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Sample records for 14cr-ods steel elaborated

  1. Microstructure of a 14Cr-ODS ferritic steel before and after helium ion implantation

    A 14Cr-ODS ferritic steel with the nominal compositions of Fe–14Cr–2 W–0.3Ti–0.3Y2O3 (wt.%) was produced by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Helium ion was implanted into the 14Cr-ODS steel along with Eurofer 97 steel as reference at 400 °C to a fluence of 1 × 1017 He+/cm2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high angle annual dark field (HAADF) scanning TEM (STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) were used to characterize the microstructure of 14Cr-ODS and Eurofer 97 steels before and after helium implantation. High-density Y–Ti–O-rich nanoclusters and Y2Ti2O7 precipitates as well as large Cr–Ti rich oxides were observed in the 14Cr-ODS steel. The average size of Y–Ti–O nanoclusters and Y2Ti2O7 precipitates is 9 nm. After helium implantation, the helium bubbles formed in the 14Cr-ODS steel exhibit the smaller size and the lower volume fraction than that in Eurofer 97 steel, indicating high-density nano-scale precipitates can effectively suppress the coarsening of helium bubbles

  2. Microstructure examination of Fe–14Cr ODS ferritic steels produced through different processing routes

    Oksiuta, Z., E-mail: z.oksiuta@pb.edu.pl [Bialystok University of Technology, Mechanical Department (Poland); Hosemann, P. [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4169 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vogel, S.C. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, NM (United States); Baluc, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, Villigen PSI 5232 (Switzerland)

    2014-08-01

    Various thermo-mechanical treatments were applied to refine and homogenise grain size and improve mechanical properties of hot-isostatically pressed (HIP) 14%Cr ODS ferritic steel. The grain size was reduced, improving mechanical properties, tensile strength and Charpy impact, however bimodal-like distribution was also observed. As a result, larger, frequently elongated grains with size above 1 μm and refined, equiaxed grains with a diameter ranging from 250 to 500 nm. Neutron diffraction measurements revealed that for HIP followed by hydrostatic extrusion material the strongest fiber texture was observed oriented parallel to the extrusion direction. In comparison with hot rolling and hot pressing methods, this material exhibited promising mechanical properties: the ultimate tensile strength of 1350 MPa, yield strength of 1280 MPa, total elongation of 21.7% and Charpy impact energy of 5.8 J. Inferior Charpy impact energy of ∼3.0 J was measured for HIP and hot rolled material, emphasising that parameters of this manufacturing process still have to be optimised. As an alternative manufacturing route, due to the uniform microstructure and simplicity of the process, hot pressing might be a promising method for production of smaller parts of ODS ferritic steels. Besides, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of all thermo-mechanically treated materials, in comparison with as-HIPped ODS steel, was improved by more than 50%, the transition temperature ranging from 50 to 70 °C (323 and 343 K) remains still unsatisfactory.

  3. Microstructure examination of Fe-14Cr ODS ferritic steels produced through different processing routes

    Oksiuta, Z.; Hosemann, P.; Vogel, S. C.; Baluc, N.

    2014-08-01

    Various thermo-mechanical treatments were applied to refine and homogenise grain size and improve mechanical properties of hot-isostatically pressed (HIP) 14%Cr ODS ferritic steel. The grain size was reduced, improving mechanical properties, tensile strength and Charpy impact, however bimodal-like distribution was also observed. As a result, larger, frequently elongated grains with size above 1 μm and refined, equiaxed grains with a diameter ranging from 250 to 500 nm. Neutron diffraction measurements revealed that for HIP followed by hydrostatic extrusion material the strongest fiber texture was observed oriented parallel to the extrusion direction. In comparison with hot rolling and hot pressing methods, this material exhibited promising mechanical properties: the ultimate tensile strength of 1350 MPa, yield strength of 1280 MPa, total elongation of 21.7% and Charpy impact energy of 5.8 J. Inferior Charpy impact energy of ∼3.0 J was measured for HIP and hot rolled material, emphasising that parameters of this manufacturing process still have to be optimised. As an alternative manufacturing route, due to the uniform microstructure and simplicity of the process, hot pressing might be a promising method for production of smaller parts of ODS ferritic steels. Besides, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of all thermo-mechanically treated materials, in comparison with as-HIPped ODS steel, was improved by more than 50%, the transition temperature ranging from 50 to 70 °C (323 and 343 K) remains still unsatisfactory.

  4. Characterization of a 14Cr ODS steel by means of small punch and uniaxial testing with regard to creep and fatigue at elevated temperatures

    A 14Cr ODS steel was characterized at elevated temperatures with regard to its behavior in small punch and uniaxial creep tests and in low cycle fatigue tests. A comparison of small punch and uniaxial creep tests at 650 °C revealed a strong anisotropy of the material when strained parallel and perpendicular to the extrusion direction with rupture times being several orders of magnitude lower for the perpendicular direction. The stress-rupture and Larson–Miller plots show a very large scatter of the creep data. This scatter is strongly reduced when rupture time is plotted against minimum deflection rate or minimum creep rate (Monkman–Grant plot). Fatigue tests have been carried out at 650 °C and 750 °C. The alloy is cyclically very stable with practically no hardening/softening. Results from the tests at both temperatures can be described by a common power law. An increase in the test temperature has little influence on the fatigue ductility exponent. For a given total strain level, the fatigue life of the alloy is reduced with increasing temperature

  5. Annealing effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled 14Cr-ODS steel

    Gao, R.; Zhang, T.; Ding, H. L.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.

    2015-10-01

    The oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels with nominal composition (weight percent) of Fe-14Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.06Si-0.2V-0.1Mn-0.05Ta-0.03C-0.3Y2O3 were fabricated by sol-gel method, mechanical alloying, and hot isostatic pressing techniques. The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of the hot-rolled specimens with heat treatment was investigated. Tensile strength and hardness of hot-rolled ODS steel are significantly enhanced due to the formation of mechanical twins and high density dislocations. Uniformly dispersed oxide particles (10-40 nm) and fine-grained structure (200-400 nm) are responsible for the superior mechanical properties of the hot-rolled specimen annealed between 650 °C and 850 °C. With further increasing annealing temperature, the grain size of the hot-rolled specimens increases while the size of oxide particles decreases, which leads to lower strength and hardness but better ductility. The tensile strength and total elongation of samples in the rolling direction are higher than those in the transverse direction after the same treatments owing to the grain anisotropy induced by the large mechanical deformation.

  6. Characteristics of 14Cr-ODS ferritic alloy fabricated by mechanically alloying and microwave sintering

    Zhenhua, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Materia Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Weihao, Xiong, E-mail: whxiong@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materia Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Bin, Huang; Qingqing, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Materia Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jiang, Jianjun [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-06-15

    14Cr-ODS ferritic alloys were fabricated by microwave sintering and conventional vacuum sintering. The results showed that the sintering time could be reduced and the sintering temperature could be decreased effectively by adoption of microwave sintering. The tensile strength of the alloy microwave sintered at 1250 °C and the alloy vacuum sintered at 1350 °C were 691.4 MPa and 521.5 MPa respectively. The superior strength of microwave sintered one would be attributed to finer grain size, which was resulted from the shorter sintering time and lower sintering temperature. The elongation of microwave sintered alloy was worse than that of the vacuum sintering one. Nano-oxide precipitates were dispersed homogeneously in the Fe-based matrix, and their size was mostly ranged from several nm to more than 20 nm.

  7. Studies Regarding the Elaboration of the Manganese Austenitic Steel in the Induction Electric Furnace with Acid Coating

    Constantin Marta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper forwards a method of elaborating the manganese austenitic steel in induction electric furnaces with a capacity of 250 Kg having an acid furnace coating. Considering the fact that when elaborating the manganese austenitic steel sulphur can be obtained under 0.02% constitutes an additional reason to attempt the elaboration of this steel in the electric furnaces through induction with acid coating, even if the load has over 0.02% S.

  8. Sensitivity and statistical analysis within the elaboration of steel plated girder resistance

    Melcher, J.; Škaloud, Miroslav; Kala, Z.; Karmazínová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2009), s. 120-126. ISSN 1816-112X. [International conf. on steel and aluminium structures /6./. Oxford, 24.06.2007-27.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : steel structures * fatigue * sensitivity * imperfection * plated girder Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  9. Statistical and sensitivity analysis within the elaboration of steel plated girders

    Melcher, J.; Škaloud, Miroslav; Kala, Z.; Karmazínová, M.

    Oxford : Oxford Brookes University, 2007 - (Beale, R.), s. 309-315 ISBN 978-0-9556254-0-4. [Steel and aluminium structures ICSAS´07 /6./. Oxford (GB), 24.07.2007-27.07.2007] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2059; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/07/1067 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : steel plate girders * initial imperfection * web breathing Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  10. Improvement on design analyses of composite steel-concrete bridges using elaborate finite element methods

    Jaturong Sanguanmanasak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three-dimensional finite element analysis of composite steel-concrete bridges is performed to simulate theactual bridge behavior. The accuracy of the model is verified against the results acquired from a field test. Thai trucks are loaded at possible locations of the bridge in order to obtain the maximum stresses on the bridge. The influences of concrete barriers, the displacement of bridge piers, and the Young’s modulus of concrete are then discussed, to reveal the actual behavior of the steel-concrete composite bridge. The reactions at the bearings on the bridge piers are also evaluated and discussed in this conjunction. Good agreement is obtained between the models and loading tests to show that the finite element model can aid engineers in design practices.

  11. Small fatigue crack propagation in Y2O3 strengthened steels

    This paper is focused on two type of Y2O3 strengthened steels (Fe–14Cr ODS and ODS-EUROFER). Small fatigue crack propagation was experimentally measured using special small cylindrical specimens (diameter 2 and 2.6 mm) with shallow notch grinded in the gauge length. In the middle of this notch, a pre-crack of length of 50 μm was fabricated using a focused ion beam technique. Fatigue crack growth rate was measured for different applied total strain amplitudes and described using plastic part of the J-integral. Obtained results were compared with published data of EUROFER 97. The effect of the oxide dispersion on small fatigue crack propagation was found rather insignificant. Ferritic Fe–14Cr ODS steel shows more brittle behaviour, i.e. for the same cyclic plasticity, characterised by the plastic part of the J-integral, the small cracks grow faster. A new methodology for residual lifetime prediction of structures containing physically small cracks, based on plastic part of the J-integral, is presented

  12. Chloride corrosion of embedded reinforced steel on concrete elaborated from recycled coarse aggregates and supplementary cement materials

    Corral Higuera, Ramón; Arredondo Rea, Susana Paola; Almaral Sánchez, Jorge Luis; Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente

    2013-01-01

    As a result of contributive and sustainable strategies on concrete industry, researches are presently being developed, which are focused on improving durability of reinforced concrete structures as well as partially or completely replacing their components by recycled materials. In the case of steel bars, corrosion is considered as the major durability menace to reinforced concrete. The present research employed coarse aggregate from recycled concrete and supplementary cement materials,...

  13. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  14. Understanding and modelling of the brittle failure of oxide dispersion strengthened steels - texture, thermal ageing and chemical composition effects

    The Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels have been identified as potential materials for fuel cladding in Generation IV nuclear reactors. They are characterized by a very good resistance to swelling under irradiation and to high temperature creep, but questions still remain about the impact toughness of these materials. The first aim of this work is to understand the effects of different parameters (chemical composition, texture, thermal ageing...) on the impact behaviour of ODS steels. The final objective is to predict the occurrence of the brittle failure on the ODS steel components in normal or incidental conditions. Firstly, this study assesses the stability of two ODS steel grades containing either 14%Cr or 18%Cr during thermal ageing. The 18%Cr steel grade has been discarded due to the growing of the brittle intermetallic α' phase at 600 C. However, the 14%Cr steel grade showed a promising behaviour given the stability of its mechanical properties after thermal ageing between 400 C and 600 C, for a maximum duration of 10000 hours, and regardless of the presence of chromium carbides, α' and Laves phases. Then, the morphological texture characterized by elongated grains along the extrusion direction enhances the propagation of intergranular cracks along this direction. Meanwhile, the crystallographic texture controls the cleavage micro-mechanisms. Indeed, the microstructural entities that control the propagation of the cleavage crack are groups of grains which are characterized by low crystallographic misorientation and referred to as effective grains. At last, the tensile and bending behaviour of a 14%Cr ODS steel grade has been modelled. A brittle failure criterion based on a critical stress value had also been suggested. This model allowed us to simulate mechanical tests on different geometries and to predict the occurrence of the brittle failure. (author)

  15. Creep-rupture tests on chromium-containing conventional and ODS steels in oxygen-controlled Pb and air at 650 °C

    Highlights: • Generally superior creep performance of ODS steels with 12–14% Cr is indicated. • Strength of 9Cr-ODS at 650°C approaches conventional 9Cr steels at decreasing load. • ODS steels show brittle primary and ductile residual fracture. • Apparent link between secondary creep rate and fracture mode of ODS steels. • Clear impact of liquid Pb at low load, corresponding to long time-to-rupture. - Abstract: Conventional martensitic steels with 9 mass% chromium (Cr), namely T91 and P92, and ODS steels with 9, 12 and 14 mass% Cr, respectively, were subjected to creep-rupture tests in stagnant oxygen-controlled lead (Pb) at 650 °C and co = 10−6 mass% dissolved oxygen. The 9Cr conventional steels were tested in the liquid metal at static engineering stress in the range from 75 to 200 MPa. 12 and 14Cr ODS were tested at 190–400 MPa, and 9Cr ODS at 75–300 MPa. Reference tests in stagnant air were carried out in the same stress ranges. The ODS steels with 12 or 14 mass% Cr, mainly tested in oxygen containing Pb, clearly exhibit a change in the stress-dependence of secondary creep rate and appearance of fracture surface at 330–400 MPa. No such change has been observed for 9Cr ODS so far. The conventional martensitic steel P92 shows a significant drop in creep strength accompanied by reduced necking and a change from ductile to brittle fracture when tested in Pb at 75 MPa (time-to-rupture tR = 13,090 h)

  16. Elaborating on threshold concepts

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account for both the important and the problematic characteristics of TCs in terms of the Knowledge/Strategies/Mental Models Framework defined in previous work.

  17. Steel

    Composition of age hardening steel, % : Fe - (12.0-12.4) Cr - (2-2.7) Ni (0.5-0.6) Ti - (1.0-1.2) Mn - (0.03 - 0.04) C having high values of magnetoelastic internal friction and mechanical properties as well as an ability to operate under the conditions of alternating loadings are proposed. Damping properties of the steel permit to improve labour conditions. Data for the above steel on internal friction, impact strength and tensile properties are given

  18. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  19. The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies

    Márton BALOGH

    2003-01-01

    This article - “The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies” - aims to present a topic of current interest for Romanian local public administrations. The author presents a possible way of elaborating local and micro-regional strategies, with emphasis on the characteristics of these documents and the stages of their application.

  20. The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies

    Márton BALOGH

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article - “The Elaboration Stages of Local Development Strategies” - aims to present a topic of current interest for Romanian local public administrations. The author presents a possible way of elaborating local and micro-regional strategies, with emphasis on the characteristics of these documents and the stages of their application.

  1. Elaboration of a chemical decontamination technology: preliminary results

    In the VVER-type pressurized water reactors, various versions of the so-called AP-CITROX method (AP: alkaline permanganate, CITROX: citric and oxalic acids) have been widely used for the chemical decontamination of the austenitic stainless steel piping of steam generators (SGs). During the period of 1993-2001 chemical decontaminations of 24 SGs in the blocks 1-3 of the Paks NPP were carried out by a non-regenerative version of AP-CITROX technology, even in 2 or 3 consecutive cycles. Based on the above decontamination procedures a database of characteristic parameters was compiled. The analysis of these data and the explanation of the corrosion effects of the technology reveal that fundamental issues of analytical chemistry and corrosion science were not taken into consideration during the elaboration of AP-CITROX procedure, suggested in steam generator manual, and utilized at Paks NPP. The non-regenerative version of the AP-CITROX technology is not an adequate method for the chemical decontamination of any reactor equipment having large steel surfaces (e.g. SGs). As a consequence of the lack of the appropriate decontamination method, a R and D project focused on the elaboration of the required technology has been initiated in 2005. The fundamental demands, which must be realized in the course of above R and D project, are as follows: (i) The decontamination method has to be suitable simultaneously for the effective removal of radionuclides (dose reduction) and for the conditioning of steel surfaces. (ii) The procedure has to provide optimal technological parameters for the homogeneous dissolution of oxide layers formed on the steel surfaces originating from both SGs never decontaminated (block 4) and SGs decontaminated earlier (blocks 1-3). The inner surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes of the latter SGs are covered by a special oxide layer ('hybrid' structure with a thickness of several micrometers). (iii) The method has to be able to utilize the technological

  2. Elaboration and characterisation of SiAlON-boron nitride refractory ceramic composites; Elaboration et caracterisation de composites ceramiques refractaires SiALON-Nitrure de bore

    Doche, C.

    1996-05-07

    SiAlON-BN are materials able to replace carbon refractories used in steel-making shop, especially for low carbon steels elaboration. Two family of composites are studied: Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-BN obtained by hot compression, and SiAlON-BN by natural sintering. In the first case, an organic precursor of BN which seems to activate the sintering process was also used. For all these materials, we studied elaboration processes, microstructures, mechanical properties, and thermal shocks, oxidation and corrosion resistances by liquid iron. BN presence lowers mechanical properties, but increases thermal shock and oxidation resistance at high temperature. From all the sintering add-on, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, neodymium and lanthanum oxides seems to give a light improvement of high temperature resistance. (A.B.)

  3. Elaboration of titanium nitride coatings by activated reactive evaporation

    As titanium nitride is a very interesting and promising material for the protection against wear and corrosion of metals and alloys with a low fusion point, and notably steels, this research thesis reports the study of the elaboration of a TiN coating by activated reactive evaporation. In a first part, the author describes deposition processes based on evaporation and their characteristics. He explains the choice of the studied process. He discusses published data and results related to the titanium-nitrogen system. He describes the apparatus and reports the operation mode adjustment, and reports the study of the influence of operating conditions (substrate temperature, nitrogen pressure, evaporation rate, possible use of a discharge) on growth kinetics and on coating properties. A reaction mechanism is then proposed to describe and explain the obtained results

  4. Radiotreated cocoa powder for frozen elaboration

    The aim of the present papers is to study the possibilities of 2.0 kGy gamma radiotreated cocoa powder to be used in the elaboration of powder mixture for the preparation of chocolate frozen. Three industrial productions were carried out. Microbiological and organoleptic evaluations of the final product were performed. The results showed that the use of radurized cocoa powder in the frozen elaboration is feasible. A good hygienic quality of this product was obtained and no organoleptic alterations were detected

  5. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  6. Elaboration of fiber-reinforced metallic materials

    A bibliographic study on the elaboration of fiber reinforced metallic materials is presented in three parts: the theory of fiber reinforcement of metals in summarized, with emphasis on the mechanical and geometric factors which govern the behaviour and the performances to be expected from a given composite material; a second part is devoted to the study of the physical and chemical factors related to the structural stability of the material. Finally, the various processes of fabrication of such composites are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Ex...

