroid gland. There is no way of detecting the stable, natural iodine in the thyroid gland, but the presence of radioactive iodine can be detected externally in vivo by a detector. Thus, the radioactive iodine becomes a tracer, a sport of a spy, which mimics the behaviour of natural iodine and relays information to a detector. The radioactive tracers are popular because of the ease with which they can be detected in vivo and the fact that the measurement of their presence in the body can be in quantitative terms. The measurement can be very accurate and sensitive. Whenever the measurements can be done in vivo, the information is obtained in dynamic terms, as it is happening, as if the physiological events become transparent

  14. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  15. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  16. Fractionation of radionuclide species in the environment

    Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment may be present in different physico-chemical forms (i.e., radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, degree of complexation, etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time-dependent transformation processes such as mobilisation of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews available fractionation techniques which can be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes

  17. The behaviour of radionuclides in the Ribble Estuary, NW England

    The main aim of this project was to consider the geochemical behaviour of a suite of radionuclides (137Cs, 241Am, isotopes of Pu, Th and U and 234mPa) in the Ribble estuarine environment. Controls on the vertical distribution of radionuclides in sediment deposits were considered and the fluxes of sediment and radionuclides at sites close to the river channel were investigated. Vertical activity distributions were studied by taking cores from various intertidal sediment deposits. Sediment/activity fluxes were studied by installing sediment traps. All samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were analysed for total organic carbon, mineralogy (XRD), major and trace-metals (XRF), grain-size distribution (laser granulometry) and alpha-emitting radionuclides (alpha spectrometry). The geochemical phase associations of radionuclides were investigated using sequential extraction experiments. Sellafield-derived radionuclides exhibited distinct subsurface maxima (up to 4 785 ± 42 Bq kg-1137Cs, 618 ± 14 Bq kg-1239,240Pu and 868 ± Bq kg-1241Am) in mature saltmarsh sediment deposits. Thorium-230 exhibited more complex depth profiles (maximum = 2383 ± 36 Bq kg-1). Variations in grain-size were low and therefore not important in controlling the specific activity variation with depth at these sites. The effects of early diagenesis on the specific activity profiles of 137Cs, 241Am, 239,240Pu and 230Th were small. The vertical distribution of Sellafield-derived radionuclides reflected the cumulative discharge pattern from Sellafield implicating a sediment transport mechanism that has involved the integration of contamination from previous discharge events. The vertical distribution of 230Th reflected the annual discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields implicating a transport pathway that involves little mixing of sediment. Levels of Springfields-derived 234mPa and 234Th were highly variable in time and space (-1 recorded at Penwortham over the course of the

  18. Sources and distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in different marine environments

    The knowledge of the distribution in time and space radiologically important radionuclides from different sources in different marine environments is important for assessment of dose commitment following controlled or accidental releases and for detecting eventual new sources. Present sources from nuclear explosion tests, releases from nuclear facilities and the Chernobyl accident provide a tool for such studies. The different sources can be distinguished by different isotopic and radionuclide composition. Results show that radiocaesium behaves rather conservatively in the south and north Atlantic while plutonium has a residence time of about 8 years. On the other hand enhanced concentrations of plutonium in surface waters in arctic regions where vertical mixing is small and iceformation plays an important role. Significantly increased concentrations of plutonium are also found below the oxic layer in anoxic basins due to geochemical concentration. (author)

  19. Liquid scintillation counting of novel radionuclides

    The theoretical background of counting radionuclides in liquid scintillators is presented. The effects of quenching and finite scintillator size are briefly described and the theory is justified by an experimental comparison between 55Fe and 3H in which all facets of the theory are important. Counting efficiencies for other nuclides decaying by 100% electron capture are calculated and compared with efficiencies for the β emitters 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Also included are comments on the special problems associated with counting plutonium in biological materials. The essential conclusion is that in order to improve the technique and avoid unnecessary pitfalls it is necessary to have a sound understanding of the underlying theory of liquid scintillation counting

  20. Radionuclide dispersion and related radiological risk

    Since 1945 some 130 accidents with radioactive sources have been reported. In the early phase of such an accident it is important to detect, identify and locate the radionuclide dispersion and to assess the related radiological risk.Transport models and mobile systems for surveillance of the environment would be used for this purpose. Accidents with dangerous radioactive sources can lead to serious health effects for individuals of the population. In many cases of a widespread dispersion (with a length scale of a few kilometres around the point of release) of the activity of such sources, the risk to the population would be small. The release of radioactive material in an urban environment could cause great concern in the population. (author)

  1. Numerical solution of the radionuclide transport equation

    A numerical solution of the one-dimensional geospheric radionuclide chain transport equation based on the pseudospectral method is developed. The advantages of this approach are flexibility in incorporating space and time dependent migration parameters, arbitrary boundary conditions and solute rock interactions as well as efficiency and reliability. As an application the authors investigate the impact of non-linear sorption isotherms on migration in crystalline rock. It is shown that non-linear sorption, in the present case a Freundlich isotherm, may reduce concentration at the geosphere outlet by orders of magnitude provided the migration time is comparable or larger than the half-life of the nuclide in question. The importance of fixing dispersivity within the continuum approach is stressed. (Auth.)

  2. Contamination of human skin by radionuclides

    Insight into the mechanisms of contamination is a necessary prerequisite for efficient and meaningful decontamination. The incorporation of anorganic ions into human skin has been studied with aqueous solutions of radionuclides. Within 30 min of wetting about 1 μl fluid per cm2 skin area penetrates into the capillary spaces of the horny layer, promoted by surface-active properties of the sebaceous lipids. Adsorption onto horny layer constituents is especially important for polyvalent cations. In general it is dependent on pH and on the ionic charge. For all substances in aqueous solution the structure of the horny layer causes a nearly exponential decay of concentration with depth of penetration (about 100:1 across the horny layer at 1 mg keratin/cm2 skin area). This is the reason for the very low penetration rates. The results may be used to establish some rules for skin decontamiantion. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Palestro, C.J. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY (United States). Albert Einstein College of Medicine); Torres, M.A. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both [sup 18]FDG PET and [sup 201]T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer.

  4. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both 18FDG PET and 201T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Sergey V. Gudkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  7. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  8. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  9. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  10. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide (227Ac, 227Th, 223Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  11. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  12. Development of Cyclotron Radionuclides for Medical Applications

    Qaim, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radioactivity it was shown that radionuclides can be used both for diagnostic and therapeutic studies, depending on the characteristic radiations emitted by them. By 1960’s the radionuclide production technology using nuclear reactors was well established. In early 1970’s a renaissance of the cyclotrons occurred because many of the neutron deficient radionuclides could only be produced using irradiations with charged particles, like protons, deuterons, α-particles,...

  13. A study on the radionuclide transport by bacteria in geologic media

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to develop a predictive model based on a conceptual three phase system and to investigate the influence of bacteria and their generation on the transport of radionuclide in porous and fractured media. The mass balance for bacteria, substrate and radionuclide were formulated. To illustrate the model simply, an equilibrium condition was assumed to partition the substrate, bacteria and radionuclide concentrations between the solid soil matrix, aqueous phase, rock matrix and bacterial surface. From the numerical calculation of the radionuclide transport in the presence of bacteria, it was found that the growth of bacteria and supplied primary substrate as limiting or stimulating growth factor of bacteria are the most important factors of the radionuclide transport. We also found that, depend on the transport of bacteria the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration was significantly altered. The model proposed in this study will improve the evaluation of the role of the bacteria in the transport of radionuclide in groundwater systems. Furthermore, this model would be usefully utilized in analyzing the important role of colloidal particulate on the overall performance of radioactive waste safety

  14. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  15. Ecological processes in the cycling of radionuclides within arctic ecosystems