  8. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  9. Sacrifice:Elaboration on A Concept

    David Parkin

    2014-01-01

    Through examining cases in Africa and Indonesia , the author notes that “Sacri-fice” covers a very wide range of alleged causes , aims and consequences , and it is the process of making offerings to deities or spirits that generates this diversity .The concept covers a field of possibilities which can be elaborated almost indefinitely , but only within the understanding of a distinction between humanity and divinity , however variable its cultural expression .Despite be-ing essentialized in Abrahamic theodicy , notions of sacrifice subsume the contentious concept of belief in studying religiosity .Sacrifice, along with prayer, can therefore be used instead of belief to provide the entry point into how humanity reaches out to something beyond itself .

  10. SALES STRATEGIES CENTERED ON ELABORATING QUESTIONS

    Nelu DORLE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview gives the true measure of his/her professionalism. Elaborated based on the taxonomy of the sales steps and depending on customer objections, questions may constitute a basic premise in the development of sales strategies and techniques

  11. Contributions to steel semi-finished parts quality improvements

    The quality of finite steel products depends on steel content of hydrogen. On steel elaboration, in order to remove the dissolved hydrogen, at least one ladle secondary treatment is needed. The paper introduces the results obtained in the increase of hydrogen removal output, during steel secondary treatment inside the LF installation. Correlations were established between the hydrogen removal rate and the parameters of the secondary treatment (bubbling flow, bubbling time and bubbling pressures)

  12. Elaborative Processing in the Korsakoff Syndrome: Context versus Habit

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Using a procedure of Hay and Jacoby [Hay, J. F., & Jacoby, L. L. (1999). "Separating habit and recollection in young and older adults: Effects of elaborative processing and distinctiveness." "Psychology and Aging," 14, 122-134], Korsakoff patients' capacity to encode and retrieve elaborative, semantic information was investigated. Habits were…

  13. Elaboration of constitutive equations of creep and creep damage under irradiation

    Elaboration of the constitutive equations of creep and creep damage under irradiation for structural analyses in multiaxial states of stress is discussed. In order to formulate the continuous transition of swelling after the incubation period of neutron irradiation, the curvature parameter proposed by Bates et al. was introduced into the evolution equation of swelling. The consitutive equation of irradiation-enhanced creep, furthermore, was elaborated by taking account of the physical mechanisms of the flux- and fluence-dependence of dislocation behavior. As regards the transient creep, on the other hand, the creep law of McVetty type and Kachanov-Rabotnov creep-damage theory were modified to describe the irradiation-enhanced creep. The irradiation-induced creep was formulated by incorporating the SIPA (Stress-Induced Preferential Absorption) mechanism. Finally unirradiated creep, postirradiation creep, and in-reactor creep of type 316 stainless steel at elevated temperatures were predicted by the elaborated constitutive equations. The validity of the equations was discussed by comparing the predictions with those of the corresponding experiments. (author)

  14. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks.

    Frewer, L J; Howard, C; Hedderley, D; Shepherd, R

    1997-12-01

    Factors such as hazard type and source credibility have been identified as important in the establishment of effective strategies for risk communication. The elaboration likelihood model was adapted to investigate the potential impact of hazard type, information source, and persuasive content of information on individual engagement in elaborative, or thoughtful, cognitions about risk messages. One hundred sixty respondents were allocated to one of eight experimental groups, and the effects of source credibility, persuasive content of information and hazard type were systematically varied. The impact of the different factors on beliefs about the information and elaborative processing examined. Low credibility was particularly important in reducing risk perceptions, although persuasive content and hazard type were also influential in determining whether elaborative processing occurred. PMID:9463930

  15. Elaboration of Statistics Learning Objects for Mobile Devices

    Francisco Javier Tapia Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) allows a person to study using a mobile computer device anywhere and anytime. In this work we report the elaboration of learning objects for the teaching of introductory statistics using cellular phones.

  16. Elaboration of Statistics Learning Objects for Mobile Devices

    Francisco Javier Tapia Moreno

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile learning (m-learning allows a person to study using a mobile computer device anywhere and anytime. In this work we report the elaboration of learning objects for the teaching of introductory statistics using cellular phones.

  17. Methodology for RPV steels irradiations

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. The methodology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels irradiations is elaborated. Irradiation in a materials test reactor and surveillance of the state of embrittlement in 'typical' plant specific materials are considered

  18. Possible consequences of changing to a more environmental-friendly steel production in China

    China is the world's biggest steel producer, the world's biggest steel consumer and the world's biggest polluter. The superpower is forced to change its steel production in a more environmental-friendly way, but necessary measures will be expensive; moreover, they will have consequences far past China's borders. The possible effects are elaborated in the article (ml)

  19. Choice, Rejection, and Elaboration on Preference-Inconsistent Alternatives

    Juliano Laran; Keith Wilcox

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that rejecting product alternatives (i.e., choosing which alternatives to give up) may cause preference reversals compared to choosing alternatives. We provide an investigation into the psychological processes underlying this phenomenon. These preference reversals can be caused by increased elaboration on the features of preference-inconsistent alternatives when people reject alternatives. When these features are appealing, increased elaboration increases pr...

  20. Elaborating the conceptual difference between conventions and institutions

    Diaz-Bone, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    "The article elaborates the conceptual difference between two core concepts of the French approach of economics of convention (EC), namely convention and institution. It is argued that modern institutionalisms and neoinstitutionalisms need to delimit the meaning of the notion institution as EC does. Then it is possible to work out the relations of institutions and other forms of cultural or structural resources. A proposal for such an elaboration is done by differing four perceived situations...

  1. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  2. Knowledge-based support system for requirement elaboration in design

    Design requirements are the seeds of every design activity, but elicitation and formalization of them are not easy tasks. This paper proposes a method to support designers in such requirement elaboration process with a computer. In this method the cognitive work space of designers is modeled by abstraction and structural hierarchies, and supporting functions of knowledge-based requirement elaboration, requirement classification and assessment of contentment status of requirements are provided on this framework. A prototype system was developed and tested using fast breeder reactor design. (author)

  3. Elaboration of supports for beta emitting sources (with vyns)

    The Laboratory of Radioactive patterns account with a 4 πβ-γ coincidence system of recent acquisition with which absolute measures of radioactive activity with uncertainties of the order of 0.1% can be made. Since the coincidence method for the activity measure consists on detecting to the particle and the photon corresponding to oneself nuclear disintegration, it is necessary to elaborate special radioactive sources on thin supports, in order to allowing the maximum possible fluence of β particles (∼ 100%). This work a technique for the elaboration of these sources and for the measure of the thickness of the walls of the support is presented. (Author)

  4. Simple versus Elaborate Feedback in a Nursing Science Course

    Elder, Betty L.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Feedback techniques, including computer-assisted feedback, have had mixed results in improving student learning outcomes. This project addresses the effect of type of feedback, simple or elaborate, for both short-term comprehension and long-term outcomes. A sample of 75 graduate nursing students was given a total of ten examinations. Four…

  5. Formative Research on Sequencing Instruction with the Elaboration Theory.

    English, Robert E.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    The Elaboration Theory of Instruction offers guidelines for several patterns of simple-to-complex sequencing that were developed primarily from cognitive theory, especially schema theory, although there has been relatively little empirical research on the theory. This study helps fill this void by conducting "formative research" to identify…

  6. Challenging Stereotypes about Academic Writing: Complexity, Elaboration, Explicitness

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…

  7. Counseling Pretreatment and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change.

    Heesacker, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Results of the application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to a counseling context revealed that more favorable attitudes toward counseling occurred as subjects' ego involvement increased and as intervention quality improved. Counselor credibility affected the degree to which subjects' attitudes reflected argument quality differences.…

  8. Dyad composition effects on cognitive elaboration and student achievement

    Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Veenman, S.A.M.; Dobbelsteen, J.M.H.; Schilt, J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follo

  9. The Impact of an Elaborated Assessee's Role in Peer Assessment

    Kim, Minjeong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an elaborated assessee's role on metacognitive awareness, performance and attitude in peer assessment. Two intact groups (a total of 82 students) were randomly assigned to a treatment condition (having back-feedback activity) or a control condition (not having back-feedback activity). The…

  10. Imagery and Semantic Elaboration in Hypermnesia for Words.

    Belmore, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the contribution of imagery and semantic factors to the hypermnesia effect (increases in retention over successive recall attempts). Results showed that hypermnesia accompanies meaningful processing regardless of whether verbal or imagery encoding is emphasized. Semantic elaboration increases reminiscence…

  11. Elaborating teaching materials for Baure: When teachers are learners

    F. Admiraal

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first steps in the elaboration of teaching materials in Baure, a language on the verge of extinction, spoken in Bolivian Amazonia. The Baure speakers are all elderly people and fully bilingual in the dominant language Spanish. In Bolivia, indigenous language teaching in schoo

  12. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new......As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... insights into cross-cultural similarities and differences, into elaboration likelihood differences among consumer segments, and show how the involvement construct may be used as basis for communication development....

  13. Aspects Regarding the Elaborating and Approval of IPSASs Improvements 2009

    Nistor Cristina Silvia; Cirstea Andreea; Cozma Ighian Diana

    2010-01-01

    The elaboration of international referentials IPSAS (International Public Sector Accounting Standards) by competent bodies (IPSASB – International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board) involves a continuous junction between the specific needs of national accounting systems in the context of the harmonization process and their convergence and the identification of the needs of economic, political, social systems, whose interdependency is evident. This process determines the continuous upda...

  14. PPR: a database for radiologic protection plan elaboration

    The Plan of Radiation Protection is a document demanded for Licensing of the Radioactive Installations. It establishes the system of Radioprotection to be implemented by the Service of Radiation Protection. Its main objective is to achieve the requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety constants in the regulations CNEN-NE-3.01 - Basic Guidelines of Radiation Protection and CNEN-NE-3.06 - Requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety for Services of Radiotherapy. The proposal presented here has the aim to easy the development and the uniformity of the elaboration of the Plan of Radiation Protection. Considering the difficulties found by the physicists responsible for the services in developing a Plan of Radiation Protection that contemplate all the necessary requirements, as well as the final analysis accomplished by CNEN, the present project was elaborated. This consists of a software of easy use, developed according to the most modern patterns of programming, allowing to the user to elaborate the Plan of Radiation Protection in agreement with to basic needs of the Installation. Soon the software will be available in the page web of CNEN for download. (author)

  15. Calibration and Data Elaboration Procedure for Sky Irradiance Measurements

    Boi, Paolo; Tonna, Glauco; Dalu, Giuseppe; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Olivieri, Bruno; Pompei, Alberto; Campanelli, Monica; Rao, R.

    1999-02-01

    The problems encountered in the elaboration of measurements of direct and sky diffuse solar irradiance are the following: (1) to carry out the calibration for the direct irradiance, which consists in determining the direct irradiance at the upper limit of the atmosphere; (2) to carry out the calibration for the diffuse irradiance, which consists in determining the solid viewing angle of the sky radiometer; (3) to determine the input parameters, namely, ground albedo, real and imaginary parts of the aerosol refractive index, and aerosol radius range; and (4) to determine from the optical data the columnar aerosol optical depth and volume radius distribution. With experimental data and numerical simulations a procedure is shown that enables one to carry out the two calibrations needed for the sky radiometer, to determine a best estimate of the input parameters, and, finally, to obtain the average features of the atmospheric aerosols. An interesting finding is that inversion of only data of diffuse irradiance yields the same accuracy of result as data of both diffuse and direct irradiance; in this case, only calibration of the solid viewing angle of the sky radiometer is needed, thus shortening the elaboration procedure. Measurements were carried out in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Italy), in Tokyo (Japan), and in Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina); data were elaborated with a new software package, the Skyrad code, based on an efficient radiative transfer scheme.

  16. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  17. Review of technological elaborations in innovation activity in Institute of Atomic Energy

    measurement systems in high-temperature liquid mediums.The pressure impulse generator is used as a prototype of gas-dynamic system of cleaning of oil and other types of pipelines. For visual observation of process of fuel composition melt discharge the two-channel system of physical processes visualization under difficult optical conditions (steams of melt and water, dustiness, absence and sharp change of lightning and so on) was elaborated. It allows recording of almost non-aberrational video picture in apparent and infrared spans during long time with sufficiently high parameters (resolving capacity is 30 pc/mm, recording rate on apparent channel is up to 200 frames a second). It was assumed to perform two variants of system-for reactor and out-of-pile experiments. The necessary test-constructive works were performed, however, now the system is realized and confirming high parameters only in out-of-pile variant because of insufficient financing. To solve the problems of nondestructive control of significant experimental devices before and after the experiment and melt fragmentation inside their elements the digital roentgen nondestructive control system was elaborated and inculcated. The distinctive feature of system is an original introscope usage elaborated conjointly with Russian partners. Having sufficient low cost the device has high sensitive characteristics (1.6-2.0 %) and solving capacity (1-2 mm). in opinion of leading Russian specialists in the field of introscopy the device appreciably excels in parameters the existing analogs and is a significant progress in this field of techniques. Under the same radiator power the controlled steel thickness is increased on 30 mm and achieved 100-110 mm. System characteristics allow the nondestructive control conducting in dynamic mode and it is especially important during control in the field conditions as pipelines mounting and also during the other problems solving required an operative dynamic material control and taking a

  18. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  19. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  20. An IT Service Taxonomy for Elaborating IT Service Catalog

    Rabbi, Md Forhad

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, I, as the author, have tried to propose a methodology for establishing IT service taxonomy in order to elaborate IT service portfolio and IT service catalog. As a core part of my thesis, IT service taxonomy has been discussed to manage IT services in an efficient way in the small and medium sized enterprises The small and medium sized enterprises can use the categories and sub categories of this taxonomy to define their service catalog and portfolio. In that regards, a list of...

  1. Metallurgical products of microalloy constructional steels

    W. Ozgowicz; M. Opiela; A. Grajcar; E. Kalinowska-Ozgowicz; W. Krukiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is a monographic presentation, based on investigations connected with the elaboration of new kinds of microalloy steels and a technique of heat and thermo-mechanical treatment in the production of a selected group of metallurgical products.Design/methodology/approach: The influence of the chemical composition and metallurgical purity on the homogenisation of austenite was analysed, as well as thermally activated processes and phase transformations in the course ...

  2. Steel Planning

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  3. Self-corrected elaboration effects on incidental memory.

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    Subjects performed an orienting task involving 3 conditions followed by an unexpected free recall test. The conditions were designed to force 3 types of corrected elaborations: Generated Correction, Chosen Correction, and No Correction. In the Generated Correction condition the subjects were presented with a target word (e.g., Baby) and a bizarre sentence frame (e.g., "____drinks beer.") and asked to correct the target to a congruous word (e.g., Uncle) to make a common sentence. In the Chosen Correction condition, the subjects were presented with a target and its bizarre sentence frame and asked to choose one of the alternative congruous words (e.g., Uncle, Aunt) to make a common sentence. In the No Correction condition, the subjects were presented with a target and its bizarre sentence frame and asked to rate the congruity of each target to its sentence frame. Generated Correction led to a better performance than Chosen Correction and No Correction, but a difference between the last two correction types was not found. These results were interpreted as showing that, by generating correct information, self-corrected elaboration led to facilitation of incidental memory. PMID:15560341

  4. Deep-Elaborative Learning of Introductory Management Accounting for Business Students

    Choo, Freddie; Tan, Kim B.

    2005-01-01

    Research by Choo and Tan (1990; 1995) suggests that accounting students, who engage in deep-elaborative learning, have a better understanding of the course materials. The purposes of this paper are: (1) to describe a deep-elaborative instructional approach (hereafter DEIA) that promotes deep-elaborative learning of introductory management…

  5. Weldability investigation steel P 91 by weld thermal cycle simulation

    M. Dunđer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates results of hardness and impact energy of thermal cycle simulated specimens of high-alloy steel P 91 and their dependence on cooling time from 800 to 500 °C. Results were obtained by measuring hardness HV 1 and by experimental testing of Charpy notched specimens. Metallographic analysis of samples was performed on scanning electronic microscope.

  6. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’) leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’). The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…’) contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’) or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’), where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the

  7. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  8. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing.

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions ('Texas cattle rancher' vs. 'rancher') leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., 'The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president'). The final sentence (e.g., 'The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…') contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with 'Republican') or the One-Cue referent (with 'Democrat'). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region ('had voted for'), where readers could understand that 'The senator' is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the predicted interaction between ART

  9. Elaboration of groundwater quality maps using Kriging methods

    Two different geostatistical approaches for the elaboration of groundwater quality maps are presented. Firstly, the main theoretical aspects concerning to the two estimation methods used, ordinary kriging and indicator kriging, are described. They share a common theoretical basis but focus their estimations in different terms. The former gives the most probable value of a groundwater quality parameter in the aquifer, e. g. nitrate contents, so that is applied to map it spatial distribution. Whereas the latter estimates is applied to estimate the spatial probability distribution function of surpassing a given threshold or alert value for the experimental parameter. A case study regarding the Vega of Granada aquifer is also presented. The comparative advantages offered by each of these methods are discussed, taking into account the random behaviour shown by the studied variable. It is concluded that maps created by both methods provide value information of great interest for decision-making with regards to water quality control. (Author) 10 refs

  10. Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans.

    Markov, Gabriel V; Tavares, Raquel; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Demeneix, Barbara A; Baker, Michael E; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-07-21

    Steroid hormones regulate many physiological processes in vertebrates, nematodes, and arthropods through binding to nuclear receptors (NR), a metazoan-specific family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The main steps controlling the diversification of this family are now well-understood. In contrast, the origin and evolution of steroid ligands remain mysterious, although this is crucial for understanding the emergence of modern endocrine systems. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed complete metazoan genomes to provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of major enzymatic players implicated in steroidogenesis at the whole metazoan scale. Our analysis reveals that steroidogenesis has been independently elaborated in the 3 main bilaterian lineages, and that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes descended from those that detoxify xenobiotics. PMID:19571007

  11. Diverse modes of axon elaboration in the developing neocortex.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of axonal arbors is a critical step in the establishment of precise neural circuits, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms of axonal elaboration in the neocortex. We used in vivo two-photon time-lapse microscopy to image axons in the neocortex of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice over the first 3 wk of postnatal development. This period spans the elaboration of thalamocortical (TC and Cajal-Retzius (CR axons and cortical synaptogenesis. Layer 1 collaterals of TC and CR axons were imaged repeatedly over time scales ranging from minutes up to days, and their growth and pruning were analyzed. The structure and dynamics of TC and CR axons differed profoundly. Branches of TC axons terminated in small, bulbous growth cones, while CR axon branch tips had large growth cones with numerous long filopodia. TC axons grew rapidly in straight paths, with frequent interstitial branch additions, while CR axons grew more slowly along tortuous paths. For both types of axon, new branches appeared at interstitial sites along the axon shaft and did not involve growth cone splitting. Pruning occurred via retraction of small axon branches (tens of microns, at both CR and TC axons or degeneration of large portions of the arbor (hundreds of microns, for TC axons only. The balance between growth and retraction favored overall growth, but only by a slight margin. Given the identical layer 1 territory upon which CR and TC axons grow, the differences in their structure and dynamics likely reflect distinct intrinsic growth programs for axons of long projection neurons versus local interneurons.