    Worldwide fallout radionuclides in arctic ecosystems was investigated ecologically by circumpolar nations during 1959-80. Several of the radionuclides are isotopes of elements which currently contribute to arctic haze; they thus serve as effective tracers of biogeochemical processes. Investigations demonstrated the effective concentration of several radionuclides, particularly strontium-90 (an alkaline earth metal) and cesium-137 (a light alkali metal) which are chemical analogs of calcium and potassium, two very important stable elements in biotic systems. Transfer of 137Cs through the lichen-cariboureindeer-man food chain characteristic of circumpolar nations, resulted in body burdens in Inuit that were 20 to 200 times greater than those in human populations of temperature latitudes. Radiation exposures from 90Sr, 137Cs and other natural and worldwide fallout radionuclides, were two to three times greater than for most other world populations. These results demonstrate the concentration capabilities of arctic ecosystems for several groups of chemical elements that have counterparts in arctic haze. These elements, therefore, provide the basis for considering the ecological implications of current situations

  16. Manual of food quality control 16. radionuclides in food

    The world's attitude toward radionuclide contamination of foods suddenly changed on April 26, 1986. On that date the accident and fire at the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl power station released a considerable amount of radioactive substances into the atmosphere. Radioactive particles were transported over Europe and Asia by air currents and eventually settled to earth to begin a new life as environmental contaminants. Widespread monitoring of radionuclide contamination of foods had been commonplace in the 1950's and 60's. However, since the cessation of above-ground testing of nuclear weapons in the 1960's there had been little public concern and consequently reduced monitoring of radionuclides in foods. As a result of the widespread fallout of radionuclides from Chernobyl, nations began intensive sampling and analysis efforts to determine the level and extent of the contamination. Food sampling and regular monitoring of radioactivity levels were activated by all the countries affected by the fallout and by countries importing food from affected areas

  17. Elimination of radionuclides and heavy metals from soils

    Sorption and desorption of radionuclides and heavy metals, their vertical migration and gradual extraction from soils were studied. Tessier sequential extraction method was used for determination the physicochemical forms of radionuclides and heavy metals absorbed by root system of plants and leached into ground water. Fixed forms of heavy metals and radionuclides are prevailing in soils. As to artificial (90Sr, 137Cs) isotope ratio of fixed forms bound with soil components, it is higher for 137Cs (black earth - 95%, sandy soil - 62%) as compared to 90Sr. Mobilization procedures for elimination of unfavourable influence of these pollutants in soils were used. The bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus l. are applied for this purpose. At the same time the growing of technical plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Brassica napus L. var.) was studied as a method for mobilizing the heavy metals and radionuclides from soils. Retardation influence of bacteria on 85Sr was noticed after as much as 3 months. The sum of water-soluble and exchangeable fractions reached 60%. Values of Cs distribution proved that microorganisms or plants used had no appreciable influence on Cs-mobility. After 3 months the relative ratio of accessible fraction increased with about 5%. As to heavy metals, both bacteria and plant growing influenced their retardation. In the case of Cd, one month operation of microorganisms resulted in important increase of easily available Cd-ratio (about 25%) in soils. (author)

  18. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. - Highlights: • Radioactivity-induced charge enhances electrostatic particle interactions. • Radioactivity-induced particle charging is important in radioactivity transport. • Ionization rate coefficients of beta-emitting radionuclides are reported

  19. Modeling of radionuclide migration through porous material with meshless method

    To assess the long term safety of a radioactive waste disposal system, mathematical models are used to describe groundwater flow, chemistry and potential radionuclide migration through geological formations. A number of processes need to be considered when predicting the movement of radionuclides through the geosphere. The most important input data are obtained from field measurements, which are not completely available for all regions of interest. For example, the hydraulic conductivity as an input parameter varies from place to place. In such cases geostatistical science offers a variety of spatial estimation procedures. Methods for solving the solute transport equation can also be classified as Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is usually obtained by finite difference methods (FDM), finite element methods (FEM), or finite volume methods (FVM). Kansa introduced the concept of solving partial differential equations using radial basis functions (RBF) for hyperbolic, parabolic and elliptic PDEs. Our goal was to present a relatively new approach to the modelling of radionuclide migration through the geosphere using radial basis function methods in Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates. Radionuclide concentrations will also be calculated in heterogeneous and partly heterogeneous 2D porous media. We compared the meshless method with the traditional finite difference scheme. (author)

  20. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  1. Radionuclide and radiation protection data handbook 2002

    This handbook is a reference source of radionuclide and radiation protection information. Its purpose is to provide users of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry with consolidated and appropriate information and data to handle and transport radioactive substances safely. It is mainly intended for users in low and intermediate activity laboratories. Individual data sheets are provided for a wide range of commonly used radionuclides (144 in total). These radionuclides are classified into five different groups as a function of risk level, represented by colours red, orange, yellow, green and blue, in descending order of risk (author)

  2. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    The conference proceedings contain 22 papers, all have been incorporated in INIS. They relate to the escape of radianuclides from nuclear power plant operation and nuclear power plant accidents into the hydrosphere, the measurement of radioactivity of and concentration of radionuclides in surface, ground and drinking waters, the study of the impact of radionuclides on aquatic organisms and the investigation of the deposition of radionuclides in these organisms and in water sediments, to modeling of the kinetics of radionuclide transport in the hydrosphere, and the problems of radon in the ambient air of water treatment plants and dwelling areas. (M.D.). 3 figs., 28 tabs., 124 refs

  3. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  4. Study on interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks

    Radionuclide migration through natural granite fractures under in situ geochemical conditions and diffusion of radionuclides into rock matrix were studied. Assumptions used in analysis of radionuclide migration through fractured rocks surrounding a geologic disposal of radioactive wastes were examined. Thermodynamic data of radionuclides were obtained and compiled in a database, which provide scientific basis for understanding interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks. (author)

  5. Natural radionuclides in volcanic activity

    Natural radionuclides of 222Ra, 210Pb and 212Pb present in the magma are emitted during the eruption of volcanoes. Depletion of 222Rn in pumices and in lava showed that significant amounts of 222Rn were released from erupting magmas. Atmospheric 210Pb originating from the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was detected in Japan and in Korea as a temporal increase in the atmospheric concentration after the eruption. Atmospheric 212Pb originating from the 2000 eruption of Mt. Miyake-jima was also detected as an abrupt rise in atmospheric concentration after the event

  6. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  7. Radionuclide diagnosis of erectile disfunction

    Gamma-camera angio scintigraphy of the penis was performed in 17 patients, twelve of them with erectile disfunction. A new method of quantitative assessment of the blood flow and perfusion of the penis is described. New objective criteria have been established for differential diagnosis of psychogenic and vasculogenic impotence, as well as for severity of condition and for diagnosis of other causes of erectile disfunction. The method was developed using Tc99-HSA and a gamma-camera. The specific nature of radionuclide curves is a reliable diagnostic criterion for making differential diagnosis in assessment of the causes of erectile disfunction. 3 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  8. Therapeutic Radionuclide Generators: 90Sr/90Y and 188W/188Re Generators

    Radionuclide therapy using radiopharmaceuticals has been in existence for over 60 years and offers substantial benefits to cancer patients, in particular, patients suffering from thyroid cancer. Numerous clinical trials for treating other types of cancer using therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are in progress, and their success will increase the demand for therapeutic radionuclides in the coming years. Those radioisotopes having short physical half-lives ranging from a few hours to a few days are useful for radionuclide therapy. The use of short lived radioisotopes for radionuclide therapy involves important challenges including the transport of the radionuclides and the need for frequent shipments. Radionuclide generators represent an efficient means for making short lived therapeutic radionuclides more widely available throughout the world. To meet the requirements for sustained growth and future expansion of the application of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, particularly in oncology, it is important to develop and maintain a constant and reliable supply of therapeutic radionuclides of the required quality in the desired quantities. The IAEA has several activities to support programmes that foster the enhanced availability of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals in Member States. One such activity was the coordinated research project (CRP) on the development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides, which ran from 2004 to 2007, in which participants from 13 countries worked to develop generator technologies for the preparation of 90Y and 188Re usable for radionuclide therapy. The objectives of the CRP were: (a) To develop reproducible methodologies for the preparation of 90Sr/90Y and 188W/188Re generators; (b) To standardize quality control techniques for generator eluted therapeutic radionuclides; (c) To optimize technologies for post-elution concentration of 188Re; (d) To prepare chromatography adsorbents having

  9. Patient selection for personalized peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Ga-68 somatostatin receptor PET/CT.

    Kulkarni, Harshad R; Baum, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are malignant solid tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body. Differentiated neuroendocrine tumors overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which enable the diagnosis using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. Internalization and retention within the tumor cell are important for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using the same peptide. The use of the same DOTA-peptide for SSTR PET/CT using (68)Ga and for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using therapeutic radionuclides like (177)Lu and (90)Y offers a unique theranostic advantage. PMID:25029937

  10. Applied tools for determining low-activity radionuclides in large environmental samples

    Considerable amounts of biological material contaminated with artificial radionuclides were generated to obtain the efficiency curves for low-activity radionuclide analyses of large environmental samples. Likewise, improving detection geometry is also an important task, mainly for studies involving conservation units with a high level of biodiversity preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the Monte Carlo efficiency curves without generating contaminated material with artificial radionuclides for water and vegetation measurements. An in-house adapted Marinelli geometry was applied to reduce the sampled amount of biological material in the ecosystem, which was combined with the Monte Carlo assisted efficiency curve for a more sustainable radiometric analysis. (author)

  11. Age-dependent effective doses for radionuclides uniformly distributed in air

    Hung, Tran Van [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-06-15

    Age-dependent effective doses for external exposure to photons emitted by radionuclides uniformly distributed in air are reported. The calculations were performed for 160 radionuclides, which are important for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. The energies and intensities of photons emitted from radionuclides were taken from the decay data DECDC used for dose calculations. The results are tabulated in the form of effective dose per unit concentration and time (Sv per Bq s m{sup -3}) for 6 age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years-old and adult. The effective doses for the adult are also compared to values given in the literature.

  12. Challenge in determination of long-lived radionuclides by ICP-MS

    The ultra-trace and isotope analysis of long-lived radionuclides in environmental materials (in biological or geological samples and waters) is relevant of increasing importance [1-5].E.g., the determination of long-lived radionuclides is for the detection of radionuclide contamination in environmental materials in which several radioactive nuclides (e.g.99Tc, 129I , 237Np, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am) are present from fallout due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear power plants or nuclear accidents. Especially, isotope ratios of uranium and plutonium [6] can indicate the origin of contamination in the environmental samples

  13. Radionuclides and the birds at Ravenglass.

    Lowe, V P

    1991-01-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and their general environment. Twelve species of marine invertebrates from Ravenglass, most of them known to be important foods for birds, were analysed, and further samples were taken from sites along the west Cumbrian coast. None of these samples showed excessive contamination with any of the radionuclides analysed. Analysis of a sample of bird carcasses from the areas showed oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) to have some of the highest concentrations of (137)Cs in their tissues; yet their breeding success and populations were not affected. Black-headed gulls, on the other hand, were found to be feeding mainly inland, and were the least contaminated with radionuclides of all the birds at Ravenglass, yet this species and its breeding success were in decline. Calculations of the total dose equivalent rate to the whole body of the most contaminated black-headed gull amounted to 9.8 x 10(-4) mSvh(-1) (approximately equal to 8.4 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1), whole body absorbed dose rate), and the background exposure dose was of the order of 8.3 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1). As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 mGy day(-1) has been found necessary to retard growth of nestling birds, and 9600 mGy over 20 days of incubation to cause the death of 50% of embryos in black-headed gulls' eggs, the concentrations of radionuclides in the foods, body tissues and general environment were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have had any effect. The more likely cause of the desertion of the gullery was the combination of an uncontrolled fox population, the severest outbreak of myxomatosis amongst the rabbits since 1954 and the driest May-July period on record, all

  14. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  15. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-01-01

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for rad...

  16. Pain palliative Radiopharmaceuticals

    A pain relieving agents based on β emitters mainly and in some cases a complex preparation are being given for bone metastasis in relation with breast,prostate and lung carcinoma with good performance in clinical practice.Several radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals are mentioned giving strength to those newly proposed, 153Sm and 186Re.Bibliography

  17. Microbial transformations of natural organic compounds and radionuclides in subsurface environments

    A major national concern in the subsurface disposal of energy wastes is the contamination of ground and surface waters by waste leachates containing radionuclides, toxic metals, and organic compounds. Microorganisms play an important role in the transformation of organic compounds, radionuclides, and toxic metals present in the waste and affect their mobility in subsurface environments. Microbial processes involved in dissolution, mobilization, and immobilization of toxic metals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are briefly reviewed. Metal complexing agents and several organic acids produced by microbial action affect mobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals in subsurface environments. Information on the persistence of and biodegradation rates of synthetic as well as microbiologically produced complexing agents is scarce but important in determining the mobility of metal organic complexes in subsoils. Several gaps in knowledge in the area of microbial transformation of naturally occurring organics, radionuclides, and toxic metals have been identified, and further basic research has been suggested. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  19. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  20. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  1. Computational modeling of radionuclide resuspension

    Freshly fallen radionuclide materials after an energetic release from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or by a nuclear accident similar to Chernobyl can be re-suspended back into air by wind or human activities. Re-suspended microscopic radionuclides can be a threat to humans who are in the immediate vicinity of the fallout. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the Wehrwissenschaftliches Institut fuer Schutztechnologien (WIS) facility in Germany and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis using FLUENT software was conducted at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) in Canada to determine the re-suspension factors of radioactive lanthanum oxide (140La2O3) powder which was used as a surrogate for RDD fallout. Both experimental and computational results show a linear increase in re-suspension factor from 0.25 μm to 1 μm particle sizes and exponentially decrease in re-suspension factor from 1 μm to 6 μm particle sizes. Results found using FLUENT software over-predicted the re-suspension factors for particle sizes between 1 μm and 3 μm. The over-prediction was attributed to surface roughness effects, and suggests the need to include natural surface profile with microscopic surface roughness elements into full CFD model to simulate physical behavior of the particles trapped in between roughness elements. (authors)

  2. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Development of radiolanthanide labeled porphyrin complexes as possible therapeutic agents in beast carcinoma xenografts

    Vahidfar, Nasim; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Beiki, Davood; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Pharmacy; Jalilian, Amir R.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Alirezapour, Behrooz; Erfani, Mostafa [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiopharmacy Research Group

    2014-10-01

    Radiolabeled porphyrins are potential tumor avid radiopharmaceuticals because of their behaviour in the human body, ability to complex various radionuclides, water solubility, low toxicity etc., in this work radio ytterbium/samarium porphyrin complexes have been developed. {sup 175}Yb and {sup 153}Sm labeled 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) porphyrins ([{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP/[{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP) were prepared using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) porphyrin (H{sub 2}TDMPP) and [{sup 175}Yb]YbCl{sub 3} or [{sup 153}Sm]SmCl{sub 3} in 12-24 h at 60 C. Stability of the complexes were checked in final formulation and human serum for 24 h, followed by partition coefficient determination and biodistribution studies in wild type and breast carcinoma-bearing mice. The radiocomplexes were obtained with acceptable radiochemical purity (> 95% (paper chromatography) and > 96% (HPLC) for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and > 97% (paper chromatography) and > 98% (HPLC) for [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP) with specific activities of 12-15 GBq/mmol and 278 GBq/mmol at the end of bombardment for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP respectively. The partition coefficients were determined for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP (log P = 0.63 and log P = 0.96 respectively). The [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP complex is mostly washed out from the circulation through kidneys. Liver and spleen also demonstrated significant activity uptake in 72 h post injection. Also [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP, is mostly washed out from the circulation through kidneys, however lungs are the major accumulation sites. The [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP complex demonstrated significant targeted uptake in breast carcinoma xenografts with tumor: blood ratios of 10.67, 10.47 and 19.01 in 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Also interesting tumor: kidney/liver ratios were obtained. {sup 153}Sm-TDMPP properties suggest an efficient tumor targeting agent with high tumor-avidity. Further investigation on the therapeutic properties must be

  4. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radionuclides in agricultural soils

    Guagliardi I.; Buttafuoco G; Ricca N.; Cipriani M. G.; Civitelli D.; Froio R.; Gabriele A. L.; De, Rosa R.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating activity of natural radionuclides in agricultural soil is very important for the protection of public health because the released radioactivity can enter the food chain. Radioactivity measurements were carried out in two different dates (winter and summer) in agricultural soil using a GRM-260 gamma-ray spectrometer. The study area (100 m x 100 m) was an olive orchard in southern Italy. Measurements were carried out at 361 locations in January and July 2011. At the same locations, s...