  12. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50 % of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminium borosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 degree centigrade). In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites) the mentioned by-products and illicit clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia) with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90 % was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA) and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15 - 35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45 - 65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 degree centigrade in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090 - 1100 degree centigrade with the most optimal properties - porosity 38 - 52 %, water absorption 39 - 47 % and bulk density 1.35 - 1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35 - 1.1 %, water absorption 0.7 - 2.6 % and bulk density 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected. (Author) 16 refs.

  13. Alloyed steel

    The composition and properties are listed of alloyed steel for use in the manufacture of steam generators, collectors, spacers, emergency tanks, and other components of nuclear power plants. The steel consists of 0.08 to 0.11% w.w. C, 0.6 to 1.4% w.w. Mn, 0.35 to 0.6% w.w. Mo, 0.02 to 0.07% w.w. Al, 0.17 to 0.37% w.w. Si, 1.7 to 2.7% w.w. Ni, 0.03 to 0.07% w.w. V, 0.005 to 0.012% w.w. N, and the rest is Fe. The said steel showed a sufficiently low transition temperature between brittle and tough structures, a greater depth of hardenability, and better weldability than similar steels. (B.S.)

  14. Tool steels

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  15. Steel welding.

    Kučera, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Topic of the thesis concerns the problem of steel welding. The aim was to give acomprehensive overview on the topic, describe the known methods, advantages and disadvantages of welding technology. The introductory part is focused on introducing the basics of the process required to produce high-quality connections. Chapter three offers an overview of known and used welding methods with thein brief description of the method. The next chapter describes steel as material suitable for welding....

  16. Elaboration, characterization of CrN- based coatings

    Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were synthesized by RF dual magnetron sputtering on AISI4140 steel and silicon substrates at 200 deg. C. Multilayers coatings based on the three mono-layers such as CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were also synthesized only on Si. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the layers were determined by AFM, SEM+WDS, stress, roughness and nanoindentation measurements. The influence of the thickness on the mechanical properties of the monolayers stresses has been studied and as a consequence we compared the mono and multilayers stress state.

  17. Elaboration, characterization of Cr-N based coatings

    Tlili, Brahim; Nouveau, Corinne; Guillemot, Gildas

    2010-01-01

    Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were synthesized by RF dual magnetron sputtering on AISI4140 steel and silicon substrates at 200°C. Multilayers coatings based on the three mono-layers such as CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were also synthesized only on Si. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the layers were determined by AFM, SEM+WDS, stress, roughness and nanoindentation measurements. The influence of the thickness on the mechanical properties of the monolayers stresses has been st...

  18. Hydrogen embrittlement of steels: study and prevention

    Hydrogen embrittlement of steels is one of the important reason of rupture of pieces in the industry (nuclear, of petroleum..). Indeed, there are a lot of situations which can lead to the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement: introduction of hydrogen in the material during the elaboration or during transformation or implementation processes (heat treatments, welding); use of steels when hydrogen or hydrogenated gaseous mixtures are present; hydrogen produced by electrolytic reactions (surface treatments, cathodic protection). The hydrogen embrittlement can appear in different forms which depend of a lot of parameters: material (state, composition, microstructure..); surrounding medium (gas, aqueous medium, temperature..); condition of mechanical solicitation (static, dynamic, cyclic..). The industrial phenomena which appear during cases of hydrogen embrittlement are more particularly described here. Several methods of steels studies are proposed as well as some possible ways for the prevention of hydrogen embrittlement risks. (O.M.)

  19. Elaboration of uranium ore concentrate by direct precipitation

    The production of a uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake) is an essential stage in the preparation of fuels used in the nuclear power reactor. In this work, we have studied the elaboration of a uranium ore concentrate from the ore of Tahaggart by testing the direct precipitation process. This choice was justified not only by the physicochemical characteristics of the ore, but also by other important factors such as: capacity of the deposit, geographical situation (desert), availability of water and lowest investment. Samples of uranium ore from Tahaggart, were crushed and leached by percolation with a diluted sulphuric acid solution to solubilize uranium. A rate of 95% was reached. The experiments were carried out with sample extracted from different locations in the deposit. The results indicate that the classical direct precipitation process is still valid only for 5 % of the samples. For the majority of samples treated, we noticed that by precipitation of uranium at very low pH, one precipitation step was sufficient to obtain a concentrate of 65% of U3O8. The concentrate obtained is easily soluble in nitric acid. The chemical characteristics of the ore allow us to produce a concentrate using a process simpler than the classical double precipitation process. (author)

  20. Elaboration of uranium ore concentrate by direct precipitation

    Full text: The production of a uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake) is an essential stage in the preparation of fuels used in the nuclear power reactor. In this work, we have studied the elaboration of a uranium ore concentrate from the ore of Tahaggart, testing the direct precipitation process. This choice was justified not only by the physicochemical characteristics of the ore, but also by others important factors such as: capacity of the deposit, his geographical situation (desert), the availability of water and the lowest investment. Samples of uranium Ore of Tahaggart, were crushed and leached by percolation with a diluted sulphuric acid solution to solubilise uranium. A rate of 95% was reached.The experiments were conducted with sample extracted at different location in the deposit. The result obtained showed that the classical direct precipitation process worked only with 5% of the sample. For the majority of sample treated, we noticed a precipitation of uranium at very low pH, only one precipitation step was sufficient to obtain a concentrate of 65% of U3O8. The concentrate obtained is easily soluble in nitric acid. The chemical characteristics of the ore allow us to produce a concentrate using a process simpler than the classical double precipitation process. (author)

  1. Elaboration of optical glass-ceramic for frequency doubling

    The High power laser development required the need of materials with nonlinear properties. Glass materials can be considered as ideal materials as they can be transparent and elaborated in very large dimension. Precipitation of non-centro symmetric crystalline particles in bulk glass leads to a material with bulk nonlinear properties. This glass-ceramic should be then easily integrated in such laser facilities. In this thesis, the results concerning the precipitation of the phase LiNbO3 in the glassy-matrix 35 Li2O - 25 Nb2O5 - 40 SiO2 are detailed. The crystallization mechanism of this phase is studied through thermal analysis, optical and electronic microscopy as well as in-situ analyses. These studies reveal glass-ceramics are obtained through a precipitation of the lithium niobate crystalline phase in spherulite shape. The nonlinear optical properties are investigated on this materials and an original, isotropic Second Harmonic Generation Signal (SHG) is registered in the bulk glass-ceramic. A complete study using a multi-scale approach allows the correlation between the spherulite structure and the nonlinear optical properties. A mechanism at the origin of the SHG signal is proposed. This leads to a new approach for transparent inorganic materials development for isotropic SHG conversion. (author)

  2. Race of source effects in the elaboration likelihood model.

    White, P H; Harkins, S G

    1994-11-01

    In a series of experiments, we investigated the effect of race of source on persuasive communications in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1981, 1986). In Experiment 1, we found no evidence that White participants responded to a Black source as a simple negative cue. Experiment 2 suggested the possibility that exposure to a Black source led to low-involvement message processing. In Experiments 3 and 4, a distraction paradigm was used to test this possibility, and it was found that participants under low involvement were highly motivated to process a message presented by a Black source. In Experiment 5, we found that attitudes toward the source's ethnic group, rather than violations of expectancies, accounted for this processing effect. Taken together, the results of these experiments are consistent with S.L. Gaertner and J.F. Dovidio's (1986) theory of aversive racism, which suggests that Whites, because of a combination of egalitarian values and underlying negative racial attitudes, are very concerned about not appearing unfavorable toward Blacks, leading them to be highly motivated to process messages presented by a source from this group. PMID:7983579

  3. Elaboration, activity and stability of silica-based nitroaromatic sensors.

    Mercier, Dimitri; Pereira, Franck; Méthivier, Christophe; Montméat, Pierre; Hairault, Lionel; Pradier, Claire-Marie

    2013-08-21

    Functionalized silica-based thin films, modified with hydrophobic groups, were synthesized and used as sensors for nitroaromatic compound (NAC) specific detection. Their performance and behavior, in terms of stability, ageing and regeneration, have been fully characterized by combining chemical characterization techniques and electron microscopy. NAC was efficiently and specifically detected using these silica-based sensors, but showed a great degradation in the presence of humidity. Moreover, the sensor sensitivity seriously decreases with storage time. Methyl- and phenyl-functionalization helped to overcome this humidity sensitivity. Surface characterization enabled us to establish a direct correlation between the appearance, and increasing amount, of adsorbed carbonyl-containing species, and sensor efficiency. This contamination, appearing after only one month, was particularly important when sensors were stored in plastic containers. Rinsing with cyclohexane enables us to recover part of the sensor performance but does not yield a complete regeneration of the sensors. This work led us to the definition of optimized elaboration and storage conditions for nitroaromatic sensors. PMID:23812282

  4. 逻辑AI中的容变能力的研究%Elaboration Tolerance in Logical AI

    朱建中; 戈也挺; 骆斌; 陈世福

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a survey of elaboration tolerance in logical AI is provided. John McCarthy views elaboration tolerance as the key property of any formalism that can represent information in the common sense informatic situa-tion. The goal of studying elaboration tolerance is finding a formalism for describing problems logically that is as elab-oration tolerant as natural language and the associated background knowledge. In the beginning, we introduce the missionaries and cannibals problem and its elaboration problems provided by John McCarthy as the test examples of studying elaboration tolerance. Then we introduce the study of elaboration tolerance from three aspects. First of all,the study of elaboration tolerance of the existing systems is introduced such as Causal Calculator and ABSFOL. Sec-ond the study of special elaboration is presented such as elaboration of actions. Last but not least a formal definition of elaboration toleration and evaluation tools is nrmvided.

  5. ELABORATION OF AN EPOXY COATING REINFORCED WITH ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE NANOSTRUCTURES

    Lucia G. Díaz-Barriga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the preparation of a transparent epoxy coating reinforced with 200 PPM of zirconium carbide nanostructures. The nanostructures of ZrC were prepared by mechanosynthesis. The additive characteristics analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were presented. Epoxy coating adhesion on a steel plate was analyzed using MEB. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was performed to the reinforced paints between 20-700 °C. The reinforced enamel was compared with an enamel without nanostructures. There is not vaporization of reinforced enamel at a 95 y 100 °C with ZrC particles size of 10 µm y 120 nm respectively. The final enamel degradation is slower when there is a 14% by weight of the residue and 426 °C with 120nm diameter particles.

  6. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption. PMID:27323046

  7. Hegelian Steel

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  8. Steel fibre concrete, a safer material for reactor construction - a general theory for rupture prediction

    The effect of steel fibre reinforcement on the mechanical behaviour of concrete reactor structures is studied. It is shown that this material leads to a higher safety factor for highly stressed concrete structures like prestressed concrete pressure vessels. The reinforcement of concrete with short steel fibres results clearly in a fundamental change of the material properties. The study comprises basic experiments, the elaboration of an expression of the material laws, the development of a general computer program and the comparison of computational results with more elaborate experiments. (Auth.)

  9. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Increases Low-Income Children's Narrative Skills Relative to Dialogic Reading

    Reese, Elaine; Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Grolnick, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study compared the unique effects of training low-income mothers in dialogic reading versus elaborative reminiscing on children's oral language and emergent literacy. Thirty-three low-income parents of 4-year-old children attending Head Start were randomly assigned to either dialogic reading, elaborative reminiscing, or a…

  10. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  11. The arison data acquisition and elaboration software package running on Hewlett-Packard minicomputer

    In this article, a data acquisition and elaboration system is described consisting in a PCM data acquisition and a spectrum analyser system and their data elaboration package for reactor safety or other general purposes. Measurements on temperature, noise fluctuations of temperature or other noise analysis dynamics, pressure, etc. Time series and their conversion in engineering units and their statistical and frequency analysis is provided

  12. Socialization of Past Event Talk: Cultural Differences in Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing

    Tougu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines mother-child reminiscing conversations with respect to variation in use and function of mothers' elaborations, the nature of children's memory elaborations, and the connections between the two, in three Western middle-class cultures where autonomy is valued over relatedness. Mothers participated with their 4-year-old children…

  13. Improving the quality of reporting Chinese herbal medicine trials: an elaborated checklist

    Jian-ping LIU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to improve the quality of reporting Chinese herbal medicine (CHM trials, an elaborated checklist was developed according to the basic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and on the basis of the Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials of Herbal Interventions: An Elaborated CONSORT Statement. This checklist adopted the 22 items of the Herbal CONSORT Statement with some necessary elaboration and modification in the detailed contents of 11 items, among which, the items of Participants, Intervention, Control group and Outcomes were elaborated and modified accordingly to adapt TCM characteristics. Since the design and reporting of trials on Chinese proprietary medicine and herbal decoctions are different in some aspects, the checklist provided two sets of elaborated item 4 (interventions. We hope that authors, journal editors and peer reviewers find this checklist instructive

  14. Elaboration of aluminum oxide-based graphite containing castables

    Zhou, Ningsheng

    The aim of this work was set to develop effective and practicable new methods to incorporate natural flake graphite (FG) into the Al2O 3 based castables for iron and steel making applications. Three approaches, viz. micro-pelletized graphite (PG), crushed briquette of Al2O3-graphite (BAG) and TiO2 coated graphite (CFG), have been developed to insert flake graphite into Al2O 3 rich Al2O3-SiC based and Al2O 3-MgO based castables. These approaches were put into effect as countermeasures against the problems caused by FG in order: (1) to agglomerate the FG powders so as to decrease the specific surface area; (2) to diminish the density difference by using crushed carbon bonded compact of oxide-FG mixture; (3) to modify the surface of the flake graphite by forming hydrophilic coating; (4) to control the dispersion state of the graphite in the castable to maintain enough bonding strength; and (5) to use appropriate antioxidants to inhibit the oxidation of FG. The whole work was divided into two stages. In stage one, Al2O 3-SiC-C castables were dealt with to compare 4 modes of inserting graphite, i.e., by PG, BAG, CFG and FG. Overall properties were measured, all in correlation with graphite amount and incorporating mode. In stage two, efforts were made to reduce water demand in the Al2O3-MgO castables system. For this purpose, the matrix portion of the castable mixes was extracted and a coaxial double cylinder viscometer was adopted to investigate rheological characteristics of the matrix slurries vs. 4 kinds of deflocculants, through which the best deflocculant and its appropriate amount were found. Efforts were then made to add up to 30% MgO into the castables, using a limited amount of powders (<0.3 mm), the rest being increased in size gradually up to the top size of 4.76 mm. Into the optimized Al2O3-MgO castables graphite was incorporated by PG and BAG, and 4 kinds of antioxidants, Si, SiC, B4C and ZrB2, were added respectively or in combination. Overall properties

  15. Metallurgical products of microalloy constructional steels

    W. Ozgowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is a monographic presentation, based on investigations connected with the elaboration of new kinds of microalloy steels and a technique of heat and thermo-mechanical treatment in the production of a selected group of metallurgical products.Design/methodology/approach: The influence of the chemical composition and metallurgical purity on the homogenisation of austenite was analysed, as well as thermally activated processes and phase transformations in the course of deformation and controlled cooling conditions, concerning micradditives Nb, V, Ti, B and metallurgical products.Findings: The chemical composition of the obtained constructional steels with microadditives was quoted, as well as the technological conditions of forging and rolled products required for industrial purposes.Research limitations/implications: The results of investigations concerning the structure and mechanical properties have been presented, as well as the resistance to fracture, mainly of thick plates and hand-forged and drop-forged products and also elements of sheet structures for the automotive industry, made of AHSS steels.Practical implications: The results of the author’s own investigations concerning microalloy steels indicate the actual possibility of their application in practice in many steelworks, particularly in plants producing semi products and final metallurgical products, among others in hot rolling plants and forging shops, first of all in machine building and automotive industry.Originality/value: The application of modern metallurgical technologies and metalforming has been suggested for selected metallurgical products of microalloy steels of the type HSLA with a ferrite-bainite, bainite or tempered martensite structure and also of HSS steels and UHSS steel with a wide range of mechanical properties and technological formability, which is essential in the case of products of the automotive industry.

  16. Solidification control in continuous casting of steel

    S Mazumdar; S K Ray

    2001-02-01

    An integrated understanding of heat transfer during solidification, friction/lubrication at solid-liquid interface, high temperature properties of the solidifying shell etc. is necessary to control the continuous casting process. The present paper elaborates upon the knowledge developed in the areas of initial shell formation, mode of mould oscillation, and lubrication mechanism. The effect of these issues on the caster productivity and the quality of the product has been discussed. The influence of steel chemistry on solidification dynamics, particularly with respect to mode of solidification and its consequence on strength and ductility of the solidifying shell, has been dealt with in detail. The application of these basic principles for casting of stainless steel slabs and processing to obtain good quality products have been covered.

  17. Hot-working of advanced high-manganese austenitic steels

    L.A. Dobrzański; W. Borek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The work consisted in investigation of newly elaborated high-manganese austenitic steels with Nb and Ti microadditions in variable conditions of hot-working.Design/methodology/approach: The force-energetic parameters of hot-working were determined in continuous and multi-stage compression test performed in temperature range of 850 to 1100°C using the Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator. Evaluation of processes controlling work-hardening were identified by microstructure observati...

  18. Hot-working behaviour of high-manganese austenitic steels

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Grajcar; W. Borek

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The work consisted in investigation of newly elaborated high-manganese austenitic steels with Nb and Ti microadditions in variable conditions of hot-working.Design/methodology/approach: Determination of processes controlling strain hardening was carried out in continuous compression test using Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator.Findings: It was found that they have austenite microstructure with numerous annealing twins in the initial state. Continuous compression tests ...