  5. Metals and radionuclides in mushrooms from selected areas in Slovenia

    Zakrajšek, Polona

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms in their fruiting bodies accumulate significant quantities of macro- and microelements, potential toxic elements (PSE) and radionuclides. Fungal vegetation represent an important nutritional intake of some essential minerals in relativity high concentrations, while at the same time fungi allow for transferring pollutants to higher trophic levels and may represent a serious risk to animal and humans health. The aim of the graduation thesis was to determine the content of certain mine...

  6. Collection and preparation of marine samples for radionuclide analysis

    The ultimate goal of research in radioecology is to be able to predict the pathways of radioactive material in the environment and hence estimate possible doses to the population in various regions. Knowledge of levels of contamination are necessary to maintain control of operations of nuclear facilities. Correct methods of sample collection, handling and preparation are among the most important parts for a correct assessment. On basis of the final results of radionuclide concentrations, scientific, medical and political decisions are taken. (author)

  7. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  8. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  9. Influence of variety variations of eastern galega on radionuclides accumulation

    The general characteristic of development of agricultural branch in conditions of radioactive pollution of territory of Belarus is analyzed. The urgency of problem of reception of corresponding to norm pure from radionuclides production of plant growing and animal industries is marked. The scientific substantiation of the factors influencing on behaviour of radionuclides in soil, their transition from soil into plants and an organism of the person through foodder and food biological circuits is given. Biological features of eastern galega, its value in feed production, plant growing, efficiency of cultivation in the polluted territories. Factors of transition of 137-caesium and 90-strontium are presented to plants at variety samples of eastern galega of the first and second years of life, in a crop of green weight from the first and second hay crops are presented. Distinctions in accumulation by green weight of eastern galega and trifolium pratense are shown. In comparison with trifolium pratense eastern galega in 2 times accumulates 90-strontium less than 2 times. Varieties distinctions influenced on accumulation of radionuclides from soil in plants by eastern galega. Authentically less than others variety sample BSAA-1 accumulates radionuclides in plants at which the factor of transition had the lowest parameter and has made on 137-caesium 0,109, on 90-strontium 2,29, or accordingly on 0,027 and 0,25 below, than at standard variety Nesterka. Studying of variety samples of eastern galega on a degree of accumulation of radionuclides at cultivation on a provocative background with radioactive soil pollution is the important factor of increase in efficiency of selection radiophobia varieties

  10. Factors influencing the transfer of radionuclides in agricultural food chains

    The applications of nuclear energy have led and will continue to lead to routine or accidental discharges of radioactive elements into the atmospheric and/or aquatic environment resulting in the exposure of populations to ionising radiations. The radionuclides released into the atmosphere are transported downwind, dispersed by the atmospheric mixing phenomena and progressively settled by deposition processes. During the passage of the radioactive cloud, people are irradiated externally as well as internally by inhalation. After the passage of the cloud, exposure of the population continues via three main pathways: external irradiation from the radionuclides deposited on the ground, inhalation of resuspended contaminated particles and ingestion of contaminated food products. When discharged into aquatic systems, the radionuclides can be partly removed from the aqueous phase by adsorption on suspended solids and bottom sediments. As the radioactivity disperses, there is a continuing exchange between water and solid phases. The contaminated sediments deposited on the banks of rivers, lakes and coastal area lead to external irradiation of people spending time at these sites. The residual activity in water exposes man internally through the ingestion of drinking water and food products, contaminated by irrigation of vegetation and ingestion of water by livestock. Among the various exposure pathways, the main route of entry of fission products and most other artificial radionuclides into man has been identified as uptake from the diet. Since agricultural products constitute the basic diet of most populations, the fate and behavior of radionuclides in agricultural ecosystems are of primary importance when assessing the exposure risk of man from environmental releases of radioactivity. 69 refs., 4 figs

  11. RIVER-RAD: A computer code for simulating the transport of radionuclides in rivers

    A screening-level model, RIVER-RAD, has been developed to assess the potential fate of radionuclides released to rivers. The model is simplified in nature and is intended to provide guidance in determining the potential importance of the surface water pathway, relevant transport mechanisms, and key radionuclides in estimating radiological dose to man. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the model and a user's manual for the FORTRAN computer code

  12. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  13. Radionuclide therapy in children: An overview

    Radionuclide therapy in children has advanced significantly over the past few decades. Literature is replete with reports from investigators on the cytotoxic effects of tumor targeting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. The collective experiences gained through numerous clinical trials has led to fairly well established treatment strategies in some tumours and paved the way for exploration of treatment alternatives in many others

  14. Geochemistry of long-lived radionuclides

    Dynamics of radionuclides in environmental media has long been studies to construct a scientific foundation of environmental consequence assessment of a nuclear installation. In addition to the effort mentions above, the current interest in a nuclear environmental science focuses on geochemical behavior of long-lived radionuclides, reflecting from the current progress in the development of geologic disposal system for a high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The geologic disposal system has particular features compared with other nuclear installations such as a power plant and a reprocessing plant, i.e., HLW contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, the geologic disposal system based on a multi-barrier concept holds a high containment capability of radionuclides, radionuclides released from a repository first enters into the geosphere, and radiological consequences are potentially expected to appear only after a long period of time and may be associated with time-dependent degradation of an engineered barrier and with the migration of radionuclides in a natural barrier to the human environment. These features inevitably require the information on long-term behavior of long-lived radionuclides in geologic media, environmental media concerned, and a terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem, as scientific basis of long-team safety assessment of the geologic disposal system. The geochemical study has therefore been extensively conducted, in particular since the past decade, on long-lived radionuclides and also on the geologic disposal system. This paper summarizes achievements of the current topics on; solubility and speciation, retention mechanism, and complexation. (author)

  15. Entrapment of Radionuclides in Nanoparticle Compositions

    2012-01-01

    radionuclides,for example 61Cu and 64Cu copper isotopes. The invention further relates to a novel method for loading delivery systems, such as liposome compositions, with metal entities such as radionuclides, and the use of liposomes for targeted diagnosis and treatment of a target site, such as cancerous...

  16. Technological radionuclides as landscape contamination source

    Morphology of radioactive spots on territory of the Valozhyn Region of Belarus has been considered. The reasons of tessellated distribution of such contamination were discussed. Tendencies and main mechanisms of secondary redistribution of radionuclides were shown. Features of radionuclides migration in various landscapes were described. Were proposed recommendations to reduce consequences of radioactive contamination for population and national economy. 9 refs

  17. Radionuclide angiocardiography in cogential heart disease

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios(pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oximetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry has following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation(linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt. (Author)

  18. Radionuclide Angiocardiography in Cogenital Heart Disease

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios (pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oxymetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry had following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation (linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0. 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt.

  19. Separation of radionuclides from electrochemical decontamination waste

    This study demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of a combined process for the separation of radionuclides from organic complexonates containing waste. A combination of photo-catalytic degradation of organic complexonates followed by the sorption of the radionuclides onto a strongly acidic ion exchanger offers a promising route for the treatment of the spent electrochemical decontamination solution. (authors)

  20. Assessing field-scale migration of radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site: 'mobile' species

    Many long-lived radionuclides are present in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a result of 828 underground nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. In conjunction with a comprehensive geochemical review of radionuclides (3H, 14C, 36Cl, 99Tc and 129I) that are presumably mobile in the subsurface, we synthesized a body of radionuclide activity data measured from groundwater samples collected at 18 monitoring wells, to qualitatively assess their migration at the NTS over distances of hundreds of meters and over timescales of decades. Tritium and 36Cl showed little evidence of retardation, while the transport of 14C may have been retarded by its isotopic exchange with carbonate minerals in the aquifer. Observed local reducing conditions (either natural or test-induced) will impact the mobility of certain redox-sensitive radionuclides (especially 99Tc) that were otherwise soluble and readily transported under oxidizing conditions. Conversely, strongly oxidizing conditions may impact the mobility of 129I which is mobile under reducing conditions. The effect of iodine speciation on its transport deserves further attention. Indication of delayed transport of some 'mobile' radionuclides (especially 99Tc) in the groundwater at the NTS suggested the importance of redox conditions of the natural system in controlling the fate and transport of radionuclides, which has implications in the enhanced performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, located adjacent to the NTS, to store high-level nuclear wastes as well as management of radionuclide contamination in legacy nuclear operations facilities

  1. Report on the intercomparison run and certified reference material IAEA-381. Radionuclides in Irish sea water

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg, Germany (BSH) collected sea water from the Irish Sea in 1993. IAEA-MEL distributed sample aliquots during 1995-1996 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. About 80 laboratories world-wide were approached with a questionnaire for participation. Of these, only 43 accepted the invitation because of financial constraints (the participating laboratories were asked to pay transportation expenses). As the sample was collected in the Irish Sea, elevated levels of anthropogenic radionuclides were expected due to discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. Participants were informed that the expected activities for anthropogenic radionuclides would be in the ranges: 90Sr: 50-500 Bq/kg, 137Cs: 100-1000 Bq/kg, 239+240Pu: 1-50Bq/kg, 241Am: 1-50Bq/kg. This report describes the results obtained from 28 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in sea water

  2. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  3. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  4. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99mTc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  5. Analysis of radionuclide migration from SFL 3-5

    Pettersson, Michael; Skagius, K. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Moreno, L. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level. waste, SFL 3-5. The main objectives of the assessment is to evaluate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to illustrate the importance of different site characteristics for the safety of the repository. The three hypothetical sites investigated are the same as those used for the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel carried out in parallel to this work. This report concerns the modelling of the migration of radionuclides and toxic metals from SFL 3-5. The migration in the near field and the geosphere is modelled, and the resulting dose to man is estimated. The main part of this work is based on a reference scenario defined within the safety assessment. In addition, the effect of human activities has been investigated by analysing the consequences of a release of radionuclides and toxic metals to wells. From the completed study it can be concluded that the radionuclides of importance for the safety are those that are highly mobile and long-lived, e.g. {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo. In addition, the site where the repository is built has a significant influence on the safety. Two factors are particularly important: the water flow rate at the depth where the repository is located, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. High water flow rate in the rock around the repository can be compensated for by better barriers in the near field. However, they must perform satisfactorily over a very long period of time.

  6. Uranium-series radionuclides in native fruits and vegetables of northern Australia

    Wild fruits and vegetables play an important part in a traditional Aboriginal diet in northern Australia. Radionuclide uptake by these foods is important for radiological impact assessment of uranium mining operations in the region, particularly after minesite rehabilitation. Data are presented for concentrations in several fruits and root vegetables, and associated soils. In terms of radiological dose, 210Po, 226Ra and, to a lesser extent, 210Pb were found to be of greater importance than the uranium and thorium isotopes. Other important factors that have emerged include food preparation and consumption habits of Aboriginal people which could potentially affect radionuclide intake estimates. (author)

  7. The influence of the unsaturated zone on the upward transport of radionuclides in soils

    The transport of radionuclides from the deep soil to the surface soil is an important part of biosphere modelling. In this study the effect of transient hydrological conditions on the upward transport of radionuclides through soils has been studied. The effect of varying soil properties, climate conditions have been considered as well as the effect of a fluctuating groundwater level. It was shown that the soil characteristics influences the radionuclide concentration; an increased hydraulic conductivity leads to increase in the concentration in the root zone. The climate conditions were shown to be of major importance. A dispersion dependent on both velocity and saturation leads to a more effective upward transport of radionuclides to the root zone than if dispersion is assumed to be dependent only on the saturation. The boundary condition used in the case with varying groundwater level may be more realistic than the boundary condition applied for the case with a constant groundwater level. All calculations with varying groundwater level gave lower radionuclide concentration in the root zone. Sorption is redox sensitive for many radionuclides and the redox potential in the soil will be affected by the degree of water saturation. The performed calculations did, however, not result in any significant change in the radionuclide concentration in the root zone due to variation in sorption. A comparison between the results of the two models show that the compartment model in all studied cases predicts a higher annual average radionuclide concentration in the root zone than the numerical model. Annual variation in soil water flow were not included in the compartment model. During the summer the concentration in the root zone may be several times higher than the annual average. This may be important for plant uptake, since this increased concentrations coincides with the plant growing season. The calculations made with the simple compartment model also show that these

  8. Food contamination with cesium radionuclides

    Following the Chernobyl accident, specific activities were monitored on Czechoslovak territory in the years 1986-1988 of 134Cs and 137Cs in canned meat products, in meat, milk, milk products and milk feed mixes. The radionuclides were determined radiochemically or gamma spectrometrically. The time dependence of the specific activities is tabulated. The values in canned meat were up to 70 Bq/kg in 1986, up to 150 Bq/kg at the beginning of 1987 and gradually decreased down to 40 Bq/kg by the end of 1988. The values in raw milk did not exceed 10 Bq/kg and in milk products 30 Bq/kg. Values of up to 200 Bq/kg were observed in feed mixes. (M.D.). 2 figs., 5 tabs., 12 refs

  9. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  10. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  11. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  12. Radionuclides in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine (NM) is an essential procedure in modern medical practice. Recent survey reported that more than 2 million NM examinations are conducted every year in Japan. Around 75% of diagnostic NM employs single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc, 123I, 133Xe, or 201Tl-labeled compound, and 25% positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose, 15O-labeled H2O, CO, O2, or 11C-labeled compounds. Modern medicine is based on the intervention of molecular pathology of the diseases. Therefore, NM is expanding in number and in quality in daily medical practice including early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, strategy decision of treatment, evaluation of regeneration medicine. Furthermore, the NM is being utilized to facilitate new drug development. Combining molecular diagnosis with radionuclide therapy (Theranostics) is another future direction of clinical NM. (author)

  13. Radionuclide dynamics during litter decomposition in a holm-oak forest

    Migration of 134Cs and 110Agm in a Mediterranean forest soil was studied by means of field incubation of artificially contaminated holm-oak leaves in plastic cylinders. The contaminated green leaves in the cylinders replaced the original litter layer, and the litter decomposition processes were studied. The following layers were sampled: L (remaining litter), F (fermented litter), H (humus layer) and mineral soli layers. The fraction of radionuclides that had migrated from the L-layer accumulated mainly in the F- and H-layers, whereas very little activity reached the mineral soil after an initial leaching period. During the second year of incubation, a significant transfer from the F-layer to the H-layer was observed for both radionuclides. Radionuclide dynamics in the F-layer followed three different periods: In the first period, rapid accumulation of radionuclides occurred in the F-layer as a consequence of initial leaching from the L-layer. In the second period, there was both transfer from the L-layer and transfer to the H-layer of radiaonuclides, which was mainly due to degradation of easily decomposable compounds. The F-layer lost about 70% of its weight, but the radionuclide content remained constant. It is suggested that in this period, retention of radionuclides by recalcitrant compounds occurred. Micro-organisms could also play an important role in consuming carbon, with subsequent immobilization of radionuclides. Finally, a third period, with both carbon and radionuclide mineralization, was observed at the end of the incubation period. It can be concluded that the decomposition processes and organic matter dynamics in the L- and F-layers are key factors controlling cycling of radionuclides in forest system. 13 refs, 5 figs

  14. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  15. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in limb edemas

    Indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is a safe, non-invasive and physiological method for the assessment of the limb lymphatic system. Colloids as antimony or rhenium sulphide labeled with 99m technetium have been widely used for morphological studies. Quantitative studies involving a continuous count rate monitoring of the injection sites followed by a computer analysis of dynamic image sequences have been a new promising step for an objective measurement of the peripheral lymphatic function. The injection site is always bilateral on the first web space of either the hand or the foot using a small volume (<0.2 mL) of the radiocolloid. This method has been validated on 30 young healthy volunteers and normal values established from a group of 125 upper and 141 lower limbs (normal subjects). The normal results showed a slight but continuous decrease in lymphatic function depending on the age of the subject. In pathological situations, we observed dysfunction of the lymphatic system in pure lymphoedemas or so-called lympho-venous edemas as demonstrated on the 1,182 upper and 2,463 lower limbs tested. The radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy may be helpful in cases of unilateral swollen limbs demonstrating a lymphatic dysfunction on a clinically normal contralateral limb at the first stage of a distal edema which appears within a few weeks or days, in a transient edema phase when normal status and oedema alternate. The lymphoscintigraphy gives objective and reproducible parameters necessary to assess the lymphatic variation under therapy (decongestive physiotherapy, surgery, drugs) and may be useful in the selection of new lympho-tonic treatments. This method is only reflecting the lymphatic function and is unable to appreciate the total lymphatic flow of the limb. Its results only reflect what happens at the injection site and it may be necessary to add a second test using a proximal injection in order to assess the occurrence of lymph nodes not visualized by the

  16. Radionuclide transport calculations in the safety assessment SR 97

    This study treats radionuclide transport calculations for a canister defect scenario in the safety assessment SR 97, which concerns a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type in Sweden. The aims of the calculations are to: 1. Quantitatively describe the radionuclide transport. 2. Show the impact of uncertainty in input data and show which parameters govern the calculated release rates. 3. Compare three different real sites in Sweden (Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg) with each other and with dose limits given in Swedish regulations (none of the sites is considered in the on-going localization process). Only briefly described in this paper. 4. Illustrate the impact of the different barriers in the system. Deterministic calculations illustrate the radionuclide transport for reasonable conditions. Uncertainty cases show the influence of the uncertainty for data related to different parts of the repository system by systematically giving them pessimistic values while all others are reasonable. Simplified probabilistic calculations have also been performed. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are connected to permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. The dose rate in the biosphere is essentially controlled by the possibilities of dilution. The calculated maximum doses for the hypothetical repositories are well below the dose limits, and hence they meet the acceptance criteria for a deep repository for spent fuel. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  17. Factors that affect the association of radionuclides with soil phases

    The use of field experiments to investigate the chemical or physical associations of some radionuclides with soil phases is limited by low levels of activity and complicated by the number of phases involved. Sequential extraction procedures provide one means of evaluating the relative importance of various phases in disposition. Although the separation steps may not be absolutely selective, these schemes can be used in a comparative manner to rationalise changes in association and disposition that can occur as soil conditions alter. In this way they can give a direction for specific laboratory studies and be of value in the prediction of the consequences of land contamination - an important aspect of radiological protection. In this paper the authors draw upon field and laboratory studies of the disposition of artificial radionuclides to illustrate the effects of changes in, for example, iron or organic content. The variety of soil types that are amenable to field studies is restricted. Complementary laboratory experiments are therefore essential. Results show that the generalisations often applied to radionuclide availability are not always approximate and that although predictions of disposition can sometimes be made on the basis of gross soil characteristics, this capability is limited and a more rigorous approach is desirable in extreme cases. The specificity of the extraction procedure is discussed and evidence is presented to support the participation of the residual phase which was previously observed in field studies of plutonium and americium

  18. Measured radionuclide production from copper, gold and lead spallation targets

    Spallation target materials are chosen so as to produce large numbers of neutrons while at the same time avoiding the creation of long-lived radioactive wastes. While there has been considerable research to determine the number of neutrons produced per incident particle for various target materials, there has been less effort to precisely quantify the types and amounts of radionuclides produced. Accurate knowledge of the radioactive species produced by spallation reactions is important for specifying waste disposal criteria for targets. In order to verify the production rates calculated by LAHET, a study has been conducted using the Texas A ampersand M University (TAMU) Cyclotron to measure radionuclide yields from copper, gold, and lead targets

  19. Approaches to modelling radionuclide transfer in agricultural systems

    Radiological dose assessment requires information describing the concentration and distribution of radionuclides in the environment. This information can be obtained from monitoring but is also evaluated with the aid of mathematical models. In such models the pathways of radionuclides from the release point to man are described in terms of transfer between compartments. The main pathways to be considered include: deposition to vegetation and soils; transfer from soil-to-plant; uptake and turnover in domestic animals; and, intake by man. The development of mathematical models for simulating transfer via these pathways depends on: an understanding of the system under study, in particular for those processes that are most important in the overall transfer to man; the availability of data to determine the structure and parameters for the model; the computing systems available; the knowledge of the user of the model; and, the application of the model. (author)

  20. Criteria for the selection of radionuclides for tumor radioimmunotherapy

    The potential of utilizing monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors (radioimmunotherapy, RIT) has stimulated much research activity. From dosimetric and other considerations, the choice of radiolabel is an important factor that needs to be optimized for maximum effectiveness of RIT. This paper reviews and assesses a number of present and future radionuclides that are particularly suitable for RIT based on the various physical, chemical, and biological considerations. Intermediate to high-energy beta emitters' (with and without gamma photons in their emission) are emphasized since they possess a number of advantages over alpha and Auger emitters. Factors relating to the production and availability of candidate radiometals as well as their stable chemical attachment to monoclonal antibodies are discussed. 34 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Radionuclide transport facilitated by polydispersed pseudo-colloids in the fractured rock media

    One dimensional analytic transport model in the fractured rock media which incorporates advective-dispersive transport, sorption onto stationary solid medium, pseudo-colloid formation, polydispersity of colloids, and radioactive decay was developed by assuming equilibrium sorption of radionuclide and colloids onto the solid medium and constant concentration of natural colloids in the fracture. It was resulted from this model study that transport of radionuclides in a fractured rock medium was accelerated by the presence of colloids and the polydispersity of colloids increased the mobility of radionuclides in the fracture, although the maximum concentration was decreased, comparing to the case of monodispersed colloids. Also it was noted that the effects of pseudo-colloid formation constant and concentration of natural colloids are of great importance in the transport of colloids. This model study could help to evaluate the significance of colloid presence in groundwater and to assess the overall behavior of radionuclides in groundwater. (author)

  2. Natural colloids in groundwater from granite and their potential impact on radionuclide transport

    AECL Research is assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in an engineered vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield and submitted an Environmental Impact Statement to the Canadian Environmental Agency for review. Radionuclide transport in groundwater is the only likely path for radionuclide migration to the biosphere through the mass of rock surrounding a disposal vault. To evaluate the potential impact of natural particles on radionuclide migration it is necessary to determine the range of particle concentrations in ground water, which is a measure of their sorption capacity for radionuclides. An understanding of particle formation, stability and size distribution is important for predicting migration properties. This paper discusses the sampling and characterization of groundwater particles from the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and provides information on particle size, concentration, and composition. The significance of radiocolloid formation with colloids in groundwater from granite is also discussed

  3. Release of Radionuclides from spent fuel under repository conditions: mathematical modelling and preliminary results

    In the framework of the Enresa 2000 PA exercise and as a continuation of the developments made during SR 97, we have developed a conceptual and numerical model to calculate the release of radionuclides from spent fuel under repository conditions. The model includes both thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. Hence, although certain radionuclides are solubility controlled, for other radionuclides their release is governed by kinetic processes such as radiolytically promoted oxidative dissolution of the matrix and the associated water turnover in the gap. The fluxes of selected radionuclides are calculated as an indication of the relative importance of the various processes considered to define source term concentrations in the performance assessment of the spent fuel repository. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  4. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  5. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  6. Roles of micro-organisms in the environmental fate of radionuclides

    Micro-organisms play important roles in the environmental fate of radionuclides in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, with a multiplicity of physicochemicical and biological mechanisms effecting changes in mobility and speciation. Physico-chemical mechanisms of removal, which may be encompassed by the general term 'biosorption', include adsorption, ion exchange and entrapment. These are features of living and dead organisms as well as their derived products. In living cells biosorptive processes can be directly and indirectly influenced by metabolism, and may be reversible and affected by changing environmental conditions. Metabolism-dependent mechanisms of radionuclide immobilization include metal precipitation as sulfides, sequestration by metal-binding proteins and peptides, and transport and intracellular compartmentation. Chemical transformations of radionuclide species, particularly by reduction can result in immobilization. Microbial processes involved in solubilization include autotrophic and heterotrophic leaching, complexation by siderophores and other metabolites, and chemical transformations. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for radionuclides and should be considered in any analyses of environmental radionuclide contamination. Several micro-organisim-based biotechnologies, e.g. those based on biosorption of precipitation, are of potential use for the treatment of radionuclide contamination. (Author)