  19. The seahorse, the almond, and the night-mare: elaborative encoding during sleep-paralysis hallucinations?

    Girard, Todd A

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's proposal that rapid eye movement (REM) dreaming reflects elaborative encoding mediated by the hippocampus ("seahorse") offers an interesting perspective for understanding hallucinations accompanying sleep paralysis (SP; "night-mare"). SP arises from anomalous intrusion of REM processes into waking consciousness, including threat-detection systems mediated by the amygdala ("almond"). Unique aspects of SP hallucinations offer additional prospects for investigation of Llewellyn's theory of elaborative encoding. PMID:24304759

  20. Design and construction of a device for elaborate films of Vyns or Cellulose with control thickness

    This work is a part of the studies about the elaboration of reference radioactive sources, which are done in the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Specially concerns with the elaboration of α-β radioactive sources. The importance of this work is because their applications increase day by day. Medicine, engineering, agriculture and even the arts cannot escape to the influence and impact of the nuclear sciences. But, what are the radioactive sources?, what is a holder of a radioactive source?, why we elaborate holders with special materials?, which is the best technique to elaborate them?. These topics are commented in this work. The material is as follows: the introduction and objective are described in chapter one. The second chapter deals with concepts about atomic and molecular structures, general description of nuclear radiation and their characteristics, comments about radioactive law decay, interaction of the alpha particles with the matter and a short description about surface barrier detectors. The different methods for elaborate a radioactive source holders are described in the chapter three. This same chapter speaks the topic about the elaboration of vyns or cellulose films and a device is proposed for make them; are some methods described how to take measure of their thickness. Chapter four shows the results, analysis and the respective conclusions. (Author)

  1. Elaborate visual and acoustic signals evolve independently in a large, phenotypically diverse radiation of songbirds.

    Mason, Nicholas A; Shultz, Allison J; Burns, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The concept of a macroevolutionary trade-off among sexual signals has a storied history in evolutionary biology. Theory predicts that if multiple sexual signals are costly for males to produce or maintain and females prefer a single, sexually selected trait, then an inverse correlation between sexual signal elaborations is expected among species. However, empirical evidence for what has been termed the 'transfer hypothesis' is mixed, which may reflect different selective pressures among lineages, evolutionary covariates or methodological differences among studies. Here, we examine interspecific correlations between song and plumage elaboration in a phenotypically diverse, widespread radiation of songbirds, the tanagers. The tanagers (Thraupidae) are the largest family of songbirds, representing nearly 10% of all songbirds. We assess variation in song and plumage elaboration across 301 species, representing the largest scale comparative study of multimodal sexual signalling to date. We consider whether evolutionary covariates, including habitat, structural and carotenoid-based coloration, and subfamily groupings influence the relationship between song and plumage elaboration. We find that song and plumage elaboration are uncorrelated when considering all tanagers, although the relationship between song and plumage complexity varies among subfamilies. Taken together, we find that elaborate visual and vocal sexual signals evolve independently among tanagers. PMID:24943371

  2. Engagement of the ATEE in the elaboration of regulation texts; L`action de l`atee lors de l`elaboration des textes reglementaires

    Jacubowiez, I. [ATEE, Association Technique Energie Environnement, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French technical association for energy savings (ATEE) has been involved in the elaboration of regulations concerning efficiency and pollution of medium-power combustion equipment (boilers, engines, dryers, furnaces...), with the aim of promoting energy efficiency and rational utilization of energy. It has thus been involved in the development of a new classification of these equipment with regard to their fuel and energy sources (decree 2910), and decrees on boiler (lower than 50 MW) efficiency, technical inspections, and classification of heat networks

  3. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Reactor construction steels

    The basic functions of light water reactor components are shown on the example of a pressurized water reactor and the requirements resulting therefrom for steel, the basic structural material, are derived. A detailed analysis of three main groups of reactor steels is presented and the applications are indicated of low-alloyed steels, high-alloyed austenitic steels, and steels with a high content of Ni and of alloying additions for steam generator pipes. An outline is given of prospective fast breeder reactor steels. (J.K.)

  5. Mass transfer of stainless steel corrosion products in sodium

    Mass transfer of stainless steel corrosion products (CP) in sodium coolant circuits in the absence of chemical interaction of impurities in sodium as well as in the case of interaction of steel components with oxygen and hydrogen is investigated. The mathematical models of CP mass transfer in pure sodium and in that with increased oxygen content are elaborated. The values of constants using in description of the processes under consideration are refined in experiments. The integral model of CP mass transfer applied to non-isothermal circulation sodium circuit is developed. Calculated data on steel components transfer in BN-600 primary coolant circuit are obtained. Parametric calculations for the model taking into account the deposit formation on the channel surface are conducted. Distribution of CP flow density on walls along the channel length are obtained

  6. Elaboration of a radioimmunoanalytical method for the determination of serum ferritin

    A radioimmunoanalytical (RIA) method was elaborated for the determination of ferritin in human blood serum in clinical practice. Placental ferritin separated from the human after-delivery placental and antibodies against the human placental ferritin obtained by the immunization of rabbits with this antigen were used. The whole complex of basic conditions and parameters of the RIA method was tested including the estimation of the region of normal values and clinical tests. The method elaborated was compared with the commercial kit Ferritin RIA Amersham, code IM 1051, chosen as references kit. The results of the determination of control parameters as well as ferritin levels obtained by the method elaborated exert good agreement with the references kit and correspond to requirements for routine RIA practice. (author) 3 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Female song occurs in songbirds with more elaborate female coloration and reduced sexual dichromatism

    Wesley Howard Webb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elaborate plumages and songs in male birds provide classic evidence for Darwinian sexual selection. However, trait elaboration in birds is not gender-restricted: female song has recently been revealed as a taxonomically-widespread trait within the songbirds (oscine Passerines, prompting increased research into likely functions and social/ecological correlates. Here we use phylogenetically-informed comparative analysis to test for an evolutionary association between female song and plumage color elaboration in songbirds. If there is an evolutionary trade-off between signaling modes, we predict a negative correlation between acoustic and visual elaboration. This trade-off hypothesis has been commonly proposed in males but has mixed empirical support. Alternatively, if song and plumage have similar or overlapping functions and evolve under similar selection pressures, we predict a positive correlation between female song and female plumage elaboration. We use published data on female song for 1,023 species of songbirds and a novel approach that allows for the reliable and objective comparison of color elaboration between species and genders. Our results reveal a significant positive correlation between female colorfulness and female song presence. In species where females sing, females (but not males are on average more colorful – with concomitantly reduced average sexual dichromatism. These results suggest that female plumage and female song likely evolved together under similar selection pressures and that their respective functions are reinforcing. We discuss the potential roles of sexual versus social selection in driving this relationship, and the implications for future research on female signals.

  8. Elaborative inferences

    Iza, Mauricio; Ezquerro, Jesús

    2000-01-01

    De acuerdo con los resultados experimentales, existe evidencia tanto de la actividad inferencial elaborativa automática, como de la incompletud en la realización de inferencias puente o hacia atrás (anáfora, estructuración causal). McKoon y Ratcliff (1992) han argumentado a favor de una teoría “minimalista” para las inferencias durante la lectura, contrastándola con las teorías “constructivistas”, incluyendo las teorías basadas en modelos mentales o situacionales. ...

  9. MM98.19 An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Chiffre, Leonardo De

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  10. A framework for elaborating a geological disposal safety case: Main issues to be addressed

    International guidance on safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste is being elaborated by IAEA. A comparison of experiences acquired in developing deep repository projects shows that many important issues related to the progressive building of confidence in the safety demonstration of such facilities are commonly addressed by the various organisations involved in radioactive waste management. However, there is still some discrepancies in defining the steps that form the staged elaboration of a safety case. This paper intends to propose a framework for defining the safety case in describing the main issues to be addressed and highlighting questions of consistency between former steps. (author)

  11. Weldability evaluation of the HCM12A steel with increased creep resistance on the basis of simulation techniques

    Characteristic of the HCM12A steel has been given in comparison with other modern high strength steels. Weldability tests were performed on the basis of welding thermal cycle simulation. The welding TTT diagram has been elaborated, influence of single and double thermal cycles as well as of heat treatment on the microstructure, hardness and notch toughness of simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) have been established. The susceptibility of the HCM12A steel liquation type hot cracking and reheat cracking has been tested. It has been found, that the notch toughness of the as delivered HCM12A steel is lower than that of P91 steel and the welding thermal cycles cause its further decrease. After heat treatment the notch toughness of simulated HAZ is considerably improved. The test results allow to state, that the HCM12A steel is characterized by a good weldability. (author)

  12. Effects of Semantic Elaboration and Typicality on Picture Naming in Alzheimer Disease

    Morelli, Claudia A.; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Kendall, Diane; Fischler, Ira; Heilman, Kennneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with probable Alzheimer disease (pAD) are frequently impaired at picture naming. This study examined whether a semantic elaboration task would facilitate naming in pAD, and whether training either semantically typical or atypical stimulus items facilitated generalized improvement in picture naming and category generation…

  13. The Elaboration of the Academic Technology Roadmap (ATRM) : Three Cases in Academic Material Science Laboratories

    Okutsu, Shoko; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Academic Technology Road Map (ATRM) was originally proposed to support academic Science and Engineering (S&E) laboratories. In this paper, ATRM is elaborated through three cases in academic materials science laboratories. According to those cases, a knowledge collaboration board (KCB) is newly designed based on the “Kadai-Barashi approach”and the original ATRM.

  14. elaboration de polymere a empreinte moleculaire destine au developpement d'un capteur des pesticides.

    belladgham, wahiba

    2016-01-01

    Dans le present travail , notre interet s'est porté sur l'elaboration des materiaux a empreinte moleculaire MIP destines au developpement dun capteur des pesticides danc notre cas , la synthese du MIP s'est faite en polymerisant sous irradiation UV , LE MELANGE CONSTITUE .

  15. The Effects of Embedded and Elaborative Interrogation Questions on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish, the present study utilized domain specific texts to examine the effects of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. Participants read two different vignettes, either with or without the adjuncts, from a social psychology textbook, and then…

  16. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Jun; Gomi, Katsuya; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Penitrem A is one of the most elaborated members of the fungal indole diterpenes. Two separate penitrem gene clusters were identified using genomic and RNA sequencing data, and 13 out of 17 transformations in the penitrem biosynthesis were elucidated by heterologous reconstitution of the relevant...

  17. Erotic Education: Elaborating a Feminist and Faith-Based Pedagogy for Experiential Learning in Religious Studies

    Carbine, Rosemary P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay explores intersections among Jesuit, Quaker, and feminist theologies and pedagogies of social justice education in order to propose and elaborate an innovative theoretical and theological framework for experiential learning in religious studies that prioritizes relationality, called erotic education. This essay then applies the…

  18. Enhancing Learning Outcomes in Computer-Based Training via Self-Generated Elaboration

    Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the utility of an instructional strategy known as the "query method" for enhancing learning outcomes in computer-based training. The query method involves an embedded guided, sentence generation task requiring elaboration of key concepts in the training material that encourages learners to "stop and…

  19. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of impress

  20. An Elaboration on the Effect of Reading Anxiety on Reading Achievement

    Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…

  1. Relevant prior knowledge moderates the effect of elaboration during small group discussion on academic achievement

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion abo

  2. Intentionality as Measured in the Persistence and Elaboration of Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Leavens, David A.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    In human infancy, 2 criteria for intentional communication are (a) persistence in and (b) elaboration of communication when initial attempts to communicate fail. Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). Three conditions were administered: (a) the banana…

  3. Aid for elaboration of operating technical specifications for a PWR by probabilistic studies

    In this paper the authors show how the probabilistic studies are used for the elaboration of operating technical specifications. This probabilistic study is made on the residual heat removal system. The probability of core meltdown is made principally by gamming, in open position, of valves of this circuit. The return is a modification of valves conception and a modification of the operating mode

  4. Autobiographical Elaboration Reduces Memory Distortion: Cognitive Operations and the Distinctiveness Heuristic

    McDonough, Ian M.; Gallo, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval monitoring enhances episodic memory accuracy. For instance, false recognition is reduced when participants base their decisions on more distinctive recollections, a retrieval monitoring process called the distinctiveness heuristic. The experiments reported here tested the hypothesis that autobiographical elaboration during study (i.e.,…

  5. The experience on public consultation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations

    This paper presents and discusses the process of public consultation followed by the regulatory body, Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN), during the elaboration of nuclear regulations. In this paper, the due legislation on federal administration, law n. 9784/99, is referred to and the procedures established by CNEN for the elaboration of a nuclear regulation are described. The public consultation has the objective of improving the democratization of nuclear regulations elaboration process, allowing the participation of interested parties such as professional associations directly involved, organizations interested in its application and the general public. During the process of elaboration of a nuclear regulation, the basic text is, first of all, discussed and improved by a task group. This group is composed by CNEN's officials and representatives of organizations, enterprises and public agencies involved in the related area. Once the first version of the proposed regulation is ready, it is formally open to consultation and posted at CNEN website for a period of time. The suggestions, therein presented on-line, are analyzed by the task group and the conclusions are also posted at the site; those considered pertinent are incorporated to proposed regulation. As an example, the public consultation results obtained in 2008 with the revision of the CNEN-NN-6.02: Licensing of Radioactive Facilities regulation, are presented. Such results cover two aspects: the analysis of the participants profile and the analysis of the contributions. Public participation in the elaboration of nuclear regulations is a new way for CNEN to know the licensees and public demands, doubts and needs. This tool has demonstrated usefulness and therefore must be maintained by the regulatory body. (author)

  6. Use of software to optimize time and costs in the elaboration of the basic drawing

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to choose areas to implement pipe yards, terminals, campsite, pipeline path and other areas of assistance for the construction and assembly of the pipeline, it is necessary previous location studies to elaborate the basic drawing. However it is not always possible to contract a company registered in aerial survey to elaborate this type of drawing, either for the cost or time, and where the lack of a basic drawing can lead to an erroneous choice or one which reflects an exaggerated estimate or not adequate logistics. In order to minimize costs and optimizing time, without compromising quality, this study proposes the use of software 'virtual globe' type for mapping and geographic location available on the internet to assist in the gathering of geographical, altimetric, hydro graphic, road, environmental, socioeconomic and aerial images, information necessary to elaborate the basic drawing. This article includes a case study of the oil pipeline Cacimbas-Barra do Riacho project and a proposed procedure to be used in the elaboration of basic drawings using data generated using the referred to software. In 2007 the Pipeline Construction and Assembly sector, CMDPI unit of PETROBRAS Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT was designated to select an area of 2 hectares where the pipe storage yard for pipes to be used in the Oil Pipeline Cacimbas- Barra do Riacho in Espirito Santo state would be constructed. The area was chosen following some pre-requisites and using as main resources in the gathering of information necessary to select the area, 'virtual globe' type software and a CAD type software with the capacity to import images and altimetric identification as well as exporting drawing data to the mentioned. The activity, much simpler than hiring an aerial survey, was elaborated surpassing expectations of time-costs besides complying with the necessary technical demands. (author)

  7. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. Plastic behaviour and microstructure characterization high manganese aluminium alloyed steel for the automotive industry

    D. Kuc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Automotive industry constantly demands high-strength steels which are characterized by the energy absorption possibilities during a collision. Such materials may, in the future, replace the currently used conventional steels. The groups of steels which meet these criteria are the austenitic steels and austenitic-ferritic steels with high manganese content (15-30% and high aluminium content (1-9%. Design/methodology/approach: Susceptibility of steel to cracking at high temperatures was tested on Gleeble 3800 simulator: zero resistance temperature was determined (TZW, zero plasticity temperature was determined (TZP, plasticity reversal temperature was determined (TNP. Research was completed by determination of steel plasticity and stress applying in next stage the deformation of samples in temperature from 850 to 1175°C. This temperature range corresponding with the field of parameters of plastic processing. For samples after tension the ultimate tensile strength was determined (Rm together with contraction (Z. Character of fractures of stretched samples was tested with the use of scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200.Findings: The tests show that the tested steel is characterised by relatively lower temperatures in comparison with low-alloyed steels. Tested steel has high plasticity in temperature wear to temperature of plastic processing 1150-800°C.Practical implications: The obtained steel is characterised by beneficial properties which outbalance the austenitic steels type TWIP and may be applied in vehicle construction on elements connected with safety.Originality/value: Conducted simulation will be helpful by elaboration of technology of continuous casting and the choice of the right parameters for plastic processing of high-manganese steel with aluminium.

  9. Delay of the attack of liquid steel on niobium by TiN/TiC multilayer protection coatings

    Delay of the attack of liquid steel on niobium by TiN/TiC multilayer protection coatings. The CABRI-test channel made of niobium has to be protected against the solution attack of liquid steel occuring during transient over power experiments. Following investigations on high temperature materials and solution tests a protective multilayer coating from NbC, TiN, TiC, TiN was elaborated. Melt tests with liquid steel on coated niobium specimens demonstrated evidently the protective efficiency of the multilayer. Contact with sodium for two hours came out to be harmless concerning the integrity of the multilayer. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Continuous Induction Hardening of Steel Cylinder Element Made of Steel 38Mn6 / Analiza Przelotowego Hartowania Indukcyjnego Walca Ze Stali 38Mn6

    Barglik J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analysis of surface induction hardening of a cylindrical element made of steel 38Mn6. The mathematical model of the non-stationary process is elaborated. Calculations of coupled electromagnetic and temperature fields are provided by means of the Flux 2D software. Computations are compared with the measurements realized at the laboratory stand located in the Silesian University of Technology. The expected hardness distribution within the surface layer is noticed.

  11. Experimental investigations on fiber laser color marking of steels

    Highlights: • We develop an experimental approach with the aim to bring a contribution to the comprehension of the occurring phenomena during laser color marking of steels. • We have used a home-made marking device composed of a pulsed fiber laser and galvanometric mirrors. • Both commercial and elaborated in laboratory steels have been used as samples. • The experiments have been performed for different laser beam operating parameters, under normal atmospheric conditions. • The treated samples were analyzed either by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, as well as by energy dispersion spectroscopy. - Abstract: We develop an experimental approach with the aim to bring a contribution to the comprehension of the occurring phenomena during laser color marking of steels. A home-made marking device using a pulsed fiber laser has been used to treat steel samples under different laser beam operating parameters, for different compositions of the processed steel, and at normal atmospheric conditions. The treated samples were analyzed either by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, as well as by energy dispersion spectroscopy. The results show the influence of the operating parameters on the obtained colors

  12. Elaboration of Bi 2Se 3 by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    Giani, A.; Al Bayaz, A.; Foucaran, A.; Pascal-Delannoy, F.; Boyer, A.

    2002-03-01

    For the first time, Bi 2Se 3 thin films were elaborated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylbismuth (TMBi) and diethylselenium (DESe) as metalorganic sources. The MOCVD elaboration of Bi 2Se 3 was carried out in a horizontal reactor for a substrate temperature ( Tg) varying from 450°C to 500°C, a total hydrogen flow rate DT=3 l min -1, RVI/V ratio >14 and TMBi partial pressure lower than 1.10 -4 atm. By X-ray diffraction and SEM observation, we noticed the polycrystalline structure of the layers typical preferential c-orientation and confirm the hexagonal structure. The microprobe data indicate that the best stoichiometry of Bi 2Se 3 was achieved. These films always displayed n-type conduction, and the maximum value of thermoelectric power α was found to be close to -120 μV/K.

  13. Elaboration of coatings, such as WC-Co, by detonation gun

    Elaboration of ceramic oxide and cermet coatings by Korund detonation gun process has been developed and optimized during this study. Experimental measurements of detonation wave pressure and speed have allowed us to conclude at the representation validity of detonation with Chapman - Jouguet model and detonation product downstream flow with Taylor Zeldovich model. Composition, microhardness, roughness, porosity and adhesion optimization of different coatings including alumina, zirconia-yttria and tungsten carbide cobalt, have been obtained by spraying parameters effects studies. Coatings produced by this process are generally very dense and adherent (i.e porosity ≅ 1 at 2%; adhesion - 40 at 75 MPa). Mechanical properties have been studied by 3 or 4 point bend test which have shown that interfacial failure is combined: adhesive-cohesive. The comparison of properties, especially erosion resistance of coatings obtained by different hypersonic spray processes, has shown the very good behaviour of the coatings elaborated during this study. (author)

  14. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM, which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept most frequently used in elaboration process was involvement, and that argument quality and endorser credibility were the factors most often employed in measuring their effect on the dependant variables. The review provides valuable insights as it presents a holistic view of the model and the variables used in the model.

  15. Effects of Forward and Backward Contextual Elaboration on Lexical Inferences: Evidence from a Semantic Relatedness Judgment Task

    Hamada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the process of lexical inferences differs according to the direction of contextual elaboration using a semantic relatedness judgment task. In Experiment 1, Japanese university students read English sentences where target unknown words were semantically elaborated by prior contextual information (forward lexical…

  16. Intentionality as Measured in the Persistence and Elaboration of Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Leavens, David A.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2005-01-01

    In human infancy, 2 criteria for intentional communication are (a) persistence in and (b) elaboration of communication when initial attempts to communicate fail. Twenty-nine chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were presented with both desirable (a banana) and undesirable food (commercial primate chow). Three conditions were administered: (a) the banana was delivered (successful communication), (b) half of the banana was delivered (partially successful communication), and (c) the chow was delivered ...

  17. Acquisition and elaboration of superficial three-dimensional images in plastic and reconstructive surgery: Applications

    Alfano C; Mezzana Paolo; Scuderi N

    2005-01-01

    Since 1970, as computed axial tomography machines became easily available and became more sophisticated, image acquisition techniques and analysis improved, developed rapidly and became very useful in medical diagnosis. Today it is possible to examine either the anatomic and functional aspects of deep body organs and tissues including all the minute details as well as their morphological relations with superficial structures. Through precise graphic elaboration programs we can obtain informat...

  18. Elaboration Likelihood Model and an Analysis of the Contexts of Its Application

    Aslıhan Kıymalıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), which supports the existence of two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral routes, has been one of the major models on persuasion. As the number of studies in the Turkish literature on ELM is limited, a detailed explanation of the model together with a comprehensive literature review was considered to be contributory for this gap. The findings of the review reveal that the model was mostly used in marketing and advertising researches, that the concept...

  19. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categ...

  20. Elaborating the Concepts of Part and Whole in Variation Theory: The Case of Learning Chinese Characters

    Lam, Ho Cheong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the concepts of part and whole in Ference Marton's variation theory for dealing with how learners come to understand something of a whole as made up of its parts. Understanding of the parts and the whole is more difficult than expected; as the whole may have an influence on the parts, the nature of…

  1. An Elaboration and Analysis of Two Policy Implementation Frameworks to Better Understand Project Exile

    Collins, Matthew Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    An Elaboration and Analysis of Two Policy Implementation Frameworks to Better Understand Project Exile Matthew Lloyd Collins (ABSTRACT) In 1997, on average every 40 to 45 hours criminals either shot or killed a victim in the City of Richmond, Virginia. This resulted in 122 firearm homicides in that year alone. This gun-related violent crime epidemic so terrorized law-abiding citizens that many of them became hostages in their own homes. In response to this horrifi...

  2. Paradigms of the Concepts and Principles Substantiating the Elaboration and Presentation of the Financial Reporting Situations

    Victor Munteanu; Mihaela Berechet (Dragnea)

    2014-01-01

    The present article deals with a number of existing paradigms of the concepts and principles substantiating the elaboration and presentation of the financial reporting situations throughout the world. There are presented and commented the accounting postulates, principles, conventions and doctrines, available in different accounting systems, both across the European continent, and across the American continent. The present article concludes with the authors’ comments on the accounting concept...

  3. Elaboration of procedure for analysis of industrial and economic activities: the experience of LUKoil petroleum company

    The research and engineering centre within LUKoil company for economic studies has elaborated a method permitting analysis of production and economic activities of the LUKOIL petroleum production complex. The method envisages the following trends of analysis: general assessment of production and economic activities, analysis of basic production assets, manpower and wages use, net cost of marketable products, the state of finances, as well as specific features in analyzing the activities undertaken by joint ventures

  4. THE LAYER “HYDROGEOLOGY” NECESSARY FOR ELABORATING LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPS USING GIS

    GABRIELA BIALI

    2012-01-01

    THE LAYER “HYDROGEOLOGY” NECESSARY FOR ELABORATING LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPS USING GIS. Drawing up a detailed risk map for the landslide of a slope is based on a complex research activity to establish the area indicators resulted from the instability process (relief, petrography and terrain litology, stratification, hydrogeology, anterior and precursory physic-geologic phenomena, present and perspective use of the terrain, hydrologic regime, etc.). In this context, in the preset paper we try to a...

  5. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  6. Elaboration and characterization of environmental properties of TiO2 plasma sprayed coatings

    Toma, L; Keller, N; Bertrand, G.; Klein, D; C. Coddet

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an attractive material for numerous technological applications such as photocatalytical applications. These materials can in some conditions have the ability to allow the environmental purification of air and water by the decomposition and removal of harmful substances, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC), benzene compounds, NOx, SO2, etc. Our work was focused on the elaboration and the evaluation of the environmental properties of titanium dioxide coatings by ...

  7. Evidence for a low-compressibility carbon nitride polymorph elaborated at ambient pressure and mild temperature

    Goglio, Graziella; Foy, Denis; Pechev, Stanislav; Majimel, Jérôme; Demazeau, Gérard; Guignot, Nicolas; Andrault, Denis

    2009-01-01

    International audience Superhard materials like diamond are essential for abrasive or cutting tool applications. In this way, carbon nitrides are of relevant interest because they are expected to exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, high values of bulk modulus being predicted. A smart and simple method was used to synthesize carbon nitrides and allowed elaborating a low-compressibility polymorph. The processing consists in the decomposition of commercial thiosemicarbazide (H2NC(S)N2H...

  8. Contributions of attention and elaboration to associative encoding in young and older adults.

    Kamp, Siri-Maria; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-08-01

    Episodic memory declines during healthy aging, with a particular reduction in the ability to encode associations. We investigated the role of alternating attentional focus between two items of a pair in order to generate associative links, as well as working memory based elaborative processes in this age-related memory deficit. While their eye gaze behavior and ERPs were recorded, 19 young and 22 elderly (64-79 years) participants used interactive imagery to encode pairs of spatially separated objects. In a subsequent recognition test, older adults showed a larger reduction in associative than item memory, relative to young adults. For both age groups the number of eye gaze transitions between objects at encoding was correlated with associative recognition performance, suggesting that alternating attentional focus between items aids the generation of relational links necessary to encode associative memories. However, the relative time course of eye gaze transitions over the encoding interval for trials that were subsequently retrieved vs. forgotten differed between age groups. Furthermore, the ERPs of older adults exhibited strongly reduced frontal slow wave "subsequent memory effects", suggesting that they engaged to a lesser extent in working memory-based elaboration of the associative link. Based on these results, we propose that older adults exhibit a reduced tendency to generate and elaborate on internal representations of inter-item associative links. Rather, they use a less effective encoding strategy that disproportionally relies on the external stimulus display, resulting in lower associative memory performance. PMID:26115601

  9. The Impact of Elaborated Feedback on Competency Assessment of IT Professionals

    Elena Alexandra TOADER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedback represents an important component in the process of assessing the competencies of the IT professionals as it allows to evaluate their performance and helps their managers to personalize the learning content according to employees’ needs and profiles. In the current paper we propose a computer-based formative feedback framework that provides personalized feedback for the technical employees. Extensive research has been carried out focusing on formative assessment aspects that includes the elaborate feedback. An online competency assessment tool was designed and it is going to be implemented in order to measure the professionals’ performance in software organizations. The subjects of the study are going to be software developers, working in departments of IT Romanian companies. Their performance is going to be evaluated through the competency-based assessment tool. At the end of the assessment process, an elaborate feedback is provided in order to improve their current level of competency acquired. The current paper reveals the role of the computer-based formative assessment within software organizations as well as the importance of an elaborate feedback that can improve the employees’ knowledge and skills.

  10. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials

  11. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM)

  12. The influence of the structure of the metal load removal from liquid steel in electric arc furnaces

    Pǎcurar, Cristina; Hepuť, Teodor; Crisan, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    One of the main technical and economic indicators in the steel industry and steel respectively the development it is the removal of liquid steel. This indicator depends on several factors, namely technology: the structure and the quality metal load, the degree of preparedness of it, and the content of non-metallic material accompanying the unit of drawing up, the technology for the elaboration, etc. research has been taken into account in drawing up steel electric arc furnace type spring EBT (Electric Bottom taping), seeking to load and removing components of liquid steel. Metal load has been composed of eight metal grades, in some cases with great differences in terms of quality. Data obtained were processed in the EXCEL spreadsheet programs and MATLAB, the results obtained being presented both graphically and analytically. On the basis of the results obtained may opt for a load optimal structure metal.

  13. Steel strip quality upgrading through optimization of cold rolling schedules in continuous mills

    Garber; E.; Kozhevnikova; I.; Ganichev; P.; Ivoditov; V.; Traino; A.; Kuznetsov; V.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of research into the cold rolling theory and practice, a complex of mathematical models and model-based process solutions has been elaborated to improve quality of cold rolled steel strips and reduce energy consumption. The use of the above designs made it possible to establish a number of new regularities and employ them for cold rolling practice improvement and cold-rolled strip quality upgrading.

  14. Critical points of hypoeutectoid steel - prediction of the pearlite dissolution finish temperature Ac1f

    B. Pawłowski

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of this work is to present possibility of calculation of pearlite dissolution finish temperature Ac1f during heating of hypoeutoctoid steels.Design/methodology/approach: The presented multiple linear regression equations for calculating the Ac1f temperature are based on experimental data set containing chemical composition and values of critical temperatures obtained by use of the dilatometric technique at the own laboratory only.Findings: The elaborated multiple linear regression eq...

  15. The oxidation and reduction of chromium of stainless steels in an eletric arc furnace

    Arh, B.; F. Tehovnik

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation of chromium during the elaboration of stainless steels occurs with oxygen in solution blown inthe melt and with oxides in the slag. A higher content of silicon in the furnace charge decreases the extent of oxidation of chromium, however, the efficient reduction of chromium from the slag is of essential importance for a minimal loss of chromium. In this survey, the theory of the oxidation of chromium, its reduction from the slag and the conditions for the formation of foaming sla...

  16. Effects of Nb, Ti and V on recrystallization kinetics of austenite in microalloyed steels

    M. Opiela; W. Ozgowicz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The work presents research results of impact of Nb, Ti and V microadditions on flow stress, recrystallization kinetics and microstructure of newly elaborated steels assigned for production of forged machine parts, using the method of thermo-mechanical treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The study was performed with the use of Gleeble 3800 simulator. Stressstrain curves were determined during continuous compression test in a temperature range from 900 to 1100°C and at a strain rate...

  17. Modelling and Dynamic Response of Steel Reticulated Shell under Blast Loading

    Ximei Zhai; Yonghui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Explicit finite element programme LS-DYNA was used to simulate a long-span steel reticulated shell under blast loading to investigate the structural dynamic responses in this paper. The elaborate finite element model of the Kiewitt-8 single-layer reticulated shell with span of 40 m subjected to central blast loading was established and all the process from the detonation of the explosive charge to the demolition, including the propagation of the blast wave and its interaction with structure w...

  18. Manganese in sintered steels

    Based on the review of papers the results of the investigations of sintered manganese steels are presented. The effect of additional alloying elements such as copper, molybdenum and silicon on dimensional changes, density, tensile strength, hardness and elongation of such steels are also reported. (author)

  19. Peripheral androgen receptors sustain the acrobatics and fine motor skill of elaborate male courtship.

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Longpre, Kristy M; Chew, Jennifer G; Fusani, Leonida; Schlinger, Barney A

    2013-09-01

    Androgenic hormones regulate many aspects of animal social behavior, including the elaborate display routines on which many species rely for advertisement and competition. One way that this might occur is through peripheral effects of androgens, particularly on skeletal muscles that control complex movements and postures of the body and its limbs. However, the specific contribution of peripheral androgen-muscle interactions to the performance of elaborate behavioral displays in the natural world has never been examined. We study this issue in one of the only natural physiological models of animal acrobatics: the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus). In this tropical bird, males compete with each other and court females by producing firecracker-like wing- snaps and by rapidly dancing among saplings over the forest floor. To test how activation of peripheral androgen receptors (AR) influences this display, we treat reproductively active adult male birds with the peripherally selective antiandrogen bicalutamide (BICAL) and observe the effects of this manipulation on male display performance. We not only validate the peripheral specificity of BICAL in this species, but we also show that BICAL treatment reduces the frequency with which adult male birds perform their acrobatic display maneuvers and disrupts the overall structure and fine-scale patterning of these birds' main complex wing-snap sonation. In addition, this manipulation has no effect on the behavioral metrics associated with male motivation to display. Together, our findings help differentiate the various effects of peripheral and central AR on the performance of a complex sociosexual behavioral phenotype by indicating that peripheral AR can optimize the motor skills necessary for the production of an elaborate animal display. PMID:23782945

  20. Elaboration of mini plates with U-Mo for irradiation in a high flux reactor

    Full text: International new efforts for the reconversion of HEU in research, testing and radioisotopes production reactors, have greatly incremented U-Mo fuels qualification activities. These qualifications require the resolution of undesired interaction at high fluxes between UMo particles and the aluminum matrix in the case of dispersed fuels and the development of U-Mo monolithic fuels. These efforts are being manifested in the planning and execution of additional series of irradiation tests of mini plates and full size plates. Recently, CNEA has elaborated mini plates with different proposals for the irradiation at the ATR reactor (250 MWTH, maximum thermal neutron flux 1015 n.cm-2.seg-1) at Idaho National Laboratory, USA. Uranium 7% (w/w) molybdenum (U-7Mo) particles were coated with silicon. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of silane and high temperature diffusion of silicon were used. Hydrided, milled and dehydrated (HMD) particles heat treated at 1000 C degrees during four hours and centrifugal atomized powder were coated and the results compared. Mini plates were elaborated with both kinds of particles. Mini plates were also elaborated with U-7Mo and silicon particles dispersed in the aluminium matrix. Monolithic mini plates were also developed by co lamination of U-7Mo with a Zircaloy-4 cladding. The different steps of this process are detailed and the method is shown to be versatile, can be easily scaled up and is performed with small modifications of usual equipment in fuel plants. The irradiation experiment is called RERTR-7A, includes a total of 32 mini plates and it is planed to finalize by mid 2006. (author)

  1. Homogeneous luminescent stain etched porous silicon elaborated by a new multi-step stain etching method

    This paper presents a new method to produce porous silicon which derived from the conventional stain etching (SE) method. But instead of one etching step that leads to formation of porous layer, the substrate is subjected to an initial etching step with a duration Δt0 followed by a number of supplementary short steps that differs from a layer to another. The duration of the initial step is just the necessary time to have a homogenous porous layer on the whole surface of the substrate. It was found that this duration is largely dependent of the doping type and level of the silicon substrate. The duration of supplementary steps was kept as short as possible to prevent the formation of bubbles on the silicon surface during silicon dissolution which leads generally to inhomogeneous porous layers. It is found from surface investigation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that multistep stain etching (MS-SE) method allows to produce homogeneous porous silicon nanostructures compared to the conventional SE method. The chemical composition of the obtained porous layers has been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows that porous layers produced by SE and MS-SE methods have comparable spectra indicating that those layers are composed of nanocrystallites with comparable sizes. But the intensity of photoluminescence of layer elaborated by MS-SE method is higher than that elaborated by the SE method. Total reflectance characteristics show that the presented method allows the production of porous silicon layers with controllable thicknesses and optical properties. Results for porous silicon layers elaborated on heavily doped n-type silicon show that the reflectance can be reduced to values less than 3% in the major part of the spectrum.

  2. Application of sol-gel process on the elaboration of SnO2 based ceramics

    The electrical, optical and chemical peculiar properties of SnO2 confers it-self some potential application. The densification difficulty during sintering of SnO2 compromises its elaboration by ceramic conventional process. In this work the preparation of SnO2 ceramics by sol-gel process was investigated. Some parameters envolved on the colloidal stability, sol-gel transition and drying process were analysed. The obtained materials were characterized by rheological, X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and pores size distribution measurements. The results show that a considerable densification during sintering at 400 and 6000C was obtained. (author)

  3. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    Martins, Renato Parsekian; Caldas, Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo; Ribeiro, Alexandre Antonio; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Roberto Hideo SHIMIZU; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS) hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1), BETA FLEXYTM (G2), BETA III WIRETM (G3) and BETA CNATM (G4). Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation ...

  4. Main ideas to consider in the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical method.

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2010-01-01

    In this article are exposed the main ideas that has been used for the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical process, with the aim of being used as a teaching content in the Medicine career. Such ideas are: the necessity of a total correspondence between the process method and its objective, the conception of the medical attention process as a decision-taking process, the necessity of highlighting the human dimension of the medical practice, and the convenience of counting wit...

  5. The Effect of Mini-Passage-Based Elaborative Rehearsal on English Vocabulary Learning

    张艳琼

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.The Present Situation of English Vocabulary Learning in Ordinary Universities In the present English vocabulary learning among non-English majors in China,lack of scientific memorization metheds is still a fundamental problem to college students,and vocabulary is still learned in the traditional way.Then,it is necessary for us to suggest some elaborative rehearsal strategies and test the effect of these strategies in English learning practice.As a book titled as Short-Passages for College English Vocabulary(SPFCEV)edited by Prof.

  6. Elaboration of the technology of forming a conical product of sheet metal

    W. Matysiak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a general knowledge about spinning draw pieces of sheets, one of multi-operational processes of spinning a sheet metal conical product without machining. The objective of the work was to elaborate both the technology of forming conical products of sheet metal and execution of technological tests as well as to determine the technological parameters for the process of spinning a conical insert. As a result of the investigations, the products with improved mechanical properties, stricter execution tolerance and low roughness have been obtained. The series of 200 prototype conical inserts for the shipbuilding industry have been made.