  7. Sorption and Desorption Kinetics of Some Radionuclides on Suspended Matter Comparison of Different Models

    To obtain suitable date for modelling radionuclides migration in freshwater streams, the sorption kinetics of some radionuclides (54Mn, 58Co, 134Cs) on suspended matter were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The experimental results show that for some radionuclides (58Co, 54Mn), the adsorption process is progressive and slow after 5 days, an important fraction of the radioactivity is associated to the particles. For 134 Cs, very fast sorption is followed by much slower and extended uptake the retention of 134Cs, above all of 54Mn and 58Co, on suspended matter is stronger when the particles have been previously in contact with the radionuclides during a long period. This retention could be due to the slow transfer of 54Mn and 58Co to non-exchangeable sites of the particles. This effect of contact time during preliminary adsorption is less important for 134Cs. The results of uptake and release experiments were used to test models describing the radionuclides interactions with suspended solids. Two kinetic models are compared in this paper. The model taking into account two distinct types of sites on the solid phase and irreversible processes better describes the interactions of radionuclides with suspended matter. (authors)

  8. Radionuclides in coal and its radiological impact

    After the closure Ignalina NPP other sources of fuel will be needed for the generation of electricity. One of the possible sources is coal. Coal is a fuel which might cause the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries which process or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. All types of coal contain small levels of natural radionuclides -potassium-40 and the radionuclides in the uranium-238, uranium-235 and thorium-232 decay chains. Combustion of coal in a coal-fired plant results in a release of gaseous radionuclides, and in the increased concentrations of non-gaseous radionuclides in the ash. The subject of this work is the radiological impact of the ash, which contains enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, and the atmospheric release of gaseous radionuclides. A fraction of the ash that is formed is released to atmosphere. The remaining ash is disposed to landfill or may be used in the manufacture of construction industry. Ash may be accumulated prior to disposal or use. There are therefore a variety of potential exposure scenarios. In these work we take into account only the exposure of members of the public to atmospheric release from the stack due to inhalation, external exposure of deposited radionuclides and food chains. Collective doses to the population from stack releases of ash have been determined. Information on the quantities of ash which could be generated at coal-fired station, radionuclide content of coal and ash were obtained from number of sources. Individual doses from the release ash to atmosphere from the stack were determined using elements of the PC CREAM suite of models. Predicted individual doses for individuals living in the local area is 0,2 μSv year1. The collective dose is equal to 0,132 man Sv and is 11 times larger than that caused due to Ignalina NPP activity. (author)

  9. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide (137Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the difference in

  10. Experiments on radionuclide soil-plant transfer

    Some experimental studies were performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors.A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Therefore, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (author)

  11. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    Blumhagen, J.D. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle); Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux.

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  14. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  15. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  16. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  17. Radionuclides in lake ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    irradiation and radionuclides incorporated in tissue was in a range from 0.2 to 3,4 Gy year-1. The highest value was found for hydrobionts from lakes within the embankment territory on the left-bank flood plain of the Pripyat River (Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake). The numerous effects of irradiation on hydrobionts within the exclusion zone are revealed. Some of these effects required for the short period of time for their formation, however it is supposed that an increasing importance will be got by the remote consequences - genetic damages induced by a long-term irradiation. The molluscs embryos from Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake were characterised by the highest rate of chromosome aberration - about 20-25 %, that in 10 times exceeds a spontaneous mutagenesis level for hydrobionts. The maximal rate of chromosome aberration in roots of higher aquatic plants (about 12 %) has registered in Glubokoye Lake.

  18. Isolation of Cu radionuclides with dithizone impregnated XAD-8

    Dolley, S.G. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Walt, T.N. van der [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; National Research Foundation, Somerset West (South Africa). iThemba LABS

    2014-04-01

    A novel separation method for Cu radionuclides from proton bombardment of {sup nat}Zn is presented. A solid phase extraction procedure using a modified dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone) XAD-8 chelating resin was used for the purification of the Cu radionuclides from up to 5 g of {sup nat}Zn and other radionuclides. More than 95% of the Cu radionuclides was recovered. (orig.)

  19. Radionuclides: origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation

    Origin, presence or emission in the environment of natural and artificial radionuclides and their contribution to human irradiation were reviewed. Data were given concerning dose commitments to individuals and populations from natural radioactivity (including non nuclear modifications introduced by man); from medical use of radionuclides; from radionuclides produced in nuclear tests; from radionuclides released into the environment from nuclear fuel cycle operations

  20. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed. PMID:18215644

  1. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  2. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  3. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  4. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.)

  5. Model of the long-term transfer of radionuclides in forests

    This report describes a model of the long-term behaviour in temperate and boreal forests of radionuclides entering the ecosystem with subsurface water. The model can be applied for most radionuclides that are of relevance in safety assessment of repositories for high-level radioactive waste. The model can be used for estimating radionuclide concentrations in soil, trees, understorey plants, mushrooms and forest mammals. A recommended (nominal) value and an interval of variation are provided for each model parameter and a classification of parameters by the degree of confidence in the values is given. Model testing against existing empirical data showing satisfactory results is also presented. Forests can play an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the environment. Despite of this, forest ecosystems have not been addressed in previous safety assessments. This can be explained by the fact that a suitable model of the long-term transfer of a wide range of radionuclides in forests has not been readily available. The objective of this work was to develop a forest model applicable for a wide range of radionuclides of relevance for high level radioactive waste management (Am-241, Cl-36, Cs-135, I-129, Ni-59, Np-237, Pu-239, Ra-226, Sr-90, Tc-99, Th-232, U-238) that can potentially enter the ecosystem with contaminated groundwater. The model assumes that biomass growth, precipitation and evapo-transpiration drive the radionuclide cycling in the system by influencing the uptake of radionuclides by vegetation and their export from the system via runoff. The mathematical model of radionuclide transfer consists of a system of ordinary differential describing the mass balance in different forest compartments, taking into account the fluxes in and out from the compartment and the radionuclides decay. The fluxes between compartments are calculated by multiplying a transfer coefficient (TC) by the radionuclide inventory in the compartment

  6. Model of the long-term transfer of radionuclides in forests

    Avila, Rodolfo [Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    This report describes a model of the long-term behaviour in temperate and boreal forests of radionuclides entering the ecosystem with subsurface water. The model can be applied for most radionuclides that are of relevance in safety assessment of repositories for high-level radioactive waste. The model can be used for estimating radionuclide concentrations in soil, trees, understorey plants, mushrooms and forest mammals. A recommended (nominal) value and an interval of variation are provided for each model parameter and a classification of parameters by the degree of confidence in the values is given. Model testing against existing empirical data showing satisfactory results is also presented. Forests can play an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the environment. Despite of this, forest ecosystems have not been addressed in previous safety assessments. This can be explained by the fact that a suitable model of the long-term transfer of a wide range of radionuclides in forests has not been readily available. The objective of this work was to develop a forest model applicable for a wide range of radionuclides of relevance for high level radioactive waste management (Am-241, Cl-36, Cs-135, I-129, Ni-59, Np-237, Pu-239, Ra-226, Sr-90, Tc-99, Th-232, U-238) that can potentially enter the ecosystem with contaminated groundwater. The model assumes that biomass growth, precipitation and evapo-transpiration drive the radionuclide cycling in the system by influencing the uptake of radionuclides by vegetation and their export from the system via runoff. The mathematical model of radionuclide transfer consists of a system of ordinary differential describing the mass balance in different forest compartments, taking into account the fluxes in and out from the compartment and the radionuclides decay. The fluxes between compartments are calculated by multiplying a transfer coefficient (TC) by the radionuclide inventory in the compartment

  7. Sequential extraction as a tool for mobility studies of radionuclides and metals in soils and sediments

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Environmental Sciences (IMV)

    2015-06-01

    To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source terms including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptake is of high importance. The speciation of radionuclides deposited or occurring naturally depends on source term and release scenario characteristics, transport and dispersion mechanisms and ecosystem properties. If mobile species are present, ecosystem transfer is relatively fast, whereas the ecosystem transfer is delayed if radionuclides are present as particles or incorporated in mineral lattices. This paper discusses cases showing important factors influencing the mobility of different radionuclides and metals. As examples can be given: - the difference between {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from Chernobyl fallout and stable Cs and Sr in the soil showing that the fallout has not reached a steady state and therefore shows different mobility properties, thus the time since contamination is important. - the presence of organic matter affect the mobility of plutonium in soils and sediments even though the source term is the same. - physical properties (i.e. pH, OM, clay content, grain sice etc.) is important to interpret mobility data between similar sites. - the influence of industrial activity on radionuclides and metals shows that any man-made activity might change the mobility.

  8. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 104 m2/ kg, i.e. about 102 times greater than that of the resin (102 m2/ kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M-32P, M-131I, M-99Mo+99mTc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu2+) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr6+). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134, 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co and 129I in presence of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)

  9. Natural α-radionuclides in children's teeth

    Natural α-radiation has been linked epidemiologically to the induction of childhood leukaemia. In 1996 COMARE reported that 14% of UK childhood leukaemia incidence could be attributed to natural α-radiation exposure. Two thirds of the total radiation dose to the red bone marrow has been estimated to originate from long lived α-radionuclides, principally 210Pb supported 210Po and 226Ra, accumulated in the skeleton. The concept of using teeth as an analogue measure of the pollutant burden of bone is well established in studies examining the effect of stable lead uptake in children. This study explores the potential for using teeth as a bioassay of cumulated α-activity uptake in order to identify population sub-groups at risk from enhanced levels of α-radionuclides in bone. The spatial and temporal distributions of α-activity across the tooth structure have been examined, with the particular aim of identifying a component part suitable for use as an assay of cumulative α-activity uptake. Significant variations in α-activity concentration have been found in relation to tooth type, donor age and tooth component part. The outer surface of permanent teeth is shown to significantly accumulate α-activity over the lifetime of the tooth and this measure forms the basis of the tooth bioassay. The tooth bioassay has been used to identify variation in the natural α-radiation exposure of individuals within the study population, resulting from geographical and environmental differences. Multiple linear regression analysis has been used to model the relationship between the α-activity concentration on the outer surface of permanent teeth and the morphological and environmental factors that affect it. Human uptake of 210Pb has been assessed and the relative importance of exposure pathways, such as ingestion and inhalation, compared. Uptake values under a variety of conditions have been used in conjunction with the Salmon 210Pb dosimetry model to obtain bone activity

  10. A hybrid algorithm for radionuclide estimation

    The estimation of the concentration of radiation along underground aquifers is very important, and often times a necessary step in the long process of assessing if the radionuclide concentration has exceeded hazardous levels. A hybrid method for interpolation in the three dimensional space, given a set of data, is presented. The estimation algorithm combines a deterministic algorithm to reparametrize the space and compute the length of the path between two points (this length is greater than the Euclidean distance between the two points, unless the path between them is a straight line), and subsequently uses a stochastic interpolar such as kriging to estimate the attribute(s) of interest. This method enables us to estimate various attributes, such as pollution concentration, along surfaces of arbitrary shapes, for which we could not obtain kriging estimates without this reparametrization. The kriging estimate at a point does not depend on the Euclidean distances of this point to the known neighboring points but on the length of the paths of the point at which the attribute is to be estimated from the known points in the neighborhood. Kriging as an estimation method is robust, and allows us to calculate the mean square error of the estimate, as well as possible dependencies between attributes present over the space of interest

  11. Radionuclide sorption from the safety evaluation perspective

    Research and development directed towards the assessment of the long-term performance of radioactive waste disposal systems has been recognised as a priority area with a strong need for international co-operation and co-ordination. The ultimate aims is to promote the quality and credibility of safety assessment techniques for radioactive waste disposal. Sorption in the geosphere is one of the key processes for retarding the transport of radionuclide from the underground disposal facility to the biosphere. In many cases, sorption in the near field and in the biosphere is also important. A workshop, organised to favor discussion around a small number of invited papers, was held in October 1991: - to evaluate critically the way sorption processes are incorporated in performance assessment models; - to identify open issues of high priority, and; - to propose future activities to resolve these issues. These proceedings reproduce the invited papers and the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the workshop. Eight papers are in the INIS SCOPE. The main subjects studied are: sorption database comparison, sorption database development and three case studies, experimental techniques, adsorption models

  12. Comparison of biospheric models of radionuclides transfer

    The international BIOMOVS A4 exercise has made possible that a set of biospheric transfer models could predict the daily radionuclide concentration in soils, forage and some animal products (cow milk and beef) after the Chernobyl accident. The aim was to compare these predictions with experimental results in 13 locations around the world. The data provided were essentially the daily air contamination and precipitation and some site-dependent parameters. It was a blind test, the locations and experimental measures were not revealed in advance. Twenty-three models (quasi-steady state and time-dependent models) were involved in the study. In this paper an explicit criterion has been used in order to select the models that better fitted the experimental results. In nine selected locations a comparative analysis between these models has been carried out for obtaining the structural and parametric coincidences that could explain their relatively good performance. The first evidence obtained has been that a wide set of models were able to predict the order of magnitude of the nuclides time-integrated concentrations in several important biospheric comportments. But only a few models, all of them with a 'dynamical' structure, fitted the daily behavior with the reasonable agreement. The dynamical structure of the five most successful models at predicting for Caesium 137 (CIRCLE, ECOSYS, PATHWAY, PRYMA and RAGTIME) shows some common patterns that may be relevant for a better modelling of nuclear accident scenarios. (author)

  13. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  14. Routine Standardization of Radionuclides in the UK

    Standards of radionuclides, whose activity has been measured either directly by a primary method, or by comparison with a primary standard, are available from the NPL and the AERE. Measurements of standards are carried on also at other laboratories such as RCC and AWRE. Some estimate of the number of staff employed and of standards issued will be given. An advisory committee, of those directly interested in this work at the institutions named and one or two others, has promoted the interchange of information and measurements. For routine issues, NPL uses mainly 4 l π β counting in its various forms, linked with coincidence counting, and reference ionization chamber methods. To deal with a wider variety of nuclides, AERE uses gas and scintillation counting for special purposes. The apparatus employed will be described and the internal consistency, and agreement with the results of other laboratories, which has been attained over the past few years, will be discussed, for a number of the more important nuclides. At the original suggestion of the Committee, a combined β-γ reference ionization chamber has been designed and is now commercially available; many of these chambers have been calibrated at NPL, and their performance and consistency will be discussed. (author)

  15. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention

  16. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  17. Valuation of radionuclides using radioecological models

    The evaluation of the radiation exposure of the public following an accidental release of radionuclides into the atmosphere by means of radioecological models is shown. The radiation exposure after the Chernobyl-accident is used as an example to demonstrate the identification of the relevant radionuclides and exposure pathways. The natural radiation exposure is given as a means for the valuation of the calculated radiation exposures. (orig.)

  18. Software for forecasting radionuclides migration in soil

    Software for forecasting radionuclides' migration in soil has been proposed. Distinguishing feature of this software is its capability to use different approaches for prediction of radionuclides' migration. It shows that by means of physical-mathematical modeling it is possible to make prediction for wide-scale conditions. On the other side, neuronets' models where the prediction mechanism is based on experimental data and expert's knowledge makes prediction results more close to the real. (authors)

  19. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    In the project, 3,985mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,912mCi of {sup 201}Tl and 2,569mCi of {sup 123}I were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 8,466mCi and 103,191,950won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was developed and new {sup 201}TI chemical processing system was installed in the hot-cell. With this new solid target, R.I. production yield could be increased by more than 2 times per batch. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In the project, 3,412mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 10,718mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 1,848mCi of {sup 123}I, 542mCi of [{sup 123}I]mIBG and 285mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 16,805mCi and 257,777,660won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was used. Tl-201 has been produced two times per week for increasing demand. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)