  7. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  8. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  9. Simulation, elaboration and analysis of inter-digitated back contacts photovoltaic cells

    Solar energy is the most promising and powerful energy source among renewable energies. Photovoltaic electricity is obtained by direct transformation of the sunlight into electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. The objective of this work is to develop photovoltaic cells with back inter-digitated contacts. In the first chapter, we recall the principle of operation and the fundamental parameters of a photovoltaic cell. In a second part, we explain specificities of the inter-digitated back-contact solar cells, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of such cells. In the second chapter we study the operation of inter-digitated back-contacts solar cells by two dimensional numerical simulation in order to optimize the geometry and doping profiles of the cell. The third chapter relates to the techniques and the methods of characterization of photovoltaic devices and components. In the fourth chapter, we describe the elaboration of inter-digitated back-contact cells. Three technological processes are presented in order to develop a simple technology for cells realization. In particular, we develop the auto-aligned technological process, which enables to elaborate the cells by using only one lithography step. In the last chapter we examine various approaches to reduce the surface recombination: SiO2, silicon nitride deposited by UVCVD, hydrogen annealing, etc.. (author)

  10. Elaboration of metallic and composite fillings by plasma transferred arc. Process analysis and tribological study

    The experimental part of this research thesis addresses the parametric study of two surface filling processes (by plasma transferred arc, and by plasma arc projection followed by a coating remelting by electron beam), the elaboration by plasma transferred arc and the metallurgical characterization of fillings of nickel base alloys and composite materials made of tungsten carbides dispersed in a nickel matrix, and the characterization of fretting wear of the so-elaborated fillings in aqueous environment. The results show that the plasma transferred arc filling technique allows coating quality and microstructure to be controlled by adjusting the mass energy of the transferred arc. Besides, this technique results in a very good control of nickel alloy coatings. The various studied composites show that it is better to use a matrix with very few alloying elements or pre-coated carbides in order to avoid any cracking phenomenon. The content of dispersed carbides must not be greater than 60 per cent in weight. The best wear behaviour is obtained with polyhedral tungsten carbides dispersed within a low alloyed nickel matrix

  11. Fast elaboration of diagnostic data for real time control in FTU tokamak

    Nowak S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic controller developed for MHD instability control on FTU via the real time (RT EC launcher [1, 2] is based on the a-priori estimate of the instabilities location and on the fast elaboration of the stream of diagnostic data. A fast data acquisition system, based on existing standard FTU diagnostics, collects thermal and magnetic signals by a 12-channels ECE polychromator [3] and by a set of 22 Mirnov coils respectively. Moreover, the EC time waveform from directional couplers along the transmission line is acquired as well. This set of signals is processed in a timescale significantly shorter than the typical time step of the controller (1ms. RT elaboration algorithms aim at supplying the controller [4] with reliable information about the existence and the spatial location of the instability and about the actual ECRH deposition layer in plasma. The main algorithms blocks are ECE-ECE, ECE-Mirnov and ECE-ECRH cross-correlation, and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition of Mirnov signals. The capabilities of effective detection, false positive resilience, and mode discrimination will be discussed through the application to actual plasma data.

  12. Methodological guide for the follow-up and elaboration of performance assessments of a methanization plant

    This guide aims at giving indications required for a good implementation of an exploitation follow-up of a methanization plant. More precisely, it aims at foreseeing equipment necessary to the follow-up of installation construction, at preparing the operator to the follow-up and command of his installation, at elaborating operation assessments and performance interpretations, at proposing solutions and/or improvements. The described follow-up process can be applied to all the process stages (from receipt to by-product valorization), and addresses technical as well as economic aspects. Thus, four types of assessments are made: technical, energetic, environmental, and social-economic. This guide comprises five parts: a presentation of follow-up objectives (information to be looked for, benefits and drawbacks, follow-up level to be implemented), the follow-up methodology, follow-up assessments (what they are and how to elaborate them), practical sheets (practical presentation of techniques, typical Excel spreadsheets), and a glossary which explains the main technical terms

  13. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  14. Clarifying the best interests standard: the elaborative and enumerative strategies in public policy-making.

    Lim, Chong-Ming; Dunn, Michael C; Chin, Jacqueline J

    2016-08-01

    One recurring criticism of the best interests standard concerns its vagueness, and thus the inadequate guidance it offers to care providers. The lack of an agreed definition of 'best interests', together with the fact that several suggested considerations adopted in legislation or professional guidelines for doctors do not obviously apply across different groups of persons, result in decisions being made in murky waters. In response, bioethicists have attempted to specify the best interests standard, to reduce the indeterminacy surrounding medical decisions. In this paper, we discuss the bioethicists' response in relation to the state's possible role in clarifying the best interests standard. We identify and characterise two clarificatory strategies employed by bioethicists -elaborative and enumerative-and argue that the state should adopt the latter. Beyond the practical difficulties of the former strategy, a state adoption of it would inevitably be prejudicial in a pluralistic society. Given the gravity of best interests decisions, and the delicate task of respecting citizens with different understandings of best interests, only the enumerative strategy is viable. We argue that this does not commit the state to silence in providing guidance to and supporting healthcare providers, nor does it facilitate the abuse of the vulnerable. Finally, we address two methodological worries about adopting this approach at the state level. The adoption of the enumerative strategy is not defeatist in attitude, nor does it eventually collapse into (a form of) the elaborative strategy. PMID:27145811

  15. Simulation, elaboration and analysis of inter-digitated back-contacts photovoltaic cells

    Solar energy is the most promising and powerful energy source among renewable energies. Photovoltaic electricity is obtained by direct transformation of the sunlight into electricity by means of photovoltaic cells. The objective of this work is to develop photovoltaic cells with back inter-digitated contacts. In the first chapter, we recall the principle of operation and the fundamental parameters of a photovoltaic cell. In a second part, we explain specificities of the inter-digitated back-contact solar cells, as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of such cells. In the second chapter we study the operation of inter-digitated back-contacts solar cells by two dimensional numerical simulation in order to optimize the geometry and doping profiles of the cell. The third chapter relates to the techniques and the methods of characterization of photovoltaic devices and components. In the fourth chapter, we describe the elaboration of inter-digitated back-contact cells. Three technological processes are presented in order to develop a simple technology for cells realization. In particular, we develop the auto-aligned technological process, which enables to elaborate the cells by using only one lithography step. In the last chapter we examine various approaches to reduce the surface recombination: SiO2, silicon nitride deposited by UVCVD, hydrogen annealing, etc... (author)

  16. Conceptual design of a system to help the elaboration of healthcare waste management plans

    Nowadays the daily amount of wastes generated in the world is enormous. There are several categories of wastes with specific characteristics, some of them hazardous. These features, when associated with not properly waste disposal can put at risk both life quality and natural resources of present-day as well as future generations. From 10% to 25% of the wastes generated by health care facilities require special handling care due to their physical, biological, chemical, or radiological characteristics. This requires, among other things, the implementation of specific measures for their environmentally safe management. These measures shall be provided in a formal document, named Health care Waste Management Plan, which shall be written by all health care providers. In Brazil, general guides for elaboration of these documents are well defined by regulatory bodies and technical advices. At federal level, these directives are given by the following organizations: National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA, National Council for the Environment - CONAMA, and Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. At CDTN (Center of Nuclear Technology Development), as part of a doctoral thesis at State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), a methodology that systematizes the management of the several activities involved with hazardous and radioactive wastes was developed, in order to be used as a guidance tool for this task. The objective of this present work is to adapt this methodology to health care waste management and present a conceptual design of a semi-expert system to help the elaboration of Health care Waste Management Plans. (author)

  17. Anxiety Elaboration Strategies in the Response Sequences of Scenes in the “Once-Upon-A-Time…” Projective Technique

    Pires, Rute; Fagulha, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    In this study we proceed to the identification of four anxiety elaboration strategies in the response sequences of scenes in the “Once-upon-a-time…” projective technique. A strategy which corresponds to the negation of the anxiety emotion – Negation –, two strategies which represent different means of positive dealing with anxiety – Operational Adaptative Strategy and Emotional Equilibration Strategy –, and a fourth strategy which represents the failure of the elaboration of this emotion – Im...

  18. Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties of Shape Memory Alloys TI50-NI50 Elaborated by Arc Melting and by Powder Metallurgy

    Olier, P.; Brachet, J.; Guenin, G.

    1995-01-01

    This study was focussed on the elaboration and transformation of Ti50Ni50 shape memory alloys in relation to structural and thermomechanical properties. An original method for producing TiNi alloys by powder metallurgy (PM), through combustion synthesis, was developed. After hot extrusion, intermetallic rods without porosity were obtained. Microstructural and thermomechanical properties of products obtained by this method were systematically compared to those of some alloys elaborated by the ...

  19. Correlation of Cytokine Elaboration with Mononuclear Cell Adhesion to Platelet Storage Bag Plastic Polymers: a Pilot Study

    ElKattan, Ikbal; Anderson, James; Yun, J. K.; Colton, E.; Yomtovian, Roslyn

    1999-01-01

    The basis for many febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions associated with platelet transfusion therapy is cytokine elaboration and accumulation in the storage bag, which correlate with the leukocyte content and the length of platelet storage. We propose that a possible additional variable in the elaboration and accumulation of cytokines is the differential adhesion of mononuclear cells to the plastic substrate of the platelet storage bag. We hypothesize that mononu...

  20. Examining an Elaborated Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating Among College Women: The Roles of Social Comparison and Body Surveillance

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G.

    2014-01-01

    Social comparison (i.e., body, eating, exercise) and body surveillance were tested as mediators of the thin-ideal internalization-body dissatisfaction relationship in the context of an elaborated sociocultural model of disordered eating. Participants were 219 college women who completed two questionnaire sessions 3 months apart. The cross-sectional elaborated sociocultural model (i.e., including social comparison and body surveillance as mediators of the thin-ideal internalization-body dissat...

  1. BORONIZING OF STEEL

    Arzum ULUKÖY

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Boride layer has many advantages in comparison with traditional hardening methods. The boride layer has high hardening value and keeps it's hardeness at high temperatures, and it also shows favorible properties, such as the resistance to wear, oxidation and corrosion. The process can be applied at variety of materials, for instance steel, cast iron, cast steel, nickel and cobalt alloys and cermets. In this rewiew, boronizing process properties, boride layer on steel surfaces and specifications and the factors that effect boride layer are examined

  2. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  3. Life after Steel

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  4. Elaboration of pellets of LiF: Mg, Cu, P and its dosimetric properties

    The LiF: Mg, Cu, P is at the moment in the entire world one of the TL materials of more interest, by its equivalence with the tissue, as well as for its high sensitivity, which is 25 to 35 times greater than of the TLD-100 of Harshaw (USA). In our laboratory dosemeters of this material have been developed in form of sinterized pellets. The importance of these new dosemeters in pellet form is due to that in this form its manipulation is facilitated. Due to its high sensitivity, these dosemeters result to be those but appropriate to measure the ionizing radiations, in intervals of extremely low dose. In this report the method of elaboration of the pellets, as well as its main dosimetric characteristics are presented. (Author)

  5. Final repository symposium 2014. Elaboration and consequences of final repository exploration

    June 23 - 25 the second Symposium for Final Repository took place in Duesseldorf, having been organised by Aachen Institute for Nuclear Training (AiNT). Around 90 participants, national and international, were given the opportunity to discuss contents and consequences of the site location for final repository of thermal active resp. highly radioactive waste. The Symposium introduces the dialogue of implementing the site selection law (StandAG). Through 18 lectures within 4 topics as well as 2 panel discussions an appealing and many-faceted elaboration of the topic ''Repository Exploration'' was given. Concepts of final repository from abroad and as well the juridical controversial interrogations of StandAG were regarded. Consensus of the session: for site selection there needs to be a negotiation process of safety, duration and participation. Through Prof. Dr. Armin Grunwald and Prof. Dr. Bruno Thomauske two members of the commission appointed by the German Bundestag and the Federal Assembly were participating as speakers.

  6. Main ideas to consider in the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical method.

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article are exposed the main ideas that has been used for the elaboration of a new theoretical model of the clinical process, with the aim of being used as a teaching content in the Medicine career. Such ideas are: the necessity of a total correspondence between the process method and its objective, the conception of the medical attention process as a decision-taking process, the necessity of highlighting the human dimension of the medical practice, and the convenience of counting with a synthetic representation of the clinical method that facilitates its learning and comprehension. These elements will make possible that the clinical method model facilitates the learning and posterior performance of a more effective and efficient medical attention process, with the following betterment of the medical services’ quality and of the patients’ satisfaction.

  7. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects. PMID:10840911

  8. Organo-silica-titania nanocomposite elaborated by sol-gel processing with tunable optical properties

    Franc, J. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, CNRS-UMR 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42100 Saint-Etienne, 18 rue Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France)]. E-mail: janyce.franc@univ-st-etienne.fr; Blanc, D. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, CNRS-UMR 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42100 Saint-Etienne, 18 rue Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Zerroukhi, A. [Laboratoire de Rheologie des Matieres Plastiques, UMR CNRS 5156, 23 rue Paul Michelon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Chalamet, Y. [Laboratoire de Rheologie des Matieres Plastiques, UMR CNRS 5156, 23 rue Paul Michelon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Last, A. [Research Center Karlsruhe, Institute for Microstructure Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Destouches, N. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, CNRS-UMR 5516, Universite Jean Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42100 Saint-Etienne, 18 rue Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2006-04-15

    Organically modified silica-titania thin films were elaborated by a sol-gel process and UV assisted photopolymerisation. Two different chelating agents, methacrylic acid (MAA) and a {beta}-diketone (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl acetoacetone (MAEA)) were compared in this work. It was demonstrated that the choice of the chelating agent is a key parameter to increase the molar ratio Si:Ti and therefore raise the refractive index of the material. {beta}-Diketone has proven to be a good candidate to stabilise the titanium precursor and its effects were compared to those observed with methacrylic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the material formation and modification upon irradiation. M-lines spectroscopy was used to measure the refractive index of the material that varied between 1.51 and 1.59 depending on the titanium molar concentration. Optical properties were analysed in view of applications in the field of micro-optics and optical coatings.

  9. Economic tools for biodiversity. An elaboration of TEEB recommendations with regard to the Taskforce Biodiversity

    The working group on Economic Instruments of the Biodiversity and Natural Resources Task Force addressed the question how the recommendations of the report of the United Nations 'The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity' (TEEB) can be realized in the Netherlands. A selection of topics has been made for which policy proposals are developed which might be promising and can lead to a better protection of the biodiversity. The following proposals were investigated and/or elaborated: decrease of the social discount rate; further greening of the tax system; import levy on bulk commodities; taxes on non-sustainable wood; levy on the use of open space; differential tax on animal proteins; and a revision of biomass incentives.

  10. Re—usable Templates for Documenting the Elaboration and Architectural Design of the CMS Software

    J.P.Wellisch; L.Tuura; 等

    2001-01-01

    Modern standards and definitions of deliverables for software development are provided by by various standards like PSS-05,CMMI,ECSS,V,Rational Unified process or SPICE(ISO 15504),Modern document templates and the corresponding documents are based on atomic shells that cross-link,and can be subsequently assembled into a set of complete documents;views of the information in the shells.This makes the information easy to maintain,and enables selective views of the documentation.We will present a catalogue of document templates that has been developed in the context of the CMS CAFE forum,as well as their cross-linkage,using UML as the modelling language The templates allow for documenting the elaboration and architectural design phases of software development,They can be used as the basis for establishing and documenting architecture,while establishing trace-ability to use-cases,requirements,constraints,and important technological choices in a maintainable manner.

  11. Contribution to the elaboration and implementation of LEP-L3 second level microcoded Trigger

    This thesis is devoted to the elaboration of the L3 second level trigger which is based on the dedicated programmable XOP processor. This system will reduce the trigger rate by a factor of ten and will ensure that the hardwired level-one processors function correctly. The present document describes all developments that L.A.P.P. is engaged in from the system design up to the complete experimental set up, especially: - The hardware development of the fast input memories as well as the FASTBUS interface unit which allows the microprocessor XOP to run as a performant FASTBUS Master, - the associated software developments, - the implementation of a VME test system dedicated to all control tasks

  12. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials (Chinese version)

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F;

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate that...... to write or appraise trial reports. A CONSORT explanation and elaboration article was published in 2001 alongside the 2001 version of the CONSORT statement. After an expert meeting in January 2007, the CONSORT statement has been further revised and is published as the CONSORT 2010 Statement. This...... dissemination of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT...

  13. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials

    Moher, David; Hopewell, Sally; Schulz, Kenneth F;

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate that...... to write or appraise trial reports. A CONSORT explanation and elaboration article was published in 2001 alongside the 2001 version of the CONSORT statement. After an expert meeting in January 2007, the CONSORT statement has been further revised and is published as the CONSORT 2010 Statement. This...... dissemination of the CONSORT statement-has also been extensively revised. It presents the meaning and rationale for each new and updated checklist item providing examples of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies. Several examples of flow diagrams are included. The CONSORT...

  14. Elaboration of training and methodological guidance for handling with radioactive waste issues in Kazakhstan

    With a great potential for the development and civilian use of the uranium industrial complex in Kazakhstan, there are several existing obstacles in the form of public opinion which still possesses a strong ''radiation phobia'' as a result of past military activity in the Republic. It is not enough to have talks on the radio or articles in newspapers from famous authoritative individuals to overcome this radiation phobia. Systematic education of the public is necessary in order to cultivate a new generation of ecological specialists and business specialists. Therefore, it is necessary to create a plan to carry out this daunting task. In this paper, the creation of such a plan is elaborated. (author)

  15. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  16. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    Renato Parsekian Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1, BETA FLEXYTM (G2, BETA III WIRETM (G3 and BETA CNATM (G4. Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation from 5 mm of the initial activation. The moment-to-force (MF ratio, the overlapping of the vertical extensions of the TLSs and the load-deflection (LD ratio were also calculated. To complement the results, the Young's module (YM of each wire was determined by the slope of the load-deflection graph of a tensile test. The surface chemical composition was also evaluated by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results: All groups, except for G2, produced similar force levels initially. G3 produced the highest LD rates and G1 and G4 had similar amounts of overlap of the vertical extensions of the TLSs in "neutral position". G1 and G3 delivered the highest levels of moments, and G2 and G3 produced the highest MF ratios. b-Ti wires from G3 produced the highest YM and all groups showed similar composition, except for G2. Conclusion: The four beta-titanium wires analyzed produced different force systems when used in a more elaborate design due to the fact that each wire responds differently to bends.

  17. Combining classical and molecular approaches elaborates on the complexity of mechanisms underpinning anterior regeneration.

    Deborah J Evans

    Full Text Available The current model of planarian anterior regeneration evokes the establishment of low levels of Wnt signalling at anterior wounds, promoting anterior polarity and subsequent elaboration of anterior fate through the action of the TALE class homeodomain PREP. The classical observation that decapitations positioned anteriorly will regenerate heads more rapidly than posteriorly positioned decapitations was among the first to lead to the proposal of gradients along an anteroposterior (AP axis in a developmental context. An explicit understanding of this phenomenon is not included in the current model of anterior regeneration. This raises the question what the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this temporal gradient is, whether it can be explained by current models and whether understanding the gradient will shed light on regenerative events. Differences in anterior regeneration rate are established very early after amputation and this gradient is dependent on the activity of Hedgehog (Hh signalling. Animals induced to produce two tails by either Smed-APC-1(RNAi or Smed-ptc(RNAi lose anterior fate but form previously described ectopic anterior brain structures. Later these animals form peri-pharyngeal brain structures, which in Smed-ptc(RNAi grow out of the body establishing a new A/P axis. Combining double amputation and hydroxyurea treatment with RNAi experiments indicates that early ectopic brain structures are formed by uncommitted stem cells that have progressed through S-phase of the cell cycle at the time of amputation. Our results elaborate on the current simplistic model of both AP axis and brain regeneration. We find evidence of a gradient of hedgehog signalling that promotes posterior fate and temporarily inhibits anterior regeneration. Our data supports a model for anterior brain regeneration with distinct early and later phases of regeneration. Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new

  18. Genome-wide analysis of acetivibrio cellulolyticus provides a blueprint of an elaborate cellulosome system

    Dassa Bareket

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial degradation of plant cell walls and its conversion to sugars and other byproducts is a key step in the carbon cycle on Earth. In order to process heterogeneous plant-derived biomass, specialized anaerobic bacteria use an elaborate multi-enzyme cellulosome complex to synergistically deconstruct cellulosic substrates. The cellulosome was first discovered in the cellulolytic thermophile, Clostridium thermocellum, and much of our knowledge of this intriguing type of protein composite is based on the cellulosome of this environmentally and biotechnologically important bacterium. The recently sequenced genome of the cellulolytic mesophile, Acetivibrio cellulolyticus, allows detailed comparison of the cellulosomes of these two select cellulosome-producing bacteria. Results Comprehensive analysis of the A. cellulolyticus draft genome sequence revealed a very sophisticated cellulosome system. Compared to C. thermocellum, the cellulosomal architecture of A. cellulolyticus is much more extensive, whereby the genome encodes for twice the number of cohesin- and dockerin-containing proteins. The A. cellulolyticus genome has thus evolved an inflated number of 143 dockerin-containing genes, coding for multimodular proteins with distinctive catalytic and carbohydrate-binding modules that play critical roles in biomass degradation. Additionally, 41 putative cohesin modules distributed in 16 different scaffoldin proteins were identified in the genome, representing a broader diversity and modularity than those of Clostridium thermocellum. Although many of the A. cellulolyticus scaffoldins appear in unconventional modular combinations, elements of the basic structural scaffoldins are maintained in both species. In addition, both species exhibit similarly elaborate cell-anchoring and cellulosome-related gene- regulatory elements. Conclusions This work portrays a particularly intricate, cell-surface cellulosome system in A. cellulolyticus

  19. Combining classical and molecular approaches elaborates on the complexity of mechanisms underpinning anterior regeneration.

    Evans, Deborah J; Owlarn, Suthira; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2011-01-01

    The current model of planarian anterior regeneration evokes the establishment of low levels of Wnt signalling at anterior wounds, promoting anterior polarity and subsequent elaboration of anterior fate through the action of the TALE class homeodomain PREP. The classical observation that decapitations positioned anteriorly will regenerate heads more rapidly than posteriorly positioned decapitations was among the first to lead to the proposal of gradients along an anteroposterior (AP) axis in a developmental context. An explicit understanding of this phenomenon is not included in the current model of anterior regeneration. This raises the question what the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this temporal gradient is, whether it can be explained by current models and whether understanding the gradient will shed light on regenerative events. Differences in anterior regeneration rate are established very early after amputation and this gradient is dependent on the activity of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling. Animals induced to produce two tails by either Smed-APC-1(RNAi) or Smed-ptc(RNAi) lose anterior fate but form previously described ectopic anterior brain structures. Later these animals form peri-pharyngeal brain structures, which in Smed-ptc(RNAi) grow out of the body establishing a new A/P axis. Combining double amputation and hydroxyurea treatment with RNAi experiments indicates that early ectopic brain structures are formed by uncommitted stem cells that have progressed through S-phase of the cell cycle at the time of amputation. Our results elaborate on the current simplistic model of both AP axis and brain regeneration. We find evidence of a gradient of hedgehog signalling that promotes posterior fate and temporarily inhibits anterior regeneration. Our data supports a model for anterior brain regeneration with distinct early and later phases of regeneration. Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new, and then

  20. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    Martins, Renato Parsekian; Caldas, Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo; Ribeiro, Alexandre Antonio; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Shimizu, Roberto Hideo; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS) hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1), BETA FLEXYTM (G2), BETA III WIRETM (G3) and BETA CNATM (G4). Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation from 5 mm of the initial activation. The moment-to-force (MF) ratio, the overlapping of the vertical extensions of the TLSs and the load-deflection (LD) ratio were also calculated. To complement the results, the Young's module (YM) of each wire was determined by the slope of the load-deflection graph of a tensile test. The surface chemical composition was also evaluated by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results: All groups, except for G2, produced similar force levels initially. G3 produced the highest LD rates and G1 and G4 had similar amounts of overlap of the vertical extensions of the TLSs in "neutral position". G1 and G3 delivered the highest levels of moments, and G2 and G3 produced the highest MF ratios. b-Ti wires from G3 produced the highest YM and all groups showed similar composition, except for G2. Conclusion: The four beta-titanium wires analyzed produced different force systems when used in a more elaborate design due to the fact that each wire responds differently to bends. PMID:26691975

  1. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  2. Problems with radioactivity scrap in the iron and steel industry of the Czech and Slovak Republics

    During the recent restructuring process, the Czech steel industry has undergone a drastic reduction in the steel production by around 40%. Under such situation, previously exported volumes have been diverted into domestic markets. For the export, the Czech steel industry had to make its efforts in enhancing the quality of products and in improving the technologies in accordance with ISO standards (ISO 9000 and also ISO 14000). Among the various new quality demands in the export market, the radioactive contamination of steel products has received a very high attention. The Czech Iron and Steel Federation has organized a working team specialized in solving the problems arising from radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap and steel products. The working team is made up of specialists from steel producers and scrap handling firms of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, of experts from the State Office for Nuclear Safety, the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Metrological Institute. Members of the Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation and the General Directory for Customs are also included. This working team takes part in the elaboration of the legislative norms in that area. This paper deals with all the detailed functions of the working team. At present, all the major Czech steel producers have installed stationary radiation monitoring systems for detecting the possible radioactivity in all materials entering into factories. Under an agreement arranged between the producers of the Czech Iron and Steel Federation, the tolerable range of radionuclide contents in steel scrap and steel products has been set at the maximum of 100 Bq/kg in ( scrap and steel products. In this respect, the large firms collecting and treating scrap have also installed stationary radiation monitoring systems. In such monitoring systems, the detector will measure and check the values of radioactivity above 10 - 15% higher than the natural background level. In the case that

  3. Thermodynamic, electrochemical and quantum chemical investigation of some Schiff bases as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution by four Schiff bases was investigated using weight loss and electrochemical measurements and quantum chemical calculations. All compounds showed >90% inhibition efficiency at their optimum concentrations. The activation energy (Ea) of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters were calculated to elaborate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. The adsorption of the inhibitors on the mild steel surface follows Langmuir isotherm model. Polarization studies indicated that all studied inhibitors are mixed type. The computed quantum chemical properties viz., electron affinity (EA) and molecular band gap (ΔEMBG) show good correlation with experimental inhibition efficiencies.

  4. Elaboration of remediation plan for contamined sites of Puglia region; Un piano per la bonifica di aree del territorio pugliese

    Ferri, F.; Mura, A.; Tassoni, E.; Mazzotta, V.; Furgiuele, G. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1995-03-01

    ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) was designated by the Ministry of Environment to elaborate the remediation plan for contamined sites of Puglia region. The plan was developped by ENEA, following criteria and guidelines fixed by the Environment Department in a decree of may 16th 1989. The activities of the plan were conducted through the following four stages: census and mapping of potentially contamined sites; settlement of the first list of contamined sites to submit to remediation; program elaboration for short term interventions on site remediation and drafting general projects; program elaboration for middle term interventions on site remediation. The information collected about all sites during the investigations have been organized on a database, in which an algorithm permits the risk indexes for each site be calculated automatically.

  5. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    2015-01-01

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels

  6. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  7. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  8. Fatigue damage of steel components

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu;

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  9. Elaboration of functionally graded materials for plasma facing components of the thermonuclear machines

    The objective of this study was to develop a Functionally Graded Material (FGM) W/Cu to replace the compliance layer (Cu-OFHC) in the plasma facing components of thermonuclear fusion reactor like ITER. The peculiarity of this work is to elaborate these materials without exceeding the melting temperature of copper in order to control its microstructure. The co-sintering is the most attractive solution to achieve this goal. The first phase of this study has been to decrease the sintering temperature of the tungsten to achieve this co-sintering. The elaboration of a Functionally Graded Materials being delicate, thermomechanical calculations were performed in order to determine the number and chemical composition in order to increase the lifespan of Plasma Facing Components. Spark Plasma Sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve maximum density of WxCu1-x composites. The effect of copper content and density of the WxCu1-x composites on thermal and mechanical properties was investigated. The SPS conditions were applied for W/CuCrZr assemblies with a compliance layer composed of several interlayers. The importance of time for the integrity of assemblies thereof has been highlighted. The study of the dwell time during W/CuCrZr assembly leads to identify a parameter to characterize the integrity of the interface regardless of the composition and the nature of the layer of compliance. Moreover, the phenomena associated with the formation of the interface assembly have been identified. The interface W/WxCu1-x is formed by the extrusion of the copper layer of the WxCu1-x inside the tungsten porosities. The WyCu1-y/CuCrZr interface is formed by copper migration of CuCrZr layer inside the WyCu1-y layer. Finally optimization assembly conditions showed that the mechanical stresses due to the densification of the Functionally Graded Materials can be limited by sintering the FGM before the assembly. (author)

  10. Methodology for Elaborating Regional Susceptibility Maps of Slope Instability: the State of Guerrero (mexico) Case Study

    González Huesca, A. E.; Ferrés, D.; Domínguez-M, L.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous cases of different types of slope instability occur every year in the mountain areas of México. Sometimes these instabilities severely affect the exposed communities, roads and infrastructure, causing deaths and serious material damage, mainly in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, at the central and south sectors of the country. The occurrence of the slope instability is the result of the combination of climatic, geologic, hydrologic, geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors. The National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) is developing several projects in order to offer civil protection authorities of the Mexican states some methodologies to address the hazard assessment for different natural phenomena in a regional level. In this framework, during the past two years, a methodology was prepared to construct susceptibility maps for slope instability at regional (≤ 1:100 000) and national (≤ 1:1 000 000) levels. This research was addressed in accordance to the criteria established by the International Association of Engineering Geology, which is the highest international authority in this topic. The state of Guerrero has been taken as a pilot scheme to elaborate the susceptibility map for slope instability at a regional level. The major constraints considered in the methodology to calculate susceptibility are: a) the slope of the surface, b) the geology and c) the land use, which were integrated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The arithmetic sum and weighting factors to obtain the final susceptibility map were based on the average values calculated in the individual study of several cases of slope instability occurred in the state in the past decade. For each case, the evaluation format proposed by CENAPRED in 2006 in the "Guía Básica para la elaboración de Atlas Estatales y Municipales de Peligros y Riesgos" to evaluate instabilities in a local level, was applied. The resulting susceptibility map shows

  11. A-3 steel work completed

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  12. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  13. Examining the asymmetrical effects of goal faultlines in groups: a categorization-elaboration approach.

    Ellis, Aleksander P J; Mai, Ke Michael; Christian, Jessica Siegel

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the categorization-elaboration model (CEM) to examine the asymmetrical effects of goal faultlines in groups, which are present when hypothetical dividing lines are created on the basis of different performance goals, splitting the group into subgroups. On the basis of the CEM, we expected groups with goal faultlines to exhibit higher levels of creative task performance than (a) groups with specific, difficult goals and (b) groups with do-your-best goals. We expected the benefits of goal faultlines to be due to increases in reflective reframing, which occurs when group members build on each other's ideas by shifting to alternate frames. However, we expected groups with goal faultlines to exhibit lower levels of routine task performance than (a) groups with do-your-best goals and (b) groups with specific, difficult goals, due to increased perceptions of loafing. Results from 87 groups generally supported our hypothesized model. Implications are discussed as well as possible limitations and directions for future research. PMID:23855916

  14. Elaboration of α’L-C2S form of belite in phosphatic clinker

    Puertas, F.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid state synthesis associated to X-ray diffraction and free lime analysis have been carried out to determine proper conditions (chemical compositions, optimum time and temperature of burning under which phosphatic belitic clinker is elaborated. Raw meals, at low lime saturation factor and added phosphate, can form a clinker with high contents of α’L-C2S modification. Microcalorimetric measurements show a relative high hydraulic activity of this belite form. The phosphatic clinker exhibits a closeness hydration behaviour to the ordinary portland clinker.Se han determinado las condiciones adecuadas (composiciones químicas, tiempo y temperaturas óptimas de tratamiento para sintetizar un clínker fosfático belítico. Esas síntesis se realizaron en estado sólido; el seguimiento de los procesos se hizo a través de difracción de rayos X y por análisis de cal libre. Es posible formar un clínker con alto contenido de α’L-C2S a partir de crudos con un bajo grado de saturación de cal y con adición de fosfato. Las medidas microcalorimétricas demuestran que esa forma de belita desarrolla una actividad hidráulica relativamente elevada. El clinker fosfático presenta un comportamiento hidráulico muy parecido al del clínker portland común.

  15. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  16. ELABORATION OF MANAGEMENT PLAN OF SOLID WASTE FROM SMALL CAST IRON FOUNDRIES

    Carlos Alberto Mendes Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundry industry contributes to society meeting the demand of metal scrap recycling, but, at the same time, it brings a high risk of environmental impact for its many potentially pollutant wastes. Among these, there are slag and used foundry sand (cold cure molding. Through a survey about the production process of a small cast iron company, the collected data was compiled to determine the organizational setting in terms of generation and segregation of waste. From a complete environmental diagnosis carried out in eight small cast iron foundries, one of them was chosen to be a basis for the elaboration of an industrial solid waste management plan, which is becoming necessary to know and manage the generation of wastes qualitatively and quantitatively. A data assessment about the production process was carried out and compiled to determine the actual organizational scenario. As a result of that, it is possible to create a favorable environment to develop tools for environmental impacts prevention, which will permit the migration for more complex actions on the direction of more efficient process, cleaner production, and internal and external recycling of exceeding materials.

  17. Newly Elaborated Multipurpose Polymer Electrolyte Encompassing RTILs for Smart Energy-Efficient Devices.

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Porcarelli, Luca; Bella, Federico; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-06-17

    Profoundly ion-conducting, self-standing, and tack-free ethylene oxide-based polymer electrolytes encompassing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with specific amounts of lithium salt are successfully prepared via a rapid and easily upscalable process including a UV irradiation step. All prepared materials are thoroughly characterized in terms of their physical, chemical, and morphological properties and eventually galvanostatically cycled in lab-scale lithium batteries (LIBs) exploiting a novel direct polymerization procedure to get intimate electrode/electrolyte interfacial characteristics. The promising multipurpose characteristics of the newly elaborated materials are demonstrated by testing them in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where the introduction of the iodine/iodide-based redox mediator in the polymer matrix assured the functioning of a lab-scale test cell with conversion efficiency exceeding 6% at 1 sun. The reported results enlighten the promising prospects of the material to be successfully implemented as stable, durable, and efficient electrolyte in next-generation energy conversion and storage devices. PMID:26020809

  18. Ethics in the medieval university: the importance of classics reading for the elaboration of Thomas Aquinas

    Tatyana Murer Cavalcante

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some considerations about the importance of reading to the development of the ethics conceptions of Thomas Aquinas (1224 - 5? / 1274. At the dawn of the thirteenth century, the townspeople of Medieval West created a new institution designed for knowledge and education: the University. In it, teachers and disciples were debating key issues for the new society using mainly texts of Ancient Philosophy and Christians, but also Arab and Jewish writings. The literacy forms used encompassed mainly lectio and disputatio , and counteracted by distinct theoretical bases, those thinkers eventually recreated the summa , in a original and fundamental form to the philosophical elaboration of that time. To discuss the importance of reading in the formulation of the concept of ethics in the medieval university, we will present some characteristics of the production of knowledge in the thirteenth century linked to its historical context and then discuss some ethical considerations of Thomas Aquinas, one of the most prominent authors of that period. Considering the limits of this article, only one text, “The object of charity” based on Aquinas major work, the Summa of Theology, will be discussed in depth. Preliminarily, it is possible to state that as well as the reading of classical authors by Thomas Aquinas and other masters of the thirteenth century, helped them develop knowledge about ethics conforming to their time, historical reading of these authors helps in the understanding of today.

  19. Regional IS Knowledge Networks: Elaborating the Theme of Relevance of IS Research

    Mikael Söderström

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the theme of the relevance of IS research. Based on recent experiments and experiences in the borderland between research and practice and politics we suggest some additions to the discussion of the IS research relevance in Fitzgerald (2001. One addition concerns relevance to whom, where we suggest considering a regional relevance through cultivation of regional IS knowledge networks. Such networks comprise regional knowledge production in collaboration between researchers and practitioners, and results are made public and tested in other organizations in addition to the research sites. This is closely related to the view of knowledge and research put forward by American pragmatism. A second addition is to complement Fitzgerald's suggestion to expose researchers to practice with the suggestion to expose practitioners to research. It is just as difficult to learn the 'true nature' of research from reading the executive summary in MIS Quarterly as it is to learn the 'true nature' of practice from a couple of interviews with practitioners. A regional IS knowledge network is an excellent opportunity for such double exposure.

  20. Objectives, specification and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills involving a French PWR

    All safety measures taken during the design, the construction and the operation of a nuclear power plant decrease to an extremely low level the probability of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public. Nevertheless, for the case such an accident should be initiated, emergency plans have been elaborated: the on-site emergency plan to protect the plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate the consequences; the short-term and longer-term off-side emergency plans to protect the public and organise the return to acceptable living conditions. The appropriateness and preparedness of such plans have to be checked regularly by means of drills, which may be restricted to technical aspects concerning the nuclear units, or involve all actors, i.e. the utility, all the branches of the administration concerned and a media simulation. Some aspects of the choice of goals and preparation of drills are presented and illustrated by the national EPAULE exercice in 1987. Technically speaking, the drills have proved the validity of the current organization and evidenced its operability: uncertainties remain as regards the actual vs expected behavior of the population, due to emotional aspects linked to the lack of direct perception of the degree of danger and to the information received in an actual nuclear emergency

  1. Experimental analysis of the strength of silver-alumina junction elaborated at solid state bonding

    Highlights: → The adhesion strength is closely related to the plastic deformation of the metal joint. → It is possible to transform a system with weak energy of adhesion into a system with strong energy. → The adhesion strength depends on Silver diffusion in the ceramic grains boundaries. -- Abstract: The mechanisms of ceramics-metal assemblies, particularly silver and alumina, can be better understood by studying the strength of their adhesion. These two materials are a priori non-reactive, their thermodynamic work of adhesion is low and the difference between their thermal coefficients of expansion in very considerable. In this study, the strength of silver-alumina junctions elaborated at solid state by thermo-compression is tested by an indirect tensile test and shearing one. The effects of several parameters such as: the pressure of bonding, the time of bonding, the temperature, and the oxygen dissolve in metal solid solution on the strength of the junction are analyzed. The obtained results show that the resistance of the junction is affected by all this parameters and it is essential to optimize these different parameters in order to increase the durability of the junction. It was also shown that the diffusion of the silver in alumina could be the cause of the damage of alumina near the interface.

  2. Elaborately prepared hierarchical structure titanium dioxide for remarkable performance in lithium storage

    Tian, Qinghua; Luo, Dong; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered to be a promisingly alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries and thus attracted wide research interest. But, its practical application in lithium-ion batteries is seriously impeded by low capacity and poor rate capability. In the present work, the electrochemical performance of TiO2 is significantly improved by elaborately fabricating hierarchical structures. These as-prepared four hierarchical structure TiO2 assembled by different building blocks (TO2-2 h, TO2-6 h, TO2-18 h and TO2-24 h) all exhibit impressed performance. More importantly, the TO2-6 h constructed by curved nanosheets exhibits the best performance, delivering a capacity of 231.6 mAh g-1 at 0.2C after 200 cycles, and capacities of 187.1 and 129.3 mAh g-1 at 1 and 10C after even 1200 cycles, respectively. The results indicated that design and fabrication of hierarchical structure is an effective strategy for significantly improving the electrochemical performance of TiO2 electrodes, and the electrochemical performance of hierarchical structure TiO2 is heavily dependent on its building blocks. It is suggested that thus excellent electrochemical performance may make TiO2-6 h a promising anode material for advanced lithium-ion batteries with high capacity, good rate capability and long life.

  3. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Sensor and Cooling Devices Based on Elaborated Bismuth-Telluride Alloy Thin Films

    Abdellah Boulouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal motivation of this work is the development and realization of smart cooling and sensors devices based on the elaborated and characterized semiconducting thermoelectric thin film materials. For the first time, the details design of our sensor and the principal results are published. Fabrication and characterization of Bi/Sb/Te (BST semiconducting thin films have been successfully investigated. The best values of Seebeck coefficient (α(T at room temperature for Bi2Te3, and (Bi1−xSbx2Te3 with x = 0.77 are found to be −220 µV/K and +240 µV/K, respectively. Fabrication and evaluation of performance devices are reported. 2.60°C of cooling of only one Peltier module device for an optimal current of Iopt=2.50 mA is obtained. The values of temperature measured by infrared camera, by simulation, and those measured by the integrated and external thermocouple are reported. A sensitivity of the sensors of 5 mV Torr−1 mW−1 for the pressure sensor has been found with a response time of about 600 ms.

  4. Elaboration of Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for S-Nitrosoglutathione Targeting to Macrophages.

    Diab, R; Virriat, A S; Ronzani, C; Fontanay, S; Grandemange, S; Elaissari, A; Foliguet, B; Maincent, P; Leroy, P; Duvaj, R E; Rihn, B H; Joubert, O

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a potential therapeutic for infectious disease treatment because of its pivotal role in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and host defense in addition to direct antibacterial activities. In this study, sterically stabilized cationic liposomes (SSCL) and sterically stabilized anionic liposomes (SSAL) were developed as nanocarriers for macrophage targeting. Elaborated liposomes were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release behavior and cytotoxicity. Their versatility in targeting monocytes/macrophages was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry revealed that cellular uptake of both SSCL and SSAL was governed by several endocytic clathrin- and caveolae-dependent mechanisms. Quantitative assessments of intracellular nitric oxide demonstrated highly efficient uptake of GSNO-loaded SSCL that was twenty-fold higher than that of GSNO-free molecules. GSNO-loaded SSCL displayed strong bacteriostatic effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can be involved in pulmonary infectious diseases. These results reveal the potential of liposomal GSNO as an anti-infective therapeutic due to its macrophage targeting capacity and direct antibacterial effects. PMID:27301185

  5. Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models

    Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Aboitiz, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other's behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral, and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper, we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development. PMID:26483621

  6. Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates

    Ayadi, A.; Stiti, N.; Benhaoua, F.; Boumchedda, K.; Lerari, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products ← waste products← finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1 mm and adding 1% of Ca CO3 content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm3, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850° C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal (λ = 0,031 W/m° C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).

  7. 3-D Thermal, Hydrodynamic and Magnetic Modelling of Elaboration of Glass by Induction in Cold Crucible

    The Vitrification of high-level liquid waste produced from nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out industrially for more than 30 years by AREVA, with three main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products, reduction of the final volume of waste and operability in an industrial context. In parallel the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), SGN (respectively Areva's R and D provider and Engineering) and AREVA (industrial Operator) have developed the cold crucible induction melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The 3D numerical simulation of elaboration of glass by induction in cold crucible needs a coupled approach of the different phenomena: induction, thermal and hydrodynamic. Indeed, those three phenomena are strongly coupled because of the temperature dependence of the glass properties. The hotter the molten glass, the higher the electrical conductivity. In the present paper, we will focus on a full 3D simulation, when mechanical stirrer and bubbling are stopped in the cold crucible melter. In this case, the convection is driven by two phenomena. First, buoyancy forces are modelled in the Boussinesq approximation. Second, thermo capillary convection at the surface is taken into account. This effect is due to the variation of the surface tension with the temperature. Thermo convective circulations appear within the molten glass when the total Joule power injected reached a specific threshold. (authors)

  8. Acquisition and elaboration of superficial three-dimensional images in plastic and reconstructive surgery: Applications

    Alfano C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970, as computed axial tomography machines became easily available and became more sophisticated, image acquisition techniques and analysis improved, developed rapidly and became very useful in medical diagnosis. Today it is possible to examine either the anatomic and functional aspects of deep body organs and tissues including all the minute details as well as their morphological relations with superficial structures. Through precise graphic elaboration programs we can obtain information about spatial relations which was not possible using simply classical clinical examination. It is possible, for example, to "point out" an area of interest from its anatomic context, to carry out virtual cleavage of planes and to measure volumes and distances. New developments in image acquisition systems permit transfer of three-dimensional data directly from existing objects. The three -dimensional computerized axial tomography for deep structures, and the laser scanners for superficial structure, quickly furnish (1-3 seconds for the laser scanners useful information to plan the surgical operation. When analysing 3D-imaging techniques it is important to appreciate their utility for the planning and the follow up of surgery, particularly for the head and thorax, where the three dimensional evaluation is better than the classic double dimensional system that is incomplete and difficult to interpret. In the future, these systems will be important for the best aesthetic and functional results and above all for reducing the surgical time.

  9. Elaboration by tape-casting and co-sintering of multilayer catalytic membrane reactor- performances

    This research deals with the increasing interest of the conversion of natural gas into liquid fuels (diesel, kerosene) using the Gas To Liquid (GTL) process. Within this context, Catalytic Membrane-based Reactors (CMR) would allow an improvement of the process efficiency and a reduction of investment and production costs with respect to the present technologies. They allow performing the separation of oxygen from air, and the conversion of natural gas into synthesis gas within a single step. After having highlighted the economical and technological advantages of using a ceramic membrane for the production of syngas (H2 + CO2), the author describes the protocols of synthesis of powders selected for the dense membrane and the porous support, and their physical characteristics. The obtained powders are then adapted to the tape-casting forming process. Graded-composition multilayer structures and microstructure are then elaborated by co-sintering. Performances in terms of membrane oxygen flows are presented. Mechanisms limiting the oxygen flow are discussed in order to propose ways of improving membrane performances. The limits of the studied system are defined in terms of elastic properties, and optimization ways are proposed for the dense membrane material composition in terms of mechanical properties and performance in oxygen semi-permeation

  10. Molecular basis for three-dimensional elaboration of the Aquilegia petal spur

    Yant, Levi; Collani, Silvio; Puzey, Joshua; Levy, Clara; Kramer, Elena M.

    2015-01-01

    By enforcing specific pollinator interactions, Aquilegia petal nectar spurs maintain reproductive isolation between species. Spur development is the result of three-dimensional elaboration from a comparatively two-dimensional primordium. Initiated by localized, oriented cell divisions surrounding the incipient nectary, this process creates a pouch that is extended by anisotropic cell elongation. We hypothesized that the development of this evolutionary novelty could be promoted by non-mutually exclusive factors, including (i) prolonged, KNOX-dependent cell fate indeterminacy, (ii) localized organ sculpting and/or (iii) redeployment of hormone-signalling modules. Using cell division markers to guide transcriptome analysis of microdissected spur tissue, we present candidate mechanisms underlying spur outgrowth. We see dynamic expression of factors controlling cell proliferation and hormone signalling, but no evidence of contribution from indeterminacy factors. Transcriptome dynamics point to a novel recruitment event in which auxin-related factors that normally function at the organ margin were co-opted to this central structure. Functional perturbation of the transition between cell division and expansion reveals an unexpected asymmetric component of spur development. These findings indicate that the production of this three-dimensional form is an example of organ sculpting via localized cell division with novel contributions from hormone signalling, rather than a product of prolonged indeterminacy. PMID:25673682

  11. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  12. Elaboration and characterization of a multifunctional silane/ZnO hybrid nanocomposite coating

    Nicolay, A. [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Lanzutti, A. [Department of Chemistry Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Poelman, M.; Ruelle, B. [Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Fedrizzi, L. [Department of Chemistry Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Dubois, Ph. [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Olivier, M.-G., E-mail: marjorie.olivier@umons.ac.be [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of ZnO/sol–gel nanocomposite films. • Study of ZnO nanoparticle dispersion in the sol–gel matrix. • Highlighting barrier properties of the sol–gel coatings. • Highlighting UV-absorption properties of the sol–gel coatings. • Influence of ZnO nanofiller percentage on these properties. - Abstract: The present study aims at investigating the elaboration of a ZnO/sol–gel nanocomposite coating, which can provide a number of properties such as UV-absorption, mechanical and barrier effects, etc. depending on targeted applications. The sol–gel coating formulation is an inorganic–organic hybrid based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). In order to ensure good dispersion in the sol–gel matrix, ZnO nanoparticles were surface-modified with a silane coupling agent. The functionalization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses. Field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) characterization of the nanocomposite film reveals a homogeneous distribution and dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles throughout the film. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) analysis allows evaluating the thickness of coatings and getting a depth composition profile. Some properties such as UV-absorption and barrier effect are highlighted using a UV–visible spectrometer and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The effect of ZnO concentration is also presented.

  13. Elaboration and characterization of doped barium titanate films for gas sensing

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thick films were prepared from commercial powder to develop and optimize the film elaboration. Then, BaTiO3 was doped by strontium and iron to increase the conductivity by a double substitution on site A and B of the perovskite structure in view to develop semiconductor gas sensors. Film inks were prepared by mixing BT and BSTF powder with an organic vehicle, using a ratio of 50:50; 60:40, respectively and deposited on alumina substrates. The BT and BSTF films were sintered at 1100°C for 2h. The structural and physical properties of the films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dielectric measurements showed a huge increase in the a.c. conductivity for the BSTF films, by a factor of 10000 at low frequency, when the temperature ranges from 25°C to 500°C

  14. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  15. Acknowledge, repeat, rephrase, elaborate: Witnesses can help each other remember more.

    Vredeveldt, Annelies; Hildebrandt, Alieke; van Koppen, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Crimes are often observed by multiple witnesses. Research shows that witnesses can contaminate each other's memory, but potential benefits of co-witness discussion have not yet been investigated. We examined whether witnesses can help each other remember, or prune each other's errors. In a research design with high ecological validity, attendees of a theatre play were interviewed approximately one week later about a violent scene in the play. The couples that signed up for our study had known each other for 31 years on average. Participants were first interviewed individually and then took part in a collaborative interview. We also included a control condition in which participants took part in two individual interviews. Collaboration did not help witnesses to remember more about the scene, but collaborative pairs made significantly fewer errors than nominal pairs. Further, quantitative and qualitative analyses of retrieval strategies during the discussion revealed that couples who actively acknowledged, repeated, rephrased, and elaborated upon each other's statements remembered significantly more information overall. Taken together, our findings suggest that, under certain circumstances, discussion between witnesses is not such a bad idea after all. PMID:26299652

  16. Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates

    The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products (leftarrow) waste products(leftarrow) finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1 mm and adding 1% of Ca CO3 content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm3, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850 deg. C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal (λ = 0,031 W/m deg. C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).

  17. Adapting Web content for low-literacy readers by using lexical elaboration and named entities labeling

    Watanabe, W. M.; Candido, A.; Amâncio, M. A.; De Oliveira, M.; Pardo, T. A. S.; Fortes, R. P. M.; Aluísio, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for assisting low-literacy readers in accessing Web online information. The "Educational FACILITA" tool is a Web content adaptation tool that provides innovative features and follows more intuitive interaction models regarding accessibility concerns. Especially, we propose an interaction model and a Web application that explore the natural language processing tasks of lexical elaboration and named entity labeling for improving Web accessibility. We report on the results obtained from a pilot study on usability analysis carried out with low-literacy users. The preliminary results show that "Educational FACILITA" improves the comprehension of text elements, although the assistance mechanisms might also confuse users when word sense ambiguity is introduced, by gathering, for a complex word, a list of synonyms with multiple meanings. This fact evokes a future solution in which the correct sense for a complex word in a sentence is identified, solving this pervasive characteristic of natural languages. The pilot study also identified that experienced computer users find the tool to be more useful than novice computer users do.

  18. Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models

    Patricia eSoto-Icaza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other’s behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are only recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development.

  19. On choice of tempered steels

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  20. High-purity steel making

    The conference heard a total of 32 papers of which 8 were inputted in INIS. These papers are centred on certain topical problems related to the manufacture of high purity steels, on impurities in steels, the effect of the radiation environment on steels made by different melting methods, argon protection against reoxidation during casting, the effects of secondary metallurgy on the properties of stainless austenitic steel, the properties of electroslag remelted steel, the metallurgic quality of the central part of ingots weighing 135 tons, and the chemical heterogeneity of ingots and castings. (J.C.)

  1. Japan steel mill perspective

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  2. Thermomechanical treatment of steel

    Thermomechanical treatment is defined as a process in which a forming operation is carried out in the course of a treatment in order to improve the mechanical properties of a material. Several thermomechanical processes for the treatment of steel are described. (WBU)

  3. The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

    2012-01-01

    Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

  4. Exploring Gender and Gender Pairing in the Knowledge Elaboration Processes of Students Using Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    Ding, N.; Bosker, R. J.; Harskamp, E. G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of gender and gender pairing on students' learning performances and knowledge elaboration processes in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL). A sample of ninety-six secondary school students, participated in a two-week experiment. Students were randomly paired and asked to solve…

  5. Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant (Minas Gerais State - Brazil): technical strategic for its elaboration

    The steps for developing the technical strategies used on the elaboration of Environmental Impact Report from Santa Rita Hydroelectric Power Plant, Minas Gerais State, are described, including the influence area, technical requirements, impact identification, technical selection of mitigative measures, impact meaning and strategy for evaluating the identified impacts. (C.G.C.)

  6. Elaboration of Prussian Blue Analogue/Silica Nanocomposites: Towards Tailor-Made Nano-Scale Electronic Devices

    Anne Bleuzen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of new molecular materials able to replace classical solid materials in electronics has attracted growing attention over the past decade. Among these compounds photoswitchable Prussian blue analogues (PBA are particularly interesting for the elaboration of new optical memories. However these coordination polymers are generally synthesised as insoluble powders that cannot be integrated into a real device. Hence their successful integration into real applications depends on an additional processing step. Nanostructured oxides elaborated by sol-gel chemistry combined with surfactant micelle templating can be used as nanoreactors to confine PBA precipitation and organize the functional nano-objects in the three dimensions of space. In this work we present the elaboration of different CoFe PBA/silica nanocomposites. Our synthetic procedure fully controls the synthesis of PBA in the porosity of the silica matrix from the insertion of the precursors up to the formation of the photomagnetic compound. We present results on systems from the simplest to the most elaborate: from disordered xerogels to ordered nanostructured films passing through mesoporous monoliths.

  7. Exploring gender and gender pairing in the knowledge elaboration processes of students using computer-supported collaborative learning

    Ding, N.; Bosker, R. J.; Harskamp, E. G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of gender and gender pairing on students' learning performances and knowledge elaboration processes in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL). A sample of ninety-six secondary school students, participated in a two-week experiment. Stude

  8. Differential-Associative Processing or Example Elaboration: Which Strategy Is Best for Learning the Definitions of Related and Unrelated Concepts?

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of related concepts (e.g., "genotype-phenotype") are prevalent in introductory classes. Consequently, it is important that educators and students know which strategy(s) work best for learning them. This study showed that a new comparative elaboration strategy, called differential-associative processing, was better for learning…

  9. Hot-working of advanced high-manganese austenitic steels

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work consisted in investigation of newly elaborated high-manganese austenitic steels with Nb and Ti microadditions in variable conditions of hot-working.Design/methodology/approach: The force-energetic parameters of hot-working were determined in continuous and multi-stage compression test performed in temperature range of 850 to 1100°C using the Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator. Evaluation of processes controlling work-hardening were identified by microstructure observations of the specimens compresses to the various amount of deformation (4x0.29, 4x0.23 and 4x0.19. The microstructure evolution in successive stages of deformation was determined in metallographic investigations using light, scanning and electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction.Findings: The investigated steels are characterized by high values of flow stresses from 230 to 450 MPa. The flow stresses are much higher in comparison with austenitic Cr-Ni and Cr-Mn steels and slightly higher compared to Fe-(15-25Mn alloys. Increase of flow stress along with decrease of compression temperature is accompanied by translation of εmax strain in the direction of higher deformation. Results of the multi-stage compression proved that applying the true strain 4x0.29 gives the possibility to refine the austenite microstructure as a result of dynamic recrystallization. In case of applying the lower deformations 4x0.23 and 4x0.19, the process controlling work hardening is dynamic recovery and a deciding influence on a gradual microstructure refinement has statical recrystallization. The steel 27Mn-4Si-2Al-Nb-Ti has austenite microstructure with annealing twins and some fraction of ε martensite plates in the initial state. After the grain refinement due to recrystallization, the steel is characterized by uniform structure of γ phase without ε martensite plates.Research limitations/implications: To determine in detail the microstructure evolution during industrial

  10. Influence of microstructure and environment on the fatigue behaviour of duplex stainless steels alloyed with nitrogen

    The favourable effect of nitrogen on the mechanical properties and the resistance to corrosion, now recognised for the austenitic stainless steels, aroused the interest for the development of dual - phase stainless steels constituted by austenite and ferrite (also labelled duplex steels) with high nitrogen content of which the interest lies in the lowest quantities of expensive alloying elements. The main purpose of this work is the study of the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of new grades of duplex steels and the determination of the microstructural scale conferring the best properties. LCF tests carried out in air on two duplex steels, with 0.24 wt% and 0.4 wt% of nitrogen and phase proportions of 50%α/50%γ and 30%α/70%γ respectively, led to the conclusion of a dependence of materials behaviour as a function of the strain level. The observations of samples by scanning electron microscopy showed that, for the lowest amplitudes, the plastic deformation is essentially accommodate by the austenite. Beyond a certain deformation, both phases alternatively accommodate this plastic deformation. In the presence of corrosive media, a general decrease of material fatigue lives has been noticed, except for the 0.4 wt% nitrogen containing steel which is less sensible. In the same way, an ageing treatment at 475 C for 200 hours lowers considerably the fatigue lives of the 0.24 wt% nitrogen steel while the resistance of the 0.4% nitrogen alloy is nearly unchanged. Whatever the conditions, the reductions of fatigue lives were systematically attributed to the ferritic phase behaviour. Then, elaborating these grades of duplex steels with 0.4 wt% of nitrogen favours a structure with 70% of austenite and leads to a very interesting fatigue behaviour. (O.M.